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Islamic Republic of Pakistan

??????? ??????? ????????? (Urdu)

Islami Jumhuriyah Pakistan[1]
Flag of Pakistan
Motto: Iman, Ittihad, Nazam
?????? ?????? ???? (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]
Anthem: Qaumi Taranah
????? ??????
"The National Anthem"[3]
Location of Pakistan (dark green); claimed but uncontrolled region (light green)
Location of Pakistan (dark green); claimed but uncontrolled region (light green)
Capital Islamabad
33�41'30?N 73�03'00?E
Largest city Karachi
24�51'36?N 67�00'36?E
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Provincial level[show]
National languages Urdu[11][12]
Auxiliary languages Arabic[13]
Ethnic groups
44.7% Punjabis
15.4% Pashtuns
14.1% Sindhis
8.4% Saraikis
7.6% Muhajirs
3.6% Balochs
6.3% others[14]
96.4% Islam (Official)[15]
1.5% Hinduism
1.5% Christianity[16]
0.6% others
Demonym(s) Pakistani
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic
� President
Arif Alvi
� Prime Minister
Imran Khan
� Chairman of the Senate
Sadiq Sanjrani
� Speaker of the National Assembly
Asad Qaiser
� Chief Justice
Mian Saqib Nisar
Legislature Parliament
� Upper house
� Lower house
National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
� Dominion
14 August 1947
� Islamic Republic
23 March 1956
� Current constitution
14 August 1973
� Total
881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi)[a][18] (33rd)
� Water (%)
� 2017 census
212,742,631 [19] (5th)
� Density
244.4/km2 (633.0/sq mi) (56th)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
� Total
$1.060 trillion[20] (25th)
� Per capita
$5,374[20] (137th)
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
� Total
$304.4 billion[21] (42nd)
� Per capita
$1,629[22] (145th)
Gini (2013) 30.7[23]
HDI (2017) Increase 0.562[24]
medium � 150th
Currency Pakistani rupee (?) (PKR)
Time zone UTC+5b (PST)
Driving side left[25]
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk
See also Pakistani English.:^a
^ The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan.[13]
Pakistan[b] (Urdu: ??????????), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
(Urdu: ??????? ??????? ??????????), is a country in South Asia. It is the world�s
sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people.[19] In
area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres (340,509
square miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the
Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east,
Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It
is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the
northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient
cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. The
ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus
Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different
faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans
and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the
Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the
Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire,[26] the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi
Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the
Sikh Empire (partially) and, most recently, the British Empire.[27][28] Pakistan is
the only country to have been created in the name of Islam.[27][28] It is an
ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography
and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956,
becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention
in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of
Bangladesh.[29] In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that
all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and