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Today Bikaner is identified for tasty, mouth watering snacks Bhujia, papads,
Namkeens, which have titillated the plates of many a number of royal Rajput families
through the age.
The bhujia industry has origination dated back to 1887AD, when maharaja shri
dungar singhji was manufactured as a special variety and was called ‘DUNAR SHAHI
BHUJI’ This was served to the royal guests with time, manufacturing bhujia became
livelihood of many inhabitants of the district. Since the district was drought prone district
with only salty well water available for drinking, there was little scope in farming and
agriculture. And thus Bhujia production gained momentum and a bid Bhujia prepared in
this area has special ingredient of moth (Lentil) grown in this area and the different
special taste can be attributed to salty well water available only in Rajasthan.
At present there are about 425 units producing Bhujia in Bikaner district and
nearby areas of shri Dungargarh, Churu, Nagpur, and Sri Gangangar. Out of these only a
few have proper plant and well planned production system, the rest are small and cottage
type industries.
The raw materials required for industry are lentils, edible oil and condiments.
While lentil is grown in western Rajsathan i.e. in districts of barmer, jaisalmer, Bikaner,
churu, ngaur and Jodhpur. The edible oil (groundnut) is procured from Bikaner or from
neighbouring state of Gujrat. The condiments are purchased from south India, directly or
through dealers in Delhi. The raw material is thus abundant and easily available to
The major Bhujia consuming mkt. In Rajsthan followed by Punjab and Haryana.
Uttar pradesh, West Bengal and assam to are not far behind, Rajasthan consumes about
30% of the total produce annually and rest of the 70% is consumed by other states and
with time the awareness and interest in Bikaneri Bhujia has grown and spread all over
the country and around the world too.
Recently export of Bhujia and namkeen from Bikaner has also gained
momentum. The export of Bhujia has potential to grow much more, it only requires
awareness on the part of manufacturer about the export prospects of the item, export
producers, documentation and packaging.

The whole Bhujia industry is divided into two sectors.

(a) Unorganised (b) Organised

The unorganized sector consists of over 70% of the total Bhujia industry. These
units are. Flourishing in the district because of high demand of the product and easy
availability of raw material and also low setting up costs. The unorganized sector also
includes small business and small-owners selling the snacks and sweets. Almost every
second household in the city has women and girls making papads. The major portion of
this sector is inside the ‘walled city’ of Bikaner and Gangasaher area. An estimated
number of 850 burners are used in this unorganized sector and around 80 to 100 kgs. Of
Bhujia per day which amounts to an annual production of 25,000 to 30,000 tons. This
sector though unorganized and traditional, still poses a threat to the modern organized
sector, as a larges segment of Bikaner’s population is still price conscious and the price
of the product unbranded Bhujia of ‘Khulli Bhujia’ in local jargon is around 30% less
than the branded and packaged Bhujia.The organized sector is the rest 30% of the Bhujia
industry. The major players are Bikaji, Bhikharam chandmal, Haldiram, Choudhary
Food products swad industries Pvt. ‘Yes’ and Mr. Namkeen and many more. ‘Bikaji’ in
Bikaner is major company in the branded Bhujia market. Another emerging name in this
sector is of Bhikaram. Chandmal’s sunsine food products. Bhikharam chandmal has
opted up a big showroom in Bikaner and has started distributing the products in some
other states too. The companies of this sector have to face a tough competition given by
multinational like lehar Namkeens and from Uncle Chips. The companies of Bikaner
Bhujia Industry mainly use print media for advertising only Bikaji has used the
broadcasting media for advertising.
These companies themselves face enough competition from each other and soon
will have to start employing other marketing strategies if they want to survive in this
competitive market of Bhujia.The present distribution channel of the product is mainly
direct selling and employing sales force like sales representative and sales officers who
extensively travel to book order for this respective companies besides this 3 units have
appointed dealers throughout the country to market their products.
The unit adopting direct selling can think of marketing the item through
dealership, which will help in enhancing the sales.This industry is reported to be facing a
lot of problems in regard to finance, electricity, taxation structure and entry of multi-
nationals in the field.


Nestled in the thar Desert, the city of Bikaner is situated in northern Rajasthan.
Shivdeep Industries Ltd. Was started in 1986, with its lead office in Bikaner. The
company soon became a large manufacturing unit under the guidance of Mr. Shivratan
Agarwal and Mrs. Sushila Agarwal.
The company commenced business in the city central market. All raw material
from grains, oils and massalas to dry fruits, flour, vegetable oil and condiment are
selected and purchased from amongst in order to impact to their purity and prime
position, In fact, a different section is devoted to this aspect of the manufacturing
All Bikaji snacks are made untouched by human hand, on fully automated
machines in the most ultra-modern factory in Rajasthan.A separate packaging unit has
been set up to pack the product in a clinically hygienic environment.
Bikaji snacks are the talk of the town in almost the whole of India, they are
already setting tongues talking in the middle east, part of Africa, USA, UK and
Europe.The company was rewarded with the National awards for industrial, excellence
in 1992 – the first company to receive such an award in the category of food products.
Bikaji group of companies has three units under its umbrella; and besides food
products, it is doing well in service sector also as in Hotel Basant vihar palace, catering
to the up market crowd and established as one of the best hotels in Bikaner.
The three units under Bikaji group of companies are shivdeep Industries Limited,
shivdeep Food products Pvt. Ltd. And Bikaji food products Ltd. Shivdeep Industries Ltd.
Produces Bhujia, papad and sweets, shivdeep food products pvt. Ltd. Produces potato
clips and Bhujia Namkeens, sweets Rasgulla gulabjamun.
The new unit of Bikaji food private LTd. Has started producing ‘Tourist Mineral
water’ a few years back only. The same management looks after all three units. The
grown curve of organization is a positive on Bikaji is also planning to launch ‘ tea very
soon. It has the potential and plans for future expansion ad diversification.Shivdeep
industries limited is brainchild of Mr. Shiv Ratan Agarwal and Mrs. Sushila Agarwal.
She has looked after and nurtured the company to its present position. And her talents
and skills have been recognized and appreciated through out of the state. She was
awarded presidents Award for Women entrepreneur in 1997 and she is the first Woman
in state of Rajasthan to have won such a prestigious award.
The company was rewarded with national Award for industrial excellence in
1992 the first company to receive such an award in the category of food products. Mr.
Shiv ratran Agarwal himself had been recipient of many an award for humanitarianism
and contribution to the upliftment of the industry and its people.Shivdeep industries
limited is situated in Bichwal industrial area, Bikaner. A unique feature of the company
is that there is one company profile and therefore there is no job profile as such.
Although there are department like finance, productions and marketing but there
is an informal structure where the manger finance can look into production and
marketing if the need arises.The company is a reputed one and its products come with a
brand name ‘Bikaji’ the company is the only one, which provides wide variety of snacks
and savories.
The company has a well-knit distribution system in India. It also exports its
products to countries like Australia, Japan Singapore and Europe too. The company’s
export sales are about 2% of their total sales turnover which is around 40 crores. The
company is always trying to cater to the ever-increasing demand for more and more
variety in namkeens by launching new flavors and new types of mixtures every now and
then. Some new ones are mastkin and tanatan.The company takes proper care of its
workers and employees and they feel privileged to work with such a reputed firm. The
company provides training to the workers on the job.
There are about 1200 workers/employees in the company. They are provided
with all the basic amenities a company should provide with, like group insurance for all
the workers, medical aids, mess, etc, The company provides its employees with bonus,
festival offers and likewise from time to time. They are also provided with leave
encashment scheme.
The production takes place on a large scale. To provide its customers with thebest
quality and taste of Bhujia, The company has a well established quality control lab.
Every day the first lot is checked and then other lots are made, if the first one is fine.
There are usually no complaints for the quality of the products. To meet the rising
demand the company has installed many automatic machines and even installed high
tech. Packaging imchines procured from flex and digipack. The machines used for
production are checked on a regular basis and are replaced or repaired as and when
The raw material (Lentils, edible oil, spices and condiments) are procured from
Bikaner and if requited edible oil is also purchased from surat and other cities in
Gujrat.Bikaji has emerged as one of the finest names in Bhujia industry its traditional
market consists of Northern India, especially states of Rajasthan Punjab, Haryana,
Gujrat, Bengal and assam. And in nutshell it can be said that in a short period of fifteen
years the company has made its position strong and is presence inveterate in the Bhujia

Managing director
(Shiv Ratan Agarwal)

Manager Manager Manager Manager

Admn. Finance Marketing Production
(Mr. G.L. Daiya) (Mr. M.C, Chopra) (Mr. Sukhani) (Mr. G.L.

Supervisor (1) Supervisor (2) Supervisor (3) Supervisor (4)

Workers Workers Workers Workers

Production and operation management are concerned itself with the conversion of
input outputs using physical resources so as to provide the desired utility utilities of farm,
place possession or state or a combination there of to the customer while meeting the
other organizational objectives of effectiveness efficiently and adaptability.

Selection Criterion for Location:--

Since Bhujia industry and Bikaner are considered to be complementary to each

other therefore choice for location of this high tech. Plant in Bikaner is obvious. Many
companies have tried to open this Bhujia industry in other parts of India but are not
successful reason may be due to climatic condition. The factors, Which influenced the
dsion to open it in Biknaer, are:-

1. Availability of raw material:--

Since the basic raw material requited in this Bhujia is “lentil” Which is
abundantly available in Bikaner rather it is one of the strength that this “lentil” is grown
in and around Bikaner and due to abundant supply it is cheaply available and priced at
around 1300-1500 Rs. Per quintal.

2. Availability of land:--

Since Bikaner is industrially a poor city land is no problem to start an enterprise here.

3. Availability of workers:--

Since 100 years this industry has grown to many folds and the no of persons
employed are growing day by day and thus skilled labour for Bhujia production are
easily available here and this company also inducts people from west Bengal and bihar
which are cheaply available in every part of county so it is also an advantage for this
industry in Bikaner.
4. Availability of water:--

It is a miracle done in desert by presence of Indira Ghandhi nehar pariyojna. Now

due to the availability of water it has given opportunities for many entrepreneurs to
convert their dreams into reality at this place.

5. Climatic condition:--

This is considered to be a major factor. Many people have tried to make Bhujia in
other part of India but were literally failed against this taste of Bikaner Bhujia, so this is
also one of the major reasons to establish it in Bikaner.

Capacity management:

Capacity management is very important for achieving the organizational

objectives of efficiency, customer service and overall effectiveness.
In shivdeep maximum capacity is 20 tones per day and utilization is also 100%
because they are working in full demand condition.

Working shifts:

They are working on the basis of single shift but can adjust on double shift if
needed for skilled labour thee shift starts at 4.00 am to 12.00 noon and thereafter Bhujia
is treated and packed for general staff shift start form 9.00am from 6.00 p.m.

Raw Material:

The raw material required for th industry are lentil, edible oil and condiments,
while lentil is grown in western Rajasthan in the districts of barmer, jaisalmer, Bkianer,
Churu, Nagpur, Jodhpur, where no irrigation facility is available. Edible oil specially
groundnut oil is available locally as well as procured from the neighboring stat of gujrat.
Condiment ( spices) are procured from south India directly or through dealer located in
Delhi. Therefore is reported by industry that there is not scarcity of rqw material required
for manufacture of Bhujia. It is also pbserved during the study that the farmers in the
drought prone are do not find difficulty in marketing their product as it is purchased by
the manufactures of Bikaner Bhujia.


The company consumes other consumable items like polythene bags procured
from flex industries Noida and corrugated boxes for packaging from Gaurav packaging,
Bikaner for domestic as well as external market.
Inventory Management:--Since producgtion is on continuous basis so they have
to make an inventory for smooth operation of the organization for this purpose they
maintain an inventory only for raw material for 15 days.
Procurement:--Lentil is procured form local market on the basis of lowest price
available about which the people in organization care fully wath hes the fluctuation in
price and depending upon certain calculation they proucure this basic raw material from
local market at the lest price.
Procurement of oil (ground nut) is done from anand dairy which is supplying it at
a cost of Rs.550/- tin and they established a plant for its refinement and only after double
refining it, the oil is sent to the shop through pumps from container and received in shop
through taps.
As far as finished goods i.e. package of Bhujia concerned, they didn’t make
inventories of it and dispatched it on same day. Procurement of packaging which is one
of the best technologies available in this industry are from flex industry Noida and
digipack of Hyderabad, Keracane for Rosgulla packaging is from Bombay.

Demand Forecastion:--

As such no technical tools are applied for demand forecastion but they produce it
on the order basis and since enough order are available with them they ate in profitable
 15Kg. Bhujia (one “pawa”)
 14Kg. Besan
 1/2Kg. Spices
 1/2Kg. Oil
 15Kg. Moth
 1/2Kg. Spices
 550gm. Oil



 Lentil
 Chana flour
 Edible oil
 Salt and
 Spices

First of all lentil is grinded and besan is taken out from grinder and this besan is
kept in dry form in the container near worker and spices are mixed in it. As and when
worker require the material for Bhuijia they take besan and kept at the same place and
use it for Bhujia.
This production is manual and therofor Bhujia exploits extensive llabour as such
because of the typical that facor. Though a machine has also been ried to produce Bhujia
but was rejected because it wat unable to deliver the same taste after Bhujia is
manufactured, it is carried to the packaging section.
Groundnut oil is used for frying Bhujia, which is exclusively procured from
“Anand dairy” because they produce it with consistent and good quality. This oil is
tiltered twice so as to ensute the best quality of oil available for trying Bhujia.
The oil is stored in tank and supplied to the shop through pipes and tap is
provided in shop centrally located and as retuned workers take it with the help of oil
Material handling is not a much complicated process here but it has its role here,
as it carries Bhujia from furnace to the mixture where Bhujia is mixed with “dankoli”
which is larger in size then Bhujia and is produced in a semi automatic machine in a
separate room. The advantage of this “dankoli” that it soaks the extra oil from Bhujia and
also acts as a preservator for keeping Bhujia in that pack upto 6 months even.
A total of 56 furnaces are provided there in two section, 24 in one section and 32
in other. Only one skilled worker is required on one furnace.One of the typical
requiement in this plant is that due to inventory policy of finished Bhujia, to Keep small,
it emphasizes on productions and packaging on same day that’s why Bhujia is produced
from 4.00 am to 12.00 noon and thereafter treatment of Bhujia is done which ensure
about the moisture removal from Bhujia in packaging and then it is packed.


The uniqueness of this plant was its high technology packaging section. First of
all this section, Bhujia from its production place is stacked and treated for sucking its hot
gased and thus after two hours of treatmen Bhujia cools down and assures, that no
moisture is left there in Bhujia which is very essential from the view point preserving it
for long time.
Machines are fully automatic and procured from digipack Hyderabad and flex
industries, Noda which is adjustable according to weight required for pack. After
receiving packs of different types it is packed again in cartons depending upon the lot
and all these cartons are then stacked and handed over to sates department for their
The pouch and foils are procured from flex industry Noida and cartons are
procured from Gaurav packaging which is also supplying corrugated sheets.Electronic
weighing maching is also employed there on which workers are regularly weighing the
pack and all those packs ate rejected which weight are less than desire and Bhujia is
again utilized.A great care is then during the packing as nitrogen gas is a used for making
those foils sterile as it is essential to avoid food poisoning.To maintain the quality
standard which is one of the objectives of this organization and since climatic conditions
installed a gtass cabin around this highly sensitive packaging machine.


Since the company is engaged in continuous production activities so failure of

machine’s or breakdown is bound to occur. Though the high tech machine for packing do
not pose problem of maintenance as such, but certain other machines such a pumps,
motors, boilers etc. have breakdown due to bearing failures, belt snapping, transformer
also require regular overhauling. Company is following the policy of maintenance after


Plant layout is the relative allocation of adequate spaces at the appropriate places
for work equipment for working men, material, and other supporting activities. The basic
theme behind the arrangement of work areas is to produce the product economically and
to provide a safe and good working environment for worker. Shivdeep industries ltd,
plant layout is instrumental in accomplishment of following objective. Industry has
proper and efficient utilization of moor space, economies in materials facilitate
manufacturing process and handling of semi finished and finished products.
Industry layout has careful planning to avoid frequent changes in layout, which
may result in under increase in cost of production and provide adequate safely to workers
from accidents.


The marketing mix is a strategic combination of four elements vizz, the

organizations products, prices, distribution, and promotion. All of these variables are
closely interrelated, and appropriate marketing mix that will achieve a firm’s marketing
goals in the target market, is vital for the success of the firm.
4 P’s:--
A. Product
B. Price
C. Place
D. Promotion

A. Product

The first element of the marketing mix is the product. Product is also one of the
essential component of marketing mix in respect to which managers are required to take
crucial decisions in a company. It can be defined as a bundle of utilities consisting of
various products features and accompanying services. The bundle of utilities is
composed of those physical and psychological attributes that the buyer receives when he
buys the product. It means that a product is not only a tangible entity but intangible
services and psychological attributes such as images, the brand name, etc., are also and
integral part of the product.
A product thus can be understood as anything that can be offered to market for
attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might sausly a want or need. Products that
are marketed include physical goods (ex. Automobiles, furniture), services ( ex. Hotels,
beauty parlours), persons (ex. Filmstars and sportspersons), places (ex. Dubai,
Singapore.) organization ( Indian institute of management,, Ahmedabad or various open
universities, etc.) and ideas (ex. Safe driving keep your city clean, etc.)
Some analogous …..
Product- mix also referred as product portfolio, it is the composite of products
offered for sale by a firm or a business unit.
Product line it is a group of closely related products, which are able to satisfy a
class of need, to be used together or to be sold to same consumer groups, or to be moved
through the same distribution channels.
Product item product item is a specific version of a product that has a separate
name of designation in the seller’s list.
These can understood in a better way by quoting an example of Bikaji group of
companies. Mineral water, ethnic snacks (Bikaji namkeens) , sweets and potato chips are
the company’s product-mix its sweets are a product line and GOLMATOL Rasgulla is
product item.
The company has a product lines of Bhujia, papad Bhujia namkeens and potato
chips and sweets.
Bhujia is sold under the brand name Bikaji which evokes the mage of the
grandiose and splendor of the land for golden desert, Rajasthan The image of the brand
in market is very good and it ensures best of quality and taste.
Bikaji Bhujia available in various sixes:--

Weight of pouch
Name of product
(In grams)






Product is also sold under the brand name of Bikaji but has several varieties, the
maximum provided by any company in Bikaner.

Weight of pouch
Name of product
(In grams)
Baat-cheet 400

Baat-cheet 1000

Dil khush 400

Aas pass(light masala) 400

Aas paas (masala) 400

Afla tun 400


Bikaji sweets are very popular all over the country. Bikaji has not entered the sweets
market on the whole, i.e. it produces only selected sweets which are packed in the
factory itself. Keeping in mind the demand of bikaner rasgullas, the sweets are:

Weight of pouch
Name of product

Bikaji Golmatol (Rasgulla) can/Tin 1Kg.

Bikaji Golmatol jar 1.250Kg.

Bikaji gol-m-gol 1Kg.

Sadabal soan papadi 1Kg.

Sadabal soan papadi 250Gm.


The variety provided in Namkeens is wide. The company constantly searches for new
opportunities that compliments its current strengths and marketing activities. Products
are made keeping in mind the consumers taste and choice. The company launched
palanhar specially keeping in mind. Navrtra season when most of the people go in fast. It
has been made specially to cater that market and it has been accepted and welcomed by
the consumers. The unit launched producing Bhujia namkeen is shivdeep foods products
pvt. It has also launched potato chips branded as krash recently.
Weight of pouch
Name of product
(In grams)
Tana Bana 400,200,100
Sab kuch 400,200,100
Jhat-pat 400,200,100
Goldy 400,200,100
Gup-shup 400,200,100
Hul-chul 400,200,100
Chanjor-Garam 200,100
Kuch kuch 400,200,100
Jordar 200,100
Tana tan 400,200,100



Bikaji Bhujia 12 x 1 Kg. (2.2 Lbs.)

Bikaji Bhujia 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)

Bikaji Bhujia 30 x 400 gm. (14 Oz.)
Tana-Bana (Khatta Mittha) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Tana-Bana (Khatta Mittha) 30 x 400 gm. (14 Oz.)
Sub-Kuch (Navrattan) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Sub-Kuch (Navrattan) 30 x 400 gm. (14 Oz.)
Goldy (Moong Dal) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Mel-Jol (Bhujia with Boondi) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Gup-Shup (Tasty) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Hul-Chal (Chana Dal) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Chana Jor Garam 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Tana-Tan (Aloo Bhujia) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Tana-Tan (Aloo Bhujia) 30 x 400 gm. (14 Oz.)

Zordar (Cornflakes) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)

Zordar (Cornflakes) 30 x 400 gm. (14 Oz.)

Kuch-Kuch (All in One) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Mastkeen (Cornflakes with Dry Fruits) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Khas-Chees (Kashmiri Mixture) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Chatak (Chiwda with Dry Fruits) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Panchrattan (Badam Lachha) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Samosa 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Mathri 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Sweetkin (Kachori) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Dil-Khush (Papad) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Baat-Cheet (Papad) 60 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Gol-Matol (Rasgulla) 12 x 1 Kg. (2.2 Lbs.)
Gol-m-Gol (Gulabjamun) 12 x 1 Kg. (2.2 Lbs.)
Soan Papdi 50 x 200 gm. (7 Oz.)
Soan Papdi 20 x 500 gm. (17.5 Oz.)

B. Price:
Price is the amount of money and/or other items with unhly needed to acquire a
product; where utility is an attribute that has the potential to sassy. Thus price may
involve more than money while price is the value ratio of perceived benefits to price or
incurred costs) of product attributes impressed in monetary term pricing is the function
of determining product value in monetary terms by the marketing management of the
company before to the target consumers for sale.
Price is the only element of marketing mix that produces revenue, all other
produce cost. Price is conceptually determined in all competitive situation by two sets of
forces, namely, cost and demand, cost is internal to company and largely controllable
whereas demand is external to the company, and although not controllable, is subject to
the influence of various marketing actions. In setting the price of a product, the company
should follow a six-step procedure:-
o Firstly, company should establish its marketing objectives.
o Second, it should determine the demand schedule, which shows probable
quantities, purchased per period at different price levels.
o Third, company should look towards their own costs, expenditure.
o Fourth, it should select its pricing strategy, i.e. market up target return, perceived
value etc.
o Sixth, it should set its product’s price.
The final price should conform to the company’s pricing policies and it should be in
consideration to the dealers’s acceptance and it should be the best-suited price in the
Inspire of the increased role of non-price factors in the modern marketing
process, price remains a critical element and is especially challenging in market’s
characterized by mono or oligopoly structure. The company has not adopted any special
pricing as such. According to the assistant marketing manager, the price of the product is
not envisaged as in the theory of pricing but is administered by the company’s
management. The price can hence be defined as the price resulting from managerial
decisions and maintained as the posted price at which the company sells the product. The
product prices of shivdeep industries pvt. Ltd. Are fixed for a period of time and do not
change frequently and are not subject to negotiation. The pricing for the company is cost
plus i.e. the prices are set ny adding a margin to the cost.
The company provides prices on point of origin price policy i.e. it considers the
transportation cost as an important pricing factor on account of wide geographical
distances between producing and consuming centers. The company quotes ex-factory
price and makes no allowance for transportation cost involved in moving the products
from rectory to point to consumption ( if with in the city of Bikaner). But for outstation
deliveries, company quotes prices-F.O.R. Bikaner, i.e. price inclusive of
cartage/movement cost involved in moving the products from factory to the railway
station/transport agency.
The insurance, all duties and taxes (as applicable at the time of dispatch) are
charged extra. For placing the orders with the company the distributors have to till a
proper structured ‘order from’ and have to place a large amount of security (about Rs.
10,000/-) and advance payment with the company. Only demand drafts are entertained
by the company.

C. Distribution

Distribution or marketing channel includes various activities the company undertakes to

make the product accessible and available to target customer. It may also be defined as
“a pathway composed of intermediaries, also called middleman, who perform such
function as needed to ensure smooth and sequential flow of goods and services from
manufacturing ends to the consuming ends in order to achieve marketing objective of a
There are basically two types of distribution channels inteur--- and nonintegrated.
Non-integrated channels are also referred to as indiviauausuc or convent market
cannels. In such a market channel the trim and intermediaries come together for a short
run and otherwise work autonomously. These are again or two types:-
Direct – Manufacturer consumers
Indirect - Manufacturer Middieman Consumers
Integrated channels on the other hand are the ones in which channel components
participate in co-ordinated manner. These may be horizontal or vertical. Vertical
distribution channels are protessionally managed and centrally programmed networks,
pre engineered to achieve operation economies. These may be administered contractual
or corporate. Horizontal channel may be detined as as alignment of two or more
companies to jointly exploit a marketing opportunity either by themselves or by creating
a third entity.
The company has a strong distribution channel it ensured taster movement or
flow of products to the consuming center and ensures easily accessibility of the products
to the consumer. The company has innerited the distrbution channels from its sister
concern haldiram, so it …….wide spread and the relation with the distributors are quite
good. The coverage is more in

northern India states of Punjab, Haryana, Dehli, Uttar pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and
Assam and a rew more,
The company has different channel levels for its distribution presently there are
three levers.
First level dcontains only on intermediary (i.e. the retailer.) the company is
working with this level for the local market where it has to compete with other local
brands and unbranded Bhujia and Namkeens.
Second level is composed of two intermediaries such as wholesaie retailer. The
company is working with this channel for domestic market. The wholesalers which are
appointed by the company are given the authority to sell the products to retailers and
directly to consumers also.
Third level channel contains three intermediaries such as stockist semi
wholesalers. Retailers. The company is working with this channel level for us exports.
Appointment of Distributors: It necessary for the successful operations of a
company, that it appoints a reputed and loyal distributors. The company should place its
products at the right place, at the right time, and

State No. of dealers

Andhara pradesh 5
Assam 1 or 2 in every big city
Bihar 1 or 2 in every big city
Chandigarh 1
Delhi 4
Gujrat 8-10
Goa 1
Haryana 15-20
Himachal pradesh 1
Jammu and Kashmir 1
Kerela 1
Madhya pradesh 5-6
Maharashtra 5-6
Orissa 1
Punjab 15
Rajasthan 3-4 in every city
Tamil nadu 2
Uttar pradesh 1 Super stockist

The company has a well-knit distribution network overseas too. There are
around 15-20 dealers throughout the world in countries like.
1. U.K 2. U.S.A.

3. Austialia 4. Japan

5. Singapore 6. Gulf countries

The company has centralized distribution system. The company deals with all its
appointed dealers/distributors directly. Besides these, company also has agents working
for it, these agents contact the sub dealers and dealers for the company. Thus the
company has parallel distribution system, that is dealers and agents, both working for it.
The company does not have its own transportation system. Transportation takes through
local transport companies to the distributors located in different parts of India. The
company is using billing system for dealers. The company is importing the products
through sea route from the mambai port.

D. promotion

Promotion is that element in an organisation’s marketing mix which serves to

inform, persuate and remind the market of a product and/ or the organization selling it, in
hopes of influencing the recipients fellings, beliefs, or behaviour. So basically promotion
is an attempt to influence.

There are five forms of promotion.

 Personal selling
 Advertising
 Sales promotion
 Public relations
 Publicity
Personal selling:--

Personal selling is the direct presentation of a product to a prospective customer by a

representative of the organization selling it.evidently,a well-trained and competitive
spirited salesmans can be an effective communication medium.his knowledge about the
product,the degree of his familiarity with the customer,whether he is handling a new
customer or an stablished customer,the degree of his involvement in the company he is
representing,the level of his motivation and his own conviction about the quality and
performance standards of the product will be the determining factors in his role as a
communicator.the purpose of personal selling is to bring the right products into contact
with the right customers,and to make certain that ownership transfers take place. This is
the most expensive of all promotion forms.


Advertising is impersonal mass communication that the sponsor has paid for and in
which the sponsor is clearly identified. Advertising can be a cost effective way to
disseminate message,whether to build a brand performance or to educate people.in
developing on advertising programe marketing managers must always start by
identifying the target market and buyer motives.then they can make the

5’M :-

Mission:--what are the advertising objectives?

Money:--how much can b spent?
Message:--what message should be spent?
Media:--what media should be used?
Measurement:--how should the results be evaluated?

The most familiar forms of advertising are found in the broadcast and print media.any
others are like-motions pictures,posters and leaflets,symbols and logos,vediotapes,audio
visual materials and so on.
Sales promotion:--

sales promotions methods aim to capture the market and increase the sales volume.it is
an important instrument in marketing to lubricate the marketing efforts.now a days sales
promotions is a necessary tool to boost sales.in the broader sense,it is not expenditure;it
is an investment,as it pays rich retuerns.it aims in creating demand.Sales promotion is
demand- stimulation activity desigened to supplement advertising and facilitate personal
selling. Some examples are premiums and gifts,contests,fair and trade shows,free
trail,games,lotteries,coupons,tie-lines, samples etc.

Public relations:--

In simple terms Public relations can be define as “building good relations with the
companies various publics by obtaining favorable publicity,building up a good corporate
image,aand handling or heading off unfavourables rumors,stories and events.
encompasses a wide variety of communication ettorts to contribute to generally favorable
attitudes and opinion towards and organtsation and its products.most firms in today’s
environment are not only concernd to customers,suppliers and dealers but also concerned
about the effect of their actions on people outside their target markets.


Publicity is a special form of public relations that involves news stories about and
organization or its products, and like advertising, it involves an impersonal massage that
reaches amass audience through media but unlike advertising it is no paid form.

Bikaji Group of companies has always offerd for active advertising. The
company has used broadcast (T.V. Radio) and print ( News papers, Maganines, etc.)
media for advertising. The company also follows event marketing.company use
adverting on national level channels like star plus,sony,zee t.v and so on.the tie-line for
this is very intresting.

In rajasthan company mostly use direct marketing,personel selling and so

on.company use talentad salesmans for personal selling they help in increase selling of
various bikaji products.In Bikaner city competition is very high in bhujia market.so
bikaji use all marketing promotion mix for serviving in this market and caputure more
part in Bikaner city.
Bikaji work as a traditonal system so they use traditional pictures in her
packaging like women and man wear rajasthani dresses like man wear turban and women
wear odhani and so on. pacaking is very colour full..it helps in increasing sales in Rural


To Bhujia industry:-

o This report can be used by any Bhujia company for knowing the
consumption pattern of Bhujia in Biknaer city.
o This report gives comprehensive information about consumer behavior.

To company:-

(a) The research helps the company to critically analyze themselves so as to improve
in respective …

To Researener:-

(a) The study is significant for the researcher because it fulfill the requirement for
the degree of M.B.A.
(b) The study helped the researcher to put her theoretical knowledge in to practice.
(c) Study gave the practical insight into the Bhujia industry.
To Others:-

(a) The reader would be benefited by understanding the consumption pattern of

Bhujia in Bikaner city.
(b) Readers, who wish to conduct a similar study in shivdeep industries pvt. Ltd.
Will be benefited by the study.

Type of Research:

a) Research design : Descriptive Research

b) Data type : Primary as well as secondary data
c) Research Instrument : Structured schedule
d) Contact method : personal interview
e) Method of data collection : survey


A schedule was prepared consisting of fifteen questions. The survey was done at sadul-
ganj, in Biknaer city Respondents answered most of the questions but certain questions
were unanswered for pilot survey and certain new questions were also generated, 5
respondents were taken for plot survey.


Final schedule was restructure after omitting the questions, which were not
answered during the pilot survey and few questions were added which came during the
pilot survey. The final schedule was easy to understand and easy to answer by the
respondents to fulfil the objectives of the research.

Sampling technique : Convenience sampling
Sampling unit : Consumers of Bhujia in Biknaer city
Sample size : 200

Though tried to take altmost care, to make the research work exhaustive, still the
researcher could not rule the presence of few unintentional and unavoidable flows in the

1) The sampling error, that appeared due to the kind of sampling

technique adopted.
2) The research is related to Bikaner city It cannot be generalized.
3) The research is based on personal interview so there may be chance of
4) Limited experience of the researcher in the field of research may have
led to some error.

1. Question was asked to find most preferred brand of Bhujia in Bikaner city.

Brand No. of Respondents

Bikaji 70

Bhikharam chandmal 60

Agarwal 20

Babulal Bishanlal 10

Haldiram 40
Total 200

Most preferred Brand of Bhujia in Bikaner city


20% Bhikharam
2 chandmal

35% 3 Agarwal
10% 5

The most preferred brand of Bhujia is Bikaji which is consumed by 35% people & least
preferred brand of Bhujia is Babulal bishanlal which is consumed by only 5% people.
2. Question was asked to know that how much Bhujia is consumed in a month.

Quantity No. of respondents

<=2kg 110

2kg-3kg 50

3kg-4kg 30

>=4kg 10

Quantity of Bhujia consumed in A month

1 <=2kg.
25% 2 2kg.-3kg.

3 3kg.-4kg.

4 >=4kg.


More than 55% respondents consume Bhujia up to 2 kg & only 5% respondents were
found whose consumption of Bhujia is more than 4 kg. The reason of this difference is
family size.
3. Question was asked to know that consumption of Bhujia increases or decreases during
festive season.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 200

No 0

Change in consumption of Bhujia During Festive Season





All respondents responded that their consumption of Bhujia increases during
festive season.
4. Question was asked to know that in how much quantity consumption of Bhujia
increases during festive season.

Increment in consumption No. of Respondents

25% 20
50% 90
100% 40
More than 100% 50

%Increase in Bhujia during festive season

1 25
45% 2 50

More than


10% respondents responded that their consumption of Bhujia increases by 25 % & 45 %

respondents responded that their consumption of Bhujia increases by 50 %.
5. Question was asked to know that consumption of Bhujia gets affected due to the
availability of others mixtures or not.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 88

No 112

Affect on consumption of Bhujia due to availability of other mixture

56% 44% 1 yes

2 No

Interpretation :
56% responses were found that their consumption of Bhujia doesn’t get affected
due to the availability of other mixtures, i.e. other mixtures are available however they
consume same quantity. But 44% respondents that their consumption of Bhujia gets
affected due to the availability of other mixtures.
6. Question was asked to know that in how much quantity. Consumption of Bhujia gets
affected due to the availability of other mixture.

Decreases in consumption No. of Respondents

25% 80
50% 76
75% 44

% Decrease in Bhujia consumption

38 1 2 3

40 38 22


Out of 80 responses, 40% respondents responded that their consumption of Bhujia

decreases by 25% due to the availability of other mixtures & 22 % respondents
responded that their consumption of Bhujia decreases by 75%.
7. Question was asked to know that respondents prefer single brand or other brand’
Bhujia also.

No. of Brands used No. of Respondents

Single 160

Multi Brands 40

Preference for single brand or multi-brands

1 Sing



80 % respondents responded that they prefer single brand Howeve some of them
have tried other brand’s Bhujia but they didn’t prefer that forever. 20 % respondents
responded that they prefer multi-brands.
8. Question was asked to know that respondents are satisfied with prices of BhuJia or

Satisfaction No. of Respondents

Satisfied 111

Unsatisfied 89

Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction with prices

1 Satisfiede
45% 55%

2 Unsatisfied


55 % respondents responded that they are satisfied with prices because they are
getting best quality. So in front of quality & taste, there is no meaning to compare with
prices. Remaining respondents were found dissatisfied with prices of Bhujia.
9. Question was asked to know that consumers know the quality and prices of other
brand’s Bhujia or not.

Awareness about brands No. of Respondents

Well known with other brand Bhujia 200

Unknown with other brand Bhujia 0

Brand Awareness


Known with others brand

2 Unknown with other



All respondents are aware with other brands. Either respondent prefers single
brand or multi-brands, however they know quality and prices of other brand’s Bhujia
because of their friends and relatives who consume other brands.
10. Question was asked to know that have they purchased other brand’s Bhujia or not.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 134
No 66

Purchase of other brand Bhujia

1 yes




67 % respondents responded that they have purchased other brand’s Bhujia. Some of
them who prefer single brand also purchased other brand’s Bhujia for changing the taste.
While 33 % respondents did not purchase other brand’s Bhujia.
11. Question was asked to know that is there any difference between other brand’s
Bhujia and their preferred Bhujia regarding price or quality or both.

Perception About other Brands No. of Respondents

Price 65

Quality 70

Both price & quality 52

No 13

Change In Different Brands Of Bujia

1 Price
2 Quality

34% 3 Both



34 % respondents responded that there is difference in quality in their preferred Bhujia

and other’s Bhujia 33 % respondents told that there is difference in price & 26 %
respondents responded that there is change in both prices and quality in their preferred
Bhujia and other brand’;s Bhujia.
12. Question was asked to know that have they noticed any deterioration regarding
quality, packaging or in other aspect.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 20

No 180

Any deterioration In any aspect


1 yes


2 No


Only 10 % respondents were found who had deterioration regarding quality. Most of
these respondents were in that category who prefer “khuli Bhujia.
13. Question was asked to know that did they make any compliant about the deterioration.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 0

No 20

Complain About deterioration






Out of 20 respondents, no one made any complain about deterioration. It’s reason
was not found by researcher.
14. Question was asked to know that if prices of their ( respondents) preferred brand of
Bhujia increase, then would they like to switch over.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 60
No 120
Decrease in consumption 20

Chances of switch over to other Brand

1 Yes

30% 60% 2 No

Decrease in


60 % responses were found that if prices of their preferred Bhujia increase, they would
not switch over. While 30 % respondents were agree to switch over & 10% respondents
responded that they would like to decrease the consumption if prices of their preferred
Bhujia increase.
15. Question was asked to know that scheme “mail-jol” announced by bikaji was
profitable for consumers or not.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 5

No 7
Did’t try 188

Chanees of switch over to other Brand

1 Yes
3% 4%

2 No



93 % respondents didn’t try this scheme 3 % respondents replied that they won the prize,
so scheme was profitable for them while others didn’t tell it profitable.
16. Question were asked to know that is they’re any difference in prices of Bhujia in
various occasions.

Opinion No. of Respondents

Yes 0
No 200

Difference in prices of Bhujia in various Occasions



100% 1



All respondents responded that prices of Bhujia don’t increase in various occasions.
Prices of Bhujia increase when prices of lentil, oil or other raw material merest.


(a) Strong positioning of brand name : The brnad Bikaji is considered as the best from
Bikaner because company got the momentum of an early start & It is pioneer in
the Bikaner Bhujia industry.
(b) Quality of product : The quality of product is unique & it is strength of company.
(c) Packaging: Packaging offered by the company is appreciated by market and great
care is taken during the packing as nitrogen gas is used for making those foils
sterile, as it is essential to avoid food poisoning.
(d) Wide range & variety of products: There are around 35 varieties of Bhujia &
Namkeens & more the 5 different flavors of papad & potato chips offered by the
(e) Strong distribution network: The strong distribution network & good terms with
the distributors is a good asset to company.


The weakness of the company lies in the fact that the management of the company
is running in an old fashioned and traditional way. The company does not have a good
job profile for the employees it does not have a proper public relations department or
even a sales force. There is only one outlet in which direct selling is there. The market
coverage of the company does not include down south states of India. In past it did not
opt for a proper market research to find out customer’s preferences and interests.


There are enormous opportunities with the company to diversity and expand or
modernize. The company can opt for a proper sates department, and a sales force to
enhance its sales and expand the market coverage. Market abroad have not been fully
exploited so it can go for more exports. A market research department would help
company to go for better and new varieties of product items. A proper job profile for the
company would increase the productivity of the company. The company can open more
of its outlets and go for direct selling. It has thus got the potential to grow more and
become a bigger and better organization.


There are a lot of threats for the company, not only the bigger players like lehar,
yes and Mr. Namkeen pose a threat but also snack shops of Bikaner are among the
competitors of the company. The substitutes of Bhujia like samosa, papad, Biskut etc. are
also a threat to the company. The multinationals and larger companies have huge capital
base and have worldwide recognition, their management and way of working is modern
and efficient. They have huge budgets for advertising and sales promotion.
The Bikaner city is traditionally known as of Bhujia, it is because of fact that
Bhujia’s origin from this plach. The tasty Rajasthani food can never be completed
without Bhujia, which is actually a namkeen prepared with the strength of arm.

 The most preferred brand of Bhujia in Bikaner city is Bikaji, which is consumed
by 34 % people.

 Dunning festive season, consumption of Bhujia increases & even more then

 If other mixture is available then consumption of Bhujia for 56 % respondents

doesn’t get affected while for others, consumption decreases.

 Only 20 % respondents prefer multi-brands while 80 % are brand loyal. Some of

them have purchased other brands also, but for changing the taste.

 55 % respondents are satisfied with prices of Bhujia while others are not. The
persons who are unsatisfied with the prices, nowever some of them don’t want
to switch over to other brand due to the laste and quality . And some of them
(unsatisfend) will decrease the consumption but they will not switch over brand
Remaining will switch over to other brand.

 All person know the quality and prices of other brand`s Bhujia from their friends
& who consume other brand`s Bhujia irrespective of the fact that they
themselves purchase of not . The shows that Bhujia industry is affected by word
of mouth publicity

 All respondents responded that prices of Bhujia don`t increase in various

occasions, it increases when prices of raw material increase.

 20% respondents found deterioration regarding quality ,but they didn`t make any
complain against this .However company should take a note of this.

 93% respondents did not try scheme `Mail- Jol’ announced by Bikaji. The
respondents who consume Bikaji also didn`t try this scheme. Because the persons
who wanted to take trial for this scheme they had to wait at least for one and half
– hour due to long queue .To attract more people towards such shemes more
outlets must be opened.

 Respondents told papad , Mixture. Samosa , Daal, Biscuit as substitute of Bhujia .

while 31% respondents responded that there is no subustitute of Bhujia .

 Easy availability of Bikaji Bhujia should have to be there in the market.

 Price should have to be not more than the competitors.

 Varieties of Bikaji Bhujia should have be increase time to time in the market.

 Promotional schemes with Bikaji Bhujia should have to be raised.

 Festival gifts and discounts with combo packs are major consumer drawing

 Quality of the Bikaji Bhujia has to take care.

 Stability of the Bikaji Bhujia should have to take care for the future.

 Company officials have to handle the complaints seriously and too solve within a
short span of time.

“A Survey On The Consumption pattern Of Bhujia In Bikaner City”

Name: Age:

Sex: Address:

Q1 Which brand of bhujia do you purchase?________________________

Q2 How Much quantity of bhujia do you purchase in a month ? ________
Q3.Does your consumption of bhujia increases during festive season ? Yes/No
Q4.If Yes them by how much quantity _______________________
Q5.Dose your consumption of bhujia get affected due to the availability of other mixtures ?
Q6. If Yes them by how much quanty__________________
Q7. Do you prefer single brand or other brand`s also ?______________
Q8. Are you satisfled with prices of bhujia? Yes/No
Q9. Do you know Quality & brand of bhujia? Yes/No
Q10 Have you purchased other brand of bhujia? Yes/No
If Yes, them Why?___________________________________
Q11 Is there any difference between other brand `s & your`s preferred bhujia. Yes/No
Q12. Have you noticed any deterilon regarding Quality’ Packaging or in other aspect
In your preferrend bhuija. ? Yes/No
Q13. If Yes, them did you make any complain about this ? Yes/No

Q14. If price of your preferred brand increases, then would you like to change? Yes/No
Q15. Was the scheme Mail _ Jol, announced by Bikaji profitable for you.? Yes/NO
Q16. Is there any difference in prices of bhujia on various occasions? Yes/No
Q17. What are the various substitiutes of bhujia, you have ever tried?

Company profile

Business Type Exporter, Manufactacture

Primary Competitive Advantages Traditional taste at the best Branding

Sales Volume Above 10 crores

No of Staff 100

Year of Establishment 1987

No of production Lines 4

Export Markets World Wide

OEM Service Production No

Monthly Production Capacity As per requirement

Product Range Bhujiya . Namkeem, Sweats, Papad.

Sohan Papri and Rasgulla.
 Internal Reports of Bikaji Group

 Magazines: (1) 4’ps of marketing

(2) Business world

 Website of company

 External survey