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appendix a


a.5 the invention of k 1 vya (from r 1 ja é ekhara’s k 1 vyam E m 1 Å s 1 )

I once heard from my teacher the following ancient and auspicious tale:

Once upon a time, the students of Dhi ù aâ a [Bó haspati] put a question to

him in the course of their lessons: “You said that your own guru was K 1 vya- puruùa, “Poetry Man,” the son of SarasvatE, Goddess of Speech. Who was he?”

B ó haspati answered them as follows:

Long ago SarasvatE performed ascetic penances on Snowy Mountain, in the hope she might give birth to a son. Viriñca [Brahm 1 ] was pleased by this, and said to her, “I will create a son for you.” And in due course she gave birth to Poetry Man. No sooner was he born than he paid homage at her feet and spoke the following metrical speech:

All the universe is made of language and objects are its magic transformation. Here am I, mother, your transformation, Poetry incarnate, I who now clasp your feet.

The Goddess, seeing the stamp of versification—something previously unique to the language of the Veda ( 1 mn 1 ya)—now present in the realm of everyday speech (bh 1 ù 1 ), embraced him with joy and whispered to him, “Child, inventor of metrical speech, you surpass even me, your mother and the mother of all that is made of language. How true what people say, that to be outdone by one’s own son is like having a second. Before your birth, the learned knew only prose, not verse. Today, metrical speech, which you have discovered on your own (upajña), begins its life. What praises you de- serve. Your body consists of words and meanings, your mouth consists of San- skrit, your arms of Prakrit, your groin of Apabhramsha, your feet of Paishachi,

seems to be no traditional list, only six are mentioned in a Kannada Jain inscription of 1053 (EI 16: 55): C 1 ndra, K1 tantra, Jainendra, ç abd 1 nu é1 sana [of ç1 ka 1 yana], P1 â ini, and Aindra, though perhaps the S 1 rasvata and the Prakrit grammar of Vararuci were meant to be added (note that rival grammars were often studied simultaneously, though one doubts comparatively, see the Bezgami inscription in the K O b imaha, EC (ed. Rice), vol. 7: 129–132 and 190–93); “in written form,” pustak1 ni; “recitations and eulogies,” p 1 hanastavain ; “those who had been ad- dressed,” -udit1 n , or read -ditam, “everything that had been said”; “gender,” probably read riãkat; “in earliest times,” 1 dau; “confused,” sa Å k E r â a-, compare viprak E r âa- in the pra é asti verse at the end of the Siddhahemacandra. The author of the story has little sense of Kashmir, geographi- cally or intellectually. Note that the ç1 rad 1 temple is not in the capital but some three days jour- ney outside. (Stein 1900, vol. 2: 286 remarks with some justice on the exaggeration in this ac- count of the greatness of Sanskrit learning in Kashmir, though in fact the generation of scholars of the mid-twelfth century, which included Ruyyaka, Maã kha, and Kalha â a, was quite brilliant, see Pollock 2001a.) On the other hand, Prabh1 candra’s understanding of Hemacandra’s ex- tensive use of earlier grammars is correct, indeed, understated. Kielhorn identified at least fifteen different sources.

592 appendix a

your chest of mixed language. You are balanced, clear, sweet, noble, and force- ful. Your speech is brilliant utterance, your soul aesthetic feeling, your hair the different meters, your wit question-answer poems, riddles, and the like, while alliteration, simile, and the other figures of speech adorn you. The Veda itself, which gives voice to things to come, has praised you thus:

Four horns he has, three feet, two heads, seven hands; thrice-bound he roars; a great god who has entered the mortal world.

Powerful being though you may really be, pretend you are not so now, and take on the ways of a child.” With this, she placed him on the couchlike bench of a large boulder under a tree and went to bathe in the heavenly Gaã g 1 . At that very moment, the great sage U é anas, who had come out to gather fuel and ku é a grass, found the child lying overcome by heat in the noonday sun. Wondering who might be the parent of this unprotected child, he brought him to his own ashram. When after a moment S1 rasvateya revived, he bestowed on him metrical speech. And then suddenly U éanas proclaimed, to the astonishment of all those present:

Day after day the poets milk her, yet she is never milked dry! May Sarasvat E , dairy cow of poetry, be ever present in our hearts.

Then U é anas taught that knowledge to his students. From that time on wise men have referred to U é anas as Kavi [“wise one”], and it is by way of allusion to him that poets are designated kavi in everyday usage. This word for poet is derived from the verbal root kav, which literally means “to de- scribe,” and “poetry” (k 1 vya) means literally “the object [produced by the poet].” The compound “Poetry Man,” for its part, is used figuratively (bhakty 1 ) in reference to S 1 rasvateya because he is none other than poetry itself. The Goddess of Speech soon returned, and failing to find her son, she wept from the very depths of her heart. Now, V1 lm E ki, the best of sages, hap- pened to be passing by. Humbly he told her what had happened and showed the Blessed Goddess the ashram of the son of Bhógu. With her breasts moist with milk she embraced her son and kissed him on the head; and out of good will toward V 1lm E ki, the son of Pracetas, she secretly made over metrical lan- guage to him, too. Later, after she had dismissed him, he came upon the sight of a young crane crying mournfully for his mate, whom a Niù1da hunter had killed. And filled with grief ( é oka), the poet uttered this first verse ( é loka), in a voice of mournful wailing:

appendix a


May you never find fulfilment in all your living years, Ni ù 1 da, for killing one of these cranes in the act of making love.

Then the Goddess, with divine vision, granted a secret power to this very verse:

any poet who should recite it first, this one verse, before reciting any other, would become a son to SarasvatE herself. For his part, the great sage, from whom this utterance first emerged, composed the history (itih1 sa) called the R1m1yaâa. Dvaip1yana, reciting the same verse first and by reason of its power, composed the collection (sa Å hit 1 ) of one hundred thousand verses called the [Mah 1 ]Bh 1 rata. Now, some time later, when two distinguished Brahman sages were hav- ing a dispute about é ruti, the Self-Existent God [Brahm1 ], ever diplomatic, referred the question to Sarasvat E for judgment. Hearing of the goings on, her son was ready to accompany her, but she refused to allow him. “For one like you who has not received permission from Parame ù• hin, Brahm 1 Who Stands on High” she said, “the voyage to His world can be perilous,” and so turning him back, she set out on her own. Poetry Man stalked off in anger, and when he did, his best friend, Kum 1ra, began to cry and scream. “Be still, Kum 1 ra, my child,” Gaur E said to him, “I’ll put a stop to this.” And she fell to thinking. “The only bond that holds people back is love. I will create a special woman to keep SarasvatE ’s son in thrall.” She then gave birth to S1 hityavidy1 , “Poetics Woman.” And she instructed her as follows, “This is your lawful husband, who has stalked off in anger. Follow him and bring him back. And you sages who are present, perfected in the science of literary art, go sing the deeds of these two, Poetry and Poetics. This will prove to be a treasure-store of literature for you.” The blessed Bhav1 n E fell silent, and they all set out as directed. They all went first to the east, where are found the peoples called the Aã- gas, Va ã gas, Suhmas, Brahmas, Pu âb ras, and so on. As the daughter of Um 1 tried to entice Poetry Man she put on different kinds of dress in the differ- ent regions, and this was imitated by the women of the various places. In that first place the costume (prav ó tti) was called Aub ram 1 gadhE and was praised by the sages as follows:

Woven necklaces on chests wet with sandalwood paste, scarves kissing the parted hair, a glimpse of the breasts, bodies the hue of d [ rv1 grass from their use of aloe— may such costume ever regale the women of Gaub a.

And the men of that country also adopted the attire S 1 rasvateya himself hap- pened to be wearing, and it became the male costume specific to Ob ra and Magadha. As for the dance and music-making and so on that she performed, that became the bh1ratE mode (vótti), and the sages praised it as they had done

594 appendix a

earlier. And what he spoke when as yet not under her thrall, incomparable though she was—verses dense with compounds and alliteration, and filled with repeated use of words in their conventionally restricted etymological signification (yoga[r[ b hi]para Å par 1 )—that became known as the Path (r E ti) of Gauba. And the sages praised it as they had done earlier. In due course I (R 1 ja é ekhara) shall discuss the nature of v ó tti and r E ti. Next he went north to the country of Pañc1la, where are found the peoples called the P1ñc 1 las, the ç[ rasenas, the H1 stin1 puras, the K m E rakas, the V 1 h E kas, the B 1hl Ekas, the P 1hlaveyas, and so on. As the daughter of Um 1 tried to entice Poetry Man it went as before. Her costume there was called the central P1ñc 1 la and was praised by the sages as follows:

Cheeks with flashing sparkles of dangling earrings, bright necklaces gently swinging hanging down to the midriff, garments billowing out from hips to ankles— pay homage to the costume of the women of K 1nyakubja.

This time S 1 rasvateya’s interest was piqued. As before, the men of that coun- try also adopted the attire he was wearing then. As for the partial dance, vocal and instrumental music and graceful gesture (vil1sa) that she displayed, that became the s 1 ttvat E mode, and because it had sinuous movements it was also called the 1 rabha E . The sages gave praise as they had done earlier. And what S 1 rasvateya spoke when partly in her thrall, incomparable though she was—verses with partial compounds and modest alliteration, and filled with metaphorical expressions (upac 1 ra)—that became known as the Path of Pañc 1 la. Next he went west to the country of Avanti, where are found the peoples called the 0 vantis, Vaidi é as, Sur 1ù• ras, M1 lavas, Arbudas, Bh ó gukacchas, and so on. As the daughter of Um 1 tried to entice Poetry Man it went as before. Her costume there was called the 0vanti—it is midway between the central P 1ñc 1la and the southern costume. Accordingly, too, there are two modes there, the s1 ttvatE of the north and the kai é ik E of the south. And it was praised by the sages as follows:

The men and women wear the costume of Pañc1 la, and that of the south—may they all find pleasure in it! The recitation and gestures, too, of men and women in the land of Avanti combine both Paths.

Next he reached the southern region, where are found the peoples called the Malayas, the Mekalas, Kuntalas, Keralas, P1lamañjaras, Mah1r1ù•ras, Gaã- gas, Kaliã gas, and so on. As the daughter of Um 1 tried to entice Poetry Man it went as before. Her costume there was called the Southern. And it was praised by the sages as follows:

appendix a


Coiffeur of braided hair curly down to the root, foreheads marked with fragrant saffron powder, the knot of skirts made tight by tucking at the waist— long live the costume of the women of Kerala.

This time S1rasvateya fell deeply in love with her. As before, the men of that country also adopted the attire he was wearing then. As for the complex dance, vocal and instrumental music, and graceful gesture she manifested, that became the kai é ik E mode. The sages gave praise as they had done ear- lier. And what S1 rasvateya spoke when altogether enthralled by her—verses with moderate alliteration and no compounds, and only [rare] use of words in their etymological signification (yogav ó tti) —became known as the Path of Vidarbha. And the sages praised it as they had done earlier. Now “costume” (prav ó tti ) refers to an order of arrangement of clothing, “mode” (v ó tti) to an order of arrangement of bodily movements, and “path” (r E ti), to an order of arrangement of words. Teachers have argued that a fourfold categorization of costumes and modes cannot be fully adequate to the countless number of regions. In Y 1 y 1 var E ya’s view, these regions, though countless, are easily conceived of as a fourfold division, in the same

way that what is called the “Imperial Field” (cakravartik ù etra) is conceived as

a unified whole, though of course its component regions are countless in

respect of their specificities. That is to say, the Imperial Field extends north

a thousand yojanas from the South Sea onward [to Bindusaras, the source

of the Ga ã g 1 ], and there these costumes are worn. Beyond dwell divine be- ings, but they should be represented as wearing the costume of whatever place they visit, though in their own region they do as they like. Those who live on other continents, similarly, follow the costume and mode of their places. The “paths,” which are only three [and not four], will be discussed below. In the country of Vidarbha there is a city called Vatsagulma, where the God of Love often comes to play. There the son of Sarasvat E married the daughter of Um 1 by the love-marriage rite of the gandharvas. The bride and groom in due course left that place and, enjoying themselves in the dif- ferent regions on the way, returned to the Snowy Mountain, where Gaur E and Sarasvat E , now kin by marriage, were dwelling. The young couple did obeisance to them, and their mothers gave them their blessing and had them take up their dwellings, in the form of imagination, in the minds of poets. By their creation of this pair they have made a heavenly world for poets,

a place where poets, while continuing to dwell in the mortal world with a body made of poetry, may rejoice for all ages with a body divine.

Thus Self-Existent Brahm1 created Poetry Man.

596 appendix a

And the poet who understands the division here will rejoice in this world and the world beyond. 7

7. KM pp. 5–10. I read anupre ù itaé ca for anuprek ù ita é ca (p. 7.7), and conjecture k 1 vya Å kar-

ma âi for k 1 vyakarmaâ o (7.1) and pratibh1 mayena for pratibh1 vamayena (p. 10.10). My emenda- tion here, yogar [ b hipara Å par 1 garbham for yogav ó tti- (p. 8.14), is certified by çP 1050 ( = Mysore ed p. 681); an example of the category “conventionally restricted etymological” usage would be the quasi kenning “oblation-bearer” for fire. For yogavótti we would expect r[bhivótti, but com- pare chapter 5.3. Yoga and r [ b hi are differentiating factors in gau b a and vaidarbha styles from the time of Da âb in, as is clear from his analysis of pras 1 da (K 0 1.45–46), though the terms themselves are not used in the K 0 . The use of “metaphorical expressions” (upac 1 ra, e.g., “the bed tells of her sorrow”) is not symmetrical with the traits of the other Paths, but in the adap- tation of the passage by Bhoja, the degree of metaphoricity in the other Paths is catalogued as well (see chapter 5.3). The verse at the beginning, “Four horns,” etc., is ñ V 4.58.3; Mah 1 bh 1 ù ya vol. 1: 3 explains the riddle (the four horns are the four parts of speech, the three feet the three temporal aspects, etc.). The “mixed language” of K 1 vyapuruù a’s chest is not a fifth category but rather echoes Daâb in’s sa Å k E r â abh 1 ù 1 , the mixture of the three or four literary languages in a polyglot genre like drama (chapter 2.2). On the “Imperial Field,” mentioned also in KM 92.10 ff., see chapter 6.1. Vatsagulma is the ancient name of B1 sim (Madhya Pradesh), the find-spot of the important V 1 k 1 aka inscription discussed in chapter 1.3. The “division” mentioned in the last line refers presumably to the division of labor between “Poetry Man” and “Poetics Woman” (so the modern Sanskrit commentary of Madhusudana Mishra).