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Anarchism title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username CJames username id id contributor minor comment Anarchist Communism too
many brackets comment text xml space preserve Anarchism Anarchism originated as a
term of abuse first used against early working class radical s including the
Diggers of the English Revolution and the sans culotte sans culottes of the French
Revolution http uk encarta msn com encyclopedia Anarchism html Whilst the term is
still used in a pejorative way to describe quot any act that used violent means to
destroy the organization of society quot lt ref gt http www cas sc edu socy faculty
deflem zhistorintpolency html History of International Police Cooperation from the
final protocols of the quot International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense
Against Anarchists quot lt ref gt it has also been taken up as a positive label by
self defined anarchists The word anarchism is etymology derived from the Greek
language Greek Wiktionary amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp
quot without archon s ruler chief king quot Anarchism as a political philosophy is
the belief that rulers are unnecessary and should be abolished although there are
differing interpretations of what this means Anarchism also refers to related
social movement s that advocate the elimination of authoritarian institutions
particularly the state lt ref gt http en wikiquote org wiki Definitions of
anarchism Definitions of anarchism on Wikiquote accessed lt ref gt The word quot
anarchy quot as most anarchists use it does not imply chaos nihilism or anomie but
rather a harmonious anti authoritarian society In place of what are regarded as
authoritarian political structures and coercive economic institutions anarchists
advocate social relations based upon voluntary association of autonomous
individuals mutual aid and self governance While anarchism is most easily defined
by what it is against anarchists also offer positive visions of what they believe
to be a truly free society However ideas about how an anarchist society might work
vary considerably especially with respect to economics there is also disagreement
about how a free society might be brought about Origins and predecessors Peter
Kropotkin Kropotkin and others argue that before recorded history human society was
organized on anarchist principles lt ref gt Peter Kropotkin Kropotkin Peter quot
Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution quot lt ref gt Most anthropologists follow
Kropotkin and Engels in believing that hunter gatherer bands were egalitarian and
lacked division of labour accumulated wealth or decreed law and had equal access to
resources lt ref gt Friedrich Engels Engels Freidrich quot http www marxists org
archive marx works origin family index htm Origins of the Family Private Property
and the State quot lt ref gt Image WilliamGodwin jpg thumb right px William Godwin
Anarchists including the The Anarchy Organisation and Murray Rothbard Rothbard find
anarchist attitudes in Taoism from History of China Ancient China lt ref gt The
Anarchy Organization Toronto Taoism and Anarchy April http www toxicpop co uk
library taoism htm Toxicpop mirror http www geocities com SoHo taoan html Vanity
site mirror lt ref gt lt ref gt Murray Rothbard Rothbard Murray quot http www
lewrockwell com rothbard ancient chinese html The Ancient Chinese Libertarian
Tradition quot an extract from quot http www mises org journals jls pdf Concepts
of the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Toward Laissez Faire quot The Journal
of Libertarian Studies Fall lt ref gt Peter Kropotkin Kropotkin found similar ideas
in stoicism stoic Zeno of Citium According to Kropotkin Zeno quot repudiated the
omnipotence of the state its intervention and regimentation and proclaimed the
sovereignty of the moral law of the individual quot lt ref gt http www blackcrayon
com page jsp library britt html Anarchism written by Peter Kropotkin from
Encyclopaedia Britannica lt ref gt The Anabaptist s of th century Europe are
sometimes considered to be religious forerunners of modern anarchism Bertrand
Russell in his History of Western Philosophy writes that the Anabaptists quot
repudiated all law since they held that the good man will be guided at every moment
by the Holy Spirit f rom this premise they arrive at communism quot lt ref gt
Bertrand Russell Russell Bertrand quot Ancient philosophy quot in A History of
Western Philosophy and its connection with political and social circumstances from
the earliest times to the present day lt ref gt Diggers True Levellers The Diggers
or quot True Levellers quot were an early communistic movement during the time of
the English Civil War and are considered by some as forerunners of modern anarchism
lt ref gt http www zpub com notes aan hist html An Anarchist Timeline from
Encyclopaedia Britannica lt ref gt In the modern era the first to use the term to
mean something other than chaos was Louis Armand de Lom d Arce de Lahontan Baron de
Lahontan Louis Armand Baron de Lahontan in his Nouveaux voyages dans l Am rique
septentrionale where he described the Native Americans in the United States
indigenous American society which had no state laws prisons priests or private
property as being in anarchy lt ref gt http etext lib virginia edu cgi local DHI
dhi cgi id dv Dictionary of the History of Ideas ANARCHISM lt ref gt Russell Means
a libertarian and leader in the American Indian Movement has repeatedly stated that
he is quot an anarchist and so are all his ancestors quot In in the thick of the
French Revolution William Godwin published An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice
http web bilkent edu tr Online www english upenn edu jlynch Frank Godwin pjtp html
Although Godwin did not use the word anarchism many later anarchists have regarded
this book as the first major anarchist text and Godwin as the quot founder of
philosophical anarchism quot But at this point no anarchist movement yet existed
and the term anarchiste was known mainly as an insult hurled by the bourgeois
Girondins at more radical elements in the French revolution The first self labelled
anarchist Image Pierre Joseph Proudhon jpg px thumb left Pierre Joseph Proudhon
main articles Pierre Joseph Proudhon and Mutualism economic theory It is commonly
held that it wasn t until Pierre Joseph Proudhon published What is Property in that
the term quot anarchist quot was adopted as a self description It is for this
reason that some claim Proudhon as the founder of modern anarchist theory In What
is Property Proudhon answers with the famous accusation quot Property is theft quot
In this work he opposed the institution of decreed quot property quot propri t
where owners have complete rights to quot use and abuse quot their property as they
wish such as exploiting workers for profit lt ref name quot proudhon prop quot gt
Pierre Joseph Proudhon Proudhon Pierre Joseph quot http www marxists org reference
subject economics proudhon property ch htm Chapter Labour as the efficient cause of
the domain of property quot from quot What is Property quot lt ref gt In its place
Proudhon supported what he called possession individuals can have limited rights to
use resources capital and goods in accordance with principles of equality and
justice Proudhon s vision of anarchy which he called mutualism mutuellisme involved
an exchange economy where individuals and groups
could trade the products of their labor using labor notes which represented the
amount of working time involved in production This would ensure that no one would
profit from the labor of others Workers could freely join together in co operative
workshops An interest free bank would be set up to provide everyone with access to
the means of production Proudhon s ideas were influential within French working
class movements and his followers were active in the Revolution of in France
Proudhon s philosophy of property is complex it was developed in a number of works
over his lifetime and there are differing interpretations of some of his ideas For
more detailed discussion see Pierre Joseph Proudhon here Max Stirner s Egoism main
articles Max Stirner and Egoism In his The Ego and Its Own Stirner argued that most
commonly accepted social institutions including the notion of State property as a
right natural rights in general and the very notion of society were mere illusions
or ghosts in the mind saying of society that quot the individuals are its reality
quot He advocated egoism and a form of amoralism in which individuals would unite
in associations of egoists only when it was in their self interest to do so For him
property simply comes about through might quot Whoever knows how to take to defend
the thing to him belongs property quot And quot What I have in my power that is my
own So long as I assert myself as holder I am the proprietor of the thing quot
Stirner never called himself an anarchist he accepted only the label egoist
Nevertheless his ideas were influential on many individualistically inclined
anarchists although interpretations of his thought are diverse American
individualist anarchism Image BenjaminTucker jpg thumb px left Benjamin Tucker main
articles Individualist anarchism and American individualist anarchism In Josiah
Warren had participated in a communitarian experiment headed by Robert Owen called
New Harmony which failed in a few years amidst much internal conflict Warren blamed
the community s failure on a lack of individual sovereignty and a lack of private
property Warren proceeded to organise experimenal anarchist communities which
respected what he called quot the sovereignty of the individual quot at Utopia
anarchist community Utopia and Modern Times In Warren wrote and published The
Peaceful Revolutionist which some have noted to be the first anarchist periodical
ever published Benjamin Tucker says that Warren quot was the first man to expound
and formulate the doctrine now known as Anarchism quot Liberty XIV December
Benjamin Tucker became interested in anarchism through meeting Josiah Warren and
William B Greene He edited and published Liberty from August to April it is widely
considered to be the finest individualist anarchist periodical ever issued in the
English language Tucker s conception of individualist anarchism incorporated the
ideas of a variety of theorists Greene s ideas on mutualism mutual banking Warren s
ideas on cost the limit of price cost as the limit of price a heterodox economics
heterodox variety of labour theory of value Proudhon s market anarchism Max Stirner
s egoism and Herbert Spencer s quot law of equal freedom quot Tucker strongly
supported the individual s right to own the product of his or her labour as quot
private property quot and believed in a lt ref name quot tucker pay quot gt
Benjamin Tucker Tucker Benjamin quot http www blackcrayon com page jsp library
tucker tucker htm Labor and Its Pay quot Individual Liberty Selections From the
Writings of Benjamin R Tucker Vanguard Press New York Kraus Reprint Co Millwood NY
lt ref gt market economy for trading this property He argued that in a truly free
market system without the state the abundance of competition would eliminate
profits and ensure that all workers received the full value of their labor Other th
century individualists included Lysander Spooner Stephen Pearl Andrews and Victor
Yarros The First International Image Bakuninfull jpg thumb px right Bakunin Mikhail
Bakunin main articles International Workingmen s Association Anarchism and Marxism
In Europe harsh reaction followed the revolutions of Twenty years later in the
International Workingmen s Association sometimes called the First International
united some diverse European revolutionary currents including anarchism Due to its
genuine links to active workers movements the International became signficiant From
the start Karl Marx was a leading figure in the International he was elected to
every succeeding General Council of the association The first objections to Marx
came from the Mutualism Mutualists who opposed communism and statism Shortly after
Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in the First International became
polarised into two camps with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads The
clearest difference between the camps was over strategy The anarchists around
Bakunin favoured in Kropotkin s words quot direct economical struggle against
capitalism without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation quot At
that time Marx and his followers focused on parliamentary activity Bakunin
characterised Marx s ideas as authoritarian and predicted that if a Marxist party
gained to power its leaders would end up as bad as the ruling class they had fought
against lt ref gt Mikhail Bakunin Bakunin Mikhail quot http www litencyc com php
adpage php id Statism and Anarchy quot lt ref gt In the conflict climaxed with a
final split between the two groups at the Hague Congress Hague Congress This is
often cited as the origin of the Anarchist objections to marxism conflict between
anarchists and Marxists From this moment the Social democracy social democratic and
Libertarian socialism libertarian currents of socialism had distinct organisations
including rival List of left wing internationals internationals Anarchist Communism
main Anarchist communism Image PeterKropotkin jpg thumb px right Peter Kropotkin
Proudhon and Bakunin both opposed communism associating it with statism However in
the s many anarchists moved away from Bakunin s economic thinking called quot
collectivism quot and embraced communist concepts Communists believed the means of
production should be owned collectively and that goods be distributed by need not
labor http nefac net node An early anarchist communist was Joseph D jacque the
first person to describe himself as quot libertarian socialism libertarian quot
http recollectionbooks com bleed Encyclopedia DejacqueJoseph htm lt ref gt http
joseph dejacque free fr ecrits lettreapjp htm De l tre humain m le et femelle
Lettre P J Proudhon par Joseph D jacque in French language French lt ref gt Unlike
Proudhon he argued that quot it is not the product of his or her labor that the
worker has a right to but to the satisfaction of his or her needs whatever may be
their nature quot He announced his ideas in his US published journal Le Libertaire
Peter Kropotkin often seen as the most important theorist outlined his economic
ideas in The Conquest of Bread and Fields Factories and Workshops He felt co
operation is more beneficial than competition illustrated in nature in Mutual Aid A
Factor of Evolution Subsequent anarchist communists include Emma Goldman and
Alexander Berkman Many in the anarcho syndicalist movements see below saw anarchist
communism as their objective Isaac Puente s Comunismo Libertario was adopted by the
Spanish CNT as its manifesto for a post revolutionary society Some anarchists
disliked merging communism with anarchism Several individualist anarchists
maintained that abolition of private property was not consistent with liberty For
example Benjamin Tucker whilst professing respect for Kropotkin and publishing his
work http www zetetics com mac libdebates apx pubs html described communist
anarchism as quot pseudo anarchism quot lt ref name quot tucker pay quot gt
Propaganda of the deed Image JohannMost jpg left px thumb Johann Most was an
outspoken advocate of violence main Propaganda of the deed Anarchists have often
been portrayed as dangerous and violent due mainly to a number of high profile
violent acts including riot s assassination s insurrection s and terrorism by some
anarchists Some revolution aries of the late th century encouraged acts of
political violence such as bomb ings and the assassination s of head of state heads
of state to further anarchism Such actions have sometimes been called propaganda by
the deed One of the more outspoken advocates of this strategy was Johann Most who
said quot the existing system will be quickest and most radically overthrown by the
annihilation of its exponents Therefore massacres of the enemies of the people must
be set in motion quot fact Most s preferred method of terrorism dynamite earned him
the moniker quot Dynamost quot However there is no consensus on the legitimacy or
utility of violence in general Mikhail Bakunin and Errico Malatesta for example
wrote of violence as a necessary and sometimes desirable force in revolutionary
settings But at the same time they denounced acts of individual terrorism Malatesta
in quot On Violence quot and Bakunin when he refuted Nechaev Other anarchists
sometimes identified as anarcho pacifists pacifist anarchists advocated complete
nonviolence Leo Tolstoy whose philosophy is often viewed as a form of Christian
anarchism Christian anarchism see below was a notable exponent of nonviolent
resistance Anarchism in the labour movement seealso Anarcho syndicalism Image Flag
of Anarcho syndicalism svg thumb px The red and black flag coming from the
experience of anarchists in the labour movement is particularly associated with
anarcho syndicalism Anarcho syndicalism was an early th century working class
movement seeking to overthrow capitalism and the state to institute a worker
controlled society The movement pursued industrial
action s such as general strike as a primary strategy Many anarcho syndicalists
believed in anarchist communism though not all communists believed in syndicalism
After the Paris Commune repression French anarchism reemerged influencing the
Bourses de Travails of autonomous workers groups and trade unions From this
movement the Conf d ration G n rale du Travail General Confederation of Work CGT
was formed in as the first major anarcho syndicalist movement Emile Pataud and
Emile Pouget s writing for the CGT saw libertarian communism developing from a
general strike After the CGT moved away from anarcho syndicalism due to the appeal
of Bolshevism French style syndicalism was a significant movement in Europe prior
to and remained a significant movement in Spain until the mid s The Industrial
Workers of the World IWW founded in in the US espoused industrial unionism unionism
and sought a general strike to usher in a stateless society In members existed
with the support of up to Though not explicitly anarchist they organized by rank
and file democracy embodying a spirit of resistance that has inspired many
Anglophone syndicalists Image CNT tu votar y ellos deciden jpg thumb px CNT
propaganda from April Reads Don t let the politicians rule our lives You vote and
they decide Don t allow it Unity Action Self management Spanish anarchist trade
union federations were formed in the s and The most successful was the Confederaci
n Nacional del Trabajo National Confederation of Labour CNT founded in Prior to the
s the CNT was the major force in Spanish working class politics With a membership
of million in the CNT played a major role in the Spanish Civil War See also
Anarchism in Spain Syndicalists like Ricardo Flores Mag n were key figures in the
Mexican Revolution Latin America Latin American anarchism was strongly influenced
extending to the Zapatista Army of National Liberation Zapatista rebellion and the
factory occupation movements in Argentina In Berlin in the CNT was joined with the
International Workers Association an anarcho syndicalist successor to the First
International Contemporary anarcho syndicalism continues as a minor force in many
socities much smaller than in the s s and s The largest organised anarchist
movement today is in Spain in the form of the Confederaci n General del Trabajo and
the CNT The CGT claims a paid up membership of and received over a million votes in
Spanish syndical elections Other active syndicalist movements include the US
Workers Solidarity Alliance and the UK Solidarity Federation The revolutionary
industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World also exists claiming paid
members Contemporary critics of anarcho syndicalism and revolutionary industrial
unionism claim that they are workerist and fail to deal with economic life outside
work Post leftist critics such as Bob Black claim anarcho syndicalism advocates
oppressive social structures such as Manual labour work and the workplace Anarcho
syndicalists in general uphold principles of workers solidarity direct action and
self management The Russian Revolution main Russian Revolution of The Russian
Revolution of was a seismic event in the development of anarchism as a movement and
as a philosophy Anarchists participated alongside the Bolsheviks in both February
and October revolutions many anarchists initially supporting the Bolshevik coup
However the Bolsheviks soon turned against the anarchists and other left wing
opposition a conflict which culminated in the Kronstadt rebellion Anarchists in
central Russia were imprisoned or driven underground or joined the victorious
Bolsheviks In Ukraine anarchists fought in the Russian Civil War civil war against
both Whites and Bolsheviks within the Makhnovshchina peasant army led by Nestor
Makhno Expelled American anarchists Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman before
leaving Russia were amongst those agitating in response to Bolshevik policy and the
suppression of the Kronstadt uprising Both wrote classic accounts of their
experiences in Russia aiming to expose the reality of Bolshevik control For them
Bakunin s predictions about the consequences of Marxist rule had proved all too
true The victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution and the resulting
Russian Civil War did serious damage to anarchist movements internationally Many
workers and activists saw Bolshevik success as setting an example Communist parties
grew at the expense of anarchism and other socialist movements In France and the US
for example the major syndicalist movements of the CGT and IWW began to realign
themselves away from anarchism and towards the Comintern Communist International In
Paris the Dielo Truda group of Russian anarchist exiles which included Nestor
Makhno concluded that anarchists needed to develop new forms of organisation in
response to the structures of Bolshevism Their manifesto known as the Platformism
Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists was supported by some
communist anarchists though opposed by many others The Platform continues to
inspire some contemporary anarchist groups who believe in an anarchist movement
organised around its principles of theoretical unity tactical unity collective
responsibility and federalism Platformist groups today include the Workers
Solidarity Movement in Ireland the UK s Anarchist Federation and the late North
Eastern Federation of Anarchist Communists in the northeastern United States and
bordering Canada The fight against fascism main articles Anti fascism and Anarchism
in Spain Image CNT armoured car factory jpg right thumb px Spain Members of the
CNT construct armoured car s to fight against the fascist s in one of the
collectivisation collectivised factories In the s and s the familiar dynamics of
anarchism s conflict with the state were transformed by the rise of fascism in
Europe In many cases European anarchists faced difficult choices should they join
in popular front s with reformist democrats and Soviet led Communists against a
common fascist enemy Luigi Fabbri an exile from Italian fascism was amongst those
arguing that fascism was something different quot Fascism is not just another form
of government which like all others uses violence It is the most authoritarian and
the most violent form of government imaginable It represents the utmost
glorification of the theory and practice of the principle of authority quot fact In
France where the fascists came close to insurrection in the February riots
anarchists divided over a united front policy http melior univ montp fr ra forum en
people berry david fascism or revolution html In Spain the CNT initially refused to
join a popular front electoral alliance and abstention by CNT supporters led to a
right wing election victory But in the CNT changed its policy and anarchist votes
helped bring the popular front back to power Months later the ruling class
responded with an attempted coup and the Spanish Civil War was underway In reponse
to the army rebellion Anarchism in Spain an anarchist inspired movement of peasants
and workers supported by armed militias took control of the major city of Barcelona
and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivization collectivized the
land But even before the eventual fascist victory in the anarchists were losing
ground in a bitter struggle with the Stalinists The CNT leadership often appeared
confused and divided with some members controversially entering the government
Stalinist led troops suppressed the collectives and persecuted both POUM dissident
marxists and anarchists Since the late s anarchists have been involved in fighting
the rise of neo fascism neo fascist groups In Germany and the United Kingdom some
anarchists worked within militant anti fascism anti fascist groups alongside
members of the Marxist left They advocated directly combating fascists with
physical force rather than relying on the state Since the late s a similar tendency
has developed within US anarchism See also Anti Racist Action US Anti Fascist
Action UK Antifa Religious anarchism Image LeoTolstoy jpg thumb px Leo Tolstoy Leo
Tolstoy main articles Christian anarchism and Anarchism and religion Most
anarchist culture tends to be secular if not outright militant athiesm anti
religious However the combination of religious social conscience historical
religiousity amongst oppressed social classes and the compatibility of some
interpretations of religious traditions with anarchism has resulted in religious
anarchism Christian anarchism Christian anarchists believe that there is no higher
authority than God and oppose earthly authority such as government and established
churches They believe that Jesus teachings were clearly anarchistic but were
corrupted when quot Christianity quot was declared the official religion of Rome
Christian anarchists who follow Jesus directive to quot turn the other cheek quot
are strict pacifism pacifists The most famous advocate of Christian anarchism was
Leo Tolstoy author of The Kingdom of God is Within You who called for a society
based on compassion nonviolent principles and freedom Christian anarchists tend to
form experimental communities They also occasionally tax resistance resist taxation
Many Christian anarchists are vegetarianism vegetarian or veganism vegan fact
Christian anarchy can be said to have roots as old as the religion s birth as the
early church exhibits many anarchistic tendencies such as communal goods and wealth
By aiming to obey utterly certain of the Bible s teachings certain anabaptism
anabaptist groups of sixteenth century Europe attempted to emulate the early church
s social economic organisation and philosophy by regarding it as the only social
structure capable of true obediance to Jesus teachings and utterly rejected in
theory all earthly hierarchies and authority and indeed non anabaptists in general
and
violence as ungodly Such groups for example the Hutterites typically went from
initially anarchistic beginnings to as their movements stabalised more
authoritarian social models Chinese Anarchism was most influential in the s Strands
of Chinese anarchism included Tai Xu s Buddhist Anarchism which was influenced by
Tolstoy and the well field system Neopaganism with its focus on the environment and
equality along with its often decentralized nature has lead to a number of neopagan
anarchists One of the most prominent is Starhawk who writes extensively about both
spirituality and activism Anarchism and feminism Image Goldman jpg thumb left px
Emma Goldman main Anarcha Feminism Early French feminism French feminists such as
Jenny d H ricourt and Juliette Adam criticised the mysogyny in the anarchism of
Proudhon during the s Anarcha feminism is a kind of radical feminism that espouses
the belief that patriarchy is a fundamental problem in society While anarchist
feminism has existed for more than a hundred years its explicit formulation as
anarcha feminism dates back to the early s lt ref gt http www anarcha org
sallydarity Anarcho FeminismTwoStatements htm Anarcho Feminism Two Statements Who
we are An Anarcho Feminist Manifesto lt ref gt during the second wave feminism
second wave feminist movement Anarcha feminism views patriarchy as the first
manifestation of hierarchy in human history thus the first form of oppression
occurred in the dominance of male over female Anarcha feminists then conclude that
if feminists are against patriarchy they must also be against all forms of
hierarchy and therefore must reject the authoritarian nature of the state and
capitalism fact Anarcho primitivists see the creation of gender roles and
patriarchy a creation of the start of civilization and therefore consider
primitivism to also be an anarchist school of thought that addresses feminist
concerns Eco feminism is often considered a feminist variant of green anarchist
feminist thought Anarcha feminism is most often associated with early th century
authors and theorists such as Emma Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre although even
early first wave feminist Mary Wollstonecraft held proto anarchist views and
William Godwin is often considered a feminist anarchist precursor It should be
noted that Goldman and de Cleyre though they both opposed the state had opposing
philosophies as de Cleyre explains quot Miss Goldman is a communist I am an
individualist She wishes to destroy the right of property I wish to assert it I
make my war upon privilege and authority whereby the right of property the true
right in that which is proper to the individual is annihilated She believes that co
operation would entirely supplant competition I hold that competition in one form
or another will always exist and that it is highly desirable it should quot In the
Spanish Civil War an anarcha feminist group quot Free Women quot organized to
defend both anarchist and feminist ideas In the modern day anarchist movement many
anarchists male or female consider themselves feminists and anarcha feminist ideas
are growing The publishing of Quiet Rumors an anarcha feminist reader has helped to
spread various kinds of anti authoritarian and anarchist feminist ideas to the
broader movement Wendy McElroy has popularized an individualist anarchism take on
feminism in her books articles and individualist feminist website lt ref gt http
www ifeminists net I feminists net lt ref gt Anarcho capitalism Image Murray
Rothbard Smile JPG thumb left px Murray Rothbard main Anarcho capitalism Anarcho
capitalism is a predominantly United States based theoretical tradition that
desires a stateless society with the economic system of free market capitalism
Unlike other branches of anarchism it does not oppose profit or capitalism
Consequently most anarchists do not recognise anarcho capitalism as a form of
anarchism Murray Rothbard s synthesis of classical liberalism and Austrian
economics was germinal for the development of contemporary anarcho capitalist
theory He defines anarcho capitalism in terms of the non aggression principle based
on the concept of Natural Law Competiting theorists use egoism utilitarianism used
by David Friedman or contractarianism used by Jan Narveson Some minarchism
minarchists such as Ayn Rand Robert Nozick and Robert A Heinlein have influenced
anarcho capitalism Some anarcho capitalists along with some right wing libertarian
historians such as David Hart and Ralph Raico considered similar philosophies
existing prior to Rothbard to be anarcho capitalist such as those of Gustave de
Molinari and Auberon Herbert lt ref gt Gustave de Molinari Molinari Gustave de http
praxeology net MR GM PS htm Preface to quot The Production of Security quot
translated by J Huston McCulloch Occasional Papers Series Richard M Ebeling Editor
New York The Center for Libertarian Studies May lt ref gt lt ref name quot david
hart quot gt lt ref gt Ralph Raico Raico Ralph http www mises org story Authentic
German Liberalism of the th Century Ecole Polytechnique Centre de Recherce en
Epistemologie Appliquee Unit associ e au CNRS lt ref gt Opponents of anarcho
capitalists dispute these claims lt ref gt McKay Iain Elkin Gary Neal Dave et al
http www infoshop org faq append html Replies to Some Errors and Distortions in
Bryan Caplan s quot Anarchist Theory FAQ quot version An Anarchist FAQ Version
Accessed February lt ref gt The place of anarcho capitalism within anarchism and
indeed whether it is a form of anarchism at all is highly controversial For more on
this debate see Anarchism and anarcho capitalism Anarchism and the environment
seealso Anarcho primitivism Green anarchism Eco anarchism Ecofeminism Since the
late s anarchists in Anglophone and European countries have been taking action for
the natural environment Eco anarchism Eco anarchists or Green anarchism Green
anarchists believe in deep ecology This is a worldview that embraces biodiversity
and sustainability Eco anarchists often use direct action against what they see as
earth destroying institutions Of particular importance is the Earth First movement
that takes action such as tree sitting Another important component is ecofeminism
which sees the domination of nature as a metaphor for the domination of women Green
anarchism also involves a critique of industrial capitalism and for some green
anarchists civilization itself fact Primitivism is a predominantly Western
philosophy that advocates a return to a pre industrial and usually pre agricultural
society It develops a critique of industrial civilization In this critique
technology and development have alienation alienated people from the natural world
This philosophy develops themes present in the political action of the Luddites and
the writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau Primitivism developed in the context of the
Reclaim the Streets Earth First and the Earth Liberation Front movements John
Zerzan wrote that civilization amp mdash not just the state amp mdash would need to
fall for anarchy to be achieved fact Anarcho primitivists point to the anti
authoritarian nature of many primitive or hunter gatherer societies throughout the
world s history as examples of anarchist societies Other branches and offshoots
Anarchism generates many eclectic and syncretic philosophies and movements Since
the Western social formet in the s and s a number new of movements and schools have
appeared Most of these stances are limited to even smaller numbers than the schools
and movements listed above Image Hakim Bey jpeg thumb right Hakim Bey Post left
anarchy Post left anarchy also called egoist anarchism seeks to distance itself
from the traditional quot left quot communists liberals social democrats etc and to
escape the confines of ideology in general Post leftists argue that anarchism has
been weakened by its long attachment to contrary quot leftist quot movements and
single issue causes anti war anti nuclear etc It calls for a synthesis of anarchist
thought and a specifically anti authoritarian revolutionary movement outside of the
leftist milieu It often focuses on the individual rather than speaking in terms of
class or other broad generalizations and shuns organizational tendencies in favor
of the complete absence of explicit hierarchy Important groups and individuals
associated with Post left anarchy include CrimethInc the magazine Anarchy A Journal
of Desire Armed and its editor Jason McQuinn Bob Black Hakim Bey and others For
more information see Infoshop org s Anarchy After Leftism lt ref gt http www
infoshop org afterleftism html Infoshop org Anarchy After Leftism lt ref gt section
and the http anarchism ws postleft html Post left section on http anarchism ws
anarchism ws See also Post left anarchy Post structuralism The term postanarchism
was originated by Saul Newman first receiving popular attention in his book From
Bakunin to Lacan to refer to a theoretical move towards a synthesis of classical
anarchist theory and poststructuralist thought Subsequent to Newman s use of the
term however it has taken on a life of its own and a wide range of ideas including
autonomism post left anarchy situationism post colonialism and Zapatismo By its
very nature post anarchism rejects the idea that it should be a coherent set of
doctrines and beliefs As such it is difficult if not impossible to state with any
degree of certainty who should or shouldn t be grouped under the rubric Nonetheless
key thinkers associated with post anarchism include Saul Newman Todd May Gilles
Deleuze and F lix Guattari External reference Postanarchism Clearinghouse lt ref gt
http www postanarchism org Post anarchist clearing house lt ref gt See also Post
anarchism Insurrectionary anarchism Insurrectionary anarchism is a form of
revolutionary anarchism critical of formal anarchist labor unions and federations
Insurrectionary
anarchists advocate informal organization including small affinity groups carrying
out acts of resistance in various struggles and mass organizations called base
structures which can include exploited individuals who are not anarchists
Proponents include Wolfi Landstreicher and Alfredo M Bonanno author of works
including quot Armed Joy quot and quot The Anarchist Tension quot This tendency is
represented in the US in magazines such as Willful Disobedience and Killing King
Abacus See also Insurrectionary anarchism Small a anarchism Small a anarchism is a
term used in two different but not unconnected contexts Dave Neal posited the term
in opposition to big A Anarchism in the article http www spunk org library intro
practice sp html Anarchism Ideology or Methodology While big A Anarchism referred
to ideological Anarchists small a anarchism was applied to their methodological
counterparts those who viewed anarchism as quot a way of acting or a historical
tendency against illegitimate authority quot As an anti ideological position small
a anarchism shares some similarities with post left anarchy David Graeber and
Andrej Grubacic offer an alternative use of the term applying it to groups and
movements organising according to or acting in a manner consistent with anarchist
principles of decentralisation voluntary association mutual aid the network model
and crucially quot the rejection of any idea that the end justifies the means let
alone that the business of a revolutionary is to seize state power and then begin
imposing one s vision at the point of a gun quot http www zmag org content
showarticle cfm SectionID amp ItemID Other issues Conceptions of an anarchist
society Many political philosophers justify support of the state as a means of
regulating violence so that the destruction caused by human conflict is minimized
and fair relationships are established Anarchists argue that pursuit of these ends
does not justify the establishment of a state many argue that the state is
incompatible with those goals and the cause of chaos violence and war Anarchists
argue that the state helps to create a Monopoly on the legitimate use of physical
force monopoly on violence and uses violence to advance elite interests Much effort
has been dedicated to explaining how anarchist societies would handle criminality
See also Anarchism and Society Civil rights and cultural sovereignty Black
anarchism opposes the existence of a state capitalism and subjugation and
domination of people of color and favors a non hierarchical organization of society
Theorists include Ashanti Alston Lorenzo Komboa Ervin and Sam Mbah Anarchist People
of Color was created as a forum for non caucasian anarchists to express their
thoughts about racial issues within the anarchist movement particularly within the
United States National anarchism is a political view which seeks to unite cultural
or ethnic preservation with anarchist views Its adherents propose that those
preventing ethnic groups or races from living in separate autonomous groupings
should be resisted Anti Racist Action is not an anarchist group but many anarchists
are involved It focuses on publicly confronting racist agitators The Zapatista
movement of Chiapas Mexico is a cultural sovereignty group with some anarchist
proclivities Neocolonialism and Globalization Nearly all anarchists oppose
neocolonialism as an attempt to use economic coercion on a global scale carried out
through state institutions such as the World Bank World Trade Organization G Group
of Eight and the World Economic Forum Globalization is an ambiguous term that has
different meanings to different anarchist factions Most anarchists use the term to
mean neocolonialism and or cultural imperialism which they may see as related Many
are active in the anti globalization movement Others particularly anarcho
capitalists use quot globalization quot to mean the worldwide expansion of the
division of labor and trade which they see as beneficial so long as governments do
not intervene Parallel structures Many anarchists try to set up alternatives to
state supported institutions and quot outposts quot such as Food Not Bombs infoshop
s educational systems such as home schooling neighborhood mediation arbitration
groups and so on The idea is to create the structures for a new anti authoritarian
society in the shell of the old authoritarian one Technology Recent technological
developments have made the anarchist cause both easier to advance and more
conceivable to people Many people use the Internet to form on line communities
Intellectual property is undermined and a gift culture supported by file sharing
sharing music files open source programming and the free software movement These
cyber communities include the GNU Linux Indymedia and Wiki lt NEEDS SOURCE THAT E
GOLD IS USED BY ANARCHISTS Public key cryptography has made anonymous digital
currencies such as e gold and Local Exchange Trading Systems an alternative to
statist fiat money gt Some anarchists see information technology as the best weapon
to defeat authoritarianism Some even think the information age makes eventual
anarchy inevitable lt ref gt http www modulaware com a m select amp id The
Sovereign Individual Mastering the transition to the information age lt ref gt See
also Crypto anarchism and Cypherpunk Pacifism Some anarchists consider Pacifism
opposition to war to be inherent in their philosophy Anarcho pacifism anarcho
pacifists take it further and follow Leo Tolstoy s belief in Nonviolence non
violence Anarchists see war as an activity in which the state seeks to gain and
consolidate power both domestically and in foreign lands and subscribe to Randolph
Bourne s view that quot war is the health of the state quot lt ref gt http struggle
ws hist texts warhealthstate html War is the Health of the State lt ref gt A lot of
anarchist activity has been anti war based Parliamentarianism In general terms the
anarchist ethos opposes voting in elections because voting amounts to condoning the
state lt ref gt http members aol com vlntryst hitler html The Voluntaryist Why I
would not vote against Hitler lt ref gt Voluntaryism is an anarchist school of
thought which emphasizes quot tending your own garden quot and quot neither ballots
nor bullets quot The anarchist case against voting is explained in The Ethics of
Voting lt ref gt http www voluntaryist com nonvoting ethics of voting php
Voluntaryist The ethics of voting lt ref gt by George H Smith Also see quot Voting
Anarchists An Oxymoron or What quot by Joe Peacott and writings by Fred Woodworth
Sectarianism Most anarchist schools of thought are to some degree sectarian There
is often a difference of opinion within each school about how to react to or
interact with other schools Some such as panarchy panarchists believe that it is
possible for a variety of modes of social life to coexist and compete Some
anarchists view opposing schools as a social impossibility and resist interaction
others see opportunities for coalition building or at least temporary alliances for
specific purposes See anarchism without adjectives Criticisms of anarchism Main
article Criticisms of anarchism Violence Since anarchism has often been associated
with violence and destruction some people have seen it as being too violent On the
other hand hand Frederick Engels criticsed anarchists for not being violent enough
quot A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is it is the act
whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of
rifles bayonets and cannon authoritarian means if such there be at all and if the
victorious party does not want to have fought in vain it must maintain this rule by
means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionists Would the Paris
Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the
armed people against the bourgeois quot lt ref gt http www marxists org archive
marx works authority htm On Authority lt ref gt Utopianism Anarchism is often
criticised as unfeasible or plain utopian even by many who agree that it s a nice
idea in principle For example Carl Landauer in his book European Socialism
criticizes anarchism as being unrealistically utopian and holds that government is
a quot lesser evil quot than a society without quot repressive force quot He holds
that the belief that quot ill intentions will cease if repressive force disappears
quot is an quot absurdity quot lt ref gt Carl Landauer Landauer Carl European
Socialism A History of Ideas and Movements retrieved from quot Anarchist Theory
FAQ quot by Bryan Caplan on January lt ref gt However it must be noted that not
all anarchists have such a utopian view of anarchism For example some such as
Benjamin Tucker advocate privately funded institutions that defend individual
liberty and property However other anarchists such as Sir Herbert Read proudly
accept the characterization quot utopian quot Social class Class character Marxists
have characterised anarchism as an expression of the class interests of the petite
bourgeoisie or perhaps the lumpenproletariat See e g Plekhanov lt ref gt G V
Plekhanov quot http www marxists org archive plekhanov anarch index htm Anarchism
and Socialism quot lt ref gt for a Marxist critique of Anarchists have also been
characterised as spoilt middle class dilettante s most recently in relation to anti
capitalism anti capitalist protesters Tacit authoritarianism In recent decades
anarchism has been criticised by situationists post anarchists and others of
preserving tacitly statist authoritarian or bureaucratic tendencies behind a
dogmatic facade lt ref gt http library nothingness org articles SI en display
Society of the Spectacle Paragraph lt ref gt Hypocrisy Some critics point to the
sexist lt ref gt Jenny P d Hericourt quot http www pinn net sunshine whm
hericourt html Contemporary feminist critic of Proudhon quot lt ref gt and racist
views of some prominent anarchists notably Pierre Joseph Proudhon Proudhon and
Mikhail Bakunin Bakunin as examples of hypocrisy inherent within anarchism While
many anarchists however dismiss that the personal prejudices of th century
theorists influence the beliefs of present day anarchists others criticise modern
anarchism for continuing to be eurocentric and reference the impact of anarchist
thinkers like Proudhon on fascism through groups like Cercle Proudhon lt ref gt
http www stewarthomesociety org ai htm Anarchist Integralism lt ref gt Anarcho
capitalist Bryan Caplan argues that the treatment of fascists and suspected fascist
sympathizers by Spanish Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War was a form of
illegitimate coercion making the proffessed anarchists quot ultimately just a third
faction of totalitarians quot alongside the communists and fascists He also
criticizes the willingness of the CNT to join the statist Republican government
during the civil war and references Stanley G Payne s book on the Franco regime
which claims that the CNT entered negotiations with the fascist government six
years after the war lt ref gt Bryan Caplan Caplan Bryan quot http www gmu edu
departments economics bcaplan spain htm The Anarcho Statists of Spain quot lt ref
gt Cultural phenomena Image Noam chomsky jpg thumb px right Noam Chomsky The kind
of anarchism that is most easily encountered in popular culture is represented by
celebrities who publicly identify themselves as anarchists Although some anarchists
reject any focus on such famous living individuals as inherently litist the
following figures are examples of prominent publicly self avowed anarchists the MIT
professor of Linguistics Noam Chomsky the science fiction author Ursula K Le Guin
the social historian Howard Zinn entertainer and author Hans Alfredsson the Avant
garde artist Nicol s Rossell In Denmark the Freetown Christiania was created in
downtown Copenhagen The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led
to the formation of commune intentional community communes and squatter movements
like the one still thriving in Barcelona in Catalonia Militant antifa resistance to
neo Nazi groups in places like Germany and the uprisings of autonomous Marxism
situationist and Autonomist groups in France and Italy also helped to give
popularity to anti authoritarian non capitalist ideas In various musical styles
anarchism rose in popularity Most famous for the linking of anarchist ideas and
music has been punk rock although in the modern age hip hop and folk music are also
becoming important mediums for the spreading of the anarchist message In the United
Kingdom UK this was associated with the punk rock movement the band Crass is
celebrated for its anarchist and pacifism pacifist ideas The Dutch people Dutch
punk band The Ex further exemplifies this expression For further details see
anarcho punk See also lt Please take care in adding to this list that it not grow
excessively large consider adding to the list of anarchist concepts page gt There
are many concepts relevant to the topic of anarchism this is a brief summary There
is also a more extensive list of anarchist concepts individualist anarchism anarcho
communism anarcho syndicalism anarcho capitalism mutualism Christian anarchism
anarcha feminism green anarchism nihilist anarchism anarcho nationalism black
anarchism national anarchism post anarchism post left anarchism Libertarian
Socialism Anarchist symbolism Anarchism Links List of anarchism links List of
anarchists List of anarchist organizations Major conflicts within anarchist thought
Past and present anarchist communities Historical events Paris Commune Haymarket
Riot The Makhnovschina amp mdash Kronstadt rebellion Spanish Revolution see
Anarchism in Spain and Spanish Revolution May France WTO Ministerial Conference of
WTO Meeting in Seattle Books main List of anarchist books The following is a
sample of books that have been referenced in this page a more complete list can be
found at the list of anarchist books Mikhail Bakunin God and the State http
dwardmac pitzer edu Anarchist Archives bakunin godandstate godandstate ch html Emma
Goldman Anarchism amp Other Essays http dwardmac pitzer edu Anarchist Archives
goldman GoldmanCW html Peter Kropotkin Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution Mutual Aid
http www gutenberg org etext Pierre Joseph Proudhon What is Property http www
gutenberg org etext Rudolf Rocker Anarcho Syndicalism book Anarcho Syndicalism
Murray Rothbard The Ethics of Liberty http www mises org rothbard ethics ethics asp
Max Stirner The Ego And Its Own http www df lth se triad stirner Leo Tolstoy The
Kingdom of God is Within You http www kingdomnow org withinyou html Anarchism by
region culture African Anarchism Anarchism in Spain Anarchism in the English
tradition Chinese anarchism References lt div style quot font size quot gt lt
references gt lt div gt These notes have no corresponding reference in the article
They might be re used note bill http ns super hosts com vaz net bill anarchism
library thelaw html note praxeology http praxeology net GM PS htm note platform
http flag blackened net revolt platform plat preface html note appleton http www
againstpolitics com market anarchism appleton boston htm Against Politics Appleton
Boston Anarchists note Yarros NotUtopian Victor Yarros Yarros Victor Liberty VII
January note totse http www totse com en politics anarchism html Noam Chomsky on
Anarchism by Noam Chomsky External links The overwhelming diversity and number of
links relating to anarchism is extensively covered on the List of anarchism web
resources links subpage wikiquote Definitions of anarchism http anarchoblogs
protest net Anarchoblogs Blogs by Anarchists http dwardmac pitzer edu Anarchist
Archives Anarchy Archives extensively archives information relating to famous
anarchists This includes many of their books and other publications Hundreds of
anarchists are listed with short bios links amp dedicated pages http
recollectionbooks com bleed gallery galleryindex htm at the Daily Bleed s Anarchist
Encyclopedia http www infoshop org Infoshop org Infoshop org wikipedia page http
www iww org Industrial Workers of the World lt Attention The external link portion
of this article regularly grows far beyond manageable size Please only list an
outside link if it applies to anarchism in general and is somewhat noteworthy Links
to lesser known sites or submovements will be routinely moved to the list page to
keep this article free of clutter gt Category Anarchism Category Forms of
government Anarchism Category Political ideology entry points Anarchism Category
Political theories Anarchism Category Social philosophy Anarchism ar ast
Anarquismu bg bs Anarhizam ca Anarquisme cs Anarchismus da Anarkisme de
Anarchismus eo Anarkiismo es Anarquismo et Anarhism eu Anarkismo fa fi Anarkismi
fr Anarchisme gl Anarquismo he hu Anarchizmus id Anarkisme is Stj rnleysisstefna
it Anarchismo ja ko lt Anarchizmas nl Anarchisme nn Anarkisme no Anarkisme pl
Anarchizm pt Anarquismo ro Anarhism ru sco Anarchism simple Anarchism sk
Anarchizmus sl Anarhizem sr sv Anarkism th tr Anar izm zh zh min nan Hui th ng t
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conversion comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Amoeboid text revision page
page title Autism title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Ohnoitsjamie username id id contributor comment rv difficult to follow
paragraph comment text xml space preserve lt NOTES Please do not convert the
bullets to subheadings here as the table of contents would be too large in that
case for example see the FAC Use ref note combos for all links and explicitly cited
references Reference anything you put here with notable references as this subject
tends to attract a lot of controversy gt DiseaseDisorder infobox Name Childhood
autism ICD F ICD ICD Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder that
manifests itself in markedly abnormal social interaction communication ability
patterns of interests and patterns of behavior Although the specific etiology of
autism is unknown many researchers suspect that autism results from genetically
mediated vulnerabilities to environmental triggers And while there is disagreement
about the magnitude nature and mechanisms for such environmental factors
researchers have found at least seven major genes prevalent among individuals
diagnosed as autistic Some estimate that autism occurs in as many as one United
States child in however the National Institute of Mental Health gives a more
conservative estimate of one in ref NihAutismov For families that already have one
autistic child the odds of a second autistic child may be as high as one in twenty
Diagnosis is based on a list of Psychiatry psychiatric criteria and a series of
standardized clinical tests may also be used Autism may not be Physiology
physiologically obvious A complete physical and neurological evaluation will
typically be part of diagnosing autism Some now speculate that autism is not a
single condition but a group of several distinct conditions that manifest in
similar ways By definition autism must manifest delays in quot social interaction
language as used in social communication or symbolic or imaginative play quot with
quot onset prior to age years quot according to the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders The ICD also says that symptoms must quot manifest
before the age of three years quot There have been large increases in the reported
Autism epidemic incidence of autism for reasons that are heavily debated by
research ers in psychology and related fields within the scientific community Some
children with autism have improved their social and other skills to the point where
they can fully participate in mainstream education and social events but there are
lingering concerns that an absolute cure from autism is impossible with current
technology However many autistic children and adults who are able to communicate at
least in writing are opposed to attempts to cure their conditions and see such
conditions as part of who they are History image Asperger kl jpg frame right Dr
Hans Asperger described a form of autism in the s that later became known as
Asperger s syndrome The word autism was first used in the English language by Swiss
psychiatrist Eugene Bleuler in a number of the American Journal of Insanity It
comes from the Greek word for quot self quot However the Medical classification
classification of autism did not occur until the middle of the twentieth century
when in psychiatrist Dr Leo Kanner of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore
reported on child patients with striking behavioral similarities and introduced the
label early infantile autism He suggested quot autism quot from the Greek language
Greek amp alpha amp upsilon amp tau amp omicron amp sigmaf autos meaning quot self
quot to describe the fact that the children seemed to lack interest in other people
Although Kanner s first paper on the subject was published in a now defunct journal
The Nervous Child almost every characteristic he originally described is still
regarded as typical of the autistic spectrum of disorders At the same time an
Austria Austrian scientist Dr Hans Asperger described a different form of autism
that became known as Asperger s syndrome amp mdash but the widespread recognition
of Asperger s work was delayed by World War II in Germany and by the fact that his
seminal paper wasn t translated into English for almost years The majority of his
work wasn t widely read until Thus these two conditions were described and are
today listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM IV TR
fourth edition text revision as two of the five Pervasive developmental disorder
pervasive developmental disorders PDD more often referred to today as Autistic
spectrum autism spectrum disorders ASD All of these conditions are characterized by
varying degrees of difference in communication skill s social interactions and
restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of Human behavior behavior Few
clinicians today solely use the DSM IV criteria for determining a diagnosis of
autism which are based on the absence or delay of certain developmental milestones
Many clinicians instead use an alternate means or a combination thereof to more
accurately determine a diagnosis Terminology wiktionarypar autism autistic When
referring to someone diagnosed with autism the term autistic is often used However
the term person with autism can be used instead This is referred to as person first
terminology The autistic community generally prefers the term autistic for reasons
that are fairly controversial This article uses the term autistic see Talk Autism
talk page Characteristics Image kanner kl jpg frame right Dr Leo Kanner introduced
the label early infantile autism in There is a great diversity in the skills and
behaviors of individuals diagnosed as autistic and physicians will often arrive at
different conclusions about the appropriate diagnosis Much of this is due to the
sensory system of an autistic which is quite different from the sensory system of
other people since certain stimulus stimulations can affect an autistic differently
than a non autistic and the degree to which the sensory system is affected varies
wildly from one autistic person to another Nevertheless professionals within
pediatric care and development often look for early indicators of autism in order
to initiate treatment as early as possible However some people do not believe in
treatment for autism either because they do not believe autism is a disorder or
because they believe treatment can do more harm than good Social development
Typically developing infants are social beings amp mdash early in life they do such
things as gaze at people turn toward voices grasp a finger and even smile In
contrast most autistic children prefer objects to faces and seem to have tremendous
difficulty learning to engage in the give and take of everyday human interaction
Even in the first few months of life many seem indifferent to other people because
they avoid eye contact and do not interact with them as often as non autistic
children Children with autism often appear to prefer being alone to the company of
others and may passively accept such things as hugs and cuddling without
reciprocating or resist attention altogether Later they seldom seek comfort from
others or respond to parents displays of anger or affection in a typical way
Research has suggested that although autistic children are attached to their parent
s their expression of this attachment is unusual and difficult to interpret Parents
who looked forward to the joys of cuddling teaching and playing with their child
may feel crushed by this lack of expected attachment theory attachment behavior
Children with autism appear to lack quot Theory of mind theory of mind quot the
ability to see things from another person s perspective a behavior cited as
exclusive to human beings above the age of five and possibly other higher primate s
such as adult gorilla s Common chimpanzee chimpanzee s and bonobos Typical year
olds can develop insights into other people s different knowledge feelings and
intentions interpretations based upon social cues e g gestures facial expressions
An individual with autism seems to lack these interpretation skills an inability
that leaves them unable to predict or understand other people s actions The social
alienation of autistic and Asperger s people is so intense from childhood that many
of them have imaginary friend s as companionship However having an imaginary friend
is not necessarily a sign of autism and also occurs in non autistic children
Although not universal it is common for autistic people to not regulate their
behavior This can take the form of crying or verbal outbursts that may seem out of
proportion to the situation Individuals with autism generally prefer consistent
routines and environments they may react negatively to changes in them It is not
uncommon for these individuals to exhibit aggression increased levels of self
stimulatory behavior self injury or extensive withdrawal in overwhelming situations
Sensory system A key indicator to clinicians making a proper assessment for autism
would include looking for symptoms much like those found in Sensory Integration
Dysfunction sensory integration dysfunction Children will exhibit problems coping
with the normal sensory input Indicators of this disorder include oversensitivity
or underreactivity to touch movement sights or sounds physical clumsiness or
carelessness poor body awareness a tendency to be easily distracted impulsive
physical or verbal behavior an activity level that is unusually high or low not
unwinding or calming oneself difficulty learning new movements
difficulty in making transitions from one situation to another social and or
emotional problems delays in Speech delay speech Language delay language or motor
skills specific learning difficulties delays in academic achievement One common
example is an individual with autism Hearing sense hearing A person with Autism may
have trouble hearing certain people while other people are louder than usual Or the
person with autism may be unable to filter out sounds in certain situations such as
in a large crowd of people see cocktail party effect However this is perhaps the
part of the autism that tends to vary the most from person to person so these
examples may not apply to every autistic It should be noted that sensory
difficulties although reportedly common in autistics are not part of the DSM IV
diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder Communication difficulties By age typical
children have passed predictable language learning milestones one of the earliest
is babbling By the first birthday a typical toddler says words turns when he or she
hears his or her name points when he or she wants a toy and when offered something
distasteful makes it clear that the answer is quot no quot Speech development in
people with autism takes different paths Some remain mute throughout their lives
while being fully literacy literate and able to communicate in other ways amp mdash
images sign language and typing are far more natural to them Some infants who later
show signs of autism coo and babble during the first few months of life but stop
soon afterwards Others may be delayed developing language as late as the
adolescence teenage years Still inability to speak does not mean that people with
autism are unintelligent or unaware Once given appropriate accommodations many will
happily converse for hours and can often be found in online chat room s discussion
boards or website s and even using communication devices at autism community social
events such as Autreat Those who do speak often use language in unusual ways
retaining features of earlier stages of language development for long periods or
throughout their lives Some speak only single words while others repeat the same
phrase over and over Some repeat what they hear a condition called echolalia Sing
song repetitions in particular are a calming joyous activity that many autistic
adults engage in Many people with autism have a strong tonality tonal sense and can
often understand spoken language Some children may exhibit only slight delays in
language or even seem to have precocious language and unusually large vocabulary
vocabularies but have great difficulty in sustaining typical conversation s The
quot give and take quot of non autistic conversation is hard for them although they
often carry on a monologue on a favorite subject giving no one else an opportunity
to comment When given the chance to converse with other autistics they comfortably
do so in quot parallel monologue quot amp mdash taking turns expressing views and
information Just as quot neurotypical s quot people without autism have trouble
understanding autistic body language s vocal tones or phraseology people with
autism similarly have trouble with such things in people without autism In
particular autistic language abilities tend to be highly literal people without
autism often inappropriately attribute hidden meaning to what people with autism
say or expect the person with autism to sense such unstated meaning in their own
words The body language of people with autism can be difficult for other people to
understand Facial expressions movements and gestures may be easily understood by
some other people with autism but do not match those used by other people Also
their tone of voice has a much more subtle inflection in reflecting their feelings
and the auditory system of a person without autism often cannot sense the
fluctuations What seems to non autistic people like a high pitched sing song or
flat robot like voice is common in autistic children Some autistic children with
relatively good language skills speak like little adults rather than communicating
at their current age level which is one of the things that can lead to problems
Since non autistic people are often unfamiliar with the autistic body language and
since autistic natural language may not tend towards speech autistic people often
struggle to let other people know what they need As anybody might do in such a
situation they may scream in frustration or resort to grabbing what they want While
waiting for non autistic people to learn to communicate with them people with
autism do whatever they can to get through to them Communication difficulties may
contribute to autistic people becoming socially anxious or depressed Repetitive
behaviors Although people with autism usually appear physically normal and have
good muscle control unusual repetitive motions known as self stimulation or quot
stimming quot may set them apart These behaviors might be extreme and highly
apparent or more subtle Some children and older individuals spend a lot of time
repeatedly flapping their arms or wiggling their toes others suddenly freeze in
position As child ren they might spend hours lining up their cars and trains in a
certain way not using them for pretend play If someone accidentally moves one of
these toys the child may be tremendously upset Autistic children often need and
demand absolute consistency in their environment A slight change in any routine amp
mdash in mealtimes dressing taking a bath or going to school at a certain time and
by the same route amp mdash can be extremely disturbing People with autism
sometimes have a persistent intense preoccupation For example the child might be
obsessed with learning all about vacuum cleaners train schedules or lighthouses
Often they show great interest in different languages numbers symbols or science
topics Repetitive behaviors can also extend into the spoken word as well
Perseveration of a single word or phrase even for a specific number of times can
also become a part of the child s daily routine Effects in education Children with
autism are affected with these symptoms every day These unusual characteristics set
them apart from the everyday normal student Because they have trouble understanding
people s thoughts and feelings they have trouble understanding what their teacher
may be telling them They do not understand that facial expressions and vocal
variations hold meanings and may misinterpret what emotion their instructor is
displaying This inability to fully decipher the world around them makes education
stressful Teachers need to be aware of a student s disorder so that they are able
to help the student get the best out of the lessons being taught Some students
learn better with visual aids as they are better able to understand material
presented this way Because of this many teachers create visual schedules for their
autistic students This allows the student to know what is going on throughout the
day so they know what to prepare for and what activity they will be doing next Some
autistic children have trouble going from one activity to the next so this visual
schedule can help to reduce stress Research has shown that working in pairs may be
beneficial to autistic children lt cite a source here please gt Autistic students
have problems in schools not only with language and communication but with
socialization as well They feel self conscious about themselves and many feel that
they will always be outcasts By allowing them to work with peers they can make
friends which in turn can help them cope with the problems that arise By doing so
they can become more integrated into the mainstream environment of the classroom A
teacher s aide can also be useful to the student The aide is able to give more
elaborate directions that the teacher may not have time to explain to the autistic
child The aide can also facilitate the autistic child in such a way as to allow
them to stay at a similar level to the rest of the class This allows a partially
one on one lesson structure so that the child is still able to stay in a normal
classroom but be given the extra help that they need There are many different
techniques that teachers can use to assist their students A teacher needs to become
familiar with the child s disorder to know what will work best with that particular
child Every child is going to be different and teachers have to be able to adjust
with every one of them Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders typically have high
levels of anxiety and stress particularly in social environments like school If a
student exhibits aggressive or explosive behavior it is important for educational
teams to recognize the impact of stress and anxiety Preparing students for new
situations by writing Social Stories can lower anxiety Teaching social and
emotional concepts using systematic teaching approaches such as The Incredible
Point Scale or other Cognitive Behavioral strategies can increase a student s
ability to control excessive behavioral reactions DSM definition Autism is defined
in section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM IV as A
total of six or more items from and with at least two from and one each from and
qualitative impairment in social interaction as manifested by at least two of the
following marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye
to eye gaze facial expression body postures and gestures to regulate social
interaction failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental
level a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment interests or achievements
with other people e g by a lack of showing bringing or pointing out objects of
interest lack of social or emotional reciprocity qualitative impairments in
communication as manifested by at least one
of the following delay in or total lack of the development of spoken language not
accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication
such as gesture or mime in individuals with adequate speech marked impairment in
the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others stereotyped and
repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language lack of varied spontaneous
make believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level
restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior interests and activities
as manifested by at least one of the following encompassing preoccupation with one
or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in
intensity or focus apparently inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional
routines or rituals stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms e g hand or finger
flapping or twisting or complex whole body movements persistent preoccupation with
parts of objects Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following
areas with onset prior to age years social interaction language as used in social
communication or symbolic or imaginative play The disturbance is not better
accounted for by Rett syndrome Rett s Disorder or Childhood disintegrative disorder
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual lt gt s
diagnostic criteria in general is controversial for being vague and subjective See
the DSM cautionary statement The criteria for autism is much more controversial and
some clinicians today may ignore it completely instead solely relying on other
methods for determining the diagnosis Types of autism Autism presents in a wide
degree from those who are nearly dysfunctional and apparently Developmental
Disability mentally handicapped to those whose symptoms are mild or remedied enough
to appear unexceptional quot normal quot to the general public In terms of both
classification and therapy autistic individuals are often divided into those with
an Intelligence Quotient IQ amp lt referred to as having quot low functioning
autism quot LFA while those with IQ amp gt are referred to as having quot high
functioning autism quot HFA Low and high functioning are more generally applied to
how well an individual can accomplish activities of daily living rather than to IQ
The terms low and high functioning are controversial and not all autistics accept
these labels Further these two labels are not currently used or accepted in autism
literature This discrepancy can lead to confusion among service providers who
equate IQ with functioning and may refuse to serve high IQ autistic people who are
severely compromised in their ability to perform daily living tasks or may fail to
recognize the intellectual potential of many autistic people who are considered LFA
For example some professionals refuse to recognize autistics who can speak or write
as being autistic at all because they still think of autism as a communication
disorder so severe that no speech or writing is possible As a consequence many quot
high functioning quot autistic persons and autistic people with a relatively high
IQ are underdiagnosed thus making the claim that quot autism implies retardation
quot self fulfilling The number of people diagnosed with LFA is not rising quite as
sharply as HFA indicating that at least part of the explanation for the apparent
rise is probably better diagnostics Asperger s and Kanner s syndrome Image Hans
Asperger jpg thumb right px Asperger described his patients as quot little
professors quot In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders DSM IV TR the most significant difference between Autistic Disorder
Kanner s and Asperger s syndrome is that a diagnosis of the former includes the
observation of quot d elays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the
following areas with onset prior to age years social interaction language as used
in social communication or symbolic or imaginative play quot ref bnat while a
diagnosis of Asperger s syndrome observes quot no clinically significant delay quot
in these areas ref bnas The DSM makes no mention of level of intellectual
functioning but the fact that Asperger s autistics as a group tend to perform
better than those with Kanner s autism has produced a popular conception that
Asperger s syndrome is synonymous with quot higher functioning autism quot or that
it is a lesser disorder than autism There is also a popular but not necessarily
true conception that all autistic individuals with a high level of intellectual
functioning have Asperger s autism or that both types are merely geek s with a
medical label attached Also autism has evolved in the public understanding but the
popular identification of autism with relatively severe cases as accurately
depicted in Rain Man has encouraged relatives of family members diagnosed in the
autistic spectrum to speak of their loved ones as having Asperger s syndrome rather
than autism Autism as a spectrum disorder details Autistic spectrum Another view of
these disorders is that they are on a continuum known as autistic spectrum
disorders A related continuum is Sensory Integration Dysfunction which is about how
well we integrate the information we receive from our senses Autism Asperger s
syndrome and Sensory Integration Dysfunction are all closely related and overlap
There are two main manifestations of classical autism regressive autism and early
infantile autism Early infantile autism is present at birth while regressive autism
begins before the age of and often around months Although this causes some
controversy over when the neurological differences involved in autism truly begin
some believe that it is only a matter of when an environmental toxin triggers the
disorder This triggering could occur during gestation due to a toxin that enters
the mother s body and is transfered to the fetus The triggering could also occur
after birth during the crucial early nervous system development of the child due to
a toxin directly entering the child s body Increase in diagnoses of autism details
Autism epidemic Image autismnocgraph png right thumb px The number of reported
cases of autism has increased dramatically over the past decade Statistics in graph
from the National Center for Health Statistics There has been an explosion
worldwide in reported cases of autism over the last ten years which is largely
reminiscent of increases in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and multiple personality
disorder in the twentieth century This has brought rise to a number of different
theories as to the nature of the sudden increase Epidemiologists argue that the
rise in diagnoses in the United States is partly or entirely attributable to
changes in diagnostic criteria reclassifications public awareness and the incentive
to receive federally mandated services A widely cited study from the M I N D
Institute in California October claimed that the increase in autism is real even
after those complicating factors are accounted for see reference in this section
below Other researchers remain unconvinced see references below including Dr Chris
Johnson a professor of pediatrics at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center
at San Antonio and cochair of the American Academy of Pediatrics Autism Expert
Panel who says quot There is a chance we re seeing a true rise but right now I don
t think anybody can answer that question for sure quot Newsweek reference below The
answer to this question has significant ramifications on the direction of research
since a real increase would focus more attention and research funding on the search
for environmental factors while little or no real increase would focus more
attention to genetics On the other hand it is conceivable that certain
environmental factors vaccination diet societal changes may have a particular
impact on people with a specific genetic constitution There is little public
research on the effects of in vitro fertilization on the number of incidences of
autism One of the more popular theories is that there is a connection between quot
geekdom quot and autism This is hinted for instance by a Wired Magazine article in
entitled quot The Geek Syndrome quot which is a point argued by many in the autism
rights movement ref Wired This article many professionals assert is just one
example of the media s application of mental disease labels to what is actually
variant normal behavior amp mdash they argue that shyness lack of athletic ability
or social skills and intellectual interests even when they seem unusual to others
are not in themselves signs of autism or Asperger s syndrome Others assert that it
is actually the medical profession which is applying mental disease labels to
children who in the past would have simply been accepted as a little different or
even labeled gifted See clinomorphism for further discussion of this issue Due to
the recent publicity surrounding autism and autistic spectrum disorders an
increasing number of adults are choosing to seek diagnoses of high functioning
autism or Asperger s syndrome in light of symptoms they currently experience or
experienced during childhood Since the cause of autism is thought to be at least
partly genetic a proportion of these adults seek their own diagnosis specifically
as follow up to their children s diagnoses Because autism falls into the pervasive
developmental disorder category strictly speaking symptoms must have been present
in a given patient before age seven in order to make a differential diagnosis
Therapies details Autism therapies Sociology Due to the complexity of autism there
are many facets of sociology that need to be considered when discussing it such as
the culture which has evolved from autistic persons connecting and communicating
with one another In addition there are several subgroups
forming within the autistic community sometimes in strong opposition to one
another Community and politics details Autistic community details Autism rights
movement Much like many other controversies in the world the autistic community
itself has splintered off into several groups Essentially these groups are those
who seek a cure for autism dubbed pro cure those who do not desire a cure for
autism and as such resist it dubbed anti cure and the many people caught in the
middle of the two In recent history with scientists learning more about autism and
possibly coming closer to a cure some members of the quot anti cure quot movement
Autistic community Declaration from the autism community sent a letter to the
United Nations demanding to be treated as a minority group rather than a group with
a mental disability or disease Websites such as autistics org ref refbot present
the view of the anti cure group There are numerous resources available for
autistics from many groups Due to the fact that many autistics find it easier to
communicate online than in person many of these resources are available online In
addition sometimes successful autistic adults in a local community will help out
children with autism much in the way a master would help out an apprentice for
example was declared Autism Awareness Year in the United Kingdom amp mdash this
idea was initiated by Ivan and Charika Corea parents of an autistic child Charin
Autism Awareness Year was led by the British Institute of Brain Injured Children
Disabilities Trust National Autistic Society Autism London and organizations in the
United Kingdom It had the personal backing of United Kingdom British Prime Minister
Tony Blair and parliamentarians of all parties in the Palace of Westminster Culture
details Autistic culture With the recent increases in autism recognition and new
approaches to educating and socializing autistics an autistic culture has begun to
develop Similar to deaf culture autistic culture is based in a belief that autism
is a unique way of being and not a disorder to be cured There are some
commonalities which are specific to autism in general as a culture not just quot
autistic culture quot It is a common misperception that people with autism do not
marry many do get married Often they marry another person with autism although this
is not always the case Many times autistics are attracted to other autistics due to
shared interests or obsessions but more often than not the attraction is due to
simple compatibility with personality types the same as is true for non autistics
Autistics who communicate have explained that companionship is as important to
autistics as it is to anyone else Multigenerational autistic families have also
recently become a bit more common The interests of autistic people and so called
quot geeks quot or quot Nerd nerds quot can often overlap as autistic people can
sometimes become preoccupied with certain subjects much like the variant normal
behavior geeks experience However in practice many autistic people have difficulty
with working in groups which impairs them even in the most quot technical quot of
situations Autistic adults image Grandin jpg thumb right Temple Grandin one of the
more successful adults with autism lt small gt Photograph courtesy Joshua Nathaniel
Pritikin and William Lawrence Jarrold lt small gt Some autistic adults are able to
work successfully in mainstream jobs usually those with high functioning autism or
Asperger s syndrome Nevertheless communication and social problems often cause
difficulties in many areas of the autistic s life Other autistics are capable of
employment in sheltered workshops under the supervision of managers trained in
working with persons with disabilities A nurturing environment at home at school
and later in job training and at work helps autistic people continue to learn and
to develop throughout their lives Some argue that the internet allows autistic
individuals to communicate and form online communities in addition to being able to
find occupations such as independent consulting which does generally not require
much human interaction offline In the United States the public schools
responsibility for providing services ends when the autistic person is in their s
depending on each state The family is then faced with the challenge of finding
living arrangements and employment to match the particular needs of their adult
child as well as the programs and facilities that can provide support services to
achieve these goals Autistic savants Main autistic savant The autistic savant
phenomenon is sometimes seen in autistic people The term is used to describe a
person who is autistic and has extreme talent in a certain area of study Although
there is a common association between savants and autism an association created by
the film Rain Man most autistic people are not savants Mental calculator s and fast
programming skills are the most common form The famous example is Daniel Tammet the
subject of the documentary film The Brain Man ref guardianbrainman Kim Peek one of
the inspirations for Dustin Hoffman s character in the film Rain Man is not
autistic quot Bright Splinters of the Mind quot is a book that explores this issue
further Other pervasive developmental disorders Autism and Asperger s syndrome are
just two of the five pervasive developmental disorders PDDs The three other
pervasive developmental disorders are Rett syndrome Childhood disintegrative
disorder and PDD not otherwise specified Pervasive developmental disorder not
otherwise specified Some of these are related to autism while some of them are
entirely separate conditions Rett syndrome Rett syndrome is relatively rare
affecting almost exclusively females one out of to After a period of normal
development sometime between and months autism like symptoms begin to appear The
little girl s mental and social development regresses she no longer responds to her
parents and pulls away from any social contact If she has been talking she stops
she cannot control her feet she wrings her hands Some of these early symptoms may
be confused for autism Some of the problems associated with Rett syndrome can be
treated Physical therapy Physical Occupational therapy occupational and Speech
therapy speech therapy can help with problems of coordination movement and speech
Scientists sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development have discovered that a mutation in the sequence of a single gene causes
Rett syndrome and can physically test for it with a accuracy rate ref nihrett Rett
syndrome in the past was sometimes classified as an autistic spectrum disorder
however most scientists agree that Rett syndrome is a separate developmental
disorder and not part of the autistic spectrum ref brighttotsrett Childhood
disintegrative disorder Childhood disintegrative disorder CDD and sometimes
abbreviated as CHDD also is a condition appearing in or year old children who have
developed normally until age Over several months the child will deteriorate in
intellectual social and language functioning from previously normal behaviour This
long period of normal development before regression helps differentiate CDD from
Rett syndrome and in fact it must be differentiated from autism in testing The
cause for CDD is unknown thus it may be a spectrum disorder but current evidence
suggests it has something to do with the central nervous system ref yalecdd ref
nihcdd Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified PDD not otherwise
specified Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified or PDD NOS is
referred to as a subthreshold condition because it is a classification which is
given to someone who suffers from impairments in social interaction communication
and or stereotyped behaviour but does not meet the criteria for one of the other
four pervasive developmental disorders Unlike the other four pervasive
developmental disorders PDD NOS has no specific guidelines for diagnosis so the
person may have a lot of characteristics of an autistic person or few to none at
all Note that pervasive developmental disorder is not a diagnosis just a term to
refer to the five mentioned conditions while PDD NOS is an official diagnosis ref
yalepddnos See also General Autism therapies Causes of autism Conditions comorbid
to autism spectrum disorders Early Childhood Autism Heritability of autism Groups
Aspies For Freedom National Alliance for Autism Research Controversy Controversies
about functioning labels in the autism spectrum Controversies in autism Ethical
challenges to autism treatment Lists List of autism related topics List of
fictional characters on the autistic spectrum List of autistic people References
cite web author title Rett syndrome NIH Publication No publisher Rockville MD
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development year work Rett syndrome
url http www nichd nih gov publications pubskey cfm from autism accessdate July
accessyear cite journal author Frombonne E title Prevalence of childhood
disintegrative disorder journal Autism year volume issue pages cite journal author
Volkmar RM and Rutter M title Childhood disintegrative disorder Results of the DSM
IV autism field trial journal Journal of the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry year volume pages Citenewsauthor surname Ewald given Paul
title Plague Time date April org Popular Science url http www centurytel net tjs
bug ewald htm cite web title PANDAS Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric
Disorders Associated with Streptococci and PITAND Paediatric Infection triggered
Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders work PANDAS amp PITAND Syndromes url http www
webpediatrics com pandas html accessdate July accessyear cite web title Closer to
Truth PBS with Paul Ewald work Microbes Friend or Foe url http www pbs org kcet
closertotruth
explore show html accessdate July accessyear cite web title M I N D Institute
Study Confirms Autism Increase work U C Davis url http www ucdmc ucdavis edu news
MINDepi study html accessdate March accessyear Citenews surname Stenson given
Jacqueline title As autism cases soar a search for clues date February org
Newsweek url http www msnbc msn com id Citenews surname Goode given Erica title
Autism Statistics More and More Autism Cases date January org New York Times url
http www autisticsociety org article html cite journal author Wing L Potter D title
The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders is the prevalence rising journal
Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews volume issue
year pages amp http www ncbi nlm nih gov entrez query fcgi cmd Retrieve amp db
PubMed amp list uids amp dopt Abstract abstract cite journal author Croen LA
Grether JK Hoogstrate J Selvin S title The changing prevalence of autism in
California journal Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders volume issue year
Jun pages http www ncbi nlm nih gov entrez query fcgi cmd Retrieve amp db PubMed
amp dopt Abstract amp list uids abstract Manev R Manev H Aminoglycoside
antibiotics and autism a speculative hypothesis BMC Psychiatry Epub October http
www ncbi nlm nih gov entrez query fcgi cmd Retrieve amp db pubmed amp dopt Abstract
amp list uids amp query hl Strock Margaret Autism Spectrum Disorders Pervasive
Developmental Disorders NIH Publication No NIH National Institute of Mental Health
National Institutes of Health U S Department of Health and Human Services Bethesda
MD pp http www nimh nih gov publicat autism cfm Footnotes note NihAutismov cite web
title NIH Autism Overview url http www nichd nih gov publications pubs autism
overview pdf accessdate February accessyear note bnat cite web title BehaveNet
autism description url http www behavenet com capsules disorders autistic htm
accessdate July accessyear note bnas cite web title BehaveNet aspergers
description url http www behavenet com capsules disorders asperger htm accessdate
July accessyear note Wired Citenewsauthor surname Silberman given Steve title The
Geek Syndrome date December org Wired url http www wired com wired archive
aspergers pr html note refbot cite web title autistics org The REAL Voice of Autism
See above url http www autistics org accessdate December accessyear note
guardianbrainman cite web title Guardian quot Brain Man quot article url http www
guardian co uk weekend story html accessdate July accessyear note nihrett cite
web title NIH Rett description url http www ninds nih gov disorders rett detail
rett htm accessdate July accessyear note brighttotsrett cite web title Bright Tots
Rett description url http www brighttots com Rett Syndrome html accessdate July
accessyear note yalecdd cite web title Yale CDD description url http info med yale
edu chldstdy autism cdd html accessdate July accessyear note nihcdd cite web title
NIH CDD description url http www nlm nih gov medlineplus ency article html
accessdate July accessyear note yalepddnos cite web title PDD NOS at Yale url http
info med yale edu chldstdy autism pddnos html accessdate August accessyear
External links General http www wrongplanet net WrongPlanet net The Community and
Resource for Autism http www autism spectrum disorder com Autism Spectrum Disorder
com Autism Spectrum Disorder http www colour se en co uk Colour se en a website
created to bring awareness of spectrum related disorders and forums for NT and ASD
interaction http www ericdigests org autism htm EricDigests org Teaching Students
with Autism Glen Dunlap Lise Fox ERIC Digest October http observer guardian co uk
magazine story html Autistic and Proud Describes new discoveries about autism
autistics speaking for themselves http www weirdnotstupid com Weird Not Stupid A
website created from the perspective of a person who has two siblings who are on
the Autism Spectrum with the goal of giving information to anybody who is seeking
it Blogs http autism about com Autism Pervasive Developmental Disorders By Adelle
Jameson Tilton About com http aboutautism blogspot com Autism News and More http
www adventuresinautism blogspot com Adventures In Autism By a health professional
who is the mother of an autistic boy http www autismsymptoms blogspot com Autism
Symptoms http www gettingthetruthout org Getting The Truth Out By Argues that there
are common misconceptions about autism http www autismtreatment info reality aba
aspx rssid Reality ABA An Autism Diary By Katherine Lee mother of an autistic son
Organizations http www onthespectrum com On The Spectrum A web community for those
on the autism spectrum with an emphasis on support and advocacy http www
autismwebsite com ari index htm autismwebsite com Autism Research Institute
Clearinghouse for information relating to autism particularly the biomedical
treatment approach http www autism society org site PageServer Autism Society org
Autism Society of America http www autistics org autistics org Clearinghouse for
information related to autism from a non cure standpoint Many articles by autistics
http www autism org contents html Center for the Study of Autism Autism Research
Institute founded by Bernard Rimland Resources http www geocities com growingjoel
index html A Way Of Life Resources and information for parents http www
autismtreatment info Autism Treatment Info Treatment Tips for Children with Autism
PDD amp Asperger s Syndrome http rsaffran tripod com aba html ABA Resources for
Recovery from Autism Information about and resource guide for behavioral
intervention for autism http www autism resources com Autism Resources com Offering
information and links regarding the developmental disabilities autism and Asperger
s Syndrome http www autismtalk net Autism Talk Parents amp educators discuss all
views http www autismtoday com AutismToday com everything you need to know about
autism Autism Today http www teachers tv autism Focus on Autism Selection of
documentaries interviews etc http www info autism org uk Autism org uk PARIS Public
Autism Resource amp Information Service directory of UK autism services http
glennrowe net BaronCohen AutismSpectrumQuotient AutismSpectrumQuotient aspx Autism
Spectrum Quotient Measure Your Autism Spectrum Quotient http www rdos net eng Aspie
quiz php Aspie quiz Quiz that measures autistic traits Pervasive developmental
disorders featured article Category Autism Category Childhood psychiatric disorders
Category Disability Category Communication disorders Category Mental illness
diagnosis by DSM and ISCDRHP Category Neurological disorders de Autismus es Autismo
eo A tismo fr Autisme ko ia Autismo it Autismo he ka hu Autizmus ms Autisme nl
Autisme ja no Autisme pl Autyzm wczesnodzieci cy pt Autismo simple Autism sk
Autizmus uzavretos sr fi Autismi sv Autism ta tr Otizm zh text revision page
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page page title Albedo title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor ip ip contributor text xml space preserve otheruses Albedo is the
measure of reflectivity of a surface or body It is the ratio of electromagnetic
radiation EM radiation reflected to the amount incident upon it The fraction
usually expressed as a percentage from to is an important concept in climatology
and astronomy This ratio depends on the frequency of the radiation considered
unqualified it refers to an average across the spectrum of visible light It also
depends on the angle of incidence of the radiation unqualified normal incidence
Fresh snow albedos are high up to The ocean surface has a low albedo The average
albedo of Earth is about whereas the albedo of the Moon is about In astronomy the
albedo of satellites and asteroids can be used to infer surface composition most
notably ice content Enceladus moon Enceladus a moon of Saturn has the highest known
albedo of any body in the solar system with of EM radiation reflected Human
activities have changed the albedo via forest clearance and farming for example of
various areas around the globe However quantification of this effect is difficult
on the global scale it is not clear whether the changes have tended to increase or
decrease global warming The quot classical quot example of albedo effect is the
snow temperature feedback If a snow covered area warms and the snow melts the
albedo decreases more sunlight is absorbed and the temperature tends to increase
The converse is true if snow forms a cooling cycle happens The intensity of the
albedo effect depends on the size of the change in albedo and the amount of
insolation for this reason it can be potentially very large in the tropics Some
examples of albedo effects Fairbanks Alaska According to the National Climatic Data
Center s GHCN data which is composed of year smoothed climatic means for thousands
of weather stations across the world the college weather station at Fairbanks
Alaska is about C F warmer than the airport at Fairbanks partly because of drainage
patterns but also largely because of the lower albedo at the college resulting from
a higher concentration of pine tree s and therefore less open snowy ground to
reflect the heat back into space Neunke and Kukla have shown that this difference
is especially marked during the late winter months when solar radiation is greater
The tropics Although the albedo temperature effect is most famous in colder regions
of Earth because more snow falls there it is actually much stronger in tropical
regions because in the tropics there is consistently more sunlight When Brazil ian
ranchers cut down dark tropical rainforest trees to replace them with even darker
soil in order to grow crops the average temperature of the area appears to increase
by an average of about C F year round which is a significant amount Small scale
effects Albedo works on a smaller scale too People who wear dark clothes in the
summertime put themselves at a greater risk of heatstroke than those who wear white
clothes Pine forests The albedo of a pine forest at N in the winter in which the
trees cover the land surface completely is only about among the lowest of any
naturally occurring land environment This is partly due to the color of the pines
and partly due to multiple scattering of sunlight within the trees which lowers the
overall reflected light level Due to light penetration the ocean s albedo is even
lower at about though this depends strongly on the angle of the incident radiation
Dense swamp land averages between and Deciduous tree s average about A grass y
field usually comes in at about A barren field will depend on the color of the soil
and can be as low as or as high as with being about the average for farmland A
desert or large beach usually averages around but varies depending on the color of
the sand Reference Edward Walker s study in the Great Plains in the winter around N
Urban areas Urban areas in particular have very unnatural values for albedo because
of the many human built structures which absorb light before the light can reach
the surface In the northern part of the world cities are relatively dark and Walker
has shown that their average albedo is about with only a slight increase during the
summer In most tropical countries cities average around This is similar to the
values found in northern suburban transitional zones Part of the reason for this is
the different natural environment of cities in tropical regions e g there are more
very dark trees around another reason is that portions of the tropics are very poor
and city buildings must be built with different materials Warmer regions may also
choose lighter colored building materials so the structures will remain cooler
Trees Because trees tend to have a low albedo removing forests would tend to
increase albedo and thereby cool the planet Cloud feedbacks further complicate the
issue In seasonally snow covered zones winter albedos of treeless areas are to
higher than nearby forested areas because snow does not cover the trees as readily
Studies by the Hadley Centre have investigated the relative generally warming
effect of albedo change and cooling effect of carbon sequestration on planting
forests They found that new forests in tropical and midlatitude areas tended to
cool new forests in high latitudes e g Siberia were neutral or perhaps warming http
search q cache o LD owSkNgJ www ulapland fi home arktinen feed pdf Betts revised
pdf hadley albedo forest amp hl en Snow Snow albedos can be as high as This is for
the ideal example however fresh deep snow over a featureless landscape Over
Antarctica they average a little more than If a marginally snow covered area warms
snow tends to melt lowering the albedo and hence leading to more snowmelt the ice
albedo feedback This is the basis for predictions of enhanced warming in the polar
and seasonally snow covered regions as a result of global warming Clouds Clouds are
another source of albedo that play into the global warming equation Different types
of clouds have different albedo values theoretically ranging from a minimum of near
to a maximum in the high s Climate model s have shown that if the whole Earth were
to be suddenly covered by white clouds the surface temperatures would drop to a
value of about C F This model though it is far from perfect also predicts that to
offset a C F temperature change due to an increase in the magnitude of the
greenhouse effect quot all quot we would need to do is increase the Earth s overall
albedo by about by adding more white clouds Albedo and climate in some areas are
already affected by artificial clouds such as those created by the contrail s of
heavy commercial airliner traffic A study following the September attacks
September attacks after which all major airlines in the U S shut down for three
days showed a local amp deg C increase in the daily temperature range the
difference of day and night temperatures see contrail Aerosol effects Particulate
Aerosol very fine particles droplets in the atmosphere has two effects direct and
indirect The direct albedo effect is generally to cool the planet the indirect
effect the particles act as Cloud condensation nuclei CCN s and thereby change
cloud properties is less certain http www grida no climate ipcc tar wg htm Black
carbon Another albedo related effect on the climate is from black carbon particles
The size of this effect is difficult to quantify the IPCC say that their quot
estimate of the global mean radiative forcing for BC aerosols from fossil fuels is
W m lt sup gt lt sup gt from W m lt sup gt lt sup gt in the SAR IPCC SAR with a
range to W m lt sup gt lt sup gt quot http www grida no climate ipcc tar wg htm
Category Electromagnetic radiation Category Climatology Category Climate forcing
Category Astrophysics als Albedo bg bs Albedo ca Albedo cs Albedo da Albedo de
Albedo et Albeedo es Albedo eo Albedo fr Alb do gl Albedo ko hr Albedo it Albedo
he hu Albed nl Weerkaatsingsvermogen ja no Albedo nn Albedo pl Albedo pt Albedo
ru sk Albedo sr fi Albedo sv Albedo uk text revision page page title
AfroAsiaticLanguages title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Magnus Manske username id id contributor minor comment
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revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Nikai username id
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Constructed language R from misspelling text revision page page title Abu Dhabi
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username El C
username id id contributor minor comment Reverted edits by Special Contributions
User talk talk to last version by Bloodshedder comment text xml space preserve
Image AbuDhabi JPG thumb View of Abu Dhabi right px Image Abu Dhabi from Space ISS
E March JPG thumb right px Satellite image of Abu Dhabi March Image Emirates
Palace Hotel Abu Dhabi front jpg thumb Emirates Palace Hotel Front right px Image
Emirates Palace Hotel Abu Dhabi side jpg thumb Emirates Palace Hotel from the side
right px Abu Dhabi Arabic language Arabic amp amp amp amp amp amp amp Ab amp amp
aby is the largest of the seven emirate s that comprise the United Arab Emirates
and was also the largest of the former Trucial States Abu Dhabi is also a city of
the same name within the Emirate that is the capital city capital of the country in
north central UAE The city lies on a T shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf
from the central western coast An estimated lived there in with about an
expatriate population Abu Dhabi city is located at coor d N E Al Ain is Abu Dhabi s
second largest urban area with a population of census estimate and is located
kilometres inland History Parts of Abu Dhabi were settled as far back as the rd
millennium BC and its early history fits the nomadic herding and fishing pattern
typical of the broader region Modern Abu Dhabi traces its origins to the rise of an
important tribal confederation the Bani Yas in the late th century who also assumed
control of Dubai In the th century the Dubai and Abu Dhabi branches parted ways
Into the mid th century the economy of Abu Dhabi continued to be sustained mainly
by camel herding production of dates and vegetables at the inland oases of Al Ain
and Liwa and fishing and pearl diving off the coast of Abu Dhabi city which was
occupied mainly during the summer months Most dwellings in Abu Dhabi city were at
this time constructed of palm fronds barasti with the better off families occupying
mud huts The growth of the cultured pearl industry in the first half of the th
century
created hardship for residents of Abu Dhabi as pearls represented the largest
export and main source of cash earnings In Sheikh Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan
granted Petroleum concessions and oil was first found in At first oil money had a
marginal impact A few lowrise concete buildings were erected and the first paved
road was completed in but Sheikh Shakbut uncertain whether the new oil royalties
would last took a cautious approach prefering to save the revenue rather than
investing it in development His brother Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan saw that oil
wealth had the potential to transform Abu Dhabi The ruling Al Nahayan family
decided that Sheikh Zayed should replace his brother as Ruler and carry out his
vision of developing the country On August with the assistance of the British
Sheikh Zayed became the new ruler See generally Al Fahim M From Rags to Riches A
Story of Abu Dhabi Chapter Six London Centre of Arab Studies ISBN With the
announcement by Britain in that it would withdraw from the Gulf area by Sheikh
Zayed became the main driving force behind the formation of the United Arab
Emirates After the Emirates gained independence in oil wealth continued to flow to
the area and traditional Mudbrick mud brick hut s were rapidly replaced with banks
boutiques and modern highrise s Current ruler His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed
Al Nahayan is the hereditary Emir emir and ruler of Abu Dhabi as well as the
current president of the United Arab Emirates UAE Postal History Image Stamp Abu f
px jpg right px thumb Shaikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan Zaid Now part of the
United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi was formerly the largest of the seven sheikdoms
which made up the Trucial States on the so called Pirate Coast of eastern Arabia
between Oman and Qatar The Trucial States as a whole had an area of some square
miles of which Abu Dhabi alone had The capital was the town of Abu Dhabi which is
on an offshore island and was first settled in The name Trucial States arose from
treaties made with Great Britain in which ensured a condition of truce in the area
and the suppression of piracy and slavery The treaty expired on December The
decision to form the UAE was made on July and the federation was founded on August
although the inaugural UAE stamps were not issued until January petroleum Oil
production began on Das Island after prospecting during Das Island is part of Abu
Dhabi but lies well offshore about miles north of the mainland petroleum Oil
production on the mainland began in As a major petroleum oil producer Abu Dhabi
soon acquired massive financial wealth Investment in long term construction
projects and the establishment of a finance sector has led to the area becoming a
centre of commerce which may well secure its lasting importance when the petroleum
oil resources are exhausted In December postage stamps of Compendium of postage
stamp issuers Brit British British Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia British Postal
Agencies in Eastern Arabia were supplied to the construction workers on Das Island
but the postal service was administered via the agency office in Bahrain The mail
was also postmark ed Bahrain so there was no clear indication that a letter had
come from Das Island On March a British agency was opened in Abu Dhabi and issued
the agency stamps after the sheik objected to the use of the Trucial States
definitive s Mail from Das Island continued to be administered by Bahrain but was
now cancelled by an Abu Dhabi Trucial States postmark The first Abu Dhabi stamps
were a definitive series of March depicting Shaikh Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan
There were eleven values under the India Indian currency that was used of paisa
naye paise rupee The range of values was np to rupee s Despite the introduction of
these definitive s the British agency stamps remained valid in both Abu Dhabi and
Das Island until the end of when they were withdrawn A post office was opened on
Das Island on January and this ended the Bahrain service Mail from Das Island was
now handled within Abu Dhabi When the treaty with Great Britain expired at the end
of Abu Dhabi introduced a new currency of fils dinar and took over its own postal
administration including the Das Island office The earlier issues were subject to
surcharge s in this currency and replacement definitive s were released depicting
the new ruler Shaikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahayan Zaid Issues continued until
introduction of UAE stamps in In all Abu Dhabi issued stamps from to the final set
being three views of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Source http www jl sl
btinternet co uk stampsite alpha a abudhabi html Encyclopaedia of Postal History
Climate Sunny blue skies can be expected through out the year The months June
through September are generally hot and humid with temperatures averaging above C F
The weather is usually pleasant from October to May January to February is cooler
and may require the use of a light jacket The oasis city of Al Ain enjoys cooler
temperatures even through summer due to sporadic rainfall Transport Abu Dhabi
International Airport serves this city The local time is GMT hours Trivia The
cartoon cat Garfield would often put the kitten Nermal in a box and ship him to Abu
Dhabi A common phrase from Garfield is quot Abu Dhabi is where all the cute kittens
go quot The reason is that the author of Garfield found out through over seas
relations that the city of Abu Dhabi and the majority of UAE has a large amount of
cats that roam wild Many live around the suburbs See also Mina Zayid the port of
Abu Dhabi Al Ain Marawah Postal Authorities Saudi Arabia Transportation in the
United Arab Emirates External links Wiktionary commons Abu Dhabi http www jl sl
btinternet co uk stampsite alpha a abudhabi html Encyclopaedia of Postal History
http www thepersiangulf org cities abudhabi html Abu Dhabi The Persian Gulf http
www abudhabi com abudhabi com http www adcci uae com Abu Dhabi Chamber of Commerce
and Industry http www adnoc com Abu Dhabi National Oil Company http www spe org
society abudhabi AbuDhabi info htm SPE history with oil details http www angelfire
com ok ABUDHABISTAMPS Abu Dhabi postal history http www adias uae com ADIAS Abu
Dhabi Islands Archaeological Survey http www alloexpat com abu dhabi expat forum
Expatriates Forums in Abu Dhabi http www timeoutabudhabi com Time Out Abu Dhabi
Guide to life in Abu Dhabi http www careeruae net Career UAE Useful web site for
the job seekers in Abu dabi United Arab Emirates Non Government Organisations http
www ansarburney org Ansar Burney Trust human rights and anti slavery organisation
UAE Category Capitals in Asia Category Cities in the United Arab Emirates Category
Emirates Category Coastal cities Category Philately by country ar bg bs Abu Dhabi
ca Abu Dhabi da Abu Dhabi de Abu Dhabi et Abu Dhabi emiraat es Abu Dhabi eo Abu
Dabio fr Abu Dhabi gl Emirato de Abu Dabi ko io Abu Dhabi id Abu Dhabi is Ab Dab
it Abu Dhabi he lt Abu Dabis nl Abu Dhabi ja no Abu Dhabi nn Abu Dhabi pl Abu
Zabi pt Abu Dhabi ru simple Abu Dhabi sk Ab Zab mesto fi Abu Dhabi sv Abu Dhabi uk
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Navigation popups popups comment text xml space preserve AZ uc A lc a wiktionarypar
A a The letter A is the first letter in the Latin alphabet Its name in English
language English is a plural aes a s or as History The letter A probably started as
a pictogram of an ox head in Egyptian hieroglyph s or the Proto semitic alphabet
align quot center quot cellspacing quot quot align quot center quot Image EgyptianA
png Egyptian hieroglyphic ox head lt br gt Egyptian hieroglyph lt br gt ox head
Image Proto semiticA png Proto semitic ox head lt br gt Proto semitic lt br gt ox
head Image PhoenicianA png Phoenician aleph lt br gt Phoenician aleph Image GreekA
png Greek alpha lt br gt Greek alpha Image EtruscanA png Etruscan A lt br gt
Etruscan A Image RomanA png Roman A lt br gt Roman A By BC the Phoenician alphabet
s letter had a linear form that served as the basis for all later forms Its name
must have corresponded closely to the Hebrew alphabet Hebrew Aleph letter aleph The
name is also similar to the Arabic Alif alif When the Ancient Greece Ancient Greeks
adopted the alphabet they had no use for the glottal stop that the letter had
denoted in Phoenician and other Semitic languages so they used the sign for the
vowel IPA amp and changed its name to alpha letter alpha In the earliest Greek
inscriptions dating to the th century BC the letter rests upon its side but in the
Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles the modern capital letter
although many local varieties can be distinguished by the shortening of one leg or
by the angle at which the cross line is set The Etruscans brought the Greek
alphabet to what was Italy and left the letter unchanged The Romans later adopted
the Old Italic alphabet Etruscan alphabet to write Latin and the resulting letter
was preserved in the modern Latin alphabet used to write many languages including
English language English The letter has two minuscule lower case forms The form
used in most current handwriting consists of a circle and vertical stroke Most
printed material uses a form consisting of a small loop with an arc over it Both
derive from the majuscule capital form In Greek handwriting it was common to join
the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop as demonstrated by the Uncial
version below Many fonts then made the right leg vertical In some of these the
serif that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc resulting in the
printed form while in others it was dropped resulting in the modern handwritten
form align quot center quot cellspacing quot quot align quot center quot Image
BlackletterA png Blackletter A lt br gt Blackletter A Image UncialA png Uncial A lt
br gt Uncial A Image Acap png Another Capital A align quot center quot Image
ModernRomanA png Modern Roman A lt br gt Modern Roman A Image ModernItalicA png
Modern Italic A lt br gt Modern Italic A Image ModernScriptA png Modern Script A lt
br gt Modern Script A Usage In English language English the letter A by itself
usually denotes the lax open front unrounded vowel IPA as in pad the open back
unrounded vowel IPA as in father or in concert with a later orthographic e the
diphthong IPA e though the pronunciation varies with the dialect as in ace due to
effects of the Great vowel shift In most other languages that use the Latin
alphabet the letter A denotes either an open back unrounded vowel IPA or an open
central unrounded vowel IPA a In the International Phonetic Alphabet variants of
the letter A denote various vowel s In X SAMPA capital A denotes the open back
unrounded vowel and lowercase a denotes the open front unrounded vowel A also is
the English indefinite article extended to an before a vowel Codes for computing
Letter NATO Alpha Morse B B B B B B In Unicode the majuscule capital A is codepoint
U and the minuscule lowercase a is U In Hexadecimal Hex A is the character used to
represent decimal or in Binary numeral system binary The ASCII code for capital A
is and for lowercase a is or in Binary numeral system binary and correspondingly
The EBCDIC code for capital A is and for lowercase a is The numeric character
reference s in HTML and XML are quot lt tt gt amp amp lt tt gt quot and quot lt tt
gt amp amp lt tt gt quot for upper and lower case respectively Meanings for A As a
word see A an In United States American Major League Baseball the Oakland Athletics
are often simply referred to as the quot A s quot In astronomy A stands for a
January through discovery in the provisional designation of a comet e g C A the
Great Comet of or asteroid e g mpl AB a is often used to denote the semi major
axis of an orbit In biochemistry A is the symbol for alanine and adenosine
Brassiere cup size A In calendar s A is often an abbreviation for the month s April
and August In computing lt tt gt amp lt a amp gt lt tt gt is the HTML element links
and anchors HTML element for an anchor tag In Windows Ctrl A and Mac OS Command A
selects all the text in the document or all the pixels of an image A sometimes
represents the set of all alphabetic characters within character string computer
science string patterns A is the conventional address of the first floppy disk
drive in CP M based operating system s such as DOS A is a security division quot
Verified Protection quot in the TCSEC In education a Grade education grade of A
typically represents the highest score that students can achieve This is sometimes
coupled with a plus minus sign as in A or A or a number as in A It is occasionally
a grade one level below A pronounced quot A Star quot In electronics A battery A is
a standard size of battery electricity battery A refers to the Anode or filament
component of a vacuum tube In English language English the word a is an indefinite
article grammar article see A an In Esperanto Grammar Esperanto a is the adjectival
attributive ending A is commonly an abbreviation meaning English language In
fiction the letter worn by Hester Prynne marking her as an adultress in the
Nathaniel Hawthorne novel The Scarlet Letter was an A In film A is an Italian film
made in see A film In finance A is the U S ticker symbol for Agilent Technologies
In game s the letter A is used to mark each of the Ace s in a deck of playing card
s In Greek language Greek a is a prefix alpha privativum meaning quot not quot or
quot devoid of quot used in many borrowed words in English language English German
language German and Romance languages In India A is movie rating given to those
intended to be seen only by adults In List of international license plate codes
international licence plate codes A stands for Austria In paper size international
paper sizes A is a series of sizes with an Paper size aspect ratio of roughly width
to height with A being an example popular size In logic the letter A is used as a
symbol for the universal affirmative proposition in the general form quot all x is
y quot The letters I E and O are used respectively for the particular affirmative
quot some x is y quot the universal negative quot no x is y quot and the particular
negative quot some x is not y quot The use of these letters is generally derived
from the vowels of the two Latin verb s affirmo or AIo quot I assert quot and nego
quot I deny quot The use of the symbols dates from the th century though some
authorities trace their origin to the Greek logicians In symbolic logic the symbol
amp forall an inverted letter A is the universal quantifier In mathematics A is
often used as a numerical digit digit meaning number ten in hexadecimal and other
positional numeral system s with a radix of or greater blackboard bold lt math gt
mathbb A lt math gt amp x D in Unicode sometimes represents the algebraic numbers
In the On Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences each sequence has an ID consisting
of the letter A and six base digits In medicine A also A or A is one of the human
blood type s In music A is a Pitch class or note see A musical note A or quot side
A quot refers to the top or first side of a vinyl record A is a British rock band
see A band A is an album by Jethro Tull band Jethro Tull see A album In nutrition
A is a vitamin In photography most SLR cameras use A to signify aperture priority
mode where the user sets the aperture and the camera determines the shutter speed
In poetry A poem A is the major work of influential th century author Louis
Zukofsky In political science political theory a circumscribed quot A quot is an
anarchist symbolism anarchist symbol As the first letter of a postal code In Canada
A stands for Newfoundland and Labrador On the serial numbers of United States
dollar s A identifies the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston In the SI system of units
A is the symbol for the ampere or amp the SI base unit of electric current a atto
is the SI prefix meaning lt sup gt lt sup gt a is the symbol for the are a unit of
surface area equal to square metre s As a timezone A is the military designation
for Coordinated Universal Time also known as CET or Central European Time See also
Wikisource Enc A Commons A Alpha letter Alpha A Cyrillic Cyrillic A lt big gt lt
big gt Ae Aa A breve amp A ogonek amp lt br clear quot all quot gt AZsubnav
Category Latin letters Category Vowels als A ar A bs A ca A cs A da A
de A et A el A es A eo A fr A gl A ko A hr A io A id A it A he A kw A la A hu A nl
A ja A no A nn A pl A pt A ro A ru sq A scn A simple A sl A sr A fi A sv A tl A
vi A tr A yo A zh A text revision page page title AnarchoCapitalism title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip Conversion script ip
contributor minor comment Automated conversion comment text xml space preserve
REDIRECT Anarcho capitalism text revision page page title AnarchoCapitalists title
id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Magnus Manske
username id id contributor minor comment REDIRECT anarcho capitalism comment
text xml space preserve REDIRECT anarcho capitalism text revision page page title
ActressesS title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Minesweeper username id id contributor minor comment fix double redir
comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT List of female movie actors text revision
page page title AnarchisM AnarchyTalk title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
timestamp contributor username Magnus Manske username id id contributor minor
comment REDIRECT talk Anarchism comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT talk
Anarchism text revision page page title AnAmericanInParis title id id revision id
id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username AxelBoldt username id id
contributor comment fix redir comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT An American
in Paris text revision page page title AutoMorphism title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip Conversion script ip contributor minor
comment Automated conversion comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Automorphism
text revision page page title ActionFilm title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
timestamp contributor username Maveric username id id contributor minor text
xml space preserve REDIRECT Action movie text revision page page title Alabama
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Gregski
username id id contributor comment Political Climate comment text xml space
preserve Otheruses the U S State lt div style quot float right clear right width px
margin left em quot gt US Confederate state Name Alabama Fullname State of
Alabama Flag Flag of Alabama svg Flaglink Flag of Alabama Seal Alabama state
seal png Map Map of USA highlighting Alabama png Nickname Camellia State The
Heart of Dixie Notes amp sup Yellowhammer State Capital Montgomery Alabama
Montgomery OfficialLang English language English Languages English language
English Spanish language Spanish LargestCity Birmingham Alabama Birmingham
Governor Bob Riley Alabama Bob Riley R Senators Richard Shelby R Jeff Sessions R
PostalAbbreviation AL AreaRank lt sup gt th lt sup gt TotalArea mi LandArea mi
WaterArea mi PCWater PopRank lt sup gt rd lt sup gt Pop DensityRank lt sup
gt th lt sup gt Density AdmittanceOrder lt sup gt nd lt sup gt AdmittanceDate
December SecessionDate January ReadmittanceDate July TimeZone Central Standard
Time Zone Central Coordinated Universal Time UTC Daylight saving time DST Latitude
N to N Longitude W to W Width mi Length mi HighestElev Mount Cheaha ft MeanElev
ft LowestElev ft ISOCode US AL Website www alabama gov image AlaUrb gif thumb
center px Alabama Cities and Urban Areas Sprawl cellpadding quot quot cellspacing
quot quot style quot float right clear right width px margin em em quot class quot
toccolours quot List of U S state mottos State motto Audemus jura nostra defendere
List of U S state birds State bird Northern Flicker Yellowhammer List of U S state
flowers State flower Camellia List of U S state songs State song quot Alabama song
Alabama quot List of U S state trees State tree Longleaf Pine List of U S state
spirits State spirit Conecuh Ridge Whiskey Conecuh Ridge List of U S state
reptiles State reptile Red bellied turtle lt div gt Alabama is a U S state state
located in the Southern United States Southern United States History Main article
History of Alabama The memory of the Native Americans in the United States Native
American presence is particularly strong in Alabama Among Native American people
once living in present Alabama were Alabama people Alabama Alibamu Cherokee
Chickasaw Choctaw Creek people Creek Koasati and Mobile people Mobile Trade with
the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period BC A D and
continued until European contact Meso American influence is evident in the agrarian
Mississippian culture that followed The France French established the first Europe
an settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile Alabama Mobile in
Southern Alabama was French from amp ndash part of British West Florida from amp
ndash and part of Spanish West Florida from amp ndash Northern and central
Alabama was part of British Georgia from amp ndash and part of the American
Mississippi territory thereafter Its statehood delayed by the lack of a coastline
rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in Alabama became the nd
state in The state of Alabama seceded from the Union on January and became the
Alabama Republic and on February became a Confederate States of America
Confederate state While not many battles were fought in the state it contributed
about soldiers to the United States Civil War Civil War After the war a provisional
government was set up in and Alabama was officially readmitted to the Union on
July The cradle of the Confederacy during the United States Civil War Civil War
Alabama was at stage center in the American Civil Rights Movement civil rights
movement of the s and s Law and government Main article Law and Government of
Alabama Local amp County Government Alabama has county counties each having its own
elected legislative branch usually called the Board of Commissioners which usually
also has executive authority in the county Due to the restraints placed in the
Alabama Constitution all but counties Jefferson Lee Mobile Madison Montgomery
Shelby and Tuscaloosa in the state have little to no home rule Instead most
counties in the state have to lobby to the Local Legislation Committee the state
legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning
Alabama is an alcohol monopoly or Alcoholic beverage control state Political
Climate The current governor of the state is Bob Riley Alabama Bob Riley and the
two U S senators are Jeff Sessions Jefferson B Sessions III and Richard Shelby
Richard C Shelby all three from the United States Republican Party Republican Party
The current Alabama Constitution was adopted in During Reconstruction following
the American Civil War Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military
District under John Pope military officer General John Pope In the Reconstruction
period ended with the recognition of Rutherford B Hayes as President elect White
people White Southerners assumed control of the government and passed laws to
racial segregation segregate and disenfranchise black residents The state became
part of the quot Solid South quot a one party system in which the Democratic Party
United States Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every
Southern state For nearly years local and state elections in Alabama were decided
in the Democratic Party primary with generally no Republican challenger running
From through Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates by margins
as high as percentage points In Alabama gave most of its electoral votes to Harry
F Byrd as a protest In the national Republican Party United States Republican
Party began to win more votes in the South by following a quot Southern Strategy
quot which emphasized quot States rights states rights quot and the increasing
liberalism of the national Democratic Party The first such candidate was
conservative Barry Goldwater who became the first Republican candidate supported by
Alabama In Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate
George Wallace The last Democratic candidate to win Alabama s votes in a
presidential election was Southerner Jimmy Carter in Today the Republican party
has become increasingly dominant in conservative Alabama politics However in local
politics Democrats still control many offices including majorities in both houses
of the Legislature and registered Democrats outnumber Republicans in the state In
George W Bush won Alabama s nine electoral votes by a margin of percentage points
with of the vote The only counties voting Democratic were Black Belt region of
Alabama Black Belt counties where African American s are in the majority Alabama is
located in the Bible Belt and its educational policies reflect this According to
the Alan Guttmacher Institute Alabama requires sex education classes to emphasize
quot that homosexuality is not an acceptable lifestyle to the general public and
that homosexual conduct is a criminal offense under the laws of the state quot
While the mandate is not typically enforced in Alabama classrooms it is unclear
whether or not the official requirements have changed since the Supreme Court s
ruling in Lawrence v Texas According to the United States Census Bureau in Alabama
was home to same sex male couples and same sex female couples U S presidential
election in Alabama Geography Main article Geography of Alabama ussm alabama PNG al
Alabama is the lt sup gt th lt sup gt largest state in the United States with km lt
sup gt lt sup gt mi lt sup gt lt sup gt of total area of that is water making
Alabama lt sup gt rd lt sup gt in the amount of surface water also giving it the
second largest inland waterway system in the United States About three fifths of
the land area is a gentle plain with a general incline towards the Mississippi
River and the Gulf of Mexico
The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous with the Tennessee River cutting a
large valley creating numerous creeks streams rivers mountains and lakes The lowest
point east of the Mississippi River lies in Dekalb County along a creek cutting
tower ridges and creating Buck s Pocket State Park Another natural wonder is quot
Land Bridge quot the longest natural bridge span east of the Mississippi River
Alabama generally ranges in elevation from sea level at Mobile Bay to a little more
than foot unit feet or metre meters in the Appalachian mountains in the northeast
The highest point is Mount Cheaha Economy Image wiki alabama jpg thumb px Greetings
from Alabama According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis the total gross state
product was billion The per capita income for the state was in Alabama s
agricultural outputs include poultry and Egg food eggs cattle plant nursery items
peanut s cotton grains such as maize corn and sorgum vegetables milk soybeans and
peaches Even though neighboring Georgia U S state Georgia is called the Peach State
Alabama produces twice as many peaches annually Its Industry industrial outputs
include iron and steel products including cast iron and steel pipe paper lumber and
wood products mining mostly coal and plastic products cars and trucks and apparel
Also Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products mostly in the Huntsville
Alabama Huntsville area home of the NASA George C Marshall Space Flight Center and
the United States Army Aviation and Missile Command US Army Missile Command
headquartered at Redstone Arsenal Also the city of Mobile Alabama Mobile is a busy
seaport on the Gulf of Mexico and with inland waterway access to the Midwest via
the Tennessee Tombigbee Waterway Demographics seesubarticle Demographics of Alabama
class quot toccolours quot align quot right quot cellpadding quot quot cellspacing
quot quot style quot margin em em font size quot colspan bgcolor quot ccccff quot
align quot center quot Historical populations align quot center quot Census lt br
gt year align quot right quot Population colspan lt hr gt align quot center quot
align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot
center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot
align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot
right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot
align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot
center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot
align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot
right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot
align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot
center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot right quot
align quot center quot align quot right quot align quot center quot align quot
right quot align quot center quot United States Census align quot right quot As
of Alabama has an estimated population of which is an increase of or from the
prior year and an increase of or since the year This includes a natural increase
since the last census of people that is births minus deaths and an increase due to
net migration of people into the state Immigration from outside the United States
resulted in a net increase of people and migration within the country produced a
net increase of people The state had foreign born of the state population of which
an estimated were illegal aliens Image Alabama population map png thumb right px
Alabama Population Density map Race and ancestry The racial makeup of the state and
comparison to the prior census Racial demographics begin year year Racial
demographics White year year Racial demographics Black year year Racial
demographics Asian year year Racial demographics Amerindian year year Racial
demographics Other race Other race year year Racial demographics Mixed year year
lt center gt lt center gt Racial demographics Hispanic year White year White year
Hispanic year Hispanic Racial demographics end The largest reported ancestry
groups in Alabama American British American English Irish American Irish German
American German and Scots Irish American Scotch Irish American includes those
reported as Native American or African American Religion The major religions of
Alabama Christian amp Protestant amp Baptist amp Methodist amp Presbyterian amp
Episcopalian amp Church of God amp Church of Christ amp Pentecostal amp
Lutheran amp Other Protestant amp Catholic amp Other religions amp Non
religious amp Colleges and Universities incomplete main List of colleges and
universities in Alabama valign quot top quot http www au af mil Air University
Alabama A amp M University Alabama State University Andrew Jackson University
Athens State University Auburn University Auburn University Montgomery Birmingham
Southern College Bishop State Community College Calhoun Community College Calhoun
Community College System Calhoun Community College at Decatur Decatur Main Campus
Calhoun Community College at Cummings Research Park Huntsville Cummings Research
Park Calhoun Community College at Redstone Arsenal Redstone Arsenal Capps College
Concordia College Selma Faulkner University Heritage Christian University
Huntingdon College Jacksonville State University Judson College Miles College
Oakwood College Remington College Samford University Selma University Southeastern
Bible College Southern Christian University valign quot top quot Spring Hill
College Stillman College Talladega College Troy University System formerly quot
Troy State University System quot Troy University Main Campus Troy Troy University
at Dothan Troy University at Montgomery Troy University at Phenix City Tuskegee
University United States Sports Academy University of Alabama System University of
Alabama Main Campus Tuscaloosa University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham
University of Alabama at Huntsville Huntsville University of Mobile University of
Montevallo University of North Alabama University of South Alabama University of
West Alabama Virginia College Culture and interests lt small gt Famous Alabamians
Alabama Jubilee Hot Air Balloon Classic Music of Alabama Alabama Public Television
state wide public TV network List of television stations in Alabama Alabama
Shakespeare Festival Alabama Sports Festival Spirit of America Festival U S Space
amp Rocket Center U S Space Camp USS Alabama BB USS Alabama Rickwood Field Robert
Trent Jones Golf Trail Visionland Theme Park Old State Bank Vulcan statue Mobile
Bay jubilee Point Mallard Aquatic Center Noccalula Falls Park lt small gt
References Atkins Leah Rawls Wayne Flynt William Warren Rogers and David Ward http
www questia com PM qst a o amp d Alabama The History of a Deep South State Flynt
Wayne Alabama in the Twentieth Century Owen Thomas M History of Alabama and
Dictionary of Alabama Biography vols Jackson Harvey H Inside Alabama A Personal
History of My State http www questia com PM qst a o amp d Peirce Neal R The Deep
South States of America People Politics and Power in the Seven Deep South States
solid reporting on politics and economics Williams Benjamin Buford A Literary
History of Alabama The Nineteenth Century WPA Guide to Alabama for a detailed
bibliography see History of Alabama External links sisterlinks Alabama http alabama
gov Alabama gov Official website http www alarc org Alabama Association of Regional
Councils http www touralabama org TourAlabama org Alabama Department of Tourism and
Travel http www archives state al us Archives state al us Alabama Department of
Archives and History http www archives state al us aaa html All About Alabama at
the Archives Department site http alguard state al us Alabama National Guard
Alabama National Guard http www legislature state al us CodeofAlabama coatoc htm
Code of Alabama at the Alabama Legislature site http quickfacts census gov qfd
states html Alabama QuickFacts from the U S Census Bureau http www
countymapsofalabama com County Maps of Alabama Full color maps List of cities towns
and county seats http www southernlitreview com states alabama Alabama Literature
from the Southern Literary Review Notes amp sup The phrase The Heart of Dixie is
required by state law to be included on standard state vehicle license plates but
has recently been reduced to a very small size and eclipsed by the phrase Stars
Fell on Alabama Alabama USPoliticalDivisions Category Alabama Category States of
the United States Category establishments ang Alabama ar ast Alabama bg zh min
nan Alabama bs Alabama ca Alabama cs Alabama cy Alabama da Alabama de Alabama
Bundesstaat et Alabama es Alabama eo Alabamo fr Alabama ga Alabama gd Alabama gl
Alabama ko hr Alabama io Alabama id Alabama is Alabama it Alabama he ka la
Alabama lv Alabama lt Alabama lb Alabama Bundesstaat jbo alybamys hu Alabama mk ms
Alabama mo nl Alabama ja no Alabama nn Alabama os pl Alabama pt Alabama ro
Alabama ru sq Alabama simple Alabama sk Alabama sl Alabama sr fi Alabama sv
Alabama th tr Alabama uk zh text revision page page title AfricA title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip Conversion script ip
contributor minor comment Automated conversion comment text xml space preserve
REDIRECT Africa text revision page page title Achilles title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Josiah Rowe username id id
contributor minor comment Other stories about Achilles grammar comment text xml
space preserve For other uses see Achilles disambiguation Image The wrath of
Achilles jpg px thumb right The wrath of Achilles by L on Benouville Greek myth In
Greek mythology polytonic amp transliterated to
Akhilleus or Achilleus in Roman letters Latinized from this ancient Greek to
Achilles appearing in Etruscan as Achle was a hero ancient Greek heros quot
defender quot of the Trojan War the greatest and the most central character of
Homer s Iliad Name The very first two lines of the Iliad read Polytonic Polytonic
Transliterated M nin aeide thea P l iade Akhil os oulomen n h muri Akhaiois alge
eth ken Translated Sing Muse the wrath of Achilles the son of Peleus the
destructive wrath that brought countless griefs upon the Achaeans Image G achilles
trojan wars bb l jpg thumb left Statue of Achilles In these lines we see the name
Akhilleus Peleides which is a praenomen and a patronymic the latter being formed
from Peleus with the suffix ides producing Achilles the son of Peleus The system is
similar to the names used by Scandinavians before modern times such as Leif Erikson
Achilles name can be analyzed as a combination of Polytonic akhos quot grief quot
and Polytonic laos quot a people tribe nation etc quot http www stanford edu group
shl Crowds hist laos htm In other words Achilles is an embodiment of the grief of
the people grief being a theme raised numerous times in the Iliad frequently by
Achilles Achilles role as the hero of grief forms an ironic juxtaposition with the
conventional view of Achilles as the hero of kleos glory usually glory in war Laos
has been construed by Gregory Nagy following Leonard Palmer to mean a corps of
soldiers With this derivation the name would have a double meaning in the poem When
the hero is functioning rightly his men bring grief to the enemy but when wrongly
his men get the grief The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the
part of leadership Birth Achilles was the son of the mortal Peleus king of the
Myrmidons in Phthia southeast Thessaly and the sea nymph Thetis Zeus and Poseidon
had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus the fire bringer
prophesized that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father For this reason
the two gods withdrew their pursuit and had her wed to Peleus When Achilles was
born according to the most common version of the myth Thetis tried to make him
immortal by dipping him in the river Styx mythology Styx But she forgot to wet the
heel she held him by leaving him vulnerable at that spot See Achilles tendon In an
earlier and less popular version of the story Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia
and put him on top of a fire to burn away the mortal parts of his body She was
interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage Homer does not
make reference to this invulnerability in the Iliad To the contrary he mentions
Achilles being wounded although not seriously Peleus gave him together with his
young friend or lover Patroclus to Chiron the Centaur on Mt Pelion to be raised
Achilles in the Trojan War Telephus When the Greeks left for the Trojan War they
accidentally stopped in Mysia ruled by King Telephus In the resulting battle
Achilles gave Telephus a wound that would not heal Telephus consulted an oracle who
stated that quot he that wounded shall heal quot According to other reports in
Euripides lost play about Telephus he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar and
asked Achilles to heal his wound Achilles refused claiming to have no medical
knowledge Alternatively Telephus held Orestes mythology Orestes for ransom the
ransom being Achilles aid in healing the wound Odysseus reasoned that the spear had
inflicted the wound therefore the spear must be able to heal it Pieces of the spear
were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed This is an example of
sympathetic magic During the Trojan War Image The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni
Battista Tiepolo jpeg thumb right px The Rage of Achilles by Giovanni Battista
Tiepolo In Homer s Iliad Achilles is the only mortal to experience consuming rage
menon His anger is at some times wavering at other times absolute The humanization
of Achilles by the events of the war is an important theme of the Iliad Achilles
charioteer s name was Automedon Troilus According to Dares Phrygius Account of the
Destruction of Troy http homepage mac com cparada GML DaresTW html while Troilus
the youngest son of Priam and Hecuba whom some say was fathered by Apollo god
Apollo was watering his horses at the Lion Fountain outside the walls of Troy
Achilles saw him and fell in love with his beauty whose quot loveliness of form
quot was described by Ibycus as being like quot gold thrice refined quot The youth
rejected his advances and took refuge inside the temple of Apollo Achilles pursued
him into the sanctuary and decapitated him on the god s own altar John Tzetzes
Tzetzes scholiast on Lycophron At the time Troilus was said to be a year short of
his twentieth birthday and the legend goes that if Troilus had lived to be twenty
Troy would have been invincible First Vatican Mythographer Agamemnon and the death
of Patroclus Image Patrocluspederastyscene jpg thumb px left Patroclus and Achilles
Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus The latter turns his head aside
to avoid the sight of blood and of Achilles noticing his pain grimaces The scene
has been interpreted as an act of welfare and comradeship or as a scene with sexual
overtones Ancient Greek culture often held the two Iliad The relationship of
Achilles and Patroclus to be lovers Achilles took towns outside Troy including
Lyrnessos where he captured Briseis to keep as a concubine Meanwhile Agamemnon took
a woman named Chryseis and taunted her father Chryses a priest of Apollo god Apollo
when he attempted to buy her back Apollo sent a plague through the Greek armies and
Agamemnon was forced to give Chryseis back to her father however he took Briseis
away from Achilles as compensation for his loss This action sparked the central
plot of the Iliad Achilles becomes enraged and refuses to fight for the Greeks any
further The war goes badly through the influence of Zeus and the Greeks offer
handsome reparations to their greatest warrior After the Greeks are pushed back to
the ships which are just starting to be set on fire by the Trojan hero Hector
Achilles is visited by Odysseus Telamonian Aias Ajax and Phoenix Iliad Phoenix who
attempt to persuade him to return to battle Achilles still refuses to fight but
agrees to allow Patroclus to fight in his place wearing his armor The next day
Patroclus is killed and stripped of the armor by Hector who mistakes him for
Achilles Achilles is overwhelmed with grief for his beloved friend and the rage he
once harbored toward Agamemnon begins shifting to Hector Thetis his mother rises
from the sea floor and sympathizes with his grief She obtains magnificent new armor
for him from Hephaestus The goddess Athena provides him with the aegis of Zeus When
he goes to the battlefield the entire Trojan army flees behind the walls of Troy
Achilles wrath is terrible and he slays many Trojan warriors and allies including
Priam s son Lycaon whom Achilles had previously captured and sold into slavery but
who had been returned to Troy Eventually Hector comes out of the walls to defend
the honour of Troy He asked Achilles to agree that the body of the loser would be
returned for proper burial by the winner Achilles rejected this arrangement saying
quot Though twenty ransoms and thy weight in gold were offered I would refuse it
all quot Stories tell that Hector ran about Troy seven times and Achilles followed
him however seeing that Achilles would not be outrun Hector stood his ground and
fought Other versions of the tale say that Achilles chased after Hector two times
and one time he was delivered by the gods however on their second encounter
Achilles trapped Hector and challenged him After a legendary fight Achilles kills
Hector Influenced by his anger he drags the body of Hector behind his chariot round
the walls of Troy three times and refuses to allow it to receive funeral rites Much
to the dismay of Achilles the body of Hector miraculously heals and will not decay
as normally expected Aphrodite the goddess of love who sided with Troy throughout
the whole conflict put a protective barrier over Hector which kept him looking like
he did before he was viciously killed by Achilles When Priam the king of Troy and
Hector s father comes secretly into the Greek camp to plead for the body Achilles
finally relents in one of the most moving scenes of the Iliad he receives Priam
graciously and allows him to take the body away The scene is intensely moving
because Priam the king of one of the greatest cities in the known world kneels down
old and frail as he is and kisses the hands of the man who killed his son The
greatness of Achilles lies in not just being the greatest Greek fighter ever but in
knowing the choice provided to him by Destiny His mother Thetis had prophesied to
him that if he pulled out of the Trojan War he would enjoy a long and a happy life
If Achilles fought however he would die before the walls of Troy but assure an
everlasting glory surpassing that of all other heroes He had made the choice and
coming face to face with it showed his greatness Xanthos During the Trojan War
Balius and Xanthos Xanthos one of Achilles horses was rebuked by Achilles for
allowing Patroclus to be killed Xanthos responded by saying Hera temporarily gave
him voice to do so that a god and a mortal had killed Patroclus and a god and a
mortal would soon kill Achilles too Memnon Cycnus Penthesilea and the death of
Achilles Image TBanksThetis jpg thumb right px Thetis rising from the sea to
comfort Achilles Book by Thomas Banks English Victoria and Albert Museum Shortly
after the death of Hector Achilles defeated Memnon of Ethiopia Cycnus of Colonae
and the Amazons Amazonian warrior Penthesilia with whom Achilles also had an affair
in some versions As predicted by Hector with his dying breath Achilles was
thereafter killed
by Paris mythology Paris amp mdash either by an arrow to the heel which may have
subsequently become fatally infected and is said to have been guided by Apollo or
in an older version by a knife to the back while visiting Polyxena a princess of
Troy Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valor and Achilles
remains undefeated on the battlefield Paris was later killed by Philoctetes using
the enormous bow of Heracles His bones are mingled with those of Patroclus and
funeral games are held Like Ajax he is represented although not by Homer as living
after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the Danube The fate of
Achilles armor Achilles armor was the object of a feud between Odysseus and
Telamonian Aias Ajax the Greater Achilles older cousin They competed for it and
Odysseus won Ajax went mad with grief and vowed to kill his comrades he started
killing cattle thinking they were Greek soldiers and then himself Other stories
about Achilles Some post Homeric sources claim that in order to keep Achilles safe
from the war Thetis or in some versions Peleus hid the young man at the court of
Lycomedes king of Skyros There Achilles was disguised as a girl and lived among
Lycomedes daughters under the name quot Pyrrha quot the red haired girl With
Lycomedes daughter Deidamea Deidamia Achilles fathered a son Neoptolemus also
called Pyrrhus after his father s alias According to this story Odysseus learned
from the prophet Calchas that the Achaeans would be unable to capture Troy without
Achilles aid He went to Skyros in the guise of a peddler selling women s clothes
and jewelry but placed a shield and spear among his goods When Achilles instantly
took up the spear Odysseus saw through his disguise and convinced him to join the
Trojan campaign In another version of the story Odysseus arranged for a trumpet
alarm to be sounded while he was with Lycomedes women while the women fled in panic
Achilles prepared to defend the court thus giving his identity away The story about
Achilles in drag clothing drag is not found in Homer In Homer s Odyssey there is a
passage in which Odysseus sails to the underworld and converses with the shades One
of these is Achilles who when greeted as quot blessed in life blessed in death quot
responds that he would rather be a slave than be dead This has been interpreted as
a rejection of his warrior life but also as indignity to his martyrdom being
slighted The kings of Despotate of Epirus Epirus claimed to be descended from
Achilles through his son Alexander the Great son of the Epiran princess Olympias
could therefore also claim this descent and in many ways strove to be like his
great ancestor he is said to have visited his tomb while passing Troy Achilles was
worshipped as a sea god in many of the Greek colonies on the Black Sea The
homosexual Achilles and Patroclus relationship between Achilles and Patroclus is
something much explored in post Homeric literature By the fifth and fourth
centuries the deep and arguably ambiguous friendship portrayed in Homer blossomed
into an unequivocal love affair in the works of Aeschylus Plato and Aeschines and
seems to have inspired the enigmatic verses in Lycophron s third century Alexandra
that claim Achilles slayed Troilus in a matter of unrequited love Achilles fought
and killed the Amazons Amazon Helene mythology Helene Some also said he married
Medea and that after both their deaths they were united in the Elysian Fields of
Hades as Hera promised Thetis in Apollonius Argonautica Achilles in lost plays In
the early s a lost play by Aeschylus was discovered in the wrappings of a mummy in
Egypt The play Achilles play Achilles was part of a trilogy about the Trojan War It
was known to exist due to mentions in ancient sources but had been lost for over
years Another lost play by Aeschylus The Myrmidons focussed on the relationship
between Achilles and Patroclus only a few lines survive today There is another lost
play with Achilles as the main character The Lovers of Achilles by Sophocles Spoken
word myths audio border quot quot cellpadding quot quot cellspacing quot quot style
quot background ffdead quot Achilles myths as told by story tellers Media Achilles
and Patroclus wiki ogg Achilles and Patroclus read by Timothy Carter Bibliography
of reconstruction Homer Iliad BC Pindar Olympian Odes IX BC Aeschylus Myrmidons F
BC Euripides Iphigenia in Aulis BC Plato Symposium e BC BC Statius Achilleid CE
Achilles in music Achilles has frequently been mentioned in music quot Achilles
Agony amp Ecstasy In Eight Parts quot by Manowar from the album The Triumph of
Steel Atlantic Records quot Achilles Last Stand quot by Led Zeppelin from the
album Presence Atlantic Records quot Achilles Revenge quot is a song by Warlord
band Warlord Achilles Heel is an album by the indie rock band Pedro the Lion
Achilles and his heel are referenced in the song quot Special K quot by the rock
band Placebo band Placebo Achilles is referred to in Bob Dylan s song quot
Temporary Like Achilles quot quot Achilles Heel quot is a song by the UK band
Toploader quot Achilles quot is a song by the Colorado based power metal band Jag
Panzer from the album Casting the Stones Achilles is referenced in the Indigo Girls
song quot Ghost quot Achilles in film The role of Achilles has been played by
Stanley Baker in Helen of Troy movie Helen of Troy Arturo Dominici in La Guerra di
Troia movie La Guerra di Troia Derek Jacobi voice in Achilles Channel Four
Television Steve Davislim in La Belle H l ne TV movie La Belle H l ne TV Joe
Montana actor Joe Montana in Helen of Troy TV movie Helen of Troy TV Brad Pitt in
Troy movie Troy Namesakes The Royal New Zealand Navy gave the name HMNZS Achilles
HMNZS Achilles to an British A class destroyer A class destroyer which served in
World War II References Homer Iliad Homer Odyssey Odyssey XI Apollodorus
Bibliotheca Pseudo Apollodorus Bibliotheca III xiii Apollodorus Epitome III Epitome
III V Ovid Metamorphoses poem Metamorphoses XI XII XIII Ovid Heroides Heroides III
Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica Argonautica IV Dante The Divine Comedy Inferno V
Bibliography Ileana Chirassi Colombo Heros Achilleus Theos Apollon In Il Mito Greco
d Bruno Gentili amp Giuseppe Paione Rome Anthony Edwards Achilles in the
Underworld Iliad Odyssey and thiopis Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies pp
Achilles in the Odyssey Ideologies of Heroism in the Homeric Epic Beitrage zur
klassischen Philologie Meisenheim Kleos Aphthiton and Oral Theory Classical
Quarterly pp H l ne Monsacr Les larmes d Achille Le h ros la femme et la
souffrance dans la po sie d Hom re Paris Albin Michel Gregory Nagy The Best of The
Acheans Concepts of the Hero in Archaic Greek Poetry Johns Hopkins University rev
edition The Name of Achilles Questions of Etymology and Folk Etymology Illinois
Classical Studies Dale S Sinos The Entry of Achilles into Greek Epic Ph D thesis
Johns Hopkins University Johansson Warren Achilles http williamapercy com pub
EncyHom htm Encyclopedia of Homosexuality Dynes Wayne R ed Garland Publishing p
External links commons Category Achilles http www androphile org preview Library
Mythology Greek The Story of Achilles and Patroclus http www historyguide org
ancient troy html Trojan War Resources Category People who fought in the Trojan War
Category Anti heroes Achilles Category Pederastic heroes and deities lt interwiki
gt Link FA fr ar bg ca Aquil les da Achilleus de Achilleus et Achilleus el es
Aquiles eo A ilo fa fr Achille gl Aquiles ko hr Ahilej it Achille he la Achilles
lt Achilas lb Achilleus hu Akhilleusz nl Achilles ja no Akilles pl Achilles
mitologia pt Aquiles ru sk Achilles sl Ahil fi Akhilleus sv Akilles uk zh text
revision page page title AppliedStatistics title id id revision id id timestamp T
Z timestamp contributor ip Conversion script ip contributor minor comment
Automated conversion comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Applied statistics
text revision page page title Abraham Lincoln title id id revision id id timestamp
T Z timestamp contributor username Naconkantari username id id contributor minor
comment Reverted edits by Special Contributions Bennettsnider Bennettsnider User
talk Bennettsnider talk to last version by Naconkantari comment text xml space
preserve For other uses of the name Abraham Lincoln see Abraham Lincoln
disambiguation Infobox President name Abraham Lincoln nationality American image
Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait jpg order th President term start
March term end April predecessor James Buchanan successor Andrew Johnson birth
date February birth place Hardin County Kentucky now in LaRue County Kentucky
LaRue County death date April death place Washington D C spouse Mary Todd Lincoln
party Republican Party United States Republican vicepresident Hannibal Hamlin to
Andrew Johnson March April Abraham Lincoln February April sometimes called Abe
Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe the Rail Splitter and the Great Emancipator was
the th President of the United States to and the first president from the History
of United States Republican Party Republican Party Lincoln opposed the expansion of
slavery and oversaw the Union war effort during the American Civil War He selected
the generals and approved their strategy selected senior civilian officials
supervised diplomacy patronage and party affairs rallied public opinion through
messages and speeches such as the Gettysburg Address and took personal charge of
plans for the Emancipation Proclamation abolition of slavery and the Reconstruction
of the Union He was assassinated as the war ended by John Wilkes Booth Role in
history President Lincoln was opposed to what he saw as the Slave Power and
staunchly opposed its efforts to expand history of slavery in the United States
slavery into federal territories His victory in the
U S presidential election presidential election further polarized an already
divided nation Before his inauguration in March of seven Southern United States
Southern states secession seceded from the United States formed the Confederate
States of America and took control of U S forts and other properties within their
boundaries These events soon led to the American Civil War Lincoln is often praised
for his work as a wartime leader who proved adept at balancing competing
considerations and at getting rival groups to work together toward a common goal
Lincoln had to negotiate between Radical Republican Radical and Moderate Republican
leaders who were often far apart on the issues while attempting to win support from
War Democrats and loyalists in the seceding states He personally directed the war
effort in close cooperation with General Ulysses S Grant which ultimately led the
Union forces to victory over the Confederate States of America Confederacy His
leadership qualities were evident in his diplomatic handling of the border slave
states at the beginning of the fighting in his defeat of a congressional attempt to
reorganize his cabinet in in his many speeches and writings which helped mobilize
and inspire the North and in his defusing of the peace issue in the U S
presidential election presidential campaign Copperheads politics Copperheads
vehemently criticized him for violating the Constitution overstepping the bounds of
executive power refusing to compromise on slavery declaring martial law suspending
habeas corpus ordering the arrest of thousands of public officials and a number of
newspaper publishers and killing hundreds of thousands of young men Radical
Republicans criticized him for going too slow on abolition of slavery and not being
ruthless enough toward the conquered South Lincoln is most famous for his roles in
preserving the Union and ending slavery in the United States with the Emancipation
Proclamation and the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution However
some abolitionists criticized him for only freeing the slaves under the Confederacy
in and waiting until to free slaves held in the Union Historians have argued that
Lincoln had a lasting influence on U S political and social institutions
importantly setting a precedent for greater centralization of powers in the federal
government and the weakening of the powers of the individual state government s
Lincoln spent most of his attention on military matters and politics but with his
strong support his administration established the current system of national bank s
with the National Bank Act He increased the Morrill tariff tariff to raise revenue
and encourage factories imposed the first Income tax in the United States income
tax issued hundreds of millions of dollars of bonds and Greenbacks encouraged
immigration from Europe built the First Transcontinental Railroad transcontinental
railroad set up the United States Department of Agriculture Department of
Agriculture encouraged farm ownership with the Homestead Act of and set up the
modern system of state universities with the Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act During
the war his Treasury department effectively controlled all cotton trade in the
occupied South the most dramatic incursion of federal controls on the economy
During his administration West Virginia and Nevada were admitted as states Lincoln
is usually historical rankings of U S Presidents ranked as one of the greatest
presidents Because of his roles in destroying slavery redefining national values
and saving the Union his assassination made him a martyr to millions of Americans
However others considered him an unconstitutional tyrant for declaring martial law
suspending civil liberties habeas corpus and the First Amendment and ordering the
arrest of thousands of public officials and newspaper publishers Early life Abraham
Lincoln was born on February in a one room log cabin on the acre km amp sup
Sinking Spring Farm in the Southeast part of Hardin County Kentucky then considered
the frontier now part of LaRue County Kentucky LaRue Co in Nolin Creek three miles
km south of Hodgenville Kentucky Hodgenville to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks
Lincoln was named after his deceased grandfather who was scalping scalped in in an
Indian raid He had no middle name Lincoln s parents were uneducated illiterate
farmers When Lincoln became famous reporters and storytellers often exaggerated the
poverty and obscurity of his birth However Lincoln s father Thomas was a respected
and relatively affluent citizen of the Kentucky backcountry He had purchased the
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site Sinking Spring Farm in December
for cash and assumption of a debt His parents belonged to a Baptist church that had
pulled away from a larger church because they refused to support slavery From a
very young age Lincoln was exposed to anti slavery sentiment However he never
joined his parents church or any other church and as a youth ridiculed religion
Three years after purchasing the property a prior land claim filed in Hardin
Circuit Court forced the Lincolns to move Thomas continued legal action until he
lost the case in Legal expenses contributed to family difficulties In they were
able to lease acres km amp sup of a acre km amp sup farm on Knob Creek a few miles
away where they then moved In a valley of the Rolling Fork River this was some of
the best farmland in the area At this time Lincoln s father was a respected
community member and a successful farmer and carpenter Lincoln s earliest
recollections are from this farm In another claimant sought to eject the family
from the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site Knob Creek farm
Frustrated with litigation and lack of security provided by Kentucky courts Thomas
decided to move to Indiana which had been surveyed by the federal government making
land titles more secure It is possible that these episodes motivated Abraham to
later learn surveying and become an attorney In when Lincoln was seven years old he
and his parents moved to Spencer County Indiana he would state quot partly on
account of slavery quot and partly because of economic difficulties in Kentucky In
Lincoln s mother died of quot milk sickness quot at age thirty four when Abe was
nine Soon afterwards Lincoln s father remarried to Sarah Bush Johnston Sarah
Lincoln raised young Lincoln like one of her own children Years later she compared
Lincoln to her own son saying quot Both were good boys but I must say both now
being dead that Abe was the best boy I ever saw or ever expect to see quot Lincoln
by David Herbert Donald In after more economic and land title difficulties in
Indiana the family settled on government land on a site selected by Lincoln s
father in Macon County Illinois The following winter was especially brutal and the
family nearly moved back to Indiana When his father relocated the family to a
nearby site the following year the year old Lincoln struck out on his own canoe ing
down the Sangamon to Sangamon County Illinois now in Menard County Illinois Menard
County in the village of New Salem Menard County Illinois New Salem Later that year
hired by New Salem businessman Denton Offutt and accompanied by friends he took
goods from New Salem to New Orleans Louisiana New Orleans via flatboat on the
Sangamon Illinois River Illinois and Mississippi River Mississippi river s While in
New Orleans he may have witnessed a slave auction that left an indelible impression
on him for the rest of his life Whether he actually witnessed a slave auction at
that time or not living in a country with a considerable slave presence he probably
saw similar atrocities from time to time His formal education consisted of perhaps
months of schooling from itinerant teachers In effect he was self educated studying
every book he could borrow He mastered the Bible Shakespeare English history and
American history and developed a plain style that puzzled audiences more used to
orotund oratory He avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing
animals even for food and though unusually tall and strong spent so much time
reading that some neighbors thought he must be doing it to avoid strenuous manual
labor He was skilled with an axe they called him the quot rail splitter quot and a
good wrestler Image Abe Lincoln young jpg thumb px left Young Abraham Lincoln Early
career Lincoln began his political career in at the age of with a campaign for the
Illinois General Assembly as a member of the Whig Party United States Whig Party
The centerpiece of his platform was the undertaking of navigational improvements on
the Sangamon River in the hopes of attracting steamboat traffic to the river which
would allow sparsely populated poor areas along and near the river to grow and
prosper He served as a captain in a company of the Illinois militia drawn from New
Salem during the Black Hawk War although he never saw combat He wrote after being
elected by his peers that he had not had quot any such success in life which gave
him so much satisfaction quot He later tried and failed at several small time
business ventures He held an Illinois state liquor license and sold whiskey Finally
after coming across the second volume of Sir William Blackstone s four volume
Commentaries on the Laws of England he taught himself the law and was admitted to
the Illinois State Bar Association Illinois Bar in That same year he moved to
Springfield Illinois and began to practice law with Stephen T Logan He became one
of the most respected and successful lawyers in the prairie state and grew steadily
more prosperous Lincoln served four successive terms in the Illinois House of
Representatives as a representative from Sangamon County Illinois Sangamon County
beginning in He became a leader of the Whig party in the legislature In he made his
first protest
against slavery in the Illinois House stating that the institution was quot
founded on both injustice and bad policy quot http www hti umich edu l lincoln
Lincoln shared a bed with Joshua Fry Speed from to in Springfield While many
historians claim it was not uncommon in the mid th century for men to share a bed
just as two men today may share a house or an apartment gay activist C A Tripp
generated controversy with his book The Intimate World of Abraham Lincoln which
suggested their relationship may also have been sexual In Lincoln entered law
practice with William Herndon lawyer William Herndon a fellow Whig In both men
joined the fledgling Republican Party United States Republican Party Following
Lincoln s assassination Herndon began collecting stories about Lincoln from those
who knew him in central Illinois eventually publishing a book Herndon s Lincoln
Lincoln never joined an antislavery society and denied he supported the
abolitionists He married into a prominent slave owning family from Kentucky and
allowed his children to spend time there surrounded by slaves Several of his in
laws became Confederate officers He greatly admired the science that flourished in
New England and was perhaps the only father in Illinois at the time to send his son
Robert Todd Lincoln to elite eastern schools Phillips Exeter Academy and Harvard
College Marriage On November at the age of Lincoln married Mary Todd Lincoln Mary
Todd The couple had four sons Robert Todd Lincoln b August in Springfield Illinois
d July in Manchester Vermont Edward Baker Lincoln b March in Springfield Illinois
d February in Springfield Illinois William Wallace Lincoln b December in
Springfield Illinois d February in Washington D C Thomas Tad Lincoln b April in
Springfield Illinois d July in Chicago Illinois Only Robert survived into
adulthood Of Robert s three children only Jessie Harlan Lincoln Jessie Lincoln had
any children two Mary Lincoln Beckwith and Robert Todd Lincoln Beckwith Neither
Robert Beckwith nor Mary Beckwith had any children so Abraham Lincoln s bloodline
ended when Robert Beckwith Lincoln s great grandson died on December http members
aol com beaufait biography geneology htm Illinois politics Image Abelincoln jpeg
thumb Lincoln in or In Lincoln was elected to one term in the United States House
of Representatives U S House of Representatives A staunch Whig Lincoln often
referred to party leader Henry Clay as his political idol As a freshman House
member Lincoln was not a particularly powerful or influential figure in Congress He
used his office as an opportunity to speak out against the Mexican American War war
with Mexico which he attributed to James Knox Polk President Polk s desire for quot
military glory that attractive rainbow that rises in showers of blood quot Lincoln
was a key early supporter of Zachary Taylor s candidacy for the U S presidential
election Whig Presidential nomination When Lincoln s term ended the incoming
Taylor administration offered him the governorship of remote Oregon Territory
Acceptance would end his career in the fast growing state of Illinois so he
declined Returning instead to Springfield Illinois he turned most of his energies
to making a living at the bar law bar which involved extensive travel on horseback
from county to county Prairie lawyer By the mid s Lincoln faced competing
transportation interests both the river barge s and the railroad s In he received a
patent related to buoying vessels Lincoln represented the Alton amp Sangamon
Railroad in an dispute with one of its shareholders James A Barret Barret had
refused to pay the balance on his pledge to that corporation on the grounds that it
had changed its originally planned route Lincoln argued that as a matter of law a
corporation is not bound by its original charter when that charter can be amended
in the public interest that the newer proposed Alton amp Sangamon route was
superior and less expensive and that accordingly the corporation had a right to sue
Mr Barret for his delinquent payment He won this case and the decision by the
Illinois Supreme Court was eventually cited by several other courts throughout the
United States Another important example of Lincoln s skills as a railroad lawyer
was a lawsuit over a tax exemption that the state granted to the Illinois Central
Railroad McLean County Illinois McLean County argued that the state had no
authority to grant such an exemption and it sought to impose taxes on the railroad
notwithstanding In January the Illinois Supreme Court delivered its opinion
upholding the tax exemption accepting Lincoln s arguments Lincoln s most notable
criminal trial came in when he defended William quot Duff quot Armstrong who was on
trial for the murder of James Preston Metzker The case is famous for Lincoln s use
of judicial notice a rare tactic at that time to show an eyewitness had lied on the
stand claiming he witnessed the crime in the moonlight Lincoln produced a Farmer s
Almanac to show that the moon on that date was at such a low angle it could not
have produced enough illumination to see anything clearly Based upon this evidence
Armstrong was acquitted Republican politics The Kansas Nebraska Act of which
expressly repealed the limits on slavery s spread that had been part of the
Missouri Compromise of drew Lincoln back into politics Illinois Democrat Stephen A
Douglas the most powerful man in the Senate proposed popular sovereignty as the
solution to the slavery impasse incorporating it into the Kansas Nebraska Act
Douglas argued that in a democracy the people of a territory should decide whether
to allow slavery or not and not have a decision imposed on them by Congress It was
a speech against Kansas Nebraska on October in Peoria Illinois Peoria that caused
Lincoln to stand out among the other free soil orators of the day He helped form
the new Republican party drawing on remnants of the old Whig Free Soil Party Free
Soil Liberty and Democratic parties In a stirring campaign the Republicans carried
Illinois in and elected a senator Lincoln was the obvious choice but to keep party
unity he allowed the election to go to his colleague Lyman Trumbull In Douglas
broke with President James Buchanan Buchanan leading to a terrific fight for
control of the Democratic party Some eastern Republicans even favored the
reelection of Douglas in since he led the opposition to the administration s push
for the Lecompton Constitution which would have admitted Kansas as a slave state
Accepting the Republican nomination for the Senate in Lincoln delivered a famous
speech http www nationalcenter org HouseDivided html in which he stated quot A
house divided against itself cannot stand I believe this government cannot endure
permanently half slave and half free I do not expect the Union to be dissolved I do
not expect the house to fall but I do expect it will cease to be divided It will
become all one thing or all the other quot The speech created a lasting image of
the danger of disunion due to slavery and rallied Republicans across the north The
campaign featured the Lincoln Douglas Debates of Lincoln Douglas debates a
nationally noticed discussion on the issues that threatened to split the nation in
two Lincoln forced Douglas to propose his Freeport Doctrine which lost him further
support among slave holders and speeded the division of the Democratic Party Though
the Republican legislative candidates won more popular votes the Democrats won more
seats and the legislature reelected Douglas to the Senate Nevertheless Lincoln s
eloquence transformed him into a national political star During the debates of the
issue of race was often discussed During a time period when racial egalitarianism
was considered politically incorrect Stephen Douglas would inform the crowds If you
desire negro citizenship if you desire them to vote on an equality with yourselves
then support Mr Lincoln and the Black Republican party who are in favor of the
citizenship of the negro http www nps gov liho debate htm Official Records of
Debate On the defensive Lincoln countered that he was not in favor of bringing
about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races
http www nps gov liho debate htm Official Records of Debate Historians generally
remained mixed on what Lincoln s actual views were on race However many tend to
doubt that the highly political nature of these debates offer reliable evidence
about his personal views Team of Rivals by Doris Kearns Goodwin Lincoln In Text and
Context by Donald Fehrenbacher As Fredrick Douglass observed Lincoln was the first
great man that I talked with in the United States freely who in no single instance
reminded me of the difference between himself and myself of the difference of color
Life and Times of Fredrick Douglass by Fredrick Douglass Lincoln s opposition to
slavery was opposition to the Slave Power and he was not an abolitionist in But the
Civil War changed everything and changed Lincoln s beliefs in race relations as
well Election of Image The Rail Candidate jpg thumb quot The Rail Candidate quot
political cartoon Entering the presidential nomination process as a distinct
underdog Lincoln was eventually chosen as the Republican candidate for the U S
presidential election election for several reasons His expressed views on slavery
were seen as more moderate than rivals William H Seward and Salmon Chase His quot
western quot origins also appealed to the newer states Other contenders especially
those with more governmental experience had acquired enemies within the party
specifically Seward who had run afoul of newspaperman Horace Greeley During the
campaign Lincoln was dubbed quot The Rail Splitter quot by Republicans to emphasize
the power of quot free labor quot whereby a common farm boy could work his way to
the top by his own efforts On November Lincoln
was elected the th President of the United States beating Democrat Douglas John C
Breckenridge of the Southern Democrats and John C Bell of the new Constitutional
Union Party United States Constitutional Union Party Lincoln was the first
Republican president He won entirely on the strength of his support in the North he
was not even on the ballot in nine states in the South and won only of counties
there Lincoln gained votes of the total for electoral votes Douglas for electoral
votes Breckenridge for electoral votes and Bell for electoral votes There were
fusion tickets in some states but even if his opponents had combined in every state
Lincoln had a majority vote in all but two of the states in which he won the
electoral votes and would still have won the electoral college and the election
Secession winter As Lincoln s election became more and more probable secessionists
made it clear that their states would leave the Union South Carolina took the lead
followed by six other cotton growing states Georgia Florida Alabama Mississippi
Louisiana and Texas The upper South Delaware Maryland Virginia North Carolina
Tennessee Kentucky Missouri and Arkansas listened to and rejected the secessionist
appeal They decided to stay in the Union though warning Lincoln they would not
support an invasion through their territory The seven Confederate states seceded
before Lincoln took office declaring themselves an entirely new nation the
Confederate States of America President Buchanan and president elect Lincoln
refused to recognize the Confederacy President elect Lincoln survived an
assassination threat in Baltimore and on February arrived in disguise in
Washington At Lincoln s inauguration on March the Turners formed Lincoln s
bodyguard and a sizable garrison of federal troops was also present ready to
protect the capital from Confederate invasion or insurrection from Confederates in
the capital city Image Abraham lincoln inauguration jpg thumb left px Photograph
showing March inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in front of U S Capitol In his
Lincoln s First Inaugural First Inaugural Address Lincoln declared quot I hold that
in contemplation of universal law and of the Constitution the Union of these States
is perpetual Perpetuity is implied if not expressed in the fundamental law of all
national governments quot arguing further that the purpose of the United States
Constitution was quot to form a more perfect union quot than the Articles of
Confederation which were explicitly perpetual and thus the Constitution too was
perpetual He asked rhetorically that even were the Constitution a simple contract
would it not require the agreement of all parties to rescind it Also in his
inaugural address in a final attempt to unite the Union and prevent the looming war
Lincoln supported the proposed Corwin amendment Corwin Amendment to the
constitution of which he had been a driving force It would have explicitly
protected slavery in those states in which it already existed and had already
passed both houses Lincoln adamantly opposed the Crittenden Compromise however
which would have permitted slavery in the territories renewing the boundary set by
the Missouri Compromise and extending it to California Despite support for this
compromise among some Republicans Lincoln declared that were the Crittenden
Compromise accepted it quot would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against
every people tribe and state owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del
Fuego quot Because opposition to slavery expansion was the key issue uniting the
Republican Party at the time Lincoln is sometimes criticized for putting politics
ahead of the national interest in refusing any compromise allowing the expansion of
slavery Supporters of Lincoln however point out that he did not oppose slavery
because he was a Republican but became a Republican because of his opposition to
the expansion of slavery that he opposed several other Republicans who were in
favor of compromise and that he clearly thought his course of action was in the
national interest By the time Lincoln took office the Confederacy was an
established fact and not a single leader of that country ever proposed rejoining
the Union on any terms No compromise was found because no compromise was possible
Lincoln perhaps could have allowed the southern states to secede and some
Republicans recommended that However conservative Democratic nationalists such as
Jeremiah S Black Joseph Holt and Edwin M Stanton had taken control of Buchanan s
cabinet around January and refused to accept secession Lincoln and nearly all
Republican leaders adopted this nationalistic position by March the Union could not
be broken War begins main American Civil War After Union troops at Battle of Fort
Sumter Fort Sumter were fired on and forced to surrender in April Lincoln called on
governors of every state to send troops to recapture forts protect the capital and
quot preserve the Union quot which in his view still existed intact despite the
actions of the seceding states Virginia which had repeatedly warned Lincoln it
would not allow an invasion of its territory or join an attack on another state
then seceded along with North Carolina Tennessee and Arkansas The slave states of
Missouri Kentucky Maryland and Delaware did not secede and Lincoln urgently
negotiated with state leaders there promising not to interfere with slavery in
loyal states Emancipation Proclamation Image Emancipation proclamation jpg thumb px
right Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation
Proclamation draft on July main articles Abraham Lincoln on slavery and
Emancipation Proclamation Congress in July moved to free the slaves by passing the
Second Confiscation Act It provided That if any person shall hereafter incite set
on foot assist or engage in any rebellion or insurrection against the authority of
the United States or the laws thereof or shall give aid or comfort thereto or shall
engage in or give aid and comfort to any such existing rebellion or insurrection
and be convicted thereof such person shall be punished by imprisonment for a period
not exceeding ten years or by a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars and by the
liberation of all his slaves if any he have or by both of said punishments at the
discretion of the court SEC And be it further enacted That all slaves of persons
who shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the government of the United
States or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto escaping from such
persons and taking refuge within the lines of the army and all slaves captured from
such persons or deserted by them and coming under the control of the government of
the United States and all slaves of such person found on or being within any place
occupied by rebel forces and afterwards occupied by the forces of the United States
shall be deemed captives of war and shall be forever free of their servitude and
not again held as slaves Thus everyone who days after July supported the rebellion
was to be punished by having all their slaves freed The goal was to weaken the
rebellion which was led and controlled by slave owners This did not abolish the
legal institution of slavery the XIII Amendment did that but it shows Lincoln had
the support of and was even somewhat pushed by Congress in liberating the slaves
owned by rebels Lincoln implemented the new law by his quot Emancipation
Proclamation quot Lincoln is well known for ending slavery in the United States and
he personally opposed slavery as a profound moral evil not in accord with the
principle of equality asserted in the Declaration of Independence United States
Declaration of Independence Yet Lincoln s views of the role of the federal
government on the subject of slavery are more complicated Before the Confederate
states seceded Lincoln had campaigned against the expansion of slavery into the
Historic regions of the United States territories where Congress did have authority
However he maintained that the federal government could not constitutionally bar
slavery in states where it already existed During his presidency Lincoln made it
clear that the North was fighting the war to preserve the Union not to abolish
slavery Freeing the slaves was a war measure to weaken the rebellion by destroying
the economic base of its leadership class Lincoln was criticized both at home and
abroad for his refusal to take a stand for the complete abolition of slavery On
August a few weeks before signing the Proclamation and after it had already been
drafted Lincoln responded by letter to an editorial by Horace Greeley of the New
York Tribune which had urged abolition I would save the Union I would save it the
shortest way under the Constitution The sooner the national authority can be
restored the nearer the Union will be quot the Union as it was quot If there be
those who would not save the Union unless they could at the same time save slavery
I do not agree with them If there be those who would not save the Union unless they
could at the same time destroy slavery I do not agree with them My paramount object
in this struggle is to save the Union and is not either to save or to destroy
slavery If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it and if I
could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it and if I could save it by
freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that What I do about slavery
and the colored race I do because I believe it helps to save the Union and what I
forbear I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union I shall
do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause and I shall do
more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause I shall try to correct
errors when shown to be errors and I shall adopt new views so fast as they shall
appear
to be true views I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official
duty and I intend no modification of my oft expressed personal wish that all men
everywhere could be free http showcase netins net web creative lincoln speeches
greeley htm With the Emancipation Proclamation issued in two parts on September
and January Lincoln made the abolition of slavery a goal of the war Lincoln
addresses the issue of his consistency or lack thereof between his earlier position
and his later position on emancipation in an letter to Albert G Hodges http
showcase netins net web creative lincoln speeches hodges htm Lincoln is often
credited with freeing enslaved African Americans with the Emancipation Proclamation
However border states that still allowed slavery but were under Union control were
exempt from the emancipation because they were not covered under any war measures
The proclamation on its first day January freed only a few escaped slaves but as
Union armies advanced south more and more slaves were liberated until hundreds of
thousands were freed exactly how many is unknown Lincoln signed the Proclamation as
a wartime measure insisting that only the outbreak of war gave constitutional power
to the President to free slaves in states where it already existed He later said
quot I never in my life felt more certain that I was doing right than I do in
signing this paper quot The proclamation made abolishing slavery in the rebel
states an official war goal and it became the impetus for the enactment of the
Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution th Amendment to the United
States Constitution which abolished slavery Lincoln was one of the main promoters
of that amendment Although some Northern conservatives recoiled at the notion that
the war was now being fought for the slaves instead of for preserving the Union in
the end the Emancipation Proclamation did much to help the Northern cause
politically Lincoln s strong abolitionist stand finally convinced the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and other foreign countries that they could
not support the Confederate States of America This move remains one of the great
seizures of private property by the federal government restoring the ownership of
the blacks to themselves Lincoln had for some time been working on plans to set up
Abraham Lincoln on slavery Colonization colonies in Africa and South America for
the nearly million newly freed slaves He remarked upon colonization favorably in
the Emancipation Proclamation but all attempts at such a massive undertaking failed
Important domestic measures of Lincoln s first term Image Lincoln png thumb right
While Lincoln is usually portrayed bearded he first grew a beard in at the
suggestion of year old Grace Bedell Lincoln believed in the Whig theory of the
presidency which left Congress to write the laws He was anti vescovian He signed
them vetoing only bills that threatened his war powers Thus he signed the Homestead
Act in making available millions of acres of government held land in the west for
purchase at very low cost The Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act also signed in
provided government grants for agricultural universities in each state Lincoln also
signed the Pacific Railway Acts of and which granted federal support to the
construction of the United States first transcontinental railroad which was
completed in The most important legislation involved money matters including the
first income tax and higher tariffs Most important was the creation of the system
of national banks by the National Banking Act s of and which allowed the creation
of a strong national financial system Lincoln sent a senior general to put down the
quot Sioux Uprising Sioux Uprising quot of August in Minnesota Presented with death
warrants for convicted Santee Dakota who had massacred innocent farmers Lincoln
affirmed of these for execution one was later reprieved election and second
inauguration After Union victories at Battle of Gettysburg Gettysburg Battle of
Vicksburg Vicksburg and Battle of Chattanooga Chattanooga in many in the North
believed that victory was soon to come after Lincoln appointed Ulysses S Grant U S
Grant General in Chief on March Although no president since Andrew Jackson had
been elected to a second term and none since Martin Van Buren Van Buren had been re
nominated Lincoln s re election was considered a certainty However when the spring
campaigns east and west all turned into bloody stalemates Northern morale dipped
and Lincoln seemed less likely to be re nominated U S Treasury Secretary Treasury
Secretary Salmon P Chase strongly desired the Republican nomination and was working
hard to win it while John Fremont was nominated by a breakoff group of radical
Republicans potentially taking away crucial votes in the November elections Fearing
he might lose the election Lincoln wrote out and signed the following pledge but
did not show it to his cabinet asking them each to sign the sealed envelope Lincoln
wrote This morning as for some days past it seems exceedingly probable that this
Administration will not be re elected Then it will be my duty to so co operate with
the President elect as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration
as he will have secured his election on such ground that he can not possibly save
it afterwards The Democrats hoping to make setbacks in the war a top campaign issue
waited until late summer to nominate a candidate Their platform was heavily
influenced by the Copperheads politics Peace wing of the party calling the war a
quot failure quot but their candidate former General George McClellan was a War
Democrats War Democrat determined to prosecute the war until the Union was restored
although willing to compromise on all other issues including slavery McClellan s
candidacy was soon undercut as on September just two days after the Democratic
National Convention convention Battle of Atlanta Atlanta was abandoned by the
Confederate army Coming on the heels of David Farragut David Farragut s capture of
Battle of Mobile Bay Mobile Bay and followed by Phil Sheridan Phil Sheridan s
crushing victory over Jubal Anderson Early Jubal Early s army at Battle of Cedar
Creek Cedar Creek it was now apparent that the tide had turned in favor of the
Union and that Lincoln may be reelected despite the costs of the war Still Lincoln
believed that he would win the U S Electoral College electoral vote by only a slim
margin failing to give him the Mandate politics mandate he d need if he was to push
his lenient reconstruction plan To his surprise Lincoln ended up winning all but
two states capturing of electoral votes After Lincoln s election on March he
delivered his Lincoln s second inaugural address second inaugural address which was
his favorite of all his speeches At this time a victory over the rebels was within
sight slavery had effectively ended and Lincoln was looking to the future Fondly do
we hope fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away
Yet if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bond man s two
hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk and until every drop of
blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword as was said
three thousand years ago so still it must be said quot the judgments of the Lord
are true and righteous altogether quot With malice toward none with charity for all
with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right let us strive on to
finish the work we are in to bind up the nation s wounds to care for him who shall
have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan to do all which may achieve
and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations Civil War
and reconstruction Conducting the war effort The war was a source of constant
frustration for the president and it occupied nearly all of his time Lincoln had a
contentious relationship with General George B McClellan who became general in
chief of all the Union armies in the wake of the embarrassing Union defeat at the
First Battle of Bull Run and after the retirement of Winfield Scott in late Lincoln
wished to take an active part in planning the war strategy despite his inexperience
in military affairs Lincoln s strategic priorities were two fold first to ensure
that Washington D C was well defended and second to conduct an aggressive war
effort in hopes of ending the war quickly and appeasing the Northern public and
press who pushed for an offensive war McClellan a youthful United States Military
Academy West Point graduate and railroad executive called back to military service
took a more cautious approach McClellan took several months to plan and execute his
Peninsula Campaign which involved capturing Richmond Virginia Richmond by moving
the Army of the Potomac by boat to the Virginia Peninsula peninsula between the
James River Virginia James and York River Virginia York Rivers McClellan s delay
irritated Lincoln as did McClellan s insistence that no troops were needed to
defend Washington D C Lincoln insisted on holding some of McClellan s troops to
defend the capital a decision McClellan blamed for the ultimate failure of his
Peninsula Campaign McClellan a lifelong Democratic Party United States Democrat who
was temperamentally conservative was relieved as general in chief after releasing
his Harrison s Landing Letter where he offered unsolicited political advice to
Lincoln urging caution in the war effort McClellan s letter incensed Radical
Republicans who successfully pressured Lincoln to appoint fellow Republican John
Pope military officer John Pope as head of the new Army of Virginia Pope complied
with Lincoln s strategic desire for the Union to move towards Richmond from the
north thus guarding Washington D C However Pope was soundly defeated at the Second
Battle of Bull Run during the summer of forcing the Army of the Potomac back into
the defenses of Washington for a second time Pope was sent to Minnesota to fight
the Sioux Panicked by Confederate General Robert E Lee s invasion of Maryland
Lincoln restored McClellan to command of all forces around Washington in time for
the Battle of Antietam in September It was the Union victory in that battle that
allowed Lincoln to release his Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln relieved McClellan
of command shortly after the midterm elections and appointed Republican Ambrose
Burnside to head the Army of the Potomac who promised to follow through on Lincoln
s strategic vision for an aggressive offensive against Lee and Richmond After
Burnside was stunningly defeated at Battle of Fredericksburg Fredericksburg Joseph
Hooker was given command despite his idle talk about becoming a military strong man
Hooker was routed by Lee at Battle of Chancellorsville Chancellorsville in May and
also relieved of command After the Union victory at Battle of Gettysburg Gettysburg
George G Meade Meade s failure to pursue Lee and months of inactivity for the Army
of the Potomac Lincoln decided to bring in a western general General Ulysses S
Grant He had a solid string of victories in the Western Theater including Battle of
Vicksburg Vicksburg and Battle of Chattanooga III Chattanooga Earlier reacting to
criticism of Grant Lincoln was quoted as saying quot I cannot spare this man He
fights quot Grant waged his bloody Overland Campaign in using a strategy of a war
of attrition characterized by high Union losses at battles such as the Battle of
the Wilderness Wilderness and Battle of Cold Harbor Cold Harbor but by
proportionately higher losses in the Confederate army Grant s aggressive campaign
would eventually bottle up Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and result in the Union
taking Richmond and bringing the war to a close in the spring of Lincoln authorized
Grant to use a scorched earth approach to destroy the South s morale and economic
ability to continue the war This allowed Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and
Philip Sheridan to destroy farms and towns in the Shenandoah Valley Georgia U S
state Georgia and South Carolina The damage in Sherman s March to the Sea through
Georgia totaled in excess of million Lincoln had a star crossed record as a
military leader possessing a keen understanding of strategic points such as the
Mississippi River and the fortress city of Vicksburg and the importance of
defeating the enemy s army rather than simply capturing cities However he had
little success in his efforts to motivate his generals to adopt his strategies
Eventually he found in Grant a man who shared his vision of the war and was able to
bring that vision to reality with his relentless pursuit of coordinated offensives
in multiple theaters of war Lincoln perhaps reflecting his lack of military
experience developed a keen curiosity with military campaigning during the war He
spent hours at the United States War Department War Department Telegraphy telegraph
office reading dispatches from his generals through many a night He frequently
visited battle sites and seemed fascinated by watching scenes of war During Jubal A
Early s Battle of Fort Stevens raid into Washington D C in Lincoln had to be told
to duck his head to avoid being shot while observing the scenes of battle Homefront
Lincoln was more successful in giving the war meaning to Northern civilians through
his oratorical skills Despite his meager education and amp backwoods amp upbringing
Lincoln possessed an extraordinary command of the English language as evidenced by
the Gettysburg Address a speech dedicating a cemetery of Union soldiers from the
Battle of Gettysburg that he delivered on November While the featured speaker
orator Edward Everett spoke for two hours Lincoln s few choice words resonated
across the nation and across history defying Lincoln s own prediction that quot the
world will little note nor long remember what we say here quot Lincoln s Lincoln s
second inaugural address second inaugural address is also greatly admired and often
quoted In these speeches Lincoln articulated better than any of his contemporaries
the rationale behind the Union effort During the Civil War Lincoln exercised powers
no previous president had wielded he proclaimed a blockade suspended the writ of
habeas corpus spent money without Congress of the United States congressional
authorization and imprisoned thousands of accused Confederate sympathizers without
trial There is a fragment of uncorraborated evidence that Lincoln made contingency
plans to arrest Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney though the allegation remains
unresolved and controversial see the Taney Arrest Warrant controversy The long war
and the issue of emancipation appeared to be severely hampering his prospects and
pessimists warned that defeat appeared likely Lincoln ran under the Union party
banner composed of War Democrats and Republicans General Grant was facing severe
criticism for his conduct of the bloody Overland Campaign that summer and the
seemingly endless Siege of Petersburg However the Union capture of the key railroad
center of Atlanta Georgia Atlanta by Sherman s forces in September changed the
situation dramatically and Lincoln was reelected Reconstruction The reconstruction
of the Union weighed heavy on the President s mind throughout the war effort He was
determined to take a course that would not permanently alienate the former
Confederate states and throughout the war Lincoln urged speedy elections under
generous terms in areas behind Union lines This irritated congressional Republicans
who urged a more stringent Reconstruction policy One of Lincoln s few vetoes during
his term was of the Wade Davis Bil l an effort by congressional Republicans to
impose harsher Reconstruction terms on the Confederate areas Republicans in
Congress retaliated by refusing to seat representatives elected from Louisiana
Arkansas and Tennessee during the war under Lincoln s generous terms quot Let em up
easy quot he told his assembled military leaders Ulysses S Grant Gen Ulysses S
Grant a future president William Tecumseh Sherman Gen William T Sherman and David
Dixon Porter Adm David Dixon Porter in an meeting on the steamer River Queen When
Richmond Virginia Richmond the Confederate capital was at long last captured
Lincoln went there to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis s own
desk symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held
authority over the entire land He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by
freed slaves whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer s quote quot I know I
am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him quot On April
Confederate General Robert E Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia
This left only Joseph Johnston s forces in the East to deal with Weeks later
Johnston would defy Jefferson Davis and surrender his forces to Sherman Of course
Lincoln would not survive to see the surrender of all Confederate forces just five
days after Lee surrendered Lincoln was assassination assassinated He was the first
President to be assassinated and the third to die in office Assassination Image
Lincolnassassination jpg right thumbnail px The assassination of Abraham Lincoln
From left to right Henry Rathbone Clara Harris Mary Todd Lincoln Lincoln and Booth
Lincoln had met frequently with Lt Gen Ulysses S Grant as the war drew to a close
The two men planned matters of reconstruction and it was evident to all that they
held each other in high regard During their last meeting on April Good Friday
Lincoln invited Grant to a social engagement that evening Grant declined Grant s
wife Julia Dent Grant is said to have strongly disliked Mary Todd Lincoln The
President s eldest son Robert Todd Lincoln also turned down the invitation John
Wilkes Booth a well known actor and Southern sympathizer from Maryland heard that
the president and Mrs Lincoln along with the Grants would be attending Ford s
Theatre Having failed in a plot to kidnap Lincoln earlier Booth informed his co
conspirators of his intention to kill Lincoln Others were assigned to assassinate
Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Seward Without his
bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon to whom he related his famous dream of his own
assassination the Lincolns left to attend the play at Ford s Theater The play Our
American Cousin was a musical comedy by the British writer Tom Taylor As Lincoln
sat in his state box in the balcony Booth crept up behind the President s box and
waited for the funniest line of the play hoping the laughter would cover the
gunshot noise On stage actor Harry Hawk said the last words Lincoln would ever hear
quot Well I guess I know enough to turn you inside out old gal you sockdologizing
old man trap quot When the laughter came Booth jumped into the box the president
was in and aimed a single shot round slug caliber Deringer at his head firing at
point blank range The bullet entered behind Lincoln s left ear and lodged behind
his right eyeball Major Henry Rathbone who was present in the Presidential Box
momentarily grappled with Booth but was severely stabbed and slashed by the
assassin It was believed that Booth then shouted quot Sic semper tyrannis quot
Latin quot Thus always to tyrants quot the state motto of Virginia some accounts
say he added quot The South is avenged quot and jumped from the balcony to the
stage below breaking his leg Despite his injury Booth managed to limp to his horse
and make his escape As Booth fled from the theater a young physician Dr Charles
Leale made his way through the audience to Lincoln s box Leale quickly assessed the
wound as mortal The President was taken across the street from the theater to the
Petersen House where
he lay in a coma for nine hours before he expired Several physicians attended
Lincoln including U S Army Surgeon General Joseph K Barnes of the Army Medical
Museum Using a probe Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln s skull and the ball
lodged inches inside his brain Lincoln who never regained consciousness was
officially pronounced dead at A M the next morning April Upon his death Secretary
of War Edwin Stanton lamented quot now he belongs to the ages quot After Lincoln s
body was returned to the White House his body was prepared for his quot lying in
state quot in the East Room The Army Medical Museum now named the National Museum
of Health and Medicine has retained in its collection since the time of Lincoln s
death several artifacts relating to the assassination Currently on display in the
museum are the bullet that was fired from the Deringer pistol ending Lincoln s life
the probe used by Barnes pieces of his skull and hair and the surgeon s cuff
stained with Lincoln s blood The museum can be found at http www nmhm washingtondc
museum exhibits nationswounds lincoln html www hmhm washingtondc museum Image
LincolnTrain jpeg right thumbnail px Lincoln s funeral train carried his remains as
well as mourners and the casket of his son William miles to Illinois Lincoln s body
was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states on its
way back to Illinois The nation mourned a man whom many viewed as the savior of the
United States He was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield where a foot m
tall granite tomb surmounted with several bronze statues of Lincoln was constructed
by To prevent repeated attempts to steal Lincoln s body and hold it for ransom
Robert Todd Lincoln had Lincoln exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet
thick on September further Abraham Lincoln s burial and exhumation Presidential
appointments Administration and Cabinet Lincoln was known for appointing his
enemies and political rivals to high positions in his Cabinet Not only did he use
great political skill in reducing potential political opposition but he felt he was
appointing the best qualified person for the good of the country class quot
wikitable quot Office Name Term President of the United States President Abraham
Lincoln Vice President of the United States Vice President Hannibal Hamlin amp
nbsp Andrew Johnson United States Secretary of State Secretary of State William
H Seward United States Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of the Treasury Salmon
P Chase amp nbsp William P Fessenden amp nbsp Hugh McCulloch United States
Secretary of War Secretary of War Simon Cameron amp nbsp Edwin M Stanton
Attorney General of the United States Attorney General Edward Bates amp nbsp
James Speed align quot left quot Postmaster General of the United States
Postmaster General Horatio King amp nbsp Montgomery Blair amp nbsp William
Dennison Ohio governor William Dennison United States Secretary of the Navy
Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles United States Secretary of the Interior
Secretary of the Interior Caleb B Smith amp nbsp John P Usher lt br clear quot
all quot gt Supreme Court Lincoln appointed the following Justices to the Supreme
Court of the United States Noah Haynes Swayne Samuel Freeman Miller David Davis
senator David Davis Stephen Johnson Field Salmon P Chase Chief Justice of the
United States Chief Justice Major presidential acts Involvement as President elect
Morrill tariff Morrill Tariff of Corwin amendment Corwin Amendment Enacted as
President Signed Revenue Act of Signed Homestead Act Signed Morrill Act Morill Land
Grant College Act Signed Internal Revenue Act of Signed Pacific Railway Acts of and
Established Department of Agriculture Signed National Banking Act National Banking
Act of Signed Internal Revenue Act of States admitted to the Union West Virginia
Nevada Legacy and memorials Lincoln s death made the President a martyr to many
Today he is perhaps America s second most famous and beloved President after George
Washington Repeated polls of historians have ranked Lincoln as among the historical
rankings of U S Presidents greatest presidents in U S history Among contemporary
admirers Lincoln is usually seen as a figure who personifies Image Lincoln statue
jpg thumbnail px Daniel Chester French s seated Lincoln faces the National Mall to
the east Image MtRushmore Abe close JPG thumbnail px Lincoln s bust on Mt Rushmore
classical values of honesty integrity as well as respect for individual and
minority rights and human freedom in general Many American organizations of all
purposes and agendas continue to cite his name and image with interests ranging
from the gay rights group Log Cabin Republicans to the insurance corporation
Lincoln Financial Group Lincoln Financial The Lincoln automobile is also named
after him Over the years Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names notably
the Lincoln Nebraska capital of Nebraska with the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D
C pictured right on the U S U S five dollar bill bill and the Penny U S coin cent
coin Illinois is the primary opponent to the removal of the penny from circulation
and as part of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Lincoln s Tomb Lincoln Home
National Historic Site in Springfield Illinois Springfield New Salem Menard County
Illinois New Salem Illinois a reconstruction of Lincoln s early adult hometown Ford
s Theater and Petersen House are all preserved as museums The List of U S state
nicknames state nickname for Illinois is Land of Lincoln Counties of the United
States Counties in U S state s Lincoln County Arkansas Arkansas Lincoln County
Colorado Colorado Lincoln County Idaho Idaho Lincoln County Kansas Kansas Lincoln
County Minnesota Minnesota Lincoln County Mississippi Mississippi Lincoln County
Montana Montana Lincoln County Nebraska Nebraska Lincoln County Nevada Nevada
Lincoln County New Mexico New Mexico Lincoln County Oklahoma Oklahoma Lincoln
County Oregon Oregon Lincoln County South Dakota South Dakota Lincoln County
Tennessee Tennessee Lincoln County West Virginia West Virginia Lincoln County
Washington Washington Lincoln County Wisconsin Wisconsin and Lincoln County Wyoming
Wyoming are named after Lincoln On February Abraham Lincoln s birthday was
declared to be a federal holiday in the United States although in it was combined
with Washington s birthday in the form of President s Day February is still
observed as a separate legal holiday in many states including Illinois Lincoln s
birthplace and family home are national historic memorials Abraham Lincoln
Birthplace National Historic Site in Hodgenville Kentucky and Lincoln Home National
Historic Site in Springfield Illinois The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and
Museum is also in Springfield The Abraham Lincoln National Cemetery is located in
Elwood Illinois Statues of Lincoln can be found in other countries In Ciudad Ju rez
Chihuahua Mexico is a foot high bronze statue a gift from the United States
dedicated in by President Lyndon B Johnson The U S received a statue of Benito Ju
rez in exchange which is in Washington D C Ju rez and Lincoln exchanged friendly
letters and Mexico remembers Lincoln s opposition to the Mexican American War There
is also a statue in Tijuana Mexico showing Lincoln standing and destroying the
chains of slavery There are at least three statues of Lincoln in the United Kingdom
one in London by Augustus St Gaudens one in Manchester by George Grey Barnard and
another in Edinburgh by George Bissell industrialist George Bissell The ballistic
missile submarine USS Abraham Lincoln SSBN Abraham Lincoln SSBN and the aircraft
carrier USS Abraham Lincoln CVN Abraham Lincoln CVN were named in his honor Also
the Liberty ship SS Nancy Hanks SS Nancy Hanks was named to honor his mother In a
recent public vote entitled quot The Greatest American quot Lincoln placed second
placing first was Ronald Reagan Lincoln in popular culture see Lincoln in popular
culture Trivia Lincoln stood quot cm tall and thus was the tallest president in U S
history just edging out Lyndon Johnson at quot cm He was born on the same day as
Charles Darwin The last surviving self described witness to Lincoln s assassination
was Samuel J Seymour April who appeared two months before his death at age on the
CBS TV quiz show I ve Got a Secret He said that as a five year old he had thought
at first that he himself had been shot because his nurse trying to fix a torn place
in his blouse stuck him with a pin at the moment of the gun s discharge According
to legend Lincoln was referred to as quot two faced quot by his opponent in the
Senate election Stephen A Douglas Stephen Douglas Upon hearing about this Lincoln
jokingly replied quot If I had another face to wear do you really think I would be
wearing this one quot According to legend Lincoln also said as a young man on his
appearance one day when looking in the mirror quot It s a fact Abe You are the
ugliest man in the world If ever I see a man uglier than you I m going to shoot him
on the spot quot It would no doubt he thought be an act of mercy Based on written
descriptions of Lincoln including the observations that he was much taller than
most men of his day and had long limbs an abnormally shaped chest and loose or lax
joints it has been conjectured since the s that Lincoln may have suffered from
Marfan syndrome Lincoln was known to have a case of depression During his time in
New Salem Illinois his fiancee died and that triggered his depression His close
friends watched over him to make sure he did not commit suicide He also suffered
from nightmares during his term in the White House His depression got so severe he
had to hold a cabinet meeting from his bed He once mentioned one of his haunting
nightmares to his friend Lincoln mentioned that he was standing in a mourning crowd
surrounding
a train and when he asked a grieving woman what had happened she replied quot The
President has been shot and he has died quot Lincoln is the only American president
to hold a patent The patent is for a device that lifts boat boats over shoal shoals
See also Origins of the American Civil War American System economics American
System Lincoln s economic beliefs Lincoln Kennedy coincidences List of U S
Presidential religious affiliations Movies D W Griffith s Abraham Lincoln The
Dramatic Life of Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
References Biographies Lincoln by David Herbert Donald ISBN X very well reviewed
by scholars Donald has won two Pulitzer prizes for biography Abraham Lincoln and
Civil War America A Biography by William E Gienapp ISBN short Team of Rivals The
Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin ISBN reviewers report
it is very well written Abraham Lincoln Redeemer President by Allen C Guelzo ISBN
Abraham Lincoln a History by John Hay amp John George Nicolay online at http www
gutenberg org etext Volume and http www gutenberg org etext Volume volumes in all
written by Lincoln s top aides The Real Abraham Lincoln by Reinhard H Luthin well
regarded by reviewers The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia by Mark E Neely detailed
articles on many men and movements associated with AL The Last Best Hope of Earth
Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America by Mark E Neely Pulitzer prize winning
author With Malice Toward None The Life of Abraham Lincoln by Stephen B Oates
Lincoln the President by James G Randall vol reprint by prize winning scholar Mr
Lincoln excerpts ed by Richard N Current Abraham Lincoln The Prairie Years vol
The War Years vol biography by Carl Sandburg Pulitzer Prize winner by famous poet
Abraham Lincoln A Biography by Benjamin P Thomas Specialty topics Baker Jean H
Mary Todd Lincoln A Biography Belz Herman Abraham Lincoln Constitutionalism and
Equal Rights in the Civil War Era Boritt Gabor S Lincoln and the Economics of the
American Dream Lincoln s economic theory and policies Boritt Gabor S Lincoln the
War President Boritt Gabor S ed The Historian s Lincoln Urbana University of
Illinois Press historiography Bruce Robert V Lincoln and the Tools of War on
weapons development during the war Donald David Herbert Lincoln Reconsidered Essays
on the Civil War Era Foner Eric Free Soil Free Labor Free Men The Ideology of the
Republican Party before the Civil War intellectual history of different prewar
faction s in AL s party Harris William C With Charity for All Lincoln and the
Restoration of the Union AL s plans for Reconstruction Hendrick Burton J Lincoln s
War Cabinet Hofstadter Richard The American Political Tradition And the Men Who
Made It ch quot Abraham Lincoln and the Self MAde Myth quot Holzer Harold Lincoln
at Cooper Union The Speech That Made Abraham Lincoln President McPherson James M
Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution McPherson James M Battle Cry of
Freedom The Civil War Era Pulitzer Prize winner surveys all aspects of the war
Morgenthau Hans J and David Hein Essays on Lincoln s Faith and Politics Lanham MD
University Press of America for the White Burkett Miller Center of Public Affairs
at the University of Virginia Neely Mark E The Fate of Liberty Abraham Lincoln and
Civil Liberties Pulitzer Prize winner Philip S Paludan The Presidency of Abraham
Lincoln reviewers call it the most thorough treatment of AL s administration
Lincoln in American Memory by Merrill D Peterson how Lincoln was remembered after
Randall James G Lincoln the Liberal Statesman Richardson Heather Cox The Greatest
Nation of the Earth Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War Shenk Joshua
Wolf Lincoln s Melancholy How Depression Challenged a President and Fueled His
Greatness Named one of the best books of by The Washington Post The New York Times
and The Atlanta Journal Constitution Lincoln by Gore Vidal ISBN a novel Lincoln
and His Generals by T Harry Williams Lincoln at Gettysburg The Words That Remade
America by Garry Wills ISBN Honor s Voice The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln by
Douglas L Wilson Lincoln in art and popular culture Bullard F Lauriston Lincoln in
Marble and Bronze Rutgers University Press New Brunswick New Jersey Mead Fanklin B
Heroic Statues in Bronze of Abraham Lincoln Introducing The Hoosier Youth by Paul
Manship The Lincoln National Life Foundation Fort Wayne Indiana Moffatt Frederick C
Errant Bronzes George Grey Barnard s Statues of Abraham Lincoln University of
Deleware Press Newark DE Murry Freeman Henry Morris Emancipation anf the Freed in
American Sculpture Books For Libraries Press the Black Heritage Library Collection
Freeport NY originally published in Petz Weldon Michigan s Monumental Tributes to
Abraham Lincoln Historical Society of Michigan Redway Maurine Whorton and Dorothy
Kendall Bracken Marks of Lincoln on Our Land Hastings House Publishers New York
Savage Kirk Standing Soldiers Kneeling Slaves Race War and Monument in Nineteenth
Century America Princeton University Press Princeton New Jersey Tice George Lincoln
Rutgers University Press New Brunswick New Jersey The Real Lincoln by Thomas
DiLorenzo ISBN a stinging neo Confederate attack on Lincoln as evil Primary
Sources Basler Roy P ed Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln vols New Brunswick NJ
Rutgers Univ Press Basler Roy P ed Abraham Lincoln His Speeches and Writings
Lincoln Abraham Lincoln Speeches and Writings vol Library of America edition
Lincoln Abraham The Life and Writings of Abraham Lincoln Modern Library Classics ed
by Philip Van Doren Stern External links sisterlinks Abraham Lincoln CongBio L
http www whitehouse gov history presidents al html White House Biography http
memory loc gov ammem alhtml malhome html Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of
Congress http commons wikimedia org wiki Image Lincolnatpeace jpg The
Controversial photograph of Lincoln in death http www abrahamlincoln org The
Lincoln Institute http www rootdig com abraham lincoln html Abraham Lincoln in
United States Census Records http home att net rjnorton Lincoln html Especially for
Students An Overview of Abraham Lincoln s Life http memory loc gov ammem alhtml
alhome html Mr Lincoln s Virtual Library http www quotesandpoem com literature
ListofLiteraryWorks Lincoln Abraham Speeches and Quotes by Abraham Lincoln http www
loc gov rr program bib prespoetry al html Poetry written by Abraham Lincoln http
www mybigadventure com index php action Stats amp stat Memorials amp date amp page
Lincoln Memorial Tour My Big Adventure Images http members aol com RVSNorton
Lincoln html Abraham Lincoln Research Site http www abrahamlincolnonline org
Abraham Lincoln Online http www hti umich edu l lincoln The Collected Works of
Abraham Lincoln http deptorg knox edu lincolnstudies Lincoln Studies Center at Knox
College http lenbernstein com Pages EgoJustice html Discussion of John Drinkwater s
play Abraham Lincoln http www sonofthesouth net prod htm Original s Harper s Weekly
Images and News on Abraham Lincoln http dev stg brown edu projects lincoln The
Lincoln Log A Daily Chronology of the Life of Abraham Lincoln http www nps gov linc
Lincoln Memorial Washington DC http www thelincolnmuseum org The Lincoln Museum
Fort Wayne Indiana http www gilderlehrman org historians fellowship html The
Lincoln Prize A national book award sponsored by The Gilder Lehrman Institute of
American History and the Civil War Institute at Gettysburg College http members aol
com RVSNorton Lincoln html Abraham Lincoln s Assassination http www lincolnherald
com articleSubstitute html John Summerfield Staples President Lincoln s quot
Substitute quot http patft uspto gov netacgi nph Parser Sect PTO amp Sect HITOFF
amp d PALL amp p amp u netahtml srchnum htm amp r amp f G amp l amp s WKU amp OS PN
amp RS PN US Patent Manner of Buoying Vessels A Lincoln http www lewrockwell com
orig lincoln arch html King Lincoln an archive of articles on Lincoln http www nps
gov abli National Park Service Abraham Lincoln birthplace includes good early
history Hoard Historical Museum http www hoardmuseum org in Fort Atkinson Wisconsin
with Lincoln Library http www williamapercy com pub LincolnIntimate htm On the
Question of Lincoln s Sexuality http www doctorzebra com prez g htm Medical and
Health history of Abraham Lincoln http www worldofbiography com DAbraham Lincoln
Biography World of Biography Project Gutenberg eTexts List of gutenberg author id
Abraham Lincoln name Abraham Lincoln http www gutenberg org etext A Compilation of
the Messages and Papers of the Presidents Volume part Abraham Lincoln http www
gutenberg org etext Lincoln s Yarns and Stories http www gutenberg org etext Volume
and http www gutenberg org etext Volume of Abraham Lincoln a History by John Hay
to amp John George Nicolay to http www gutenberg org etext The Boys Life of Abraham
Lincoln by Nicolay Helen to http www gutenberg org etext The Life of Abraham
Lincoln by Henry Ketcham http www gutenberg org etext Volume and http www
gutenberg org etext Volume of Abraham Lincoln by John T Morse http www gutenberg
org etext The Every day Life of Abraham Lincoln by Francis Fisher Browne http www
gutenberg org etext Abraham Lincoln The People s Leader in the Struggle for
National Existence by George Haven Putnam Litt D http www gutenberg org etext
Lincoln s Personal Life by Nathaniel W Stephenson start box succession box title
ushr Illinois Member of the U S House of Representatives from Illinois s th
District before John Henry Illinois politician John Henry after Thomas Langrell
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Lincoln zh text revision page page title Aristotle title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Dpbsmith username id id
contributor comment I don t think Ayn Rand has quite the same stature as Alexander
the Great and Thomas Aquinas comment text xml space preserve Infobox Philosopher lt
Scroll down to edit this page gt lt Philosopher Category gt region Western
philosophers era Ancient philosophy color B C DE lt Image and Caption gt image
name Aristoteles Louvre jpg image caption Aristotle marble copy of bronze by
Lysippos lt Information gt name Aristotel s birth BC death March BC school
tradition Materialism and Empiricism main interests Politics influences Plato
influenced Alexander the Great Thomas Aquinas notable ideas Golden mean philosophy
The Golden mean Rule of the Superior Reason gt Passion Aristotle lang grc
polytonic Aristotel s BC amp ndash March BC was an ancient Greek philosopher who
studied with Plato and taught Alexander the Great He wrote books on many subjects
including physics poetry zoology logic rhetoric government and biology Aristotle
along with Plato and Socrates is generally considered one of the most influential
of Ancient philosophy ancient Greek philosophers They transformed Presocratic Greek
philosophy into the foundations of Western philosophy as we know it The writings of
Plato and Aristotle founded two of the most important schools of Ancient philosophy
Aristotle valued knowledge gained from the senses and in modern terms would be
classed among the modern empiricist s see materialism and empiricism He also
achieved a quot grounding quot of dialectic in the Topics by allowing interlocutors
to begin from commonly held beliefs Endoxa his goal being non contradiction rather
than Truth He set the stage for what would eventually develop into the empiricist
version of scientific method centuries later Although he wrote dialogues early in
his career no more than fragments of these have survived The works of Aristotle
that still exist today are in treatise form and were for the most part unpublished
texts These were probably lecture notes or texts used by his students and were
almost certainly revised repeatedly over the course of years As a result these
works tend to be eclectic dense and difficult to read Among the most important ones
are Physics Aristotle Physics Metaphysics or Ontology Nicomachean Ethics
Politics Aristotle Politics De Anima On the Soul and Poetics These works although
connected in many fundamental ways are very different in both style and substance
Aristotle is known for being one of the few figures in history who studied almost
every subject possible at the time In science Aristotle studied anatomy astronomy
economics embryology geography geology meteorology physics and zoology In
philosophy Aristotle wrote on aesthetics ethics government metaphysics politics
psychology rhetoric and theology He also dealt with education foreign customs
literature and poetry His combined works practically constitute an encyclopedia of
Greek knowledge Biography Early life and studies at the Academy Image Bust of
Aristotle jpg thumb A bust sculpture bust of Aristotle is a nearly ubiquitous
ornament in places of high culture in the Western world West Aristotle was born at
Stageira a apoikia colony of Andros on the Macedon ian peninsula of Chalcidice in
BC His father Nicomachus was court physician to King Amyntas III of Macedon It is
believed that Aristotle s ancestors held this position under various kings of the
Macedons As such Aristotle s early education would probably have consisted of
instruction in medicine and biology from his father About his mother Phaestis
little is known It is known that she died early in Aristotle s life When Nicomachus
also died in Aristotle s tenth year he was left an orphan and placed under the
guardianship of his uncle Proxenus of Atarneus He taught Aristotle Greek language
Greek rhetoric and poetry O Connor et al Aristotle was probably influenced by his
father s medical knowledge when he went to Athens at the age of he was likely
already trained in the investigation of natural phenomena From the age of to
Aristotle remained in Athens as a pupil of Plato and distinguished himself at the
Academy The relations between Plato and Aristotle have formed the subject of
various legends many of which depict Aristotle unfavourably No doubt there were
divergences of opinion between Plato who took his stand on sublime idealistic
principles and Aristotle who even at that time showed a preference for the
investigation of the facts and laws of the physical world It is also probable that
Plato suggested that Aristotle needed restraining rather than encouragement but not
that there was an open breach of friendship In fact Aristotle s conduct after the
death of Plato his continued association with Xenocrates and other Platonists and
his allusions in his writings to Plato s doctrines prove that while there were
conflicts of opinion between Plato and Aristotle there was no lack of cordial
appreciation or mutual forbearance Besides this the legends that reflect Aristotle
unfavourably are traceable to the Epicureans who were known as slanderers If such
legends were circulated widely by patristic writers such as Justin Martyr and
Gregory Nazianzen the reason lies in the exaggerated esteem Aristotle was held in
by the early Christianity Christian heretic s not in any well grounded historical
tradition Aristotle as philosopher and tutor After the death of Plato BC Aristotle
was considered as the next head of the Academy a position that was eventually
awarded to Plato s nephew Aristotle then went with Xenocrates to the court of
Hermias ruler of Atarneus in Asia Minor and married his niece and adopted daughter
Pythia In BC Hermias was murdered in a rebellion lt or a Persian attack gt and
Aristotle went with his family to Mytilene It is also reported that he stopped on
Lesbos Island Lesbos and briefly conducted biological research Then one or two
years later he was summoned to Pella the Macedonian capital by King Philip II of
Macedon to become the tutor of Alexander the Great who was then Plutarch wrote that
Aristotle not only imparted to Alexander a knowledge of ethics and politics but
also of the most profound secrets of philosophy We have much proof that Alexander
profited by contact with the philosopher and that Aristotle made prudent and
beneficial use of his influence over the young prince although Bertrand Russell
disputes this Due to this influence Alexander provided Aristotle with ample means
for the acquisition of books and the pursuit of his scientific investigation It is
possible that Aristotle also participated in the education of Alexander s boyhood
friends which may have included for example Hephaestion and Harpalus Aristotle
maintained a long correspondence with Hephaestion eventually collected into a book
unfortunately now lost According to sources such as Plutarch and Diogenes Philip
had Aristotle s hometown of Stageira burned during the s BC and Aristotle
successfully requested that Alexander rebuild it During his tutorship of Alexander
Aristotle was reportedly considered a second time for leadership of the Academy his
companion Xenocrates was selected instead Founder and master of the Lyceum In about
BC Alexander departed for his Asiatic campaign and Aristotle who had served as an
informal adviser more or less since Alexander ascended the Macedonian throne
returned to Athens and opened his own school of philosophy He may as Aulus Gellius
says have conducted a school of rhetoric during his former residence in Athens but
now following Plato s example he gave regular instruction in philosophy in a
gymnasium ancient Greece gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceios from which his
school has come to be known as the Lyceum It was also called the Peripatetic School
because Aristotle preferred to discuss problems of philosophy with his pupils while
walking up and down peripateo the shaded walks peripatoi around the gymnasium
During the thirteen years BC amp ndash BC which he spent as teacher
of the Lyceum Aristotle composed most of his writings Imitating Plato he wrote
Dialogue s in which his doctrines were expounded in somewhat popular language He
also composed the several treatises which will be mentioned below on physics
metaphysics and so forth in which the exposition is more didactic and the language
more technical than in the Dialogues These writings show to what good use he put
the resources Alexander had provided for him They show particularly how he
succeeded in bringing together the works of his predecessors in Greek philosophy
and how he pursued either personally or through others his investigations in the
realm of natural phenomena Pliny the Elder Pliny claimed that Alexander placed
under Aristotle s orders all the hunters fishermen and fowlers of the royal kingdom
and all the overseers of the royal forests lakes ponds and cattle ranges and
Aristotle s works on zoology make this statement more believable Aristotle was
fully informed about the doctrines of his predecessors and Strabo asserted that he
was the first to accumulate a great library During the last years of Aristotle s
life the relations between him and Alexander became very strained owing to the
disgrace and punishment of Callisthenes whom Aristotle had recommended to Alexander
Nevertheless Aristotle continued to be regarded at Athens as a friend of Alexander
and a representative of Macedonia Consequently when Alexander s death became known
in Athens and the outbreak occurred which led to the Lamian war Aristotle shared in
the general unpopularity of the Macedonians The charge of impiety which had been
brought against Anaxagoras and Socrates was now with even less reason brought
against Aristotle He left the city saying according to many ancient authorities
that he would not give the Athenians a chance to sin a third time against
philosophy He took up residence at his country house at Chalcis in Euboea and there
he died the following year BC His death was due to a disease reportedly of the
stomach from which he had long suffered The story that his death was due to hemlock
poisoning as well as the legend that he threw himself into the sea quot because he
could not explain the tide s quot is without historical foundation Very little is
known about Aristotle s personal appearance except from hostile sources The statues
and busts of Aristotle possibly from the first years of the Peripatetic School
represent him as sharp and keen of countenance and somewhat below the average
height His character amp mdash as revealed by his writings his will which is
undoubtedly genuine fragments of his letters and the allusions of his unprejudiced
contemporaries amp mdash was that of a high minded kind hearted man devoted to his
family and his friends kind to his slaves fair to his enemies and rivals grateful
towards his benefactors When Platonism ceased to dominate the world of Christianity
Christian speculation and the works of Aristotle began to be studied without fear
and prejudice the personality of Aristotle appeared to the Christian writers of the
th century as it had to the unprejudiced pagan writers of his own day as calm
majestic untroubled by passion and undimmed by any great moral defects quot the
master of those who know quot Aristotle s legacy also had a profound influence on
Islamic thought and philosophy during the Middle Ages middle ages The likes of
Avicenna Farabi and Yaqub ibn Ishaq al Kindi lt small gt http www ummah net history
scholars KINDI html lt small gt were a few of the major proponents of the
Aristotelian school of thought during the Golden Age of Islam Methodology details
Aristotle s theory of universals Aristotle defines philosophy in terms of essence
saying that philosophy is quot the science of the universal essence of that which
is actual quot Plato had defined it as the quot science of the idea quot meaning by
idea what we should call the unconditional basis of phenomena Both pupil and master
regard philosophy as concerned with the universal Aristotle however finds the
universal in particular things and called it the essence of things while Plato
finds that the universal exists apart from particular things and is related to them
as their prototype or exemplar For Aristotle therefore philosophic method implies
the ascent from the study of particular phenomena to the knowledge of essences
while for Plato philosophic method means the descent from a knowledge of universal
ideas to a contemplation of particular imitations of those ideas In a certain sense
Aristotle s method is both Inductive reasoning inductive and Deductive reasoning
deductive while Plato s is essentially deductive In Aristotle s terminology the
term natural philosophy corresponds to the phenomena of the natural world which
include motion light and the laws of physics Many centuries later these subjects
would become the basis of modern science as studied through the scientific method
In modern times the term philosophy has come to be more narrowly understood as
metaphysics distinct from empirical study of the natural world via the physical
sciences In contrast in Aristotle s time and use philosophy was taken to encompass
all facets of intellectual inquiry In the larger sense of the word he makes
philosophy coextensive with reasoning which he also called quot science quot Note
however that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that
which is covered by the scientific method quot All science dianoia is either
practical poetical or theoretical quot By practical science he understands ethics
and politics by poetical he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts while
by theoretical philosophy he means physics mathematics and metaphysics The last
philosophy in the stricter sense he defines as quot the knowledge of immaterial
being quot and calls it quot first philosophy quot quot the theologic science quot
or of quot being in the highest degree of abstraction quot If logic or as Aristotle
calls it Analytic be regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy we have as
divisions of Aristotelian philosophy Logic Theoretical Philosophy including
Metaphysics Physics Mathematics Practical Philosophy and Poetical Philosophy
Aristotle s epistemology Logic main Aristotelian logic see details Non Aristotelian
logic History Aristotle quot says that on the subject of reasoning he had nothing
else on an earlier date to speak about quot Boche amp ski However Plato reports
that syntax was thought of before him by Prodikos of Keos who was concerned by the
right use of words Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics the earlier
philosophers used concepts like reductio ad absurdum as a rule when discussing but
never understood its logical implications Even Plato had difficulties with logic
Although he had the idea of constructing a system for deduction he was never able
to construct one Instead he relied on his dialectic which was a confusion between
different sciences and methods Boche amp ski Plato thought that deduction would
simply follow from premise s so he focused on having good premises so that the
conclusion would follow Later on Plato realised that a method for obtaining the
conclusion would be beneficial Plato never obtained such a method but his best
attempt was published in his book Sophist where he introduced his division method
Rose Analytics and the Organon main Organon What we call today Aristotelian logic
Aristotle himself would have labelled analytics The term logic he reserved to mean
dialectics Most of Aristotle s work is probably not in its original form since it
was most likely edited by students and later lecturers The logical works of
Aristotle were compiled into six books at about the time of Christ Categories On
Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical
Refutations The order of the books or the teachings from which they are composed is
not certain but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle s writings There
is one volume of Aristotle s concerning logic not found in the Organon namely the
fourth book of Metaphysics Boche amp ski Modal logic Aristotle is also the creator
of syllogism s with modalities modal logic The word modal refers to the word modes
explaining the fact that modal logic deals with the modes of truth Aristotle
introduced the qualification of necessary and possible premises He constructed a
logic which helped in the evaluation of truth but which was very difficult to
interpret Rose Science Image Francesco Hayez jpg thumb left Aristotle by Francesco
Hayez Aristotelian discussions about science had only been qualitative not
quantitative By the modern definition of the term Aristotelian philosophy was not
science as this worldview did not attempt to probe how the world actually worked
through experiment For example in his book History of Animals The history of
animals he claimed that human males have more teeth than females Had he only made
some observations he would have discovered that this claim is false Rather based on
what one s senses told one Aristotelian philosophy then depended upon the
assumption that man s mind could elucidate all the laws of the universe based on
simple observation without experimentation through reason alone One of the reasons
for this was that Aristotle held that physics was about changing objects with a
reality of their own whereas mathematics was about unchanging objects without a
reality of their own In this philosophy he could not imagine that there was a
relationship between them In contrast today s quot science quot assumes that
thinking alone often leads people astray and therefore one must compare one s ideas
to the actual world through experimentation only then can one see if one s ideas
are based in reality This position is known as empiricism or the scientific method
Although Aristotle initiated an important step in the
history of scientific method by founding logic as a formal science he also left
behind a trail of bankrupt cosmology that we may discern in selections of the
metaphysics His cosmology would gain much acceptance up until the s where
Copernicus and Galileo began to figure out that Europe is not the center of the
universe From the rd century to the s the dominant view held that the earth was the
center of the universe at this late date it is uncontroversial that the earth is
not even the center of our own solar system In spite of Aristotle s bogus account
of the planets and sun he is a vital character in the history of metaphysics both
in terms of the etymology of the word as well as a figure within metaphysics as a
discipline Dubbed the stuff next to the physics by Andronicus of Rhodes metaphysics
became connected to the idea of beyond the physical by Simplicius a commentator on
Aristotle Andronicus had published Aristotle s works sometime around BC so
initially the etymology of metaphysics was simply that which is next to the physics
Aristotle s metaphysics Causality Aristole is the first who saw that quot All
causes of things are beginnings that we have scientific knowledge when we know the
cause that to know a thing s existence is to know the reason for its existence quot
fact Setting the guidelines for all the subsequent causal theories by specifying
the number nature principles elements varieties order and modes of causation
Aristotle s account of the causes of things is the most comprehensive theory up to
now According to Aristotle s theory all the causes fall into several senses the
total number of which amounts to the ways the question why may be answered namely
by reference to the matter or the substratum the essence the pattern the form or
the structure to the primary moving change or the agent and its action and to the
goal the plan the end or the good Consequently the major kinds of causes come under
the following divisions The Material Cause is that from which a thing comes into
existence as from its parts constituents substratum or materials This reduces the
explanation of causes to the parts factors elements constituents ingredients
forming the whole system structure compound complex composite or combination the
part whole causation The Formal Cause tells us what a thing is that any thing is
determined by the definition form pattern essence whole synthesis or archetype It
embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws
as the whole macrostructure is the cause of its parts the whole part causation The
Efficient Cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first
starts It identifies what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is
changed and so suggests all sorts of agents nonliving or living acting as the
sources of change or movement or rest Representing the current understanding of
causality as the relation of cause and effect this covers the modern definitions of
quot cause quot as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of
affairs The Final Cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done
including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities The final cause
or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve or it is that
from which and that to which the change is This also covers modern ideas of mental
causation involving such psychological causes as volition need motivation or
motives rational irrational ethical all that gives purpose to behavior Additionally
things can be causes of one another causing each other reciprocally as hard work
causes fitness and vice versa although not in the same way or function the one is
as the beginning of change the other as the goal Thus Aristotle first suggested a
reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or action or
influence of cause and effect Also Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be
the cause of contrary effects its presence and absent may result in different
outcomes Besides Aristotle marked two modes of causation proper prior causation and
accidental chance causation All causes proper and incidental can be spoken as
potential or as actual particular or generic The same language refers to the
effects of causes so that generic effects assigned to generic causes particular
effects to particular causes operating causes to actual effects Essentiallly
causality does not suggest a temporal relation between the cause and the effect All
further investigations of causality will be consisting in imposing the favorite
hierarchies on the order causes like as final gt efficient gt material gt formal
Aquinas or in restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or to
the efficient causality deterministic or chance or just to regular sequences and
correlations of natural phenomena the natural sciences describing how things happen
instead of explaining the whys and wherefores Chance and Spontaneity Spontaneity
and chance are causes of effects Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of
accidental things It is quot from what is spontaneous quot but note that what is
spontaneous does not come from chance For a better understanding of Aristotle s
conception of quot chance quot it might be better to think of quot coincidence quot
Something takes place by chance if a person sets out with the intent of having one
thing take place but with the result of another thing not intended taking place For
example A person seeks donations That person may find another person willing to
donate a substantial sum However if the person seeking the donations met the person
donating not for the purpose of collecting donations but for some other purpose
Aristotle would call the collecting of the donation by that particular donator a
result of chance It must be unusual that something happens by chance In other words
if something happens all or most of the time we cannot say that it is by chance
However chance can only apply to human beings it is in the sphere of moral actions
According to Aristotle chance must involve choice and thus deliberation and only
humans are capable of deliberation and choice quot What is not capable of action
cannot do anything by chance quot Physics The Five Elements Fire which is hot and
dry Earth which is cold and dry Air which is hot and wet Water which is cold and
wet Aether which is the divine substance that makes up the heavens These four
elements interchange i e Fire amp x Air amp x Water amp x Earth etc while aether is
on its own The Sun keeps this cycle going God keeps the Sun going and thus the Sun
is eternal Aristotle s ethics main Aristotelian ethics Although Aristotle wrote
several works on ethics the major one was the Nicomachean Ethics which is
considered one of Aristotle s greatest works it discusses virtue s The ten books
which comprise it are based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum and were
either edited by or dedicated to Aristotle s son Nicomachus Aristotle believed that
ethical knowledge is not certain knowledge like metaphysics and epistemology but
general knowledge Also as it is a practical discipline rather than a theory
theoretical one he thought that in order to become quot good quot one could not
simply study what virtue is one must actually do virtuous deeds In order to do this
Aristotle had first to establish what was virtuous He began by determining that
everything was done with some goal in mind and that goal is good The ultimate goal
he called the Highest Good Aristotle contested that happiness could not be found
only in pleasure or only in fame and honor He finally finds happiness quot by
ascertaining the specific function of man quot But what is this function that will
bring happiness To determine this Aristotle analyzed the soul and found it to have
three parts the Nutritive Soul plants animals and humans the Perceptive Soul
animals and humans and the Rational Soul humans only Thus a human s function is to
do what makes it human to be good at what sets it apart from everything else the
ability to reason or Nous A person that does this is the happiest because they are
fulfilling their purpose or nature as found in the rational soul Depending on how
well they did this Aristotle said people belonged to one of four categories the
Virtuous the Continent the Incontinent and the Vicious Aristotle believes that
every ethical virtue is an intermediate condition between excess and deficiency
This does not mean Aristotle believed in moral relativism however He set certain
emotions e g hate envy jealousy spite etc and certain actions e g adultery theft
murder etc as always wrong regardless of the situation or the circumstances
Nicomachean ethics main Nicomachean Ethics In Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle focuses
on the importance of continually behavior behaving virtuously and developing virtue
rather than committing specific good actions This can be contrasted with Immanuel
Kant Kantian ethics in which the primary focus is on individual action Nicomachean
Ethics emphasizes the importance of context to ethical behaviour amp mdash what
might be right in one situation might be wrong in another Aristotle believed that
happiness is the end of life and that as long as a person is striving for Goodness
and value theory goodness good deeds will result from that struggle making the
person virtuous and therefore happy Aristotle s critics Image Sanzio Plato
Aristotle jpg thumb left Plato left and Aristotle right a detail of Raphael Rooms
The School of Athens a fresco by Raphael Aristotle gestures to the earth
representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience
whilst Plato points up to the heavens showing his belief in the ultimate truth
Aristotle has been criticised on several grounds His analysis of procreation is
frequently criticised on
the grounds that it presupposes an active ensouling masculine element bringing
life to an inert passive lumpen female element it is on these grounds that some
feminist critics refer to Aristotle as a misogynist At times the objections that
Aristotle raises against the arguments of his own teacher Plato appear to rely on
faulty interpretations of those arguments Although Aristotle advised against Plato
that knowledge of the world could only be obtained through experience he frequently
failed to take his own advice Aristotle conducted projects of careful empirical
investigation but often drifted into Abstraction abstract logical reasoning with
the result that his work was littered with conclusions that were not supported by
empirical evidence for example his assertion that objects of different mass fall at
different speeds under gravity which was later refuted by John Philoponus credit is
often given to Galileo Galilei Galileo even though Philopinus lived centuries
earlier In the Middle Ages roughly from the th century to the th century the
philosophy of Aristotle became firmly established dogma Although Aristotle himself
was far from dogmatic in his approach to philosophical inquiry two aspects of his
philosophy might have assisted its transformation into dogma His works were wide
ranging and systematic so that they could give the impression that no significant
matter had been left unsettled He was also much less inclined to employ the skeptic
al methods of his predecessors Socrates and Plato Some academics have suggested
that Aristotle was unaware of much of the current science of his own time Aristotle
was called not a great philosopher but quot The Philosopher quot by Scholastic
thinkers These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity bringing
the thought of Ancient Greece into the Middle Ages It required a repudiation of
some Aristotelian principles for the sciences and the arts to free themselves for
the discovery of modern scientific laws and empirical methods The loss of his works
Though we know that Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises Cicero described his
literary style as quot a river of gold quot the originals have been lost in time
All that we have now are the literary notes for his pupils which are often
difficult to read the Nicomachean Ethics is a good example It is now believed that
we have about one fifth of his original works Aristotle underestimated the
importance of his written work for humanity He thus never published his books
except from his dialogues The story of the original manuscripts of his treatises is
described by Strabo in his Geography and Plutarch in his quot Parallel Lives Sulla
quot The manuscripts were left from Aristotle to Theophrastus from Theophrastus to
Neleus of Scepsis from Neleus to his heirs Their descendants sold them to Apellicon
of Teos When Lucius Cornelius Sulla Sulla occupied Athens in BC he carried off the
library of Appellicon to Rome where they were first published in BC from the
grammarian Tyrranion of Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes
Bibliography Note Bekker numbers are often used to uniquely identify passages of
Aristotle They are identified below where available Major works The extant works of
Aristotle are broken down according to the five categories in the Corpus
Aristotelicum Not all of these works are considered genuine but differ with respect
to their connection to Aristotle his associates and his views Some such as the
Athenaion Politeia or the fragments of other politeia are regarded by most scholars
as products of Aristotle s quot school quot and compiled under his direction or
supervision Other works such On Colours may have been products of Aristotle s
successors at the Lyceum e g Theophrastus and Straton Still others acquired
Aristotle s name through similarities in doctrine or content such as the De Plantis
possibly by Nicolaus of Damascus A final category omitted here includes medieval
palmistries astrological and magical texts whose connection to Aristotle is purely
fanciful and self promotional Those that are seriously disputed are marked with an
asterisk Logical writings Organon collected works on logic a Categories Aristotle
Categories or Categoriae a On Interpretation or De Interpretatione a Prior
Analytics or Analytica Priora a Posterior Analytics or Analytica Posteriora b
Topics Aristotle Topics or Topica a On Sophistical Refutations or De Sophisticis
Elenchis Physical and scientific writings a Physics Aristotle Physics or Physica
a On the Heavens or De Caelo a On Generation and Corruption or De Generatione et
Corruptione a Meteorology Aristotle Meteorology or Meteorologica a On the Cosmos
or De Mundo or On the Universe a On the Soul or De Anima a Little Physical
Treatises or Parva Naturalia On Sense and the Sensible or De Sensu et Sensibilibus
On Memory and Reminiscence or De Memoria et Reminiscentia On Sleep and
Sleeplessness or De Somno et Vigilia On Dreams or De Insomniis On Prophesying by
Dreams or De Divinatione per Somnum On Longevity and Shortness of Life or De
Longitudine et Brevitate Vitae On Youth and Old Age On Life and Death or De
Juventute et Senectute De Vita et Morte On Breathing or De Respiratione a On
Breath or De Spiritu a History of Animals or Historia Animalium or On the History
of Animals or Description of Animals a On the Parts of Animals or De Partibus
Animalium a On the Gait of Animals or De Motu Animalium or On the Movement of
Animals a On the Progression of Animals or De Incessu Animalium a On the
Generation of Animals or De Generatione Animalium a On Colours or De Coloribus a
De audibilibus a Physiognomics or Physiognomonica On Plants or De Plantis a On
Marvellous Things Heard or Mirabilibus Auscultationibus or On Things Heard a
Mechanical Problems or Mechanica a Problems Aristotle Problems or Problemata a On
Indivisible Lines or De Lineis Insecabilibus a Situations and Names of Winds or
Ventorum Situs a On Melissus Xenophanes and Gorgias or MXG The section On
Xenophanes starts at a the section On Gorgias starts at a Metaphysical writings a
Metaphysics Aristotle Metaphysics or Metaphysica Ethical writings a Nicomachean
Ethics or Ethica Nicomachea or The Ethics a Great Ethics or Magna Moralia a
Eudemian Ethics or Ethica Eudemia a Virtues and Vices or De Virtutibus et Vitiis
Libellus Libellus de virtutibus a Politics Aristotle Politics or Politica a
Economics Aristotle Economics or Oeconomica Aesthetic writings a Rhetoric
Aristotle Rhetoric or Ars Rhetorica or The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric
Rhetoric to Alexander or Rhetorica ad Alexandrum a Poetics or Ars Poetica A work
outside the Corpus Aristotelicum The Constitution of the Athenians or Athenaion
Politeia or The Athenian Constitution Specific editions Princeton University Press
The Complete Works of Aristotle The Revised Oxford Translation Volume Set Bollingen
Series Vol LXXI No edited by Jonathan Barnes ISBN The most complete recent
translation of Aristotle s extant works University of Oxford Oxford University
Press Clarendon Aristotle Series http www oup com us catalog general series
ClarendonAristotleSeries view usa Scholarly edition Harvard University Press Loeb
Classical Library Aristotle Loeb Classical Library hardbound publishes in Greek
with English translations on facing pages Oxford Classical Texts hardbound Greek
only Named for Aristotle Aristoteles crater Aristoteles crater on the Moon The
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Aristotle s Cockney legacy The name of
Aristotle like that of J Arthur Rank became a common expression in Cockney rhyming
slang See also Aristotelian view of God Aristotelian theory of gravity Philia
Phronesis Potentiality and actuality Aristotle Aristotle s theory of potentialiy
and actuality References Needless to say the secondary literature on Aristotle is
vast The following references are only a small selection cite book last Adler first
Mortimer J authorlink Mortimer Adler title Aristotle for Everybody publisher
Macmillan location New York year A popular exposition for the general reader cite
book last Boche ski first I M authorlink I M Boche ski title Ancient Formal Logic
publisher North Holland Publishing Company location Amsterdam year cite book last
Guthrie first W K C title A History of Greek Philosophy Vol publisher Cambridge
University Press year A detailed and scholarly work but very readable cite book
last Melchert first Norman authorlink Norman Melchert title The Great Conversation
A Historical Introduction to Philosophy publisher McGraw Hill year id ISBN cite
book last Rose first Lynn E authorlink Lynn E Rose title Aristotle s Syllogistic
publisher Charles C Thomas Publisher location Springfield year cite book last Ross
first Sir David authorlink Sir David Ross title Aristotle publisher Routledge
edition lt sup gt th lt sup gt ed location London year An classic overview by one
of Aristotle s most important English translators in print since cite book last
Taylor first Henry Osborn authorlink Henry Osborn Taylor url http www
ancientlibrary com medicine index html title Greek Biology and Medicine year
chapter Chapter Aristotle s Biology chapterurl http www ancientlibrary com medicine
html cite book last Turner first William authorlink William Turner others Nihil
Obstat Remy Lafort S T D Censor Imprimatur John Cardinal Farley Abp of New York
title The Catholic Encyclopedia Volume I quot Aristotle quot publisher Robert
Appleton Company edition year location New York cite book last Veatch first Henry
B authorlink Henry Babcock Veatch title Aristotle A Contemporary Appreciation
publisher Indiana U Press location Bloomington year For the general reader External
links Wikisource author wikiquote commons Aristotel s gutenberg author id Aristotle
name Aristotle http Aristotle thefreelibrary com A brief biography
and e texts presented one chapter at a time http www utm edu research iep a
aristotl htm The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Aristotle http www non
contradiction com An extensive collection of Aristotle s philosophy and works
including lesser known texts http www virtuescience com nicomachean ethics html
Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle http uk arxiv org abs physics Aristotle and Indian
logic O Connor J John amp Robertson Edmund F http www history mcs st andrews ac uk
Mathematicians Aristotle html Aristotle PerseusAuthor Aristotle planetmath id
title Aristotle http www greektexts com library Aristotle index html Large
collection of Aristotle s texts presented page by page http www greek literature
online com aristotle Read Aristotle s works online http www newadvent org cathen a
htm Source of most of the Biography and Methodology sections as well as more
overview MacTutor Biography id Aristotle http www shvoong com books history
constitution athens a summary of quot The Constitution of Athens quot Philosophy
navigation Category BC deaths Aristotle Category BC births Aristotle Category
Ancient Greek mathematicians Category Ancient Greek philosophers Category
Aristotelian philosophers Category Aristotle Category Empiricists Category Greek
logicians Category History of philosophy Category History of science Category
Meteorologists Category Rhetoric Category Rhetoricians Link FA fi ar bg ba bs
Aristotel ca Arist til cs Aristotel s da Aristoteles de Aristoteles et Aristoteles
el es Arist teles de Estagira eo Aristotelo eu Aristoteles fa fr Aristote ga
Arastotail gl Arist teles ko hr Aristotel io Aristoteles id Aristoteles is Arist
teles it Aristotele he jv Aristoteles la Aristoteles lv Aristotelis lt Aristotelis
hu Arisztotel sz mk ms Aristotle nl Aristoteles nds Aristoteles ja no Aristoteles
nn Aristoteles pl Arystoteles pt Arist teles ro Aristotel ru sq Aristoteli simple
Aristotle sk Aristoteles sl Aristotel sr fi Aristoteles sv Aristoteles tl
Aristoteles ta th vi Aristotle tr Aristoteles uk zh text revision page page
title An American in Paris title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Japanese Searobin username id id contributor minor comment
ja comment text xml space preserve An American in Paris film An American In Paris
is also a film musical starring Gene Kelly An American in Paris is a European
influenced classical music symphonic composition by United States American composer
George Gershwin which debuted in Inspired by Gershwin s time in Paris it is in the
form of an extended tone poem evoking the sights and energy of the France French
capital in the s In addition to the standard instruments of the symphony orchestra
the score features period automobile horns Gershwin brought back some Parisian taxi
cab horns for the New York premiere of the composition quot An American In Paris
quot is second only to Rhapsody In Blue as a favorite of Gershwin s classical
compositions The score also features instruments rarely seen in the concert hall
celesta and saxophone s Category Compositions by George Gershwin Category Symphonic
poems American in Paris An ja pl Amerykanin w Pary amp u sv An American in Paris
symfonisk dikt text revision page page title Acresses title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Bryan Derksen username id id
contributor minor comment bypassing double redirect comment text xml space
preserve REDIRECT Actor text revision page page title Academy Awards Best Picture
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Koyaanis
Qatsi username id id contributor comment REDIRECt comment text xml space preserve
REDIRECT Academy Award for Best Picture text revision page page title Academy
Awards Best Actor title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Ap username id id contributor comment redirecting to Academy Award for
Best Actor comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best Actor
text revision page page title Academy Awards Best Actress title id id revision id
id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Koyaanis Qatsi username id id
contributor comment REDIRECT to Academy Award for Best Actress comment text xml
space preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best Actress text revision page page
title Academy Awards Best Supporting Actor title id id revision id id timestamp T
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comment REDIRECT comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best
Supporting Actor text revision page page title Academy Awards Best Supporting
Actress title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username
Koyaanis Qatsi username id id contributor comment REDIRECT comment text xml space
preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress text revision page page
title Academy Awards Art Direction title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
timestamp contributor username Koyaanis Qatsi username id id contributor comment
REDIRECT comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best Art
Direction text revision page page title Academy Awards Directing title id id
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username id id contributor comment comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT
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Language Film title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Eclecticology username id id contributor comment comment text xml space
preserve redirect Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film text revision page
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timestamp contributor username Koyaanis Qatsi username id id contributor comment
REDIRECT comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Academy Award for Best
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Academy Awards Music Original Song title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
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de sub paging comment text xml space preserve redirect Academy Award for Best Song
text revision page page title Academy Awards Short Film Live Action title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Eclecticology
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redirect Academy Award for Live Action Short Film text revision page page title
Academy Awards title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Wikipedical username id id contributor comment See also comment text xml
space preserve The Academy Awards popularly known as the Oscars are the most
prominent film awards in the United States and arguably the world The Awards are
granted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences a professional honorary
organization which as of had a voting membership of Actors with a membership of
make up the largest voting bloc The votes have been tabulated and certified by
auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers since close to the awards inception http www
pwc com extweb newcolth nsf docid E FBE B EE E BE FB The th Academy Awards next
Oscars will take place on Sunday March th Oscar statuette The official name of the
Oscar statuette is the quot Academy Award of Merit quot Made of gold plated
britannium on a black marble base it is inches cm tall weighs lbs kg and depicts a
knight holding a crusade crusader s sword standing on a reel of film The root of
the name quot Oscar quot is contested Some believe it comes from Academy librarian
Margaret Herrick who saw it on a table and said quot it looks just like my uncle
Oscar quot Others claim that Bette Davis named it after her first husband However
it became the nickname stuck and is used almost as commonly as Academy Award even
by the Academy itself In fact the Academy s domain name is oscars org and the
official website for the Academy Awards is at oscar com Awards night The major
awards are given out at a ceremony most commonly in March following the relevant
calendar year This is an elaborate extravaganza with the invited guests walking up
the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day
The ceremony and extravagant afterparties including the Academy s Governors Ball
are televised around the world The ceremony has consecutively aired on American
Broadcasting Company ABC since Nominations Today according to Rules and of the
official Academy Awards Rules a film has to open in the previous calendar year from
midnight January to midnight December in Los Angeles County California to qualify
http www oscars org academyawards rules index html Rule states that a film must be
quot feature length quot defined as minutes to qualify for an award except for
Short Subject awards of course It must also exist either on a mm film mm or mm film
mm film print OR on a fps or fps progressive scan digital film print with a native
resolution no lower than SXGA x The members of the various branches nominate those
in their respective fields actors are nominated by the actors branch etc while all
members may submit nominees for Best Picture The winners are then determined by a
second round of voting in which all members are now allowed to vote in all
categories Membership Academy membership may be obtained by one of two ways a
competitive nomination however the nominee must be invited to join or a member may
submit a name seconded by at least two other members
then voted upon by the Board of Governors The Academy does not publicly disclose
its membership although past press releases have announced the names of those who
have been invited to join If a person not yet a member is nominated in more than
one category in a single year he she must choose which branch to join when he she
accepts membership Awards Image BobHopegettingOsca jpg thumb Although he never won
an Oscar for any of his movie performances the comedian Bob Hope received five
honorary Oscars for contributions to cinema and humanitarian work Academy Award of
Merit Current awards Academy Award for Best Picture Best Picture amp nbsp amp ndash
to present Academy Award for Best Actor Best Leading Actor amp nbsp amp ndash to
present Academy Award for Best Actress Best Leading Actress amp nbsp amp ndash to
present Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actor amp nbsp amp
ndash to present Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress Best Supporting Actress
amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Best
Animated Feature amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for Best Art
Direction Best Art Direction amp nbsp amp ndash to present also called Interior or
Set Decoration Academy Award for Best Cinematography Best Cinematography amp nbsp
amp ndash to present Academy Award for Costume Design Best Costume Design amp nbsp
amp ndash to present Academy Award for Directing Best Director amp nbsp amp ndash
to present Academy Award for Documentary Feature Best Documentary Feature Academy
Award for Documentary Short Subject Best Documentary Short Subject Academy Award
for Film Editing Best Film Editing amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for
Best Foreign Language Film Best Foreign Language Film amp nbsp amp ndash to
present Academy Award for Makeup Best Makeup amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy
Award for Original Music Score Best Original Score to present Academy Award for
Best Song Best Original Song amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for Best
Song Best Original Musical amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for
Animated Short Film Best Animated Short Film amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy
Award for Live Action Short Film Best Live Action Short Film Academy Award for
Sound Best Sound Mixing to present Academy Award for Sound Effects Editing Best
Sound Editing amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for Visual Effects Best
Visual Effects amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for Writing Adapted
Screenplay Best Adapted Screenplay amp nbsp amp ndash to present Academy Award for
Writing Original Screenplay Best Original Screenplay amp nbsp amp ndash to present
Retired awards Academy Award for Best Assistant Director Best Assistant Director
amp nbsp amp ndash to Academy Award for Best Dance Direction Best Dance Direction
amp nbsp amp ndash to Academy Award for Engineering Effects Best Engineering
Effects amp nbsp amp ndash only Best Score Adaptation or Treatment Academy Award
for Best Short Film Color Best Short Film Color amp nbsp amp ndash and Academy
Award for Best Short Film Live Action Reels Best Short Film Live Action Reels amp
nbsp amp ndash to Academy Award for Short Film Novelty Best Short Film Novelty
amp nbsp amp ndash to Academy Award for Best Story Best Original Story amp nbsp
amp ndash to Academy Award for Best Title Writing Best Title Writing amp nbsp amp
ndash only Academy Award for Unique and Artistic Production Best Unique and
Artistic Quality of Production amp nbsp amp ndash only In the first year of the
awards the Best Director category was split into separate Drama and Comedy
categories At times the Best Original Score category has been split into separate
Drama and Comedy Musical categories Today the Best Original Score category is one
category From the s through the s the Cinematography Art Direction and Costume
Design awards were split into separate categories for black and white and color
films Special awards These awards are voted on by special committees rather than by
the Academy membership as a whole Current awards Academy Honorary Award amp nbsp
amp ndash to present Academy Special Achievement Award Academy Award Scientific or
Technical amp nbsp amp ndash to present at three levels The Irving G Thalberg
Memorial Award amp nbsp amp ndash to present The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
Gordon E Sawyer Award Retired awards Academy Juvenile Award amp nbsp amp ndash to
Academy Award statistics Academy Award statistics Films receiving or more
nominations Academy Award statistics Films receiving or more awards Academy Award
statistics Films receiving awards for Best Picture Directing Actor Actress and
Writing Academy Award statistics Films receiving or more acting nominations Academy
Award statistics Actors receiving or more nominations Academy Award statistics
Actors receiving or more awards Academy Award statistics Directors receiving or
more nominations See also List of Academy Awards ceremonies List of movies that
have won eight or more Academy Awards List of Academy Award winning movies th
Academy Awards References Gail K amp Piazza J The Academy Awards the Complete
History of Oscar Black Dog amp Leventhal Publishers Inc External links Wiktionary
http www oscars org Oscars org http www oscars org awardsdatabase index html The
Academy Awards Database http www oscar com Oscar com http www imdb com Sections
Awards Academy Awards USA The Academy Awards at The Internet Movie Database
Category Academy Awards Category Film awards ar af Oscar bg bs Oskar ca Premi
scar cs Oscar da Oscar uddeling de Oscar et Oscar es Premios Oscar eo Oskar premio
fa fr Oscar du cin ma kn ko hr Oscar id Academy Award ilo Pammadayaw nga Oscar
it Premio Oscar he hu Oscar d j zh min nan Oscar Chi ng nl Academy Award ja nb
Oscar pl Nagroda Akademii Filmowej pt scar ro Premiul Oscar fi Oscar palkinto sq
Academy Award simple Academy Award sv Oscar filmpris vi Gi i Oscar zh text
revision page page title Action Film title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
timestamp contributor username Maveric username id id contributor minor text
xml space preserve REDIRECT Action movie text revision page page title Actors title
id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username RoyBoy
username id id contributor minor comment Reverted edits by Special Contributions
to last version by Maveric comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Actor text
revision page page title Actors Male title id id revision id id timestamp T Z
timestamp contributor username Timwi username id id contributor minor comment
fix double redirect comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT List of male movie
actors A K text revision page page title Actresses title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Maveric username id id contributor
minor comment opps comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT actor text revision
page page title Animalia book title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Cherry blossom tree username id id contributor comment
remove er just words really i suppose comment text xml space preserve dablink For
the kingdom of life see Animal Image Animalia jpg thumb px Animalia Cover Animalia
is an illustrated Children s literature children s book by Graeme Base It was
published in Animalia is an alphabet book and contains twenty six illustrations
one for each letter of the alphabet Each illustration features an animal from the
animal kingdom A is for alligator B is for butterfly etc The illustrations contain
dozens of small objects that the curious reader can try to identify Base also
published a coloring book version http www alibris com search search cfm qwork amp
wauth Base C Graeme amp matches amp qsort r amp cm re works listing title for
children to do their own coloring External links http www tellapallet com animalia
htm A web site that contains a fairly comprehensive list of items hidden in
Animalia s illustrations http www amazon com gp product Animalia on Amazon com
https www graemebase com Home cfm Graeme Base s Official website Category Children
s books sk ivo chy text revision page page title Asymmetric Algorithms title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Hurricane username
id id contributor comment Fixed double redirect Wikipedia Computer help desk
cleanup double redirects You can help comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT
Public key cryptography text revision page page title International Atomic Time
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username
ShakataGaNai username id id contributor minor comment utc disambig comment text
xml space preserve Temps Atomique International TAI or International Atomic Time is
a very accurate and stable time scale It is a weighted average of the time kept by
about atomic clock s including a large number of caesium atomic clocks in over
national laboratories worldwide It has been available since and became the
international standard on which Coordinated Universal Time UTC is based on January
as decided by the th General Conference on Weights and Measures CGPM The
International Bureau of Weights and Measures is in charge of the realization of TAI
The highest precision realization of TAI times can only be determined
retrospectively as the timescale is defined by periodic comparisons among its
participating atomic clocks However these corrections are usually only needed for
applications that require nanosecond scale accuracy Most time service users use
realtime estimates of TAI provided by atomic clocks that have been previously
referenced to the composite timescale Global Positioning System GPS is a commonly
used realtime source of time traceable back to TAI Coordinated Universal Time UTC
is the basis for legal time throughout
much of the world and always differs from TAI by an integral number of seconds
From January UTC was behind TAI by seconds The difference is due to an initial ten
second offset on January when UTC was established and leap second s which have
been periodically inserted into UTC since the first on June due to slight
irregularities in Earth s rate of rotation While TAI is a continuous and stable
timescale UTC has intentional discontinuities to keep it from drifting more than
second from UT a timescale defined by the Earth s rotation Roughly speaking solar
noon the time at which the sun is directly overhead would drift away from without
leap second corrections UT is computed by the International Earth Rotation and
Reference Systems Service IERS TAI was defined such that TAI UT on January Because
UTC is a discontinuous timescale it is not possible to compute the exact time
interval elapsed between two UTC timestamps without consulting a table that
describes how many leap seconds occurred during that interval Therefore many
scientific applications that require precise measurement of long multi year
intervals use TAI instead TAI is also commonly used by systems that can not handle
leap seconds See also Terrestrial Time Coordinated Universal Time Universal Time
Sidereal Time Time and frequency transfer Clock synchronization Network Time
Protocol External links http www bipm fr enus Scientific c time time html Bureau
International des Poids et Mesures http hpiers obspm fr IERS website http www
boulder nist gov timefreq general faq htm NIST Time and Frequency FAQs lt
Categories gt Category Time scales lt Interwiki gt de Internationale Atomzeit eo
TAI es Tiempo at mico fr Temps atomique international he amp amp amp amp amp amp
amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp id Waktu Atom Internasional ja
pl Mi amp dzynarodowy czas atomowy ru sk Medzin amp rodn amp at amp mov amp amp as
zh amp amp amp sv TAI text revision page page title Altruism title id id revision
id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor comment Altruism
and religion comment text xml space preserve Altruism is considered a belief a
practice a habit or an ethics ethical doctrine Many cultures and religious
traditions judge altruism to be virtue virtuous In English the idea was often
described as Ethic of reciprocity Golden rule of ethics In Buddhism it is
considered a fundamental property of human nature Altruism can refer to being
helpful to other people with little or no interest in being rewarded for one s
efforts the colloquial definition This is distinct from merely helping others
actions that benefit others with a net detrimental or neutral effect on the actor
regardless of the actor s own psychology motivation or the cause of his or her
actions This type of altruistic behavior is referred to in ecology as Commensalism
an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help
others if necessary to the exclusion of one s own interest or benefit One who holds
such a doctrine is known as an quot altruist quot The concepts have a long history
in philosophical and ethical thought and have more recently become a topic for
psychologists sociologists evolution ary biologists and ethology ethologists While
ideas about altruism from one field can have an impact on the other fields the
different methods and focuses of these fields lead to different perspectives on
altruism Altruism can be distinguished from a feeling of loyalty and duty Altruism
focuses on a moral obligation towards all humanity while duty focuses on a moral
obligation towards a specific individual e g a king a specific organization e g a
government or an abstract concept e g God country etc Some individuals may feel
both altruism and duty while others may not As opposed to altruism duty is much
easier to enforce by an authority Altruism in ethics Main article Altruism ethical
doctrine The word quot altruism quot French altruisme from autrui quot other people
quot derived from Latin alter quot other quot was coined by Auguste Comte the
French founder of positivism in order to describe the ethical doctrine he supported
He believed that individuals had a moral obligation to serve the interest of others
or the quot greater good quot of humanity Comte says in his Catechisme Positiviste
that quot the social point of view cannot tolerate the notion of rights for such
notion rests on individualism We are born under a load of obligations of every kind
to our predecessors to our successors to our contemporaries After our birth these
obligations increase or accumulate for it is some time before we can return any
service This quot to live for others quot the definitive formula of human morality
gives a direct sanction exclusively to our instincts of benevolence the common
source of happiness and duty Man must serve Humanity whose we are entirely quot As
the name of the ethical doctrine is quot altruism quot doing what the ethical
doctrine prescribes has also come to be referred to by the term quot altruism quot
serving others through placing their interests above one s own However the idea
that one has a moral obligation to serve others is much older than Auguste Comte
For example many of the world s oldest and most widespread religion s particularly
Buddhism and Christianity advocate it In the New Testament of the Christianity
Christian Bible it is explained as follows quot Jesus made answer and said A
certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho and he fell among robbers who
both stripped him and beat him and departed leaving him half dead And by chance a
certain priest was going down that way and when he saw him he passed by on the
other side And in like manner a Levite also when he came to the place and saw him
passed by on the other side But a certain Samaritan as he journeyed came where he
was and when he saw him he was moved with compassion and came to him and bound up
his wounds pouring on them oil and wine and he set him on his own beast and brought
him to an inn and took care of him And on the morrow he took out two shillings and
gave them to the host and said Take care of him and whatsoever thou spendest more I
when I come back again will repay thee Which of these three thinkest thou proved
neighbor unto him that fell among the robbers And he said He that showed mercy on
him And Jesus said unto him Go and do thou likewise quot Luke Philosophers who
support ethical egoism egoism have argued that altruism is demeaning to the
individual and that no moral obligation to help others actually exists Nietzsche
asserts that altruism is predicated on the assumption that others are more
important than one s self and that such a position is degrading and demeaning He
also claims that it was very uncommon for people in Europe to consider the
sacrifice of one s own interests for others as virtuous until after the advent of
Christianity Ayn Rand argued that altruism is the willful sacrifice of one s values
and represents the reversal of morality because only a rationally selfish ethics
allows one to pursue the values required for human life Advocates of altruism as an
ethical doctrine maintain that one ought to act or refrain from acting so that
benefit or good economics good is bestowed on other people if necessary to the
exclusion of one s own interests Note that refraining from murdering someone for
example is not altruism since he is not receiving a benefit or being helped as he
already has his life this would amount to the same thing as ignoring someone
Altruism in ethology and evolutionary biology In the science of ethology the study
of behavior altruism refers to behavior by an individual that increases the fitness
biology fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor
This would appear to be counter intuitive if one presumes that natural selection
acts on the individual Natural selection however acts on the gene pool of the
subjects not on each subject individually Recent developments in game theory have
provided some explanations for apparent altruism as have traditional evolutionary
analyses Among the proposed mechanisms are Behavioral manipulation e g by certain
parasites that can alter the behavior of the host see http news yahoo com s space
sc space mindcontrolbyparasites Bounded rationality e g Herbert Simon Conscience
Indirect reciprocity e g reputation Kin selection including eusociality see also
quot selfish gene quot Meme s by influencing behavior to favour their own spread e
g religion Reciprocal altruism mutual aid Sexual selection Strong reciprocity The
study of altruism was the initial impetus behind George R Price s development of
the Price equation which is a mathematical equation used to study genetic evolution
An interesting example of altruism is found in the cellular slime mould s such as
Dictyostelid Dictyostelium mucoroides These protists live as individual amoebae
until starved at which point they aggregate and form a multicellular fruiting body
in which some cells sacrifice themselves to promote the survival of other cells in
the fruiting body Social behavior and altruism share many similaraties to the
interactions between the many parts cells genes of an organism but are
distinguished by the ability of each individual to reproduce indefinitely without
an absolute requirement for its neighbors Altruism in psychology and sociology If
one performs an act beneficial to others with a view to gaining some personal
benefit then it is not an altruistically motivated act There are several different
perspectives on how quot benefit quot or quot interest quot should be defined A
material gain e g money a physical reward etc is clearly a form of benefit while
others identify and include both material and immaterial gains affection respect
happiness satisfaction etc as being philosophically identical
benefits According to psychological egoism while people can exhibit altruistic
behavior they cannot have altruistic motivations Psychological egoists would say
that while they might very well spend their lives benefitting others with no
material benefit or a material net loss to themselves their most basic motive for
doing so is always to further their own interests For example it would be alleged
that the foundational motive behind a person acting this way is to advance their
own psychological well being quot good feeling quot Critics of this theory often
reject it on the grounds that it is falsifiability non falsifiable in other words
it is designed in such a way as to be impossible to prove or disprove because
immaterial gains such as a quot good feeling quot cannot be measured or proven to
exist in all people performing altruistic acts Psychological egoism has also been
accused of using circular logic quot If a person willingly performs an act that
means he derives personal enjoyment from it therefore people only perform acts that
give them personal enjoyment quot This statement is circular because its conclusion
is identical to its hypothesis it assumes that people only perform acts that give
them personal enjoyment and concludes that people only perform acts that give them
personal enjoyment In contrast to psychological egoism the empathy altruism
hypothesis states that when an individual experiences empathy towards someone in
need the individual will then be altruistically motivated to help that person that
is the individual will be primarily concerned about that person s welfare not his
or her own In common parlance altruism usually means helping another person without
expecting material reward from that or other persons although it may well entail
the quot internal quot benefit of a quot good feeling quot sense of satisfaction
self esteem fulfillment of duty whether imposed by a religion or ideology or simply
one s conscience or the like In this way one need not speculate on the motives of
the altruist in question Humans are not exclusively altruistic towards family
members previous co operators or potential future allies but can be altruistic
towards people they don t know and will never meet For example humans donate to
international charity charities and volunteer their time to help society s less
fortunate It strains plausibility to claim that these altruistic deeds are done in
the hope of a return favor The game theory analysis of this just in case strategy
where the principle would be always help everyone in case you need to pull in a
favor in return is a decidedly non optimal strategy where the net expenditure of
effort tit is far greater than the net profit when it occasionally pays off tat
According to some it is difficult to believe that these behaviors are solely
explained as indirect selfish rationality be it conscious or sub conscious
Mathematical formulations of kin selection along the lines of the prisoner s
dilemma are helpful as far as they go but what a game theory game theoretic
explanation glosses over is the fact that altruistic behavior can be attributed to
that apparently mysterious phenomenon the conscience One recent suggestion proposed
by the philosopher Daniel Dennett was initially developed when considering the
problem of so called free riders in the tragedy of the commons a larger scale
version of the prisoner s dilemma In game theory terms a free rider is an agent
grammar agent who draws benefits from a co operative society without contributing
In a one to one situation free riding can easily be discouraged by a tit for tat
strategy But in a larger scale society where contributions and benefits are pooled
and shared they can be incredibly difficult to shake off Imagine an elementary
society of co operative organisms Co operative agents interact with each other each
contributing resources and each drawing on the common good Now imagine a rogue free
rider an agent who draws a favor quot you scratch my back quot and later refuses to
return it The problem is that free riding is always going to be beneficial to
individuals at cost to society How can well behaved co operative agents avoid being
cheated Over many generations one obvious solution is for co operators to evolve
the ability to spot potential free riders in advance and refuse to enter into
reciprocal arrangements with them Then the canonical free rider response is to
evolve a more convincing disguise fooling co operators into co operating after all
This can lead to an evolutionary arms race s with ever more sophisticated disguises
and ever more sophisticated detectors In this evolutionary arms race how best might
one convince comrades that one really is a genuine co operator not a free rider in
disguise One answer is by actually making oneself a genuine co operator by erecting
psychological barriers to breaking promises and by advertising this fact to
everyone else In other words a good solution is for organisms to evolve things that
everyone knows will force them to be co operators and to make it obvious that they
ve evolved these things So evolution will produce organisms who are sincerely moral
and who wear their hearts on their sleeves in short evolution will give rise to the
phenomenon of conscience This theory combined with ideas of kin selection and the
one to one sharing of benefits may explain how a blind and fundamentally selfish
process can produce a genuinely non cynical form of altruism that gives rise to the
human conscience Critics of such technical game theory analysis point out that it
appears to forget that human beings are rational and emotional To presume an
analysis of human behaviour without including human rationale or emotion is
necessarily unrealistically narrow and treats human beings as if they are mere
machines sometimes called Homo economicus Another objection is that often people
donate anonymously so that it is impossible to determine if they really did the
altruistic act Beginning with an understanding that rational human beings benefit
from living in a benign universe logically it follows that particular human beings
may gain substantial emotional satisfaction from acts which they perceive to make
the world a better place Comparison of Altruism and Tit for Tat Studying the simple
strategy quot Tit for tat quot in the iterated prisoner s dilemma problem game
theory game theorists argue that quot Tit for tat quot is much more successful in
establishing stable cooperation among individuals than altruism defined as
unconditional cooperation can ever be quot Tit for tat quot starts with cooperation
in the first step as altruism does and then just imitates the behaviour of the
partner step by step If the partner cooperates then he rewards him with cooperation
if he doesn t then he punishes him by not cooperating in the next step Confronted
with many strategies that try to exploit or abuse cooperation of others this simple
strategy surprisingly proved to be the most successful see The Evolution of
Cooperation It was even more successful than these abusing strategies while
unconditional cooperativity altruism was one of the most unsuccessful strategies
Confronted with altruistic behaviour Tit for tat is indistinguishable from pure
altruism Robert Axelrod and Richard Dawkins also showed that altruism may be
harmful to society by nourishing exploiters and abusers and making them more and
more powerful until they can force everyone to cooperate unconditionally which is
not the case for quot Tit for tat quot See also comparison of entrepreneur and
entredonneur In the context of biology the quot Tit for tat quot strategy is also
called reciprocal altruism Altruism in politics lt table border gt lt tr gt lt td
colspan align center gt There is currently a WP NPOV POV WP DR dispute as to the
wording of the section shown below lt td gt lt tr gt lt tr gt lt td valign top gt
If one is an adherent to the ethical doctrine called altruism that people have an
ethical obligation to help or further the welfare of others then one will support
the kind of politics that one believes to be most effective in furthering the
welfare of others regardless of the effect this may have on oneself Since there is
no general consensus on what kind of politics results in the greatest benefit for
others different altruists may have very different political views With regard to
their political convictions altruists may be divided in two broad groups Those who
believe altruism is a matter of personal choice and therefore selfishness can and
should be tolerated and those who believe that altruism is a moral ideal which
should be embraced if possible by all human beings A prominent example of the
former branch of altruist political thought is Lysander Spooner who in Natural Law
writes quot Man no doubt owes many other moral duties to his fellow men such as to
feed the hungry clothe the naked shelter the homeless care for the sick protect the
defenceless assist the weak and enlighten the ignorant But these are simply moral
duties of which each man must be his own judge in each particular case as to
whether and how and how far he can or will perform them quot The latter branch of
altruist political thought on the other hand argues that egoism should be actively
discouraged and that altruists have a duty not only to help other people but to
teach those people to help each other as well Thus in politics these altruists
almost always take a left wing stance ranging from moderate social democracy to
socialism or even communism Moderate altruists of this branch may argue for the
creation of tax taxation funded government programs aimed at benefiting the needy
for example transfer payments such as social welfare or public healthcare and
public education Less obvious things such as a law that motorists pull over to let
emergency vehicles pass
may also be justified by appealing to the altruism ethic Finally radical altruists
of this branch may take things further and advocate some form of collectivism or
communalism On a somewhat related note altruism is often held even by non altruists
to be the kind of ethic that should guide the actions of politicians and other
people in positions of power Such people are usually expected to set their own
interests aside and serve the populace When they do not they may be criticized as
defaulting on what is believed to be an ethical obligation to place the interests
of others above their own lt td gt lt td valign top gt Politicians often speak of a
moral obligation of individuals to help others For example George Bush speaking to
the United Nations said quot We have a moral obligation to help others and a moral
duty to make sure our actions are effective quot If one is an adherent to the
ethical doctrine called altruism that people have an ethical obligation to help or
further the welfare of others it can become a moral justification for forcing or
advocating forcing individuals to help others In the realm of politics the altruist
may employ an agent in the form of government to enforce this supposed moral
obligation This is not to say that an ethical altruist will necessarily force this
on anyone An altruist may allow others the freedom to behave in a manner they
believe to be immoral or selfish In other words their ethical doctrine would not
manifest itself politically With regard those who believe benevolence is a moral
obligation altruists may be divided in two broad groups Those who believe helping
others is a moral obligation but should not be enforced on individuals And those
who believe that since helping others is a moral obligation forcing individuals to
help others if they are not willing on their own is justified A prominent example
of the former branch of altruist political thought is Lysander Spooner who in
Natural Law writes quot Man no doubt owes many other moral duties to his fellow men
such as to feed the hungry clothe the naked shelter the homeless care for the sick
protect the defenceless assist the weak and enlighten the ignorant But these are
simply moral duties of which each man must be his own judge in each particular case
as to whether and how and how far he can or will perform them quot The latter
branch of altruist political thought on the other hand argues that egoism should be
actively discouraged and that individuals should be forced to help other people
Thus in politics these altruists almost always take a left wing stance ranging from
moderate social democracy to socialism or even communism Moderate altruists of this
branch may argue for the creation of tax taxation funded government programs aimed
at benefiting the needy for example transfer payments such as social welfare or
public healthcare and public education Finally radical altruists of this branch may
take things to an extreme and advocate some form of state enforced collectivism
communalism or communism This is in line with August Comte s philosophy who coined
the term altruism which argues against individual rights Finally many believe that
helping others or serving society is not a moral obligation at all but that altrusm
is an arbitrary pronouncement not philosophically derivable These oppose all
government enforced charity Individualist anarchist Pierre Joseph Proudhon in warns
of enforcing charity quot That is why charity the prime virtue of the Christian the
legitimate hope of the socialist the object of all the efforts of the economist is
a social vice the moment it is made a principle of constitution and a law that is
why certain economists have been able to say that legal charity had caused more
evil in society than proprietary usurpation quot The Philosophy of Poverty Comte
asserts that individual rights are not compatible with the supposed obligation to
serve others Some argue that the ethical doctrine if taken to its logical
conclusion leads to tyranny lt td gt lt tr gt lt table gt Altruism and religion
sect stub All the major world religion s promote altruism as a very important moral
value Christianity and Buddhism place particular emphasis on altruistic morality as
noted above but Judaism Islam and Hinduism also promote altruistic behavior The
Good Samaritan is a famous New Testament parable appearing only in the Gospel of
Luke The parable is told by Jesus illustrating altruism lt This section should
continue by quoting altruism related verses from the holy books of the
aforementioned religions gt See also Altruism ethical doctrine Altruism in animals
Psychology Euphemism Will law Trust law Tit for tat Reciprocal altruism External
links http www altruists org about altruism What is Altruism Altruists
International http plato stanford edu entries altruism biological Biological
Altruism http www humboldt edu altruism home html The Altruistic Personality and
Prosocial Behavior Institute at Humboldt State University http www iipbaar org
International Institute for Prosocial Behavior and Altruism Research References
Batson C D The altruism question Hillsdale NJ Erlbaum Fehr E amp Fischbacher U
October The nature of human altruism In Nature amp ndash August Comte Catechisme
positiviste or Catechism of Positivism tr R Congreve London Kegan Paul Oord
Thomas Jay Science of Love Philadelphia Templeton Foundation Press Nietzsche
Friedrich Beyond Good and Evil Pierre Joseph Proudhon The Philosophy of Poverty
Lysander Spooner Natural Law Ayn Rand The Virtue of Selfishness Matt Ridley The
Origins Of Virtue Oliner Samuel P and Pearl M Towards a Caring Society Ideas into
Action West Port CT Praeger The Evolution of Cooperation Robert Axelrod Basic
Books ISBN The Selfish Gene Richard Dawkins second edition includes two chapters
about the evolution of cooperation ISBN Robert Wright journalist Robert Wright The
moral animal Vintage ISBN Philosophy navigation Category Ethics Category
Evolutionary biology Category philanthropy Category Social philosophy Category
Social psychology Category Sociology Category Virtues Category Motivation bg de
Altruismus es Altruismo fi Altruismi fr Altruisme he it Altruismo lt Altruizmas nl
Altru sme pl Altruizm sv Altruism text revision page page title Ang Lee title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor comment
Actor comment text xml space preserve Image Ang lee jpg frame Lee accepting the
Best Foreign Film award for Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon at the rd Academy Awards
Ang Lee Chinese Pinyin L n born October is an Academy Award winning film director
from Taiwan Early life Ang Lee was born and raised in Pingtung County Pingtung
Taiwan and educated in the United States where he found success as a Hollywood
director well known for his wuxia film Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon He completed
his bachelor s degree in Theater from the University of Illinois and received his
MFA from New York University s Tisch School of the Arts where in he made a thesis
film called Fine Line He was a classmate of Spike Lee and worked on the crew of the
latter Lee s thesis film Joe s Bed Stuy Barbershop We Cut Heads Career Many of his
films have focused on the interactions between modernity and tradition His films
have also tended to have a light hearted comic tone which marks a break from the
tragic historical realism which characterized Taiwanese filmmaking after the end of
the martial law period in Lee s films also tend to draw on deep secrets and
internal torment that begin to come to the surface such as the gay themed films The
Wedding Banquet Brokeback Mountain the martial arts epic Crouching Tiger Hidden
Dragon and the comic book adaptation Hulk film Hulk He received the Dartmouth
Film Award in along with Meryl Streep Lee s film Brokeback Mountain won the best
film award at the Venice International Film Festival and was named s best film by
the Los Angeles film critics It also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion
Picture Drama with Lee winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Director Lee also
won the Best Director award for the film at the British Academy Awards BAFTAs In
January Brokeback scored a leading Academy Award nominations including Lee for Best
Director The film is considered to be the frontrunner for the March ceremony He
taught Meryl Streep s son and Kai Christophe Wong initially scheduled for the lead
in Dark Matter Private life His wife Jane is a microbiologist they have two
children Haan and Mason He is a huge fan of the Vancouver Canucks of the National
Hockey League He kept his directing aspirations a secret because his culture did
not encourage ambitions in a non practical career like film Films Director Hulk
Brokeback Mountain Hulk film Hulk The Hire BMW Short Movies Chosen Crouching
Tiger Hidden Dragon Chinese Ride with the Devil The Ice Storm Sense and
Sensibility film Sense and Sensibility Eat Drink Man Woman Chinese The Wedding
Banquet Chinese Pushing Hands movie Pushing Hands Chinese Fine Line Shades of
the lake I Love Chinese Food Beat the Artist The Runner One Day of Ma Chuan
Chen Chinese Laziness in a Saturday Afternoon Chinese See Also Category Films
directed by Ang Lee Films directed by Ang Lee Writer Siao Yu Chinese Eat Drink
Man Woman Chinese The Wedding Banquet Chinese Pushing Hands movie Pushing Hands
Chinese Actor The Wedding Banquet Chinese The Hulk Editing Eat Drink Man Woman
Chinese Pushing Hands movie Pushing Hands Chinese Producer Crouching Tiger
Hidden Dragon Chinese Siao Yu Chinese External links imdb name id name Ang Lee
http www thecheappop com heath html Ang Lee on Brokeback http movie cca gov tw
PEOPLE people inside asp rowid amp id Ang Lee Chinese Category births Lee Ang
Category Living people Lee Ang Category American film directors Lee Ang Category
Hulk Lee Ang Category
Taiwanese Americans Lee Ang Category Taiwanese film directors Lee Ang Category
Best Director Golden Globe Category Best Director Oscar nominees de Ang Lee es Ang
Lee et Ang Lee fi Ang Lee fr Ang Lee hr Ang Lee it Ang Lee ja ka nl Ang Lee pt
Ang Lee zh text revision page page title AutoRacing title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip Conversion script ip contributor minor
comment Automated conversion comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Auto racing
text revision page page title Ayn Rand title id id restrictions edit sysop move
sysop restrictions revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username
Woohookitty username id id contributor text xml space preserve protected Infobox
Philosopher lt Scroll down to edit this page gt lt Philosopher Category gt region
Western Philosophy era Contemporary philosophy color B C DE lt Image and Caption
gt image name Ayn Rand jpg image caption Ayn Rand novelist and philosopher lt
Information gt name Ayn Rand birth February death March school tradition
Objectivist philosophy main interests Objectivist metaphysics Objectivist ethics
influences Aristotle Thomas Aquinas Nietzsche influenced Leonard Peikoff Harry
Binswanger John Ridpath Tara Smith David Kelley Dr Frank R Wallace notable ideas
Rational self interest Ayn Rand IPA ajn nd OldStyleDate February January amp ndash
March born Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum was best known for her philosophy of
Objectivist philosophy Objectivism and her novels We the Living Anthem novel
Anthem The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged Her philosophy and her fiction both
emphasize above all the concepts of individualism rational egoism quot Objectivist
ethics rational self interest quot and capitalism which she believed should be
implemented fully via Laissez faire capitalism Her politics has been described as
minarchism and libertarianism though she never used the first term and detested the
second Her novels were based upon the projection of the Randian hero a man whose
ability and independence causes conflict with the masses but who perseveres
nevertheless to achieve his values Rand viewed this hero as the ideal and the
express goal of her fiction was to showcase such heroes She believed That man must
choose his values and actions by reason That the individual has a right to exist
for his own sake neither sacrificing self to others nor others to self and That no
one has the right to seek values from others by physical force or impose ideas on
others by physical force Biography Early life Rand was born in Saint Petersburg
Russia and was the eldest of three daughters of a Jew ish family Her parents were
agnostic and largely non observant From an early age she displayed a strong
interest in literature and films She started writing screenplays and novels from
the age of seven Her mother taught her French and subscribed to a magazine
featuring stories for boys where Rand found her first childhood hero Cyrus Paltons
an Indian army officer in a Rudyard Kipling style story called quot The Mysterious
Valley quot Throughout her youth she read the novels of Sir Walter Scott Alexandre
Dumas and other Romantic writers and expressed a passionate enthusiasm toward the
Romantic movement as a whole She discovered Victor Hugo at the age of thirteen and
fell deeply in love with his novels Later she cited him as her favorite novelist
and the greatest novelist of world literature She studied philosophy and history at
the Saint Petersburg State University University of Petrograd Her major literary
discoveries in university were the works of Edmond Rostand Friedrich Schiller and
Fyodor Dostoevsky She admired Rostand for his richly romantic imagination and
Schiller for his grand heroic scale She admired Dostoevsky for his sense of drama
and his intense moral judgments but was deeply against his philosophy and his sense
of life She continued to write short stories and screenplays and wrote sporadically
in her diary which contained intensely anti Soviet ideas She also encountered the
philosophical ideas of Nietzsche and loved his exaltation of the heroic and
independent individual who embraced egoism and rejected altruism in Thus Spoke
Zarathustra Though an early fan of Nietzsche she eventually became critical seeing
his philosophy as emphasizing emotion over reason Nevertheless as Allan Gotthelf
points out in book On Ayn Rand quot the influence was real quot She did still
retain an admiration for some of his ideas and quoted Nietzsche in the introduction
to the th aniversary edition of The Fountainhead quot The noble soul has reverence
for itself quot Her greatest influence by far is Aristotle especially Organon Logic
Although Leonard Peikoff promoter of her ideas says she is the greatest philosopher
who ever lived she herself considered Aristotle the greatest philosopher ever and
stated that he was the only philosopher who had influenced her this is probably
because as she has stated she did not include her own work when analyzing the
culture She then entered the State Institute for Cinema Arts in to study
screenwriting in late however she was granted a Visa document visa to visit
American relatives She arrived in the United States in February at the age of
twenty one After a brief stay with her relatives in Chicago Illinois Chicago she
resolved never to return to the Soviet Union and set out for Hollywood to become a
screenwriter She then changed her name to quot Ayn Rand quot There is a story told
that she named herself after the Remington Rand typewriter but she began using the
name Ayn Rand before the typewriter was first sold She stated that her first name
Ayn was an adaptation of the name of a Finnish writer This may have been the
Finnish Estonian author Aino Kallas but variations of this name are common in
Finnish language Finnish speaking regions Major works Initially Rand struggled in
Cinema of the United States Hollywood and took odd jobs to pay her basic living
expenses While working as an extra drama extra on Cecil B DeMille s The King of
Kings King of Kings she intentionally bumped into an aspiring young actor Frank O
Connor actor Frank O Connor who caught her eye The two married in In Rand became a
naturalized citizen of the United States Her first literary success came with the
sale of her screenplay Red Pawn in to Universal Studios Rand then wrote the play
The Night of January th in which was highly successful and published two novels We
the Living and Anthem novella Anthem While We the Living met with mixed reviews
in the U S and positive reviews in the U K Anthem received significiant and
positive reviews only in England due in part to its odd publication history She was
up against The Red Decade in America and Anthem did not even find a publisher in
the United States it was first published in England Besides Rand had still not
perfected her literary style and these novels cannot be considered representative
Without Rand s knowledge or permission We The Living was made into a pair of films
Noi vivi and Addio Kira in by Scalara Films Rome They were nearly censored by the
Italy Italian government under Benito Mussolini but they were permitted because the
novel upon which they were based was anti Soviet The films were successful and the
public easily realized that they were as much against Fascism as Communism and the
government banned them quickly thereafter These films were re edited into a new
version which was approved by Rand and re released as We the Living in Rand s first
major professional success came with her best selling novel The Fountainhead which
she wrote over a period of seven years The novel was rejected by twelve publishers
who thought it was too intellectual and opposed to the mainstream of American
thought It was finally accepted by the Bobbs Merrill Company publishing house
thanks mainly to a member of the editorial board Archibald Ogden who praised the
book in the highest terms and finally prevailed Eventually The Fountainhead was a
worldwide success bringing Rand fame and financial security The theme of The
Fountainhead is quot individualism and collectivism in man s soul quot It features
the lives of five main characters The hero Howard Roark is Rand s ideal a noble
soul par excellence an architect who is firmly and serenely devoted to his own
ideals and believes that no man should copy the style of another in any field
especially architecture All the other characters in the novel demand that he
renounce his values but Roark maintains his integrity Unlike traditional heroes who
launch into long and passionate monologues about their integrity and the unfairness
of the world Roark in contrast does it with a disdainful almost contemptuous
taciturnity and laconicism Rand s magnum opus Atlas Shrugged was published in
becoming an international bestseller Atlas Shrugged is often seen as Rand s most
complete statement of the Objectivist philosophy in any of her works of fiction In
its appendix she offered this summary quot My philosophy in essence is the concept
of man as a heroic being with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life
with productive achievement as his noblest activity and reason as his only absolute
quot The theme of Atlas Shrugged is quot The role of man s mind in society quot
Rand upheld the industrialist as one of the most admirable members of any society
and fiercely opposed the popular resentment accorded to industrialists This led her
to envision a novel wherein the industrialists of America go on strike and retreat
to a mountainous hideaway The American economy and its society in general slowly
start to collapse The government responds by increasing the already stifling
controls on industrial concerns The novel deals with issues as complex and
divergent as sex music medicine politics and human ability Along with Nathaniel
Branden his wife Barbara Branden
Barbara and others including Alan Greenspan and Leonard Peikoff jokingly
designated quot The Ayn Rand Collective The Collective quot Rand launched the
Objectivism Objectivist movement to promote her philosophy The Objectivist movement
Main article The Objectivist movement In Rand moved to New York City where in she
met the young psychology student Nathaniel Branden http www nathanielbranden com
who had read her book The Fountainhead at the age of Branden then enjoyed
discussing Rand s emerging Objectivist philosophy with her Together Branden and
some of his other friends formed a group that they dubbed the Collective which
included some participation by future Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan After
several years Rand and Branden s friendly relationship blossomed into a romantic
affair despite the fact that both were married at the time Their spouses were both
convinced to accept this affair but it eventually led to the separation and then
divorce of Nathaniel Branden from his wife Although one of Rand s most strident
philosophical points was never to bow to societal pressure or norms Ayn Rand
abandoned her own name see top of page as did Branden born Nathan Blumenthal
Throughout the s and s Rand developed and promoted her Objectivist philosophy
through both her fiction http www aynrand org site PageServer pagename objectivism
fiction and non fiction http www aynrand org site PageServer pagename objectivism
nonfiction works and by giving talks at several east coast universities largely
through the Nathaniel Branden Institute quot the NBI quot which Branden established
to promote her philosophy After a convoluted series of separations Rand abruptly
ended her relationship with both Nathaniel Branden and his wife Barbara Branden in
when she learned of Nathaniel Branden s affair with Patrecia Scott this later
affair did not overlap chronologically with the earlier Branden Rand affair Rand
refused to have any further dealings with the NBI She then published a letter in
quot The Objectivist quot announcing her repudiation of Branden for various reasons
including dishonesty but did not mention their affair or her role in the schism The
two never reconciled and Branden remained a persona non grata in the Objectivist
movement Image ayn rand stamp jpg px frame left U S postage stamp honoring Rand Art
by Nick Gaetano Barbara Branden presented an account of the breakup of the affair
in her book The Passion of Ayn Rand She describes the encounter between Nathaniel
and Rand saying that Rand slapped him numerous times and denounced him in these
words quot If you have an ounce of morality left in you an ounce of psychological
health you ll be impotent for the next twenty years And if you achieve any potency
you ll know it s a sign of still worse moral degradation quot Conflicts continued
in the wake of the break with Branden and the subsequent collapse of the NBI Many
of her closest quot Collective quot friends began to part ways and during the late
s her activities within the formal Objectivist movement began to decline a
situation which increased after the death of her husband in One of her final
projects was work on a television adaptation of Atlas Shrugged Rand died of heart
failure on March in New York City years after having successfully battled cancer
and was interred in the Kensico Cemetery Valhalla New York Image Ayn Rand Marker
jpg thumb right px Grave marker of Frank O Connor actor Frank O Connor and Ayn Rand
Philosophical influences Rand rejected virtually all other philosophical schools
She acknowledged a shared intellectual lineage with Aristotle and John Locke and
more generally with the philosophies of the Age of Enlightenment and the Age of
Reason She occasionally remarked with approval on specific philosophical positions
of e g Baruch Spinoza and Thomas Aquinas She seems also to have respected the
American rationalist Brand Blanshard However she regarded most philosophers as at
best incompetent and at worst downright evil She singled out Immanuel Kant as the
most influential of the latter sort Nonetheless there are connections between Rand
s views and those of other philosophers She acknowledged that she had been
influenced at an early age by the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche Though she later
repudiated his thought and reprinted her first novel We The Living with some
wording changes in her own thought grew out of critical interaction with it
Generally her political thought is in the tradition of classical liberalism She
expressed qualified enthusiasm for the economic thought of Ludwig von Mises and
Henry Hazlitt Though not mentioned as an influence by her specifically parallels
between her works and Ralph Waldo Emerson s essay Self Reliance do exist Later
Objectivists such as Richard Salsman have claimed that Rand s economic theories are
implicitly more supportive of the doctrines of Jean Baptiste Say though Rand
herself was likely not acquainted with his work Politics and House Committee on Un
American Activities testimony Rand s political views were radically pro capitalist
anti statist and anti Communist Her writings praised above all the human individual
and the creative genius of which one is capable She exalted what she saw as the
heroic American values of egoism and individualism Rand also had a strong dislike
for mysticism religion and compulsory charity all of which she believed helped
foster a crippling culture of resentment towards individual human happiness and
success Rand detested many prominent liberalism liberal and conservative
politicians of her time even including prominent anti Communist crusaders like
Presidents Harry S Truman and Ronald Reagan and Senators Hubert H Humphrey and
Joseph McCarthy although she argued that McCarthyism was a myth and that the
accusation of McCarthyism was used as an ad hominem argument to discredit anti
Communists In during the Red Scare Rand testified as a quot friendly witness quot
before the House Committee on Un American Activities see http www noblesoul com orc
texts huac html Rand s testimony involved analysis of the film Song of Russia While
many believe that Ayn Rand disclosed the names of members of the Communist Party in
the U S thus exposing them to blacklisting her testimony consisted entirely of
comments regarding the disparity between her experiences in the Soviet Union and
the fanciful portrayal of it in the film Rand argued that the movie grossly
misrepresented the socioeconomic conditions in the Soviet Union She told the
committee that the film presented life in the USSR as being much better than it
actually was Apparently this film was intentional wartime propaganda by U S
patriots trying to put their Soviet allies in World War II under the best possible
light After the HUAC hearings when Ayn Rand was asked about her feelings on the
effectiveness of their investigations she described the process as quot futile quot
Legacy Rand s funeral was attended by some of her prominent followers including
Alan Greenspan A six foot floral arrangement in the shape of a dollar sign was
placed near her casket http www eckerd edu aspec writers atlas shrugged htm In
Leonard Peikoff a surviving member of quot The Ayn Rand Collective The Collective
quot and Ayn Rand s designated heir established quot The Ayn Rand Institute The
Center for the Advancement of Objectivism quot ARI The Institute has since
registered the name Ayn Rand as a trademark despite Rand s desire that her name
never be used to promote the philosophy she developed Rand expressed her wish to
keep her name and the philosophy of Objectivism separate to ensure the survival of
her ideas Another schism in the movement occurred in when Objectivist David Kelley
wrote quot A Question of Sanction quot http www wetheliving com boston sanction
html in which he defended his choice to speak to non Objectivist Libertarianism
libertarian groups Kelley stated that Objectivism was not a quot closed system quot
and should engage with other philosophies Peikoff in an article for The
Intellectual Activist called quot Fact and Value quot http www aynrand org site
PageServer pagename objectivism f v argued that Objectivism is indeed a closed
system and that truth and moral goodness are directly related Peikoff expelled
Kelley from his movement whereupon Kelley founded The Institute for Objectivist
Studies now known as quot The Objectivist Center quot Rand and Objectivism are less
well known outside North America although there are pockets of interest in Europe
and Australia and her novels are reported to be popular in India http www
theatlasphere com metablog php and to be gaining an increasingly wider audience in
Africa Her work has had little effect on academic philosophy for her followers are
with some notable exceptions drawn from the non academic world Neil Peart the
drummer and lyricist with the Canadian progressive rock band Rush band Rush was
influenced by Rand philosophy during the early years of the band The most notable
instances of this are the track quot Anthem quot from the album Fly By Night and
the title track from the album Controversy Rand s views are controversial
Religious and socially conservative thinkers have criticized her atheism Many
adherents and practitioners of continental philosophy criticize her celebration of
rationality and self interest Within the dominant philosophical movement in the
English speaking world analytic philosophy Rand s work has been mostly ignored No
leading research university in this tradition considers Rand or Objectivism to be
an important philosophical specialty or research area as is documented by Brian
Leiter s report http www philosophicalgourmet com Some academics however are trying
to bring Rand s work into the mainstream For instance the http www aynrandsociety
org Ayn Rand Society founded in is affiliated with the American Philosophical
Association
In Cambridge University Press will publish a volume on Rand s ethical theory
written by ARI affiliated scholar Tara Smith A notable exception to the general
lack of attention paid to Rand is the essay quot On the Randian Argument quot by
Harvard University philosopher Robert Nozick which appears in his collection
Socratic Puzzles Nozick s own libertarian political conclusions are similar to Rand
s but his essay criticizes her foundational argument in ethics which claims that
one s own life is for each individual the only ultimate value because it makes all
other values possible To make this argument sound Nozick argues that Rand still
needs to explain why someone could not rationally prefer the state of eventually
dying and having no values Thus he argues her attempt to deduce the morality of
selfishness is essentially an instance of assuming the conclusion or begging the
question and that her solution to David Hume s famous is ought problem is
unsatisfactory Nevertheless Nozick respected Rand as an author and noted that he
found her books enjoyable and thought provoking Rand has sometimes been viewed with
suspicion for her practice of presenting her philosophy in fiction and non fiction
books aimed at a general audience rather than publishing in peer review ed journals
Rand s defenders note that she is part of a long tradition of authors who wrote
philosophically rich fiction including Dante John Milton Fyodor Dostoevsky and
Albert Camus and that other philosophers such as Jean Paul Sartre presented their
philosophies in both fictional and non fictional forms Other critics argue that
Rand s idealistic philosophy and her Romantic literary style are not applicable to
the inhabited world In particular these critics claim that Rand s novels are made
up of unrealistic and one dimensional characters They criticize the portrayal of
the Objectivist heroes as incredibly intelligent unencumbered by doubt wealthy and
free of flaws in contrast to the frequent portrayal of the antagonists as weak
pathetic full of uncertainty and lacking in imagination and talent Defenders of
Rand point out counterexamples to these criticisms neither Eddie Willers nor
Cherryl Taggart both positive characters is especially gifted or intelligent but
both are characters of dignity and respect Leo Kovalensky suffers enormously due to
his inability to cope with the brutality and banality of communism Andrei Taganov
dies after realizing his philosophical errors Dominique Francon is initially
bitterly unhappy because she believes evil is powerful Hank Rearden is torn by
inner emotional conflict brought on by a philosophical contradiction and Dagny
Taggart thinks that she alone is capable of saving the world Two of her main
protagonists Howard Roark and John Galt did not begin life wealthy Though Rand
believed that under capitalism valuable contributions will routinely be rewarded by
wealth she certainly did not think that wealth made a person virtuous In fact she
presents many vicious bureaucrats and waspish elitists who use statism to
accumulate money and power Moreover Hank Rearden is exploited because of his social
na vet As for the purportedly weak and pathetic villains Rand s defenders point out
that Ellsworth Toohey is represented as being a great strategist and communicator
from an early age and Dr Robert Stadler is a brilliant scientist Rand herself
replied to these literary criticisms and in advance of much of them with her essay
quot The Goal of My Writing quot There and in other essays collected in her book
The Romantic Manifesto The Romantic Manifesto A Philosophy of Literature nd rev ed
Rand makes it clear that her goal is to project her vision of an ideal man not man
as he is but man as he might and ought to be Rand s views on sex have also led to
some controversy According to her quot For a woman qua woman the essence of
femininity is hero worship the desire to look up to man quot Some in the BDSM
community see her work as relevant and supportive particularly The Fountainhead
http www mistressmorgana com site read rec html Another source of controversy is
Rand s view that homosexuality is quot immoral quot and quot disgusting quot http
www nyu edu projects sciabarra essays homo atlasphere htm as well as her support
for the right of businesses to discriminate on the basis of homosexuality such as
in their hiring practices Specifically she stated that quot there is a
psychological immorality at the root of homosexuality quot because quot it involves
psychological flaws corruptions errors or unfortunate premises quot On the topic of
non governmental discrimination Rand s defenders argue that her support for its
legality was motivated by holding property rights above civil or human rights as
she did not believe that human rights were distinct from property rights so it did
not constitute an endorsement of the morality of the prejudice itself In support of
this they cite Rand s opposition to some prejudices amp mdash though not homophobia
amp mdash on moral grounds in essays like Racism and Global Balkanization while
still arguing for the right of individuals and businesses to act on such prejudice
without government intervention http forum objectivismonline net lofiversion index
php t html Bibliography Fiction Night of January th We The Living Anthem novel
Anthem The Fountainhead Atlas Shrugged Posthumous fiction Three Plays
Nonfiction For the New Intellectual The Virtue of Selfishness with Nathaniel
Branden Capitalism The Unknown Ideal with Nathaniel Branden Alan Greenspan and
Robert Hessen Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology The Romantic Manifesto
The New Left The Anti Industrial Revolution Philosophy Who Needs It Posthumous
nonfiction The Early Ayn Rand edited and with commentary by Leonard Peikoff The
Voice of Reason Essays in Objectivist Thought edited by Leonard Peikoff additional
essays by Leonard Peikoff and Peter Schwartz Introduction to Objectivist
Epistemology second edition edited by Harry Binswanger additional material by
Leonard Peikoff Letters of Ayn Rand edited by Michael S Berliner Journals of Ayn
Rand edited by David Harriman Ayn Rand s Marginalia Her Critical Comments on the
Writings of over Twenty Authors edited by Robert Mayhew The Ayn Rand Column
Written for the Los Angeles Times edited by Peter Schwartz Russian Writings on
Hollywood edited by Michael S Berliner Return of the Primitive The Anti Industrial
Revolution expanded edition of The New Left edited and with additional essays by
Peter Schwartz The Art of Fiction edited by Tore Boeckmann The Art of Nonfiction
edited by Robert Mayhew The Objectivism Research CD ROM collection of most of Rand
s works in CD ROM format Ayn Rand Answers References In addition to Rand s own
works listed above the following references discuss Rand s life and or literary
work References that discuss her philosophy can be found in the bibliography of
work on Objectivism lt div style quot font size quot gt cite book last Baker first
James T authorlink James T Baker title Ayn Rand publisher Twayne location Boston
year id ISBN cite book last Branden first Barbara authorlink Barbara Branden
title The Passion of Ayn Rand publisher Doubleday amp amp Company location Garden
City New York year id ISBN cite book last Branden first Nathaniel authorlink
Nathaniel Branden title My Years with Ayn Rand publisher Jossey Bass location San
Francisco year id ISBN cite book last Branden first Nathaniel authorlink
Nathaniel Branden coauthors Barbara Branden title Who Is Ayn Rand publisher Random
House location New York year cite book last Britting first Jeff authorlink Jeff
Britting title Ayn Rand publisher Overlook Duckworth location New York year id
ISBN cite book last Gladstein first Mimi Reisel authorlink Mimi Reisel Gladstein
title The New Ayn Rand Companion publisher Greenwood Press location Westport
Connecticut year id ISBN cite book author Mimi Reisel Gladstein Gladstein Mimi
Reisel and Chris Matthew Sciabarra Sciabarra Chris Matthew editors title Feminist
Interpretations of Ayn Rand publisher The Pennsylvania State University Press
location University Park Pennsylvania year id ISBN cite book last Hamel first
Virginia L L authorlink Virginia L L Hamel title In Defense of Ayn Rand publisher
New Beacon location Brookline Massachusetts year cite book last Mayhew first
Robert authorlink Robert Mayhew title Ayn Rand and Song of Russia publisher Rowman
amp amp Littlefield location Lanham Maryland year id ISBN cite book last Mayhew
first Robert authorlink Robert Mayhew title Essays on Ayn Rand s Anthem publisher
Rowman amp amp Littlefield location Lanham Maryland year id ISBN cite book last
Mayhew first Robert authorlink Robert Mayhew title Essays on Ayn Rand s We the
Living publisher Rowman amp amp Littlefield location Lanham Maryland year id ISBN
cite book last Paxton first Michael authorlink Michael Paxton title Ayn Rand A
Sense of Life The Companion Book publisher Gibbs Smith location Layton Utah year
id ISBN cite journal last Peikoff first Leonard authorlink Leonard Peikoff title
My Thirty Years with Ayn Rand An Intellectual Memoir journal The Objectivist Forum
volume issue year pages cite book last Rothbard first Murray N authorlink Murray
N Rothbard title The Sociology of the Ayn Rand Cult url http www lewrockwell com
rothbard rothbard html publisher Liberty location Port Townsend Washington year
cite book last Sures first Mary Ann authorlink Mary Ann Sures coauthors Charles
Sures title Facets of Ayn Rand publisher Ayn Rand Institute Press location Los
Angeles year id ISBN cite book last Sciabarra first Chris Matthew authorlink
Chris Matthew Sciabarra title Ayn Rand The Russian Radical location University Park
Pennsylvania publisher The Pennsylvania State University Press year id ISBN cite
journal last Sciabarra first Chris Matthew authorlink
Chris Matthew Sciabarra title The Rand Transcript url http www nyu edu projects
sciabarra essays randt htm journal The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies volume issue
year pages cite journal last Shermer first Michael authorlink Michael Shermer url
http www think org she shtml title The Unlikeliest Cult In History journal Skeptic
volume issue year pages cite book author William Thomas Thomas William editor
title The Literary Art of Ayn Rand location Poughkeepsie New York publisher The
Objectivist Center year id ISBN cite book last Tuccile first Jerome authorlink
Jerome Tuccille title It Usually Begins with Ayn Rand location New York publisher
Fox amp Wilkes year id ISBN cite book last Valliant first James S authorlink
James S Valliant title The Passion of Ayn Rand s Critics location Dallas publisher
Durban House year id ISBN cite book last Walker first Jeff authorlink Jeff Walker
title The Ayn Rand Cult location Chicago publisher Open Court year id ISBN lt div
gt External links Philosophy portal sisterlinks Ayn Rand General information http
www noblesoul com orc bio biofaq html Ayn Rand FAQ http www aynrand org site
PageServer pagename about ayn rand faq index Frequently Asked Questions on Ayn Rand
http www utm edu research iep r rand htm quot Ayn Rand quot entry from the Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy Organizations promoting Ayn Rand s philosophy http www
aynrand org The Ayn Rand Institute http www ariwatch com ARI Watch amp mdash Argues
that some positions of the Ayn Rand Institute differ from those of Ayn Rand lt Note
that this link is routinely removed as an act of vandalism It will be routinely
reverted until the vandals give up If you disagree take it to Talk gt http www
objectivistcenter org The Objectivist Center http www capitalismcenter org The
Center for the Advancement of Capitalism Articles http www lrb co uk v n turn html
As Astonishing as Elvis by Jenny Turner amp mdash Essay review of Ayn Rand by Jeff
Britting http www starshipaurora com aynrand html Ayn Rand Tribute amp mdash
includes reference to a tribute album quot Concerto of Deliverance quot inspired by
Rand s words describing such music http chronicle com colloquy rand background htm
Ayn Rand Has Finally Caught the Attention of Scholars by Jeff Sharlet http www
jeffcomp com faq index html FAQ What s REALLY Wrong With Objectivism http www
mclemee com id html The Heirs of Ayn Rand by Scott McLemee amp mdash An article
published in Lingua Franca which covers the arc of her publishing career while
alive and posthomous as well as the continuing scholarship http www americanwriters
org writers rand asp Rand featured on C Span s quot American Writers quot amp mdash
RealVideo discussions on Rand s writing Articles critical of Ayn Rand http world
std com mhuben critobj html Criticisms of Objectivism or Ayn Rand amp mdash from of
the Critiques of Libertarianism site http www noblesoul com orc critics Criticisms
of Objectivism amp mdash from the Objectivism Reference Center site http www
johannhari com archive article php id quot Don t give to tsunami victims the
message of the American right s philosopher queen quot amp mdash A critical profile
from the London Independent http www lewrockwell com rothbard rothbard html The
Sociology of the Ayn Rand Cult by Murray Rothbard amp mdash written in this was the
first piece of Rand revisionism from the libertarian standpoint http www think org
she shtml quot The Unlikeliest Cult in History quot by Michael Shermer see also
Bibliography of work on Objectivism Rand s associates http www barbarabranden com
Barbara Branden s website http www nathanielbranden com Nathaniel Branden s website
http www leonardpeikoff com Leonard Peikoff s website Online groups and blogs http
www theatlasphere com The Atlasphere amp mdash For admirers of Rand s novels
includes member directory dating service columns and news http www theaynrandforum
com The Ayn Rand Forum amp mdash Online forum for discussion of Ayn Rand and
Objectivism http community livejournal com aynrandforum Ayn Rand LiveJournal
Community amp mdash A large LiveJournal Community for Ayn Rand http www capmag com
shownews asp Dollars amp Crosses amp mdash Commentary from a pro capitalist
perspective http www DrHurd com Dr Michael J Hurd psychologist amp mdash The Daily
Dose of Reason psychology life coaching and comments on cultural political topics
from an Objectivist perspective amp mdash also The Living Resources Newsletter and
Dr Hurd s publications http forums aynrandfans com The Forum for Ayn Rand Fans http
www hblist com Harry Binswanger List amp mdash E mail based discussion group http
www aynrandstudies com The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies amp mdash Contains abstracts
of articles author bios links to several articles and submission guidelines http
www objectivism net Objectivism net amp mdash Ayn Rand on CD ROM and links http www
objectivismonline net ObjectivismOnline Net amp mdash Contains http forum
objectivismonline net forums blogs essays chat room and a http wiki
objectivismonline net wiki on Objectivism http www objectivistblogs com Objectivist
Blogs amp mdash A list of Rand influenced bloggers http randex org Randex amp mdash
Index of online media references to Ayn Rand and Objectivism http www solopassion
com Sense of Life Objectivists amp mdash Online columns and discussion by and for
Objectivists hosted by Lindsay Perigo http www TIADaily com TIA Daily amp mdash
Daily news and commentary from the Objectivist perspective by e mail Imagery http
www yoyita com Ayn Rand html Portrait of Ayn Rand Rand s writing and speeches http
www noblesoul com orc texts anthem complete html Anthem amp mdash The complete text
of the novel which has fallen into the public domain http www ayn rand com ayn rand
atlas shrugged asp Atlas Shrugged amp mdash Book outline http www ayn rand com ayn
rand fountainhead asp The Fountainhead amp mdash Book outline http www ayn rand com
ayn rand we the living asp We The Living amp mdash Book outline http www
tracyfineart com usmc philosophy who needs it htm quot Philosophy Who Needs It quot
amp mdash Address To The Graduating Class Of The United States Military Academy at
West Point New York March http www noblesoul com orc texts huac html Rand s HUAC
testimony amp mdash Transcript http www libertyhaven org bookstore B LC UAMUS shtml
We the Living amp mdash Video outline gutenberg author id Ayn Rand name Ayn Rand
http lcweb loc gov cgi bin faidfrquery r faid faidfr field SOURCE band rand ayn
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text revision page page title Alain Connes title id id revision id id timestamp T
Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor text xml space preserve Alain Connes
born April is a France French mathematician currently Professor at the College de
France Paris France IHES Bures sur Yvette France and Vanderbilt University
Nashville Tennessee He is a specialist of Von Neumann algebra s and succeeded in
completing the classification of factor s of these objects Although his work in
physics was not very convincing he tried to connect the planckian scales with what
he called a quot brane quot Universe model which was largely rejected by string
theorists so far The remarkable links between this subject the tools he and others
devised to tackle the problem and other subjects in theoretical physics particle
physics and differential geometry made him emphasize Noncommutative geometry which
is also the title of his major book to date He was awarded the Fields Medal in the
Crafoord Prize in and the gold medal of the CNRS in See also cyclic homology
factor functional analysis Higgs boson C algebra M Theory Groupoid Jean Louis Loday
External links http www alainconnes org Alain Connes Official Web Site MacTutor
Biography id Connes Fields medalists Category births Connes Alain Category Living
people Connes Alain Category French mathematicians Connes Alain Category Alumni of
the cole Normale Sup rieure Connes Alain Category Members and associates of the US
National Academy of Sciences Connes Alain ar de Alain Connes es Alain Connes fr
Alain Connes ja ko pl Alain Connes zh text revision page page title Applied
Statistics title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip
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xml space preserve REDIRECT Applied statistics text revision page page title
Arithmetic Mean title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
ip Conversion script ip contributor minor comment Automated conversion comment
text xml space preserve REDIRECT Arithmetic mean text revision page page title
Allan Dwan title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username
Rich Farmbrough username id id contributor minor text xml space preserve Allan
Dwan April in film amp ndash December in film was a pioneering Canada Canadian
born American film motion picture film director director producer and screenwriter
Born Joseph Aloysius Dwan in Toronto Ontario Canada his family moved to the United
States when he was eleven years of age At university he trained as an engineer and
began working for a lighting company in Chicago Illinois However he had a strong
interest in the fledgling motion picture industry and when Essanay Studios offered
him the opportunity to become a scriptwriter he took the job At that time some of
the East Coast of the United States East Coast movie makers began to spend winters
in California where the climate allowed them to continue productions requiring warm
weather Soon a number of movie companies worked there year round and in Dwan began
working part time in Hollywood California Hollywood While still in New York in in
film he was the founding president of the East Coast chapter of the Motion Picture
Directors Association Allan Dwan became a true innovator in the motion picture
industry After making a series of westerns and comedies he directed fellow Canadian
Mary Pickford in several very successful movies as well as her husband Douglas
Fairbanks notably in the acclaimed in film Robin Hood Following the introduction
of the sound film talkies in in film he directed child star Shirley Temple in Heidi
and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm the following year Over his long and successful
career spanning over fifty years he directed over motion pictures many of them
highly acclaimed such as the in film box office smash The Sands of Iwo Jima His
last movie was in Dwan is one of the directors who spanned the silent to sound era
Most of the silent movies he directed are lost due to poor preservation Little
historical writing has been devoted to Dwan but some believe that he will be the
last quot discovered quot great director from the Classic Hollywood Era He died in
Los Angeles at the age of ninety six and is interred in the San Fernando Mission
Cemetery Mission Hills California Allan Dwan has a star on the Hollywood Walk of
Fame at Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood California Hollywood Selected films As
director Manhattan Madness Fairbanks Fine Arts Fairbanks Fragments also
screenwriter Robin Hood film Robin Hood The Iron Mask Heidi Rebecca of
Sunnybrook Farm The Little Colonel Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm The Three
Musketeers film The Three Musketeers The Gorilla Young People Look Who s
Laughing also producer Friendly Enemies Around the World also producer Up in
Mabel s Room Abroad With Two Yanks Getting Gertie s Garter also screenwriter
Brewster s Millions Driftwood Calendar Girl Northwest Outpost also associate
producer Sands of Iwo Jima Montana Belle Silver Lode film Silver Lode Passion
movie Passion Cattle Queen of Montana Tennessee s Partner Pearl of the South
Pacific Escape to Burma Slightly Scarlet The Restless Breed Enchanted Island
See also Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood External links imdb name id name
Allan Dwan Category births Dwan Allan Category deaths Dwan Allan Category Roman
Catholics Dwan Allan Category American film directors Dwan Allan Category American
film producers Dwan Allan Category American screenwriters Dwan Allan Category
Hollywood Walk of Fame Dwan Allan Category Ontario writers Dwan Allan Category
Torontonians Dwan Allan de Allan Dwan text revision page page title Algeria
Background title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
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REDIRECT History of Algeria text revision page page title Algeria Geography title
id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor
comment comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Geography of Algeria text revision
page page title Algeria People title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Koyaanis Qatsi username id id contributor text xml space
preserve REDIRECT Demographics of Algeria text revision page page title Algeria
Government title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Koyaanis Qatsi username id id contributor comment more removals comment
text xml space preserve REDIRECT Politics of Algeria text revision page page title
Economy of Algeria title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Rich Farmbrough username id id contributor minor text xml space
preserve update cleanup date December Economy of Algeria table In the economy of
Algeria the hydrocarbons sector is the backbone accounting for roughly of budget
revenues of Gross domestic product GDP and over of export earnings Algeria has the
fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves Algiers efforts to reform one of the
most centrally planned economies in the Arab world stalled in as the country
became embroiled in political turmoil Burdened with a heavy foreign debt Algiers
concluded a one year standby arrangement with the International Monetary Fund in
April and the following year signed onto a three year extended fund facility which
ended April Some progress on economic reform Paris Club debt rescheduling s in
and and oil and gas sector expansion contributed to a recovery in growth since
reducing inflation to approximately and narrowing the budget deficit Algeria s
economy has grown at about annually since The country s foreign debt has fallen
from a high of billion in to its current level of billion The spike in oil prices
in and the government s tight fiscal policy as well as a large increase in the
trade surplus and the near tripling of foreign exchange reserves has helped the
country s finances However an ongoing drought the after effects of the November
floods and an uncertain oil market make prospects for more problematic The
government pledges to continue its efforts to diversify the economy by attracting
foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector However it has thus far
had little success in reducing high unemployment officially estimated at and
improving living standards President Bouteflika has announced sweeping economic
reforms which if implemented will significantly restructure the economy Still the
economy remains heavily dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues The government
has continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic
investment outside the energy sector but has had little success in reducing high
unemployment and improving living standards Other priority areas include banking
reform improving the investment environment and reducing government bureaucracy The
government has announced plans to sell off state enterprises sales of a national
cement factory and steel plant have been completed and other industries are up for
offer In Algeria signed an Association Agreement with the European Union it has
started accession negotiations for entry into the World Trade Organization
Agriculture Since Roman times Algeria has been noted for the fertility of its soil
About a quarter of the inhabitants are engaged in agricultural pursuits More than
acres km amp sup are devoted to the cultivation of cereal grain s The Tell is the
grain growing land During the time of France French rule its productivity was
increased substantially by the sinking of Artesian aquifer artesian well s in
districts which only required water to make them fertile Of the crops raised wheat
barley and oat s are the principal cereals A great variety of vegetable s and of
fruit s especially citrus products is exported A considerable amount of cotton was
grown at the time of the United States American Civil War Civil War but the
industry declined afterwards In the early years of the th century efforts to extend
the cultivation of the plant were renewed A small amount of cotton is also grown in
the southern oases Large quantities of crin vegetal vegetable horse hair an
excellent fibre are made from the leaves of the dwarf palm The olive both for its
fruit and Petroleum and tobacco are cultivated with great success Algeria also
exports fig s date fruit date s esparto grass and cork material cork Wine
Production Throughout Algeria the soil favours the growth of vines The country in
the words of an expert sent to report on the subject by the French government quot
can produce an infinite variety of wines suitable to every constitution and to
every caprice of taste quot The growing of vines was undertaken early by the
colonists but it was not until vineyards in France were attacked by phylloxera that
the export of wine from Algeria became significant In despite precautionary
measures Algerian vineyard s were also attacked but in the meantime the quality of
their wines had been proved In less than acres km amp sup were devoted to the grape
but in this had increased to over acres km amp sup which yielded gallons m amp sup
of wine Despite bad seasons and ravages of insects cultivation extended and in the
vineyards covered acres km amp sup the produce being gallons m amp sup The area
of cultivation in exceeded acres km amp sup and in that year the amount of wine
produced was gallons m amp sup By that time the limits of profitable production
had been reached in many parts of the country Practically the only foreign market
for Algerian wine is France which in imported about gallons m amp sup Fishing
Fishing is a flourishing but minor industry Fish caught are principally sardine s
bonito smelt and sprat s Fresh fish are exported to France dried and preserved fish
to Spain and Italy Coral fishery fisheries are found along the coast from Bona to
Tunis Minerals Algeria is rich in minerals
the country has many iron lead and zinc copper calamine antimony and Mercury
element mercury mines The most productive are those of iron and zinc Lignite is
found in Algiers immense phosphate beds were discovered near Tebessa in yielding
tons in Phosphate beds are also worked near Setif Guelma and Ain Beida There are
more than quarries which produce amongst other stones onyx and beautiful white and
red marble s Algerian onyx from Ain Tekbalet was used by the Romans and many
ancient quarries have been found near Kleber some being certainly those from which
the long lost Numidian marbles were taken Salt is collected on the margins of the
chotts Foreign trade Under French administration the commerce of Algeria developed
greatly the total imports and exports at the time of the French occupation did not
exceed In the figures had reached in in and in From this point progress was
slower and the figures varied considerably year by year In the total value of the
foreign trade was About five sixths of the trade is with or via France into which
country several Algerian goods have been admitted duty free since and all since
French goods except sugar have been admitted into Algeria without payment of duty
since After the increase in of the French minimum tariff which applied to Algeria
also foreign trade greatly diminished By far Algeria s most significant exports
financially are petroleum and natural gas The reserves are mostly in the Eastern
Sahara the Algerian government curbed the exports in the s to slow depletion
exports increased again somewhat in the s Other significant exports are domestic
sheep sheep ox en and horse s animal products such as wool and skins wine cereals
rye barley oat s vegetable s fruit s chiefly fig s and grape s for the table and
seed s esparto grass oils and vegetable extracts chiefly olive oil iron ore zinc
natural phosphate s timber Cork material cork crin vegetal and tobacco The import
of wool exceeds the export Sugar coffee machinery metal work of all kinds clothing
and pottery are largely imported Of these by far the greater part comes from France
The United Kingdom British imports consist chiefly of coal cotton fabrics and
machinery Exports Algeria trades most extensively with France and Italy in terms of
both imports and exports but also trades with the United States and Spain
Statistics Reference http www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ag html CIA
World Factbook See also Algeria OPEC Category Organization of the Petroleum
Exporting Countries Alegeria Category Economies by country Algeria Category Economy
of Algeria Category African Union member economies Algeria fr conomie de l Alg rie
pt Economia da Arg lia ru text revision page page title Algeria Communications
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Danny
username id id contributor comment comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT
Communications in Algeria text revision page page title Algeria Transportation
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Eskimbot
username id id contributor minor comment Robot Fixing double redirect comment
text xml space preserve REDIRECT Transport in Algeria text revision page page title
Algeria Military title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Srs username id id contributor text xml space preserve REDIRECT Military
of Algeria text revision page page title Algeria Transnational Issues title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Danny username id
id contributor comment comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Transnational
issues of Algeria text revision page page title Algeria Archaeology title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor comment
comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Archeology of Algeria text revision page
page title Algeria History title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor ip Conversion script ip contributor minor comment Automated
conversion comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT History of Algeria See also
Algeria text revision page page title Algeria title id id restrictions edit sysop
move sysop restrictions revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Splash username id id contributor comment do not use semi in an
editorial dispute even if one side is anons per WP SEMI comment text xml space
preserve protected Infobox Country native name lt br gt Al Jumh r yah al Jaz ir
yah lt br gt ad D muqr yah ash Sha b yah common name Algeria image flag Flag of
Algeria svg image coat Algeria coa png image map LocationAlgeria png national motto
translation The Revolution by the people and for the people national anthem
Kassaman Kassaman lt small gt Qasaman Bin N zil t Il M iq t lt br gt lt small gt
Arabic language Arabic Kassaman We Swear By The Lightning That Destroys official
languages Arabic language Arabic capital Algiers latd latm latNS N longd longm
longEW E largest city Algiers government type Democratic Republic leader titles
President of Algeria President lt br gt Prime Minister of Algeria Prime Minister
leader names Abdelaziz Bouteflika lt br gt Ahmed Ouyahia area rank th area
magnitude E area percent water negligible population estimate population estimate
year population estimate rank th population census population census year
population density population density rank th GDP PPP year GDP PPP GDP PPP rank th
GDP PPP per capita GDP PPP per capita rank th HDI year HDI HDI rank rd HDI
category lt font color quot FFCC quot gt medium lt font gt sovereignty type
Independence established events Declared established dates From France lt br gt
July currency Algerian dinar currency code DA time zone Central European Time CET
utc offset time zone DST Central European Time CET utc offset DST does not observe
cctld dz calling code footnotes The People s Democratic Republic of Algeria Arabic
language Arabic or Algeria Arabic language Arabic is a presidential state in
north Africa and the second largest country on the Africa n continent Sudan being
the largest It is bordered by Tunisia in the northeast Libya in the east Niger in
the southeast Mali and Mauritania in the southwest and Morocco as well as a few
kilometers of its annexed territory Western Sahara in the west Constitution of
Algeria Constitutionally it is defined as an Islam ic Arab and Amazigh Berber
country The name Algeria is derived from the name of the city of Algiers from the
Arabic language Arabic word al jaz ir which translates as the islands referring to
the four islands which lay off that city s coast until becoming part of the
mainland in History main History of Algeria Algeria has been inhabited by Berber s
or Amazigh since at least BC From BC on the Carthage Carthaginians became an
influence on them establishing settlements along the coast Berber kingdoms began to
emerge most notably Numidia and seized the opportunity offered by the Punic Wars to
become independent of Carthage only to be taken over soon after by the Roman
Republic in BC As the western Roman Empire collapsed the Berbers became independent
again in much of the area while the Vandals took over parts until later expelled by
the generals of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I The Byzantine Empire then
retained a precarious grip on the east of the country until the coming of the Arab
s in the th century Image Roman Arch of Trajan at Thamugadi Timgad Algeria r jpg
thumb left Roman arch of Trajan at Thamugadi Timgad Algeria After some decades of
fierce resistance under leaders such as Kusayla and Kahina the Berbers adopted
Islam en masse but almost immediately expelled the Caliphate from Algeria
establishing an Ibadi state under the Rustamid s Having converted the Kutama of
Kabylie to its cause the Shia Fatimid s overthrew the Rustamids and conquered Egypt
They left Algeria and Tunisia to their Zirid vassals when the latter rebelled and
adopted Sunni sm they sent in a populous Arab tribe the Banu Hilal to weaken them
thus incidentally initiating the Arabization of the countryside The Almoravid s and
Almohad s Berber dynasties from the west founded by religious reformers brought a
period of relative peace and development however with the Almohads collapse Algeria
became a battleground for their three successor state s the Algerian Zayyanid s
Tunisian Hafsid s and Moroccan Merinid s In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
Spain started attacking and taking over many coastal cities prompting some to seek
help from the Ottoman Empire Algeria was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Khair
ad Din Khair ad Din and his brother Aruj who established Algeria s modern
boundaries in the north and made its coast a base for the Privateer corsairs their
privateering peaked in Algiers in the s Piracy on American vessels in the
Mediterranean resulted in the First Barbary War First and Second Barbary War with
the United States On the pretext of a slight to their consul the France French
invaded Algiers in however intense resistance from such personalities as Emir
Abdelkader Ahmed Bey and Lalla Fatma N Soumer Fatma N Soumer made for a slow
conquest of Algeria not technically completed until the early s when the last
Tuareg were conquered Image Constantine Algerien jpg thumb left Constantine Algeria
Meanwhile however the French suppressed slavery and made Algeria an integral part
of France a status that would end only with the collapse of the French Fourth
Republic Fourth Republic Tens of thousands of settlers from France Italy Spain and
Malta moved in to farm the Algerian coastal plain and occupy the most prized parts
of Algeria s cities benefiting from the French government s confiscation of
communally held land People of European descent in Algeria the so called pied noir
pieds noirs as well as the native Algerian Jews were full French
citizens starting from the end of the th century by contrast the vast majority of
Muslim Algerians even veterans of the French army remained outside of French law
possessing neither French citizenship nor the right to vote Algeria s social fabric
was stretched to breaking point during this period literacy dropped massively while
land confiscation uprooted much of the population In the National Liberation Front
Algeria National Liberation Front FLN launched the guerrilla warfare guerrilla
Algerian War of Independence after nearly a decade of urban and rural warfare they
succeeded in pushing France out in Most of the pied noir pieds noirs as well as
harki s pro French Muslim Algerians serving in the French Army together forming
about of the population of Algeria in fled Algeria for France in just a few months
in the middle of that year Image TheBattleofAlgiers png thumb right The Battle of
Algiers is a movie about the Algerian War of Independence Algeria s first president
the FLN leader Ahmed Ben Bella was overthrown by his former ally and defense
minister Houari Boum di nne in Under Ben Bella the government had already become
increasingly socialist and dictatorial and this trend continued throughout
Boumedienne s government however Boumedienne relied much more heavily on the army
and reduced the sole legal party to a merely symbolic role Agriculture was
collectivised and a massive industrialization drive launched Oil extraction
facilities were nationalized and this increased the state s wealth especially after
the oil crisis but the Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil
bringing hardship when the price collapsed in the s In foreign policy Algeria was a
member and leader of the non aligned nations A dispute with Morocco over the
Western Sahara nearly led to war Dissent was rarely tolerated and the state s
control over the media and the outlawing of political parties other than the FLN
was cemented in the repressive constitution of Boum dienne died in but the rule of
his successor Chadli Bendjedid was little more open The state took on a strongly
bureaucratic character and corruption was widespread The modernization drive
brought considerable demographic changes to Algeria Village traditions underwent
significant change as urbanization increased new industries emerged agriculture was
substantially reduced and education a rarity in colonial times was extended
nationwide raising the literacy rate from less than to over Improvements in
healthcare led to a dramatic increase in the birthrate children per mother which
had two consequences a very youthful population and a housing crisis The new
generation struggled to relate to the cultural obsession with the war years and two
conflicting protest movements developed left wingers including Berber identity
movements and Islamic int gristes Both protested against one party rule but also
clashed with each other in universities and on the streets during the s Mass
protests from both camps in autumn forced Benjedid to concede the end of one party
rule and elections were announced for In December the Islamic Salvation Front won
the Algerian National Assembly elections first round of the country s first
multiparty elections The military then canceled the second round forced then
president Bendjedid to resign and banned the Islamic Salvation Front The ensuing
conflict engulfed Algeria in the violent Algerian Civil War More than people were
killed often in unprovoked massacres of civilians The question of who was
responsible for these massacres remains controversial among academic observers many
were claimed by the Armed Islamic Group After the war waned and by the main
guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or surrendered taking advantage of an
amnesty program though sporadic fighting continued in some areas Elections resumed
in and in after a series of short term leaders representing the military Abdelaziz
Bouteflika the current president was elected The issue of Berber language and
identity increased in significance particularly after the extensive Kabyle protests
of and the near total boycott of local elections in Kabylie the government
responded with concessions including naming of Tamazight Berber as a national
language and teaching it in schools Politics main Politics of Algeria The head of
state is the President of Algeria President of the republic who is elected to a
year term renewable once Algeria has universal suffrage The President is the head
of the Council of Ministers and of the High Security Council He appoints the Prime
Minister of Algeria Prime Minister who is also the head of government The Prime
Minister appoints the Council of Ministers The Algerian parliament is bicameral
consisting of a lower chamber the National People s Assembly APN with members and
an upper chamber the Council of Nation with members The APN is elected every years
Throughout the s Algeria supported many independence movements in sub Saharan
Africa and was a leader in the Non Aligned Movement While it shares much of its
history and cultural heritage with neighbouring Morocco the two countries have had
somewhat hostile relations with each other since Algeria s independence This is due
to two reasons Morocco s Greater Morocco claim to portions of western Algeria which
led to the Sand war in and Algeria s support for the Polisario an armed group of
Sahrawi refugee s seeking independence for the Moroccan ruled Western Sahara which
it hosts within its borders in the city of Tindouf Tensions between Algeria and
Morocco as well as issues relating to the Algerian Civil War have put great
obstacles in the way of tightening the Maghreb Arab Union nominally established in
but with little practical weight with its coastal neighbors Provinces main
Provinces of Algeria Algeria is divided into Wilayah wilayas provinces lt small gt
lt small gt Adrar Algerian province Adrar lt small gt lt small gt A n Defla lt
small gt lt small gt A n T mouchent lt small gt lt small gt Algiers Alger lt small
gt lt small gt Annaba province Annaba lt small gt lt small gt Batna province Batna
lt small gt lt small gt B char lt small gt lt small gt B ja a province B ja a lt
small gt lt small gt Biskra province Biskra lt small gt lt small gt Blida lt small
gt lt small gt Bordj Bou Arr ridj province Bordj Bou Arr ridj lt small gt lt small
gt Bouira lt small gt lt small gt Boumerd s lt small gt lt small gt Chlef lt small
gt lt small gt Constantine Algeria Constantine lt small gt lt small gt Djelfa
province Djelfa lt small gt lt small gt El Bayadh lt small gt lt small gt El Oued
province El Oued lt small gt lt small gt El Tarf lt small gt lt small gt Gharda a
lt small gt lt small gt Guelma lt small gt lt small gt Illizi lt small gt lt small
gt Jijel lt small gt lt small gt Khenchela lt small gt lt small gt Laghouat lt
small gt lt small gt Mila lt small gt lt small gt Mostaganem province Mostaganem lt
small gt lt small gt Medea lt small gt lt small gt Muaskar lt small gt lt small gt
M Sila lt small gt lt small gt Naama lt small gt lt small gt Oran lt small gt lt
small gt Ouargla lt small gt lt small gt Oum el Bouaghi lt small gt lt small gt
Relizane lt small gt lt small gt Saida province Saida lt small gt lt small gt S tif
lt small gt lt small gt Sidi Bel Abbes lt small gt lt small gt Skikda lt small gt
lt small gt Souk Ahras lt small gt lt small gt Tamanrasset lt small gt lt small gt
T bessa lt small gt lt small gt Tiaret lt small gt lt small gt Tindouf Province
Tindouf lt small gt lt small gt Tipaza lt small gt lt small gt Tissemsilt lt small
gt lt small gt Tizi Ouzou lt small gt lt small gt Tlemcen Image Algeria provinces
png right px Map of the provinces of Algeria in alphabetical order Geography main
Geography of Algeria Image Algeria map png px right Map of Algeria with cities
Image Hoggar jpg thumb left The Ahaggar Mountains Hoggar Mountains Most of the
coastal area is hilly sometimes even mountainous and there are few good harbours
The area just south of the coast known as the Tell is fertile Further south is the
Atlas mountains Atlas mountain range and the Sahara desert Algiers Oran and
Constantine Algeria Constantine are the main cities Algeria s climate is arid and
hot although the coastal climate is mild and the winters in the mountainous areas
can be severe Algeria is prone to sirocco a hot dust and sand laden wind especially
common in summer See also Extreme points of Algeria Economy main Economy of Algeria
Image Unknown origin coin JPG thumb left px Algerian coins The fossil fuels energy
sector is the backbone of the economy accounting for roughly of budget revenues of
Gross domestic product GDP and over of export earnings Algeria has the fifth
largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter
it ranks th in Petroleum reserves Algeria s financial and economic indicators
improved during the mid s in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF
and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club Algeria s finances in and benefited from
an increase in oil prices and the government s tight fiscal policy leading to a
large increase in the trade surplus record highs in foreign exchange reserves and
reduction in foreign debt The government s continued efforts to diversify the
economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector has
had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards In
the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will
eventually lower tariffs and increase trade Demographics Image Algiers coast jpg
thumb Algiers coast main Demographics of Algeria About of Algerians live in the
northern coastal area the minority who inhabit the Sahara desert are mainly
concentrated in oasis oases although some million remain nomad ic or partly nomadic
Ninety nine percent of the population is
classified ethnically as Arab Berber and religiously as Muslim other religions are
restricted to extremely small groups mainly of foreigners Europeans account for
less than Most Algerians are Arab by language and identity and of mixed Berber Arab
ancestry The Berbers inhabited Algeria before the arrival of Arab tribes during the
expansion of Islam in the th century The issue of ethnicity and language is
sensitive after many years of government marginalization of Berber or Amazigh as
some prefer culture Today the Arab Berber issue is often a case of self
identification or identification through language and culture rather than a racial
or ethnic distinction The or so of the population who self identify as Berbers and
primarily speak Berber languages such as Tamazight are divided into several ethnic
groups notably Kabyle the largest in the mountainous north central area Chaoui in
the eastern Atlas Mountains Mozabite s in the M zab valley and Tuareg in the far
south Language main Languages of Algeria The official language is Arabic language
Arabic spoken natively in dialectal form quot Algerian Arabic Darja quot by some of
the population the other or so speak Berber Tamazight officially a national
language French language French is the most widely studied foreign language
distantly followed by English language English but is very rare as a native
language Since independence the government has pursued a policy of linguistic
Arabization of education and bureaucracy with some success although many university
courses continue to be taught in French Culture Image Algiers mosque jpg thumb
Mosque in Algiers main Culture of Algeria Modern Algerian literature split between
Arabic and French has been strongly influenced by the country s recent history List
of Algerian writers Famous novelists of the th century include Mohammed Dib and
Kateb Yacine while Assia Djebar is widely translated Important novelists of the s
included Rachid Mimouni later vice president of Amnesty International and Tahar
Djaout murdered by an Islamist group in for his secularist views As early as Roman
times Apuleius born in Mdaourouch was native to what would become Algeria In
philosophy and the humanities Malek Bennabi and Frantz Fanon are noted for their
thoughts on decolonization while Augustine of Hippo was born in Tagaste about miles
from the present day city of Annaba and Ibn Khaldun though born in Tunis wrote the
Muqaddima while staying in Algeria Algerian culture has been strongly influenced by
Islam in Algeria Islam the main religion The works of the Sanusi family in
precolonial times and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times are
widely noted The Music of Algeria Algerian musical genre best known abroad is ra a
pop flavored opinionated take on folk music featuring international stars such as
Khaled musician Khaled and Cheb Mami However in Algeria itself the older highly
verbal chaabi style remains more popular with such stars as El Hadj El Anka or
Dahmane El Harrachi while the tuneful melodies of Kabyle music exemplified by Idir
Ait Menguellet or Loun s Matoub have a wide audience For more classical tastes
Andalusian classical music Andalusi music brought from Al Andalus by Morisco
refugees is preserved in many older coastal towns In painting Mohammed Khadda and M
hemed Issiakhem are notable in recent years Picture gallery lt gallery gt Image
Houbel JPG The Monument of the Martyrs Algiers Image Algernuit jpg Algiers by night
Image Finace jpg Minister of the finances Image Makam Echehid jpg Algiers view by
air Image Benyen JPG the Forest Bainem in Algeria at Bouzareah Image Algierssnow
jpg Snow on Algiers Image Church Saintcharlesalgiers jpg The church Saint charles
at Algiers Image PE Algerie Sahara JPG Sahara of Algeria lt gallery gt
Miscellaneous topics Archeology of Algeria Communications in Algeria Foreign
relations of Algeria List of Algeria related topics List of cities in Algeria List
of Algerians List of sovereign states Military of Algeria Transportation in Algeria
Transportation in Algeria The Battle of Algiers movie Algerian War of Independence
Algerian Civil War Directories http www pagesjaunes dz com index php lang en
Yellow Pages of Algeria External links portal sisterlinks Algeria Government http
www el mouradia dz El Mouradia official presidential site in French and Arabic http
www apn dz org apn english index htm National People s Assembly official
parliamentary site http www algeria us org The Embassy of Algeria in Washington DC
News http allafrica com algeria allAfrica com Algeria news headline links http www
elkhabar com FrEn idc El Khabar http www north africa com one htm The North Africa
Journal business news Overviews http www cia gov cia publications factbook geos ag
html CIA World Factbook Algeria http lcweb loc gov frd cs dztoc html Library of
Congress Country Study Algeria data as of December http www exile ru February war
nerd html Algeria The Psychos Will Inherit the Earth an irreverent look at Algeria
s military situation Tourism wikitravel Other http www algeria watch org francais
htm Algeria Watch human rights organization critical of widespread torture
practiced by the r gime in French http www opendemocracy net globalization
institutions government algeria jsp Algeria s past needs opening not closing
Analysis on the public referendum held September by Veerle Opgenhaffen and Hanny
Megally http algerie el annabi com all City of Alg ria http www dicodialna com
Algerian English Online Dictionary Africa Mediterranean Category African Union
member states Category Algeria Category Arab League Category Peace and Security
Council af Algeri am an Alcheria ar ast Arxelia bn bs Al ir ca Alg ria cs Al
rsko cy Algeria da Algeriet de Algerien el eo Al erio es Argelia et Al eeria fa
fi Algeria fr Alg rie gl Alxeria ha Aljeriya haw Alekelia he hi ht Aljeri ia
Algeria id Aljazair io Aljeria is Als r it Algeria ja ko kw Aljeri la Algeria li
Algerie lt Al yras lv Al rija mk ms Algeria na Algeria nds Algerien nl Algerije nn
Algerie no Algerie pl Algieria pt Arg lia rm Algeria ro Algeria ru sa scn Algiria
simple Algeria sk Al rsko sl Al irija so Aljeeriya sq Algjeria sr sv Algeriet tg
th tl Algeria tr Cezayir ur wa Aldjereye yi zh zh min nan Algeria text revision
page page title Characters in Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id id timestamp
T Z timestamp contributor username Bchampion username id id contributor comment
Removed inccorect info about etymology of quot mooch quot see discussion comment
text xml space preserve Characters in Ayn Rand s novel Atlas Shrugged spoiler
Balph Eubank Called quot the literary leader of the age quot despite the fact that
he is incapable of writing anything that people actually want to read What people
want to read he says is irrelevant He complains that it is disgraceful that artists
are treated as peddlers and that there should be a law limiting the sales of books
to ten thousand copies He is a member of the Looters Balph Eubank appears in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Ben Nealy A railroad contractor whom Dagny
Taggart hires to replace the track on the Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line
Rio Norte Line with Technology in Atlas Shrugged Rearden Metal Rearden Metal Nealy
is incompetent but Dagny can find no one better in all the country Nealy believes
that anything can get done with enough muscle power He sees no role for
intelligence in human achievement and this is manifest in his inability to organize
the project and to make decisions He relies on Dagny and Ellis Wyatt to run things
and resents them for doing it because it appears to him like they are just bossing
people around Ben Nealy appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Bertram
Scudder Editorial writer for the magazine The Future He typically bashes business
and businessmen but he never says anything specific in his articles relying on
innuendo sneers and denunciation He wrote a hatchet job on Hank Rearden called The
Octopus He is also vocal in support of the Things in Atlas Shrugged Equalization of
Opportunity Bill Equalization of Opportunity Bill Bertram Scudder appears in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Betty Pope A wealthy socialite who is having a
meaningless sexual affair with James Taggart that coincides with the overall
meaninglessness of her life She regrets having to wake up every morning because she
has to face another empty day She is deliberately crude in a way that casts
ridicule on her high social position Betty Pope appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged sections and Brakeman An unnamed employee working on the Things in Atlas
Shrugged Taggart Comet Taggart Comet train Dagny Taggart hears Brakeman whistling
the theme of a concerto When she asks him what piece it is from he says it is
Things in Atlas Shrugged Halley s Fifth Concerto Halley s Fifth Concerto When Dagny
points out that Richard Halley only wrote four concertos Brakeman claims he made a
mistake and he doesn t recall where he heard the piece Later after Dagny instructs
the train crew how to proceed he asks a co worker who she is and learns she is the
one who runs Companies in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart
Transcontinental It is later discovered that the unknown brakeman is one of the
strikers when Dagny meets him in the valley Brakeman appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged sections and Cherryl Brooks Dime store shopgirl who marries James Taggart
after a chance encounter in her store the night the John Galt Line was deemed his
greatest success She marries him thinking he is the heroic person behind Taggart
Transcontinental She is horrible to Dagny until the night before she commits
suicide when she confesses to Dagny that she married Jim thinking she was marrying
Dagny Like Eddie Willers Cherryl is one representation of a quot good quot person
who lacks the extraordinary
capacities of the primary heroes of the novel Claude Slagenhop The president of
political organization Characters in Atlas Shrugged Friends of Global Progress
which is supported by Philip Rearden and one of Lillian Rearden s friends He
believes that ideas are just air that this is no time for talk but for action He is
not bothered by the fact that action unguided by ideas is random and pointless
Global Progress is a sponsor of the Things in Atlas Shrugged Equalization of
Opportunity Bill Claude Slagenhop appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
Cuffy Meigs A looter who s assigned by Wesley Mouch to keep watch over the workings
of Taggart Transcontinental and later assumes control over the company after Dagny
Taggart leaves He carries a pistol and a lucky rabbit s foot he dresses in a
military uniform The quot intellectual heir quot of Dr Robert Stadler Meigs comes
to a fitting end at the hands of Project X Dagny Taggart The main character in
Atlas Shrugged also the name of her namesake Mrs Nathaniel Taggart Dagny is Vice
President in Charge of Operation at Taggart Transcontinental She is the female hero
the counterpart to John Galt her journey is the journey of the reader exploring and
understanding Galts philosophy Those in the know understand that she is the one who
really runs the railroad In the course of the novel she forms romantic liaisons
with three men of ability Francisco Hank Rearden and John Galt in order John is the
one who because of the sum total of his qualities will become the choice of Dagny
Dagny appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Dan Conway The middle
aged president of the Companies in Atlas Shrugged Phoenix Durango railroad Running
a railroad is just about the only thing he knows When the Things in Atlas Shrugged
Anti dog eat dog Rule is used to drive his business out of Places in Atlas Shrugged
Colorado he loses the will to fight and resigns himself to a quiet life of books
and fishing He claims that somebody had to be sacrificed it turned out to be him
and he has no right to complain bowing to the will of the majority When pressed he
says he doesn t really believe this is right but he can t understand why it is
wrong and what the alternative might be He is trapped by a moral code that makes
him a willing victim and rather than challenge that morality he simply gives up Dan
Conway appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and and is mentioned in
section Dick McNamara A contractor who finished the Things in Atlas Shrugged San
Sebastian Line and who is hired to lay the new Technology in Atlas Shrugged Rearden
Metal track for the Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line Before he gets a chance
to do so he mysteriously disappears Dick McNamara is mentioned in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged sections and Eddie Willers Special Assistant to the Vice President
in Charge of Operation at Taggart Transcontinental He grew up with Dagny Taggart
His father and grandfather worked for the Taggarts and he followed in their
footsteps He is completely loyal to Dagny and to Companies in Atlas Shrugged
Taggart Transcontinental He is also secretly in love with Dagny Willers is
generally assumed to represent the common man someone who does not possess the
promethian creative ability of The Strikers but nevertheless matches them in moral
courage and is capable of appreciating and making use of their creations Eddie
Willers appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Ellis Wyatt The head
of Companies in Atlas Shrugged Wyatt Oil He has almost single handedly revived the
economy of Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado by discovering oil there Of all the
disappearances of industrialists in the novel Wyatt s involving the fiery
destruction of his oil wells is surely the most dramatic Ellis Wyatt is mentioned
or appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Francisco d Anconia One of
the central characters in Atlas Shrugged By all accounts he is a worthless
millionaire playboy owner by inheritance of the world s largest copper mining
empire the man behind the Things in Atlas Shrugged San Sebastian Mines and a
childhood friend and first love of Dagny Taggart Francisco began working on the sly
as a teenager in order to learn all he could about business While still a student
at Things in Atlas Shrugged Patrick Henry University he began working at a copper
foundry and investing in the stock market By the time he was twenty he had made
enough to purchase the foundry He began working for Companies in Atlas Shrugged d
Anconia Copper as assistant superintendent of a mine in Montana but was quickly
promoted to head of the New York office He took over d Anconia Copper at age after
the death of his father When he was Francisco secretly joined the Strikers and
began to slowly destroy the d Anconia empire so the Looters could not get it He
adopted the persona of a worthless playboy by which he is known to the world as an
effective cover His full name is Francisco Domingo Carlos Andres Sebastian d
Anconia According to mailto areed calstatela edu Adam Reed http www monmouth com
adamreed Ayn Rands jewish years Who is Francisco DAnconia html Who is Francisco D
Anconia d Anconia is the only Hero class character who is recognizably Jewish not
in the religious but in the historical sense like Ayn Rand herself Francisco D
Anconia appears or is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and this
last section includes a detailed history of his life Hank Rearden One of the
central characters in Atlas Shrugged He is the founder of Companies in Atlas
Shrugged Rearden Steel and the inventor of Technology in Atlas Shrugged Rearden
Metal He lives in Places in Atlas Shrugged Philadelphia with his wife Lillian his
brother Philip and an elderly woman known only as Rearden s Mother all of whom he
supports Gwen Ives is his secretary The character of Hank Rearden has two important
roles to play in the novel First he is in the same position as the reader in that
he is aware that there is something wrong with the world but is not sure what it is
Rearden is guided toward an understanding of the solution through his friendship
with Francisco d Anconia who does know the secret and by this mechanism the reader
is also prepared to understand the secret when it is revealed explicitly in Atlas
Shrugged Galts Speech Galt s Speech Second Rearden is used to illustrate Rand s
Concepts in Atlas Shrugged theory of sex Lillian Rearden cannot appreciate Hank
Rearden s virtues and she is portrayed as being disgusted by sex Dagny Taggart
clearly does appreciate Rearden s virtues and this appreciation evolves into a
sexual desire Rearden is torn by a contradiction because he accepts the premises of
the traditional view of sex as a lower instinct while responding sexually to Dagny
who represents his highest values Rearden struggles to resolve this internal
conflict and in doing so illustrates Rand s sexual theory Rearden appears in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and and is mentioned in sections and Hugh
Akston Identified as quot One of the last great advocates of reason quot He was a
renowned philosopher and the head of the Department of Philosophy at Things in
Atlas Shrugged Patrick Henry University where he taught Francisco d Anconia John
Galt and Ragnar Danneskj ld He was along with Robert Stadler a father figure to
these three Akston s name is so hallowed that a young lady on hearing that
Francisco had studied under him is shocked She thought he must have been one of
those great names from an earlier century Hugh Akston is mentioned in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged section James Taggart The President of Companies in Atlas Shrugged
Taggart Transcontinental and a leader of the Looters Taggart is an expert influence
peddler who is incapable of making decisions on his own He relies on his sister
Dagny Taggart to actually run the railroad but nonetheless opposes her in almost
every endeavor In a sense he is the antithesis of Dagny As the novel progresses the
moral philosophy of the Looters is revealed it is a code of nihilism The goal of
this code is to not exist to become a zero Taggart struggles to remain unaware that
this is his goal He maintains his pretence that he wants to live and becomes
horrified whenever his mind starts to grasp the truth about himself This
contradiction leads to the recurring absurdity of his life the desire to destroy
those on whom his life depends and the horror that he will succeed at this James
Taggart appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and and is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and John Galt The question quot Who is John
Galt quot is asked repeatedly throughout Atlas Shrugged Late into the book we learn
that John Galt is the man who stopped the motor of the world and the leader of the
Strikers He is also the same character as the Mystery Worker The son of an Ohio
garage mechanic Galt left home at age and began college at Things in Atlas Shrugged
Patrick Henry University Patrick Henry University at age There he befriended
Francisco d Anconia Francisco d Anconia and Ragnar Danneskj ld Ragnar Danneskj ld
all three of whom double majored in physics and philosophy They were the cherished
students of the brilliant scientist Robert Stadler Robert Stadler and the brilliant
philosopher Hugh Akston Hugh Akston After graduating Galt became an engineer at the
Companies in Atlas Shrugged Twentieth Century Motor Works where he designed a
revolutionary new motor powered by ambient static electricity with the potential to
change the world Like Ellis Wyatt Ellis Wyatt he has created what many had for
years said was impossible When the company owners decided to run the factory by the
collectivist maxim By each according to his ability to each according to his need
Galt organized a successful labor strike proclaiming his promise to stop the motor
of the world He began traversing
the globe meeting the world s most successful businessmen systematically
convincing them to follow in his footsteps one by one they began abandoning their
business empires which Galt convinced them were doomed to failure anyhow given the
increased nationalization of industry by the government Secretly these captains of
industry led by Galt and banker Midas Mulligan Midas Mulligan had created their own
society amp mdash a secret enclave of rational individualists living in quot Things
in Atlas Shrugged Galt s Gulch Galt s Gulch quot a town secluded high in a
wilderness of mountains Dagny Taggert Dagny accidentally finds the town amp mdash
and a shocked John Galt amp mdash by crash landing a light aircraft while pursuing
Quentin Daniels Quentin Daniels Since everyone across the country is repeating the
phrase quot Who is John Galt quot it is natural that many people have attempted to
answer that question The phrase becomes an expression of helplessness and despair
at the current state of the world Dagny Taggart hears a number of Things in Atlas
Shrugged John Galt Legends John Galt Legends before finding the real John Galt and
eventually joining his cause and learning that all of the stories have an element
of truth to them There is a clothing store in Vail Colorado called John Galt Ltd
One presumes that on occasion a customer unknowingly walks in and asks quot Who is
John Galt quot Lillian Rearden The wildly unsupportive wife of Hank Rearden They
have been married eight years as the novel begins Lillian is a frigid Moocher who
seeks to destroy her husband She compares being Rearden s wife with owning the
world s most powerful horse Since she cannot comfortably ride a horse that goes too
fast she must bridle it down to her level even if that means it will never reach
its full potential and its power will be greviously wasted Lillian also serves to
illustrate Rand s Concepts in Atlas Shrugged Theory of sex She believes sex is a
base animal instinct and that sexual indulgence is a sign of moral weakness She is
incapable of feeling this kind of desire which she believes testifies to her moral
superiority However according to the theory of sex Lillian s lack of sexual
capacity results from her inability to experience value in herself she is therefore
unable to respond sexually when she experiences value in others Lillian tolerates
sex with her husband only because she is realistic enough to know he is just a
brute who requires satisfaction of his brute instincts In Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section she indicates that she abhors Francisco d Anconia because she
believes he is a sexual adventurer Lillian Rearden appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged sections and The Looters A group of evil characters sometimes referred to
as quot James Taggart and his friends quot They are similar to the Moochers The
Looters consist of men and women who use force to obtain value from those who
produce it They seek to destroy the producers despite the fact that they are
dependent upon them The Looters include Mr Thompson Balph Eubank Floyd Ferris James
Taggart Orren Boyle Paul Larkin Robert Stadler Simon Pritchett Wesley Mouch and
Cuffy Miegs Midas Mulligan A wealthy banker who mysteriously disappears in protest
after he is given a court order to loan money to an incompetent loan applicant
Midas Mulligan is responsible for the creation and distribution of the money that
is exclusively used in Galt s Gulch and is the original owner of the land where
Galt s Gulch is located He is also responsible for the production of the money used
there The Moochers A group of characters similar to the Looters who use guilt as a
weapon against those who produce value They seek to destroy the producers despite
the fact that they are dependent upon them The Moochers include Lillian Rearden
Philip Rearden and Hank Rearden s mother Mort Liddy A hack writer hack composer who
writes trite scores for movies and modern symphonies that no one listens to He
believes melody is a primitive vulgarity He is one of Lillian Rearden s friends and
a member of the cultural elite Mort Liddy appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section Mr Mowen The president of the Companies in Atlas Shrugged Amalgamated
Switch and Signal Company Inc of Connecticut He is a businessman who sees nothing
wrong with the moral code that is destroying society and would never dream of
saying he is in business for any reason other than the good of society He is unable
to grapple with abstract issues and is frightened of anything controversial Dagny
Taggart hires Mr Mowen to produce switches made of Technology in Atlas Shrugged
Rearden Metal He is reluctant to build anything with this unproven technology and
has to be ridden and cajoled before he is willing to accept the contract When
pressured by public opinion he discontinues production of the switches forcing
Dagny to find an alternative source Mr Mowen appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section Mystery Worker A menial worker for Companies in Atlas Shrugged Taggart
Transcontinental who often dines with Eddie Willers in the employee s cafeteria
Eddie finds him very easy to talk to and Mystery Worker not so subtly leads him on
so that Eddie reveals important information about Dagny Taggart and Taggart
Transcontinental Eddie tells him which suppliers and contractors Dagny is most
dependent on and with remarkable consistency those are the next men to disappear
mysteriously Mystery Worker is actually John Galt Mystery Worker appears in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section The unnamed newsstand owner He works in the
Taggart Terminal Twenty years ago he owned a cigarette factory but it went under
and he s been working at his newsstand ever since He is a collector of cigarettes
and knows every brand ever made He occasionally chats with Dagny Taggart when she
comes by On one occasion in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section after Dagny asks
him about his collection he bemoans the fact that there are no new brands and the
old brands are all disappearing He examines a cigarette given to Dagny by Hugh
Akston but it is a new brand that he has never seen before It carries the sign of
the dollar In his first appearance the Newsstand Owner likens the fire of a
cigarette to the fire of the mind This alludes to the Greek myth of Prometheus who
gave mankind the gift of fire allowing it to raise itself up and become civilized
In Atlas Shrugged it is the mind of man that raises mankind Thus the cigarettes
become symbolic of the men of the mind The disappearance of the old brands
represents the disappearance of the men of the mind and the Newsstand Owner s
discovery of the new brand foreshadows Dagny s discovery of a new kind of men of
the mind Orren Boyle The head of Companies in Atlas Shrugged Associated Steel and a
friend of James Taggart He is one of the Looters He is an investor in the Things in
Atlas Shrugged San Sebastian Mines Orren Boyle appears or is mentioned in Structure
of Atlas Shrugged sections and Owen Kellogg Assistant to the Manager of the
Taggart Terminal in Places in Atlas Shrugged New York He catches Dagny Taggart s
eye as one of the few competent men on staff After seeing the sorry state of the
Ohio Division she decides to make him to its new Superintendent However as soon as
she returns to Places in Atlas Shrugged New York Kellogg informs her that he is
quitting his job He admits that he loves his work but that s not enough to keep him
He won t say why he is leaving or what he will do Later he is noticed working as
transient labor by the unsuccessful unmotivated businessman Mr Mowen Owen Kellog
eventually reaches and settles in Atlantis Owen Kellogg appears in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged sections and Paul Larkin An unsuccessful middle aged businessman a
friend of the Rearden family and a member of the Looters In Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section Larkin visits Places in Atlas Shrugged Philadelphia to warn Hank
Rearden of possible trouble from Places in Atlas Shrugged Washington In Structure
of Atlas Shrugged section he meets with the other Looters to work out a plan to
bring Rearden down James Taggart knows he is friends with Hank Rearden and
challenges his loyalty and Larkin assures Taggart that he will go along with them
Paul Larkin appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and A Philip Rearden
The younger brother of Hank Rearden and a Moocher He lives in his brother s home in
Places in Atlas Shrugged Philadelphia and is completely dependent on him He
believes that the source of his sustenance is evil and would love to see him
destroyed He has never had a career and spends his time perfunctorily working for
various social groups He becomes resentful of his brother s charity He then
requests that he be granted a job from his brother because he should not have to be
burdened by the feeling of inadequacy of not earning his own livelihood When
confronted by his brother on how this job should be a mutually beneficial
arrangement Philip shrugs the argument off as irrelevant and that the job should be
entitled to him solely based on his need for money and the fact of familial ties
Philip Rearden appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Quentin Daniels
An enterprising engineer hired by Dagny Taggart to reconstruct John Galt s motor
Partway through this process Quentin withdraws his effort for the same reasons John
Galt himself had Dagny sets out to meet Quentin in hopes of convincing him to
resume his work John Galt narrowly gets to him first Dagny s pursuit of Quentin
leads her to quot Things in Atlas Shrugged Galt s Gulch Galt s Gulch quot Ragnar
Danneskj ld One of the original Strikers He is now world famous as a pirate Ragnar
was from Places in Atlas Shrugged Norway the son of a bishop and the scion of one
of Norway s most ancient noble families He attended Things in Atlas Shrugged
Patrick Henry University and became friends
with John Galt and Francisco d Anconia while studying under Hugh Akston and Robert
Stadler Ragnar seizes relief ships that are being sent from the Places in Atlas
Shrugged United States to Places in Atlas Shrugged Europe No one knows what he does
with the goods he seizes As the novel progresses Ragnar begins for the first time
to become active in American waters and is even spotted in Places in Atlas Shrugged
Delaware Bay Reportedly his ship is better than any available in the fleets of the
world s navies When he became a pirate he was disowned and excommunicated There is
a price on his head in Places in Atlas Shrugged Norway Places in Atlas Shrugged
Portugal Places in Atlas Shrugged Turkey According to Ayn Rand verbal report his
name is a tribute to Victor Hugo In Hugo s first novel Hans of Iceland the hero
becomes the first of the Counts of Danneskj ld His name may be a pun on Dane s Gold
although quot skj ld quot means shield not gold Ragnar Danneskj ld appears in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Rearden s mother Named Gertrude she is a
Moocher who lives with her son Hank Rearden at his home in Places in Atlas Shrugged
Philadelphia She is involved in church based charity work and berates Rearden
whenever she can She insults him by saying he was always selfish even as a child
She dotes on her weak son Philip Rearden Rearden s mother appears in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged section Richard Halley Dagny Taggart s favorite composer who
mysteriously disappeared after the evening of his greatest triumph In Structure of
Atlas Shrugged section we learn that Richard Halley spent years as a struggling and
unappreciated composer At age his opera Phaethon was performed for the first time
to an audience who booed and heckled it It was based on the Greek mythology Greek
myth in which Phaethon steals his father s chariot and dies in an audacious attempt
to drive the sun across the sky Halley changed the story though into one of triumph
in which Phaethon succeeds For years Halley wrote in obscurity After nineteen years
Phaethon was performed again but this time it was received to the greatest ovation
the opera house had ever heard It appears his critics felt he had paid his dues
long enough that he was at last worthy of their approval The following day Halley
retired sold the rights to his music and disappeared Richard Halley is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and and appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section Dr Robert Stadler A former professor at Patrick Henry University
mentor to Francisco d Anconia John Galt and Ragnar Danneskj ld He has since become
a sell out one who had great promise but squandered it for social approval to the
detriment of the free He works at the State Science Institute where all his
inventions are perverted for use by the military including the instrument of his
demise Project X Dr Simon Pritchett The prestigious head of the Department of
Philosophy at Things in Atlas Shrugged Patrick Henry University and is considered
the leading philosopher of the age He is also a Looter He is certainly
representative of the philosophy of the age he is a crude reductionist who believes
man is nothing but a collection of chemicals he believes there are no standards
that definitions are fluid reason is a superstition that it is futile to seek
meaning in life and that the duty of a philosopher is to show that nothing can be
understood He explains all this in his book The Metaphysical Contradictions of the
Universe and at cocktail parties Dr Pritchett appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section The Strikers People of the mind who go on strike because they do
not appreciate being exploited by the Looters and demonized by a society who
depends on them for its very existence The leader of the Strikers is John Galt
Other Strikers include Hugh Akston Francisco d Anconia Ragnar Danneskj ld Richard
Halley and the Brakeman Characters who join the Strikers in the course of the book
include Dagny Taggart Ellis Wyatt Hank Rearden Dick McNamara and Owen Kellogg Mr
Thompson The quot Head of State Head of the State quot which essentially means that
he s the President of the United States though he s never specifically referred to
as such In the world of Atlas Shrugged all Presidents and Prime Ministers are
referred to simply as quot Head of the State quot and quot Mr quot This is because
countries have been standardized as quot People s States quot which seem to share a
common form of government Thomspon s title can thus be seen as reflecting the fact
that the US is in the process of evolving into one of these quot People s States
quot One of the Looters he s not particularly intelligent and has a very
undistinguished look He knows politics however and is a master of public relations
and back room deals Rand s notes indicate that she modelled him on President Harry
S Truman Wesley Mouch A member of the Looters and at the beginning of the storyline
the incompetent lobbyist whom Hank Rearden reluctantly employs in Places in Atlas
Shrugged Washington Initially Wesley Mouch is the least powerful and least
significant of the Looters the other members of this group feel they can look down
upon him with impunity Eventually he becomes the most powerful Looter and the
Places in Atlas Shrugged country s economic dictator thereby illustrating Rand s
belief that a government run economy places too much power in the hands of
incompetent bureaucrats who would never have positions of similar influence in a
private sector business Wesley Mouch appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
and is mentioned in section See also Minor characters in Atlas Shrugged Category
Atlas Shrugged Category Lists of fictional characters Atlas Shrugged characters
text revision page page title Technology in Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id
id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Brianhe username id id
contributor comment Galt s Motor prototype comment text xml space preserve
Technology in Atlas Shrugged Ayn Rand s novel includes a variety of technological
products and devices In addition to real world technology aircraft automobile s
diesel engine s phonograph record s radio s telephone s television and traffic
signals Atlas Shrugged also includes various fictional technologies or fictional
variants on real inventions spoilers Fictional technology Fictional inventions
mentioned in the book include refractor rays Gulch mirage Rearden Metal a sonic
death ray quot Project X quot voice activated door locks Gulch power station motors
powered by static electricity palm activated door locks Galt s NY lab shale oil
drilling and a nerve induction torture machine Traffic Signals Early on the book
mentions the quot screech quot of a traffic signal as it changes This implies the
older technology of mechanical traffic signals the kind which displayed a pennant
or flag indicating stop or go and the inverse indicator in the opposite direction
Traffic signals using lights have been around for over years so anything of this
type is very old compared to today Project X Project X is an invention of the
scientists at the state science institute requiring tons of Rearden Metal Basically
it is a quot death ray quot and is capable of destroying anything The scientists
claim that the project will be used to preserve peace and squash rebellion It is
destroyed towards the end of the book and emits a pulse of radiation that destroys
everything in the surrounding area including Cuffy Meigs and Dr Stadler as well as
the Taggart Bridge Rearden Metal Rearden metal is a Fictional chemical substance
Fictional compounds and alloys fictitious metal alloy invented by Characters in
Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden It is lighter than traditional steel but stronger and
is to steel what steel was to iron It is described as greenish blue Among its
ingredients are iron and copper Initially no one is willing to use Rearden metal
because no one wants to stick his neck out and be the first to try it Finally
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart places an order for Rearden Metal when
she needs rails to rebuild the dying Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line The
first thing made from Rearden metal is a Things in Atlas Shrugged bracelet Rearden
metal is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Galt s Motor John
Galt invented a new type of electrical apparatus described in the book as a motor
However it does not operate like a motor in the common use of the word today it is
capable of harnessing transforming and applying energy in many ways other than
mechanical Galt s Motor was capable of Radio jamming jamming all radio receiver s
on Earth and completely destroying the contents of Galt s booby trap ped laboratory
without causing collateral damage collateral structural damage Though Rand
describes it as turning static electricity into useful mechanical work its
operation is more reminiscent of modern speculation about zero point energy Dagny
discovers a discarded prototype of the motor and it is superficially described in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Part Chapter Galt shows Dagny the motor and
describes it in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Part Chapter Category Atlas
Shrugged Category Fictional technology Atlas Shrugged text revision page page title
Companies in Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Topynate username id id contributor comment removed NPOV
and irrelevant additions to Taggart Transcontinental comment text xml space
preserve Companies in Atlas Shrugged the Ayn Rand novel generally are divided into
two groups these that are operated by sympathetic characters are given the name of
the owner while companies operated by evil or incompetent characters are given
generic names In Atlas Shrugged men who give their names to their companies all
become Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Strikers in due time Amalgamated Switch and Signal A company run by Characters in
Atlas Shrugged Mr Mowen and located in Places in Atlas Shrugged Connecticut They
have supplied Taggart Transcontinental for generations Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Dagny Taggart orders Technology in Atlas Shrugged Rearden Metal switches from them
Amalgamated Switch and Signal appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
Associated Steel Associated Steel is the company owned by Characters in Atlas
Shrugged Orren Boyle The company was started with just a few hundred thousand
dollars of Characters in Atlas Shrugged Boyle s own money and hundreds of millions
of dollars in government grants Boyle used this money to buy out his competitors
and now relies on influence peddling and political favors to run his business
Associated Steel is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Ayers
Music Publishing Company Ayers Music Publishing Company is the publisher of the
music of Characters in Atlas Shrugged Richard Halley Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Dagny Taggart contacts Characters in Atlas Shrugged Mr Ayers to inquire as to the
existence of Things in Atlas Shrugged Halley s Fifth Concerto Ayers Music
Publishing Company is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Barton and
Jones The company located in Places in Atlas Shrugged Denver that supplies food for
the workers rebuilding the Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line They go bankrupt
in the middle of the project Barton and James is mentioned in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section d Anconia Copper A copper and mining company founded by Minor
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Sebastian d Anconia in Places in Atlas Shrugged
Argentina during the time of the Inquisition Each man who ran the company saw it
grow by in his lifetime so by the time Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d
Anconia heads the company it is the largest in the world His dream from childhood
is to increase the size of the company by d Anconia Copper is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Hammond Motors A car company in Colorado
They make the best cars on the market until the founder disappears Characters in
Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden buys a Hammond on his trip to Places in Atlas Shrugged
Colorado in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Incorporated Tool A company that
is contracted to deliver drill heads to Taggart Transcontinental but who fail to do
this It is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Phoenix Durango The
Phoenix Durango is an old small railroad located in the Southwest run by Characters
in Atlas Shrugged Dan Conway that has been insignificant for most of its existence
However the Phoenix Durango grows rapidly when Characters in Atlas Shrugged Ellis
Wyatt revives the economy of Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado and Taggart
Transcontinental s Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line fails to service Wyatt
adequately Later Characters in Atlas Shrugged James Taggart conspires to get the
Phoenix Durango driven out of Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado with the Things in
Atlas Shrugged Anti dog eat dog Rule The Phoenix Durango is mentioned in Structure
of Atlas Shrugged sections alluded to and Rearden Coal A business founded by
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden prior to the founding of Rearden Steel It
is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Rearden Limestone A business
founded by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden prior to the founding of
Rearden Steel It is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Rearden Ore
The first business founded by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden It is
mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Rearden Steel A company founded
by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden about ten years prior to the start of
the story in the novel Rearden bought an abandoned steel mill in Places in Atlas
Shrugged Philadelphia at a time when all the experts thought that such a venture
would be hopeless He turned it into the most reliable and profitable steel company
in the country As Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart struggles to save
Taggart Transcontinental she becomes increasingly dependent on Rearden Steel
Rearden Steel is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections alluded to and
Summit Casting A company in Places in Atlas Shrugged Illinois under contract to
deliver rail spikes to Taggart Transcontinental They go bankrupt before they can
deliver prompting Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart to fly to Places in
Atlas Shrugged Chicago and buy the company to get it started again Summit Casting
is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Taggart Transcontinental The
fictional railroad run by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart Her commitment
to the railroad creates one of the book s major conflicts Taggart Transcontinental
was founded by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Nathaniel Taggart who lived three
generations or so prior to Dagny s generation It was built without any grants loans
or favors from the government and was the last railroad that was still owned and
controlled by its founder s descendants Its motto is From Ocean to Ocean The
flagship of Taggart Transcontinental is the Things in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Comet
which runs from Places in Atlas Shrugged New York to Places in Atlas Shrugged San
Francisco and which has never been late United Locomotive Works An incompetent
company that is supposed to deliver Diesel engines to Taggart Transcontinental The
order is delayed in perpetuity and the Characters in Atlas Shrugged president of
the company refuses to ever give a straight answer as to why this is so The United
Locomotive Works is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Wyatt Oil
The oil company run by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Ellis Wyatt Wyatt s father had
squeezed a living out of the oil fields in Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado but
when Ellis Wyatt took over the business took off He discovered a technique for
extracting oil from wells that had been abandoned as dried up The success of Wyatt
Oil that followed this discovery suddenly and unexpectedly turned Places in Atlas
Shrugged Colorado into the leading economy in the country Wyatt Oil traditionally
relied on Taggart Transcontinental s Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line to
ship its oil But when that company could not grow fast enough to keep up with the
booming Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado economy Wyatt started using the small but
well managed Phoenix Durango instead This prompted Characters in Atlas Shrugged
James Taggart to make deals with his friends to drive the Phoenix Durango out of
Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado Afterwards Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny
Taggart has to rebuild the Things in Atlas Shrugged Rio Norte Line so it can supply
transportation to Wyatt Oil if she fails the economy of Places in Atlas Shrugged
Colorado and of the whole country could collapse Wyatt Oil is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Category Atlas Shrugged Category
Fictional companies Atlas Shrugged text revision page page title Concepts in Atlas
Shrugged title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username
Iceberg k username id id contributor text xml space preserve Some of the
important concepts discussed in Atlas Shrugged include the Sanction of the Victim
and the Theory of Sex Sanction of the Victim The Sanction of the Victim is defined
as quot the willingness of the good to suffer at the hands of the evil to accept
the role of sacrificial victim for the sin of creating values quot The entire story
of Atlas Shrugged can be seen as an answer to the question what would happen if
this sanction was revoked When Atlas shrugs relieving himself of the burden of
carrying the world he is revoking his sanction The concept is supposedly original
in the thinking of Ayn Rand and is foundational to her moral theory She holds that
evil is a parasite on the good and can only exist if the good tolerates it To quote
from Atlas Shrugged Galts Speech Galt s Speech quot Evil is impotent and has no
power but that which we let it extort from us quot and quot I saw that evil was
impotent and the only weapon of its triumph was the willingness of the good to
serve it quot Morality requires that we do not sanction our own victimhood Rand
claims In adhering to this concept Rand assigns virtue to the trait of selfishness
Throughout Atlas Shrugged numerous characters admit that there is something wrong
with the world but they cannot put their finger on what it is The concept they
cannot grasp is the sanction of the victim The first person to grasp the concept is
Characters in Atlas Shrugged John Galt who vows to stop the motor of the world by
getting the creators of the world to withhold their sanction We first glimpse the
concept in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section when Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Hank Rearden feels he is duty bound to support his family despite their hostility
towards him In Structure of Atlas Shrugged section the principle is stated
explicitly by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dan Conway quot I suppose somebody s got
to be sacrificed If it turned out to be me I have no right to complain quot Theory
of Sex In rejecting the traditional Christianity Christian altruist moral code Rand
also rejects the sexual code that in her view is a logical implication of altruism
Rand introduces a theory of sex in Atlas Shrugged which is purportedly implied by
her broader ethical and psychological theories Far from being a debasing animal
instinct sex is the highest celebration of our greatest values Sex is a physical
response to intellectual and spiritual values amp mdash a mechanism for giving
concrete expression to values that could otherwise only be experienced in the
abstract One is sexually attracted to those who embody one s values Those who have
base
values will be attracted to baseness to those who also have ignoble values Those
who lack any clear purpose will find sex devoid of meaning People of high values
will respond sexually to those who embody high values That our sexual desire is a
response to the embodiment of our values in others is a radical and original theory
However even those who are sympathetic to this theory have criticized it as being
incomplete For instance since according to Rand the economy is also such an
expression of values and since it is always possible to encounter someone who
embodies one s values more completely this would seem to make family undesirable
Indeed Rand treats quot family quot as a sort of trap Furthermore promiscuity
prostitution and an endless round robin of quot values driven quot sexual
relationships would become inevitable From this viewpoint one could say that Aldous
Huxley portrayed the ideal sexual state Brave New World features humans who are
incapable of deviating from their caste oriented quot values quot which naturally
include a code of sexual desirability Her sexual theory is illustrated in the
contrasting relationships of Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden with
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Lillian Rearden and Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny
Taggart and later with Dagny Taggart and Characters in Atlas Shrugged John Galt
Other important illustrations of this theory are found in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged Section recounts Dagny s relationship with Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Francisco d Anconia Structure of Atlas Shrugged Section recounts Hank and Lillian
Rearden s courtship and Lillian s attitude towards sex Category Atlas Shrugged text
revision page page title Places In Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Ams username id id contributor
minor comment Making redirect comment text xml space preserve REDIRECT Places in
Atlas Shrugged text revision page page title Things in Atlas Shrugged title id id
revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor ip ip contributor comment
John Galt Legends comment text xml space preserve This is a list of general items
in Ayn Rand s Atlas Shrugged spoiler Anti dog eat dog Rule The Anti dog eat dog
Rule is passed by the National Alliance of Railroads in Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section allegedly to prevent quot destructive competition quot between railroad s
The rule gives the Alliance the authority to forbid competition between railroads
in certain parts of the country It was crafted by Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Orren Boyle Orren Boyle as a favor for Characters in Atlas Shrugged James Taggart
James Taggart with the purpose of driving the Companies in Atlas Shrugged Phoenix
Durango Phoenix Durango out of Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado Colorado Bracelet
The very first thing made from Rearden Metal is a bracelet The bracelet is used to
illustrate Rand s Concepts in Atlas Shrugged Theory of Sex Theory of Sex The
bracelet symbolizes the value created by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden
Hank Rearden s long struggle to invent Rearden Metal When he gives it to Characters
in Atlas Shrugged Lillian Rearden Lillian Rearden as a present in section she says
quot It s fully as valuable as a piece of railroad rails quot However Lillian fully
grasps the significance of the gift her snide remark is her way of denigrating her
husband s ethos In section Lillian wears this bracelet at a party thrown on her
anniversary She makes fun of it all night long and when Characters in Atlas
Shrugged Dagny Taggart Dagny Taggart hears Lillian say she would gladly trade it
for a common diamond bracelet Dagny takes her up on it Lillian later asks for it
back upon realizing her power over her husband was slowly diminishing Dagny denies
the offer The bracelet appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Cub Club
A night club in Places in Atlas Shrugged New York When Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Francisco d Anconia Francisco d Anconia returns to New York in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section he explains he came because of a hat check girl at the Cub Club
and the liverwurst at Moe s Delicatessen on Third Avenue Equalization of
Opportunity Bill A bill designed by the Characters in Atlas Shrugged Looters
Looters that proposes to limit the number of businesses any one person can own to
one It is aimed primarily at Characters in Atlas Shrugged Hank Rearden Hank Rearden
who uses Companies in Atlas Shrugged Rearden Ore Rearden Ore to guarantee Companies
in Atlas Shrugged Rearden Steel Rearden Steel with a supply of iron ore By passing
this Bill the Looters can seize Rearden s other businesses for themselves and then
deny him the iron he needs to run his steel mills The Looters claim the Bill is
meant to give a chance to the little guy The Equalization of Opportunity Bill is
appears in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Galt s Gulch A secluded refuge in a
valley of Colorado where the men of ability have retreated after relinquishing
participation in American society Nicknamed quot Galt s Gulch quot by its
inhabitants it is in fact the property of quot Midas quot Mulligan one of the early
strikers to follow John Galt s call This call was to the great men of mind and
action to abandon the increasingly slave state inclinations of a decaying United
States to go on strike thereby withdrawing the only thing supporting the parasites
and looters Sarcastically nicknamed Midas in the press because everything he seemed
to touch turned to gold Mulligan adopted the nickname during his explosive
investment career before dropping out of sight He had purchased this land among his
far ranging speculative endeavors and subsequently retreated to it upon his
disappearance Other strikers soon followed him there including John Galt renting or
buying land for summer retreats as a respite from continuing their search for
fellow strikers among the increasingly collapsing American society Eventually a
society develops in Galt s Gulch as more people live there year round as the
outside world becomes virtually unsafe to visit We are introduced to Galt s Gulch
in the final section of the Novel in the first chapter entitled Atlantis The people
live with each other in completely free society and embody everything which is the
thesis of the Novel the appropriate values for a society of Mankind philosophical
moral economic legal aesthetic and sexual among others too numerous to mention We
find industrious ambitious happy people continuing their chosen fields of endeavor
without the yokes of any taxation or regulation Conversely there is a reverence for
private property everything transacted is paid for with the re invented currency of
solid gold coin struck from the reserves of Midas Mulligan s bank which now resides
in the valley The townspeople receive services from the various heroes we have met
throughout the Novel who all now reside and produce in the valley They purchase
power inexpensively from Galt and his invention of the static electricity motor
maintain their anonymity from the outside world via Galt s invention of the air
wave reflection device giving the view from above the camouflage of reflected
images of other mountainsides nearby and some attend Galt s lectures on Physics
where he explains his discoveries on new fundamental laws and applied mathematics
The people purchase medical treatment from the care of Dr Hendricks who uses his
invention of a portable X ray machine to initially diagnose Dagny Taggart upon her
crash landing into the valley attend concerts of new musical compositions of
Richard Halley who has continued to compose in the Valley acquire raw materials
from the efforts of Francisco D Anconia s excavations around the valley attend
philosophy lectures from the now retired pirate Ragnar Danneskj ld receive loans
from Midas Mulligan etc Rand s description of Galt s Gulch was inspired by a visit
she and her husband Frank O Connor took to Ouray Colorado while researching
Colorado for the novel Halley s Fifth Concerto Characters in Atlas Shrugged Richard
Halley Richard Halley disappeared after he had written only four concertos In
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart
Dagny Taggart an enthusiastic fan of Halley s music hears an unfamiliar theme being
whistled by a Characters in Atlas Shrugged Brakeman brakeman on the Taggart Comet
She asks him what it is he responds Halley s Fifth Concerto When Dagny says Halley
only wrote four concertos the brakeman says he made a mistake and denies knowing
what the song was Later Dagny calls Minor characters in Atlas Shrugged Mr Ayers to
find out if Halley wrote a fifth concerto Ayers says Halley did not Halley s Fifth
Concerto is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Halley s Fourth
Concerto The last thing Characters in Atlas Shrugged Richard Halley Richard Halley
wrote before he disappeared It is a song of rebellion and defiance that seemed to
say agony and suffering were not necessary Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny
Taggart Dagny Taggart listened to this piece in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
It is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Heaven s In Your Backyard A
film Characters in Atlas Shrugged Mort Liddy Mort Liddy wrote the score using a
bastardized version of Halley s Fourth Concerto It is mentioned in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged section John Galt Legends Since everyone across the country is
asking quot Who is John Galt quot it is not surprising that some people have come
up with answers A number of John Galt Legends are told each of which ironically
turns out to be true at least symbolically Legend Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section A Minor characters in Atlas Shrugged spinster at Characters in Atlas
Shrugged Lillian Rearden Lillian Rearden s party tells Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Dagny Taggart
Dagny the story John Galt was a man of inestimable wealth who found the sunken
island of Atlantis while fighting the worst storm ever wreaked upon the world The
sight was so beautiful that having seen it he could never go back to the world so
he sank his ship and took his fortune down with him The actual John Galt was a man
who created something of inestimable value a new motor and who discovered the
secret to what was wrong with the world while fighting the most evil social
philosophy ever put into practice The world he envisioned was so beautiful that he
refused to live in the world that was and disappeared taking the secret of motor
with him Atlantis the Isles of the Blessed is a place where no one could enter
except those who had the spirit of a hero Described in these terms it is the same
as Galt s Gulch Moe s Delicatessen A delicatessen in Places in Atlas Shrugged New
York New York When Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d Anconia Francisco d
Anconia returns to New York in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section he explains he
came because of a hat check girl at the Cub Club and the liverwurst at Moe s
Delicatessen on Third Avenue National Alliance of Railroads An industry group
formed to promote the welfare of the industry as a whole requiring members to
sacrifice their individual interests for the common good Characters in Atlas
Shrugged Orren Boyle Orren Boyle has friends on the National Alliance of Railroads
and he gets them to support the Anti dog eat dog Rule which uses a string of
pretenses to drive the Companies in Atlas Shrugged Phoenix Durango Phoenix Durango
out of Places in Atlas Shrugged Colorado Colorado The National Alliance of
Railroads is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and National
Council of Metal Industries An industry group that uses political pull to get its
way Characters in Atlas Shrugged James Taggart James Taggart has friends on the
National Council of Metal Industries and he gets them to support legislation that
will hurt Companies in Atlas Shrugged Rearden Steel Rearden Steel and help
Companies in Atlas Shrugged Associated Steel Associated Steel The National Council
of Metal Industries is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Patrick
Henry University The most prestigious university in the world It was attended by
Characters in Atlas Shrugged John Galt Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d
Anconia Francisco d Anconia and Characters in Atlas Shrugged Ragnar Danneskj F ld
Ragnar Danneskjold where they met and became friends Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Hugh Akston Hugh Akston and Characters in Atlas Shrugged Robert Stadler Robert
Stadler taught there It is located in Places in Atlas Shrugged Cleveland Rio Norte
Line A branch of Companies in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart
Transcontinental that runs from Places in Atlas Shrugged Cheyenne Wyoming to Places
in Atlas Shrugged El Paso Texas It is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged
sections alluded to and Rockdale Station A station on the Companies in Atlas
Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart Transcontinental line located five miles
from the Taggart estate and overlooking the Places in Atlas Shrugged Hudson River
It was the site of Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart Dagny Taggart s first
job with the railroad night operator at age It appears in Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section San Sebastian A community built to house the workers of the San
Sebastian Mines and their families As it turns out the houses roads and everything
of practical value is built so poorly that the community can be expected to fall
apart within a year or two Only the church was built to last It is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section San Sebastian Line A branch of Companies in
Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart Transcontinental that serves the
San Sebastian Mines in Places in Atlas Shrugged Mexico The mines were developed by
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d Anconia Francisco d Anconia and attracted
significant investments from Characters in Atlas Shrugged James Taggart James
Taggart and Characters in Atlas Shrugged Orren Boyle Orren Boyle who assumed
Francisco could be counted on to deliver a winner The San Sebastian Line is
nationalized by the Mexican government soon after completion When it is
nationalized in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section it is referred to as the San
Sebastian Railroad It is mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and San
Sebastian Mines San Sebastian Mines is a copper mining project in Places in Atlas
Shrugged Mexico founded by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d Anconia
Francisco d Anconia and named after his ancestor Minor characters in Atlas Shrugged
Sebastian d Anconia Francisco s reputation as a businessman is so great that
investors flock to him begging to invest money in the enterprise Investors include
Characters in Atlas Shrugged James Taggart James Taggart and Characters in Atlas
Shrugged Orren Boyle Orren Boyle Taggart goes so far as to build a new branch of
Companies in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart Transcontinental the
San Sebastian Line to serve the mines sinking million into the project When the
development of the mines appears complete the Mexican government nationalizes them
as well as the San Sebastian Line only to discover there is no copper and there
never was When Taggart tells Francisco he considers the Mines a rotten swindle
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Francisco explains that Taggart should be
pleased with the way he ran the mines He says he put into practice those moral
precepts that were accepted around the world The world says it is evil to pursue a
profit amp mdash he got no profit from the worthless mines The world says the
purpose of an enterprise is not to produce but to give a livelihood to its
employees amp mdash it produced nothing but created jobs that would never have
existed if one was only concerned with developing a real mine The world says the
owner is an exploiter and the workers do all the real work amp mdash he left the
enterprise entirely in the hands of the workers and did not burden anyone with his
presence The world says need is more important than ability amp mdash he hired a
mining specialist who needed a job very badly but had no ability In short the San
Sebastian Mines were an illustration of what happens when this moral code is put
into practice and a warning of what will soon happen to the world as a whole The
San Sebastian Mines appear in Structure of Atlas Shrugged sections and Taggart
Building A skyscraper in Places in Atlas Shrugged New York the headquarters of
Companies in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart Transcontinental and
the location of the Taggart Terminal Taggart Comet The Taggart Comet is Companies
in Atlas Shrugged Taggart Transcontinental Taggart Transcontinental s flagship
train It runs from Places in Atlas Shrugged New York to Places in Atlas Shrugged
San Francisco and has never been late The Taggart Comet appears in Structure of
Atlas Shrugged sections and The Future See Characters in Atlas Shrugged Bertram
Scudder Bertram Scudder The Heart Is A Milkman The Heart is a Milkman is a novel
being written by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Balph Eubank Balph Eubank It is about
the central fact of human existence frustration Eubank says he will dedicate it to
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Lillian Rearden Lillian Rearden It is mentioned in
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section The Octopus See Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Bertram Scudder Bertram Scudder The Vulture Is Molting A best selling novel that
captures the spirit of the times The Vulture Is Molting is quot A penetrating study
of a businessman s greed A fearless revelation of man s depravity quot The book is
mentioned in Structure of Atlas Shrugged section as one of the artifacts of popular
culture that depresses Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart Dagny Taggart
with its baseness Wayne Falkland Hotel A luxurious hotel in Places in Atlas
Shrugged New York it is considered the best hotel left in the world It is where
Characters in Atlas Shrugged Francisco d Anconia Francisco d Anconia stays when he
is in town It was also the scene of Characters in Atlas Shrugged Dagny Taggart
Dagny Taggart s debut ball when she was seventeen It may be based on the Waldorf
Astoria Hotel in New York City The Wayne Falkland Hotel is mentioned in Structure
of Atlas Shrugged sections and Wyatt Oil Fields The Wyatt Oil Fields are in Places
in Atlas Shrugged Colorado They are a bunch of old abandoned oil wells that were
revived by a new technique invented by Characters in Atlas Shrugged Ellis Wyatt
Ellis Wyatt This has almost single handedly revitalized the economy of Places in
Atlas Shrugged Colorado The Wyatt Oil Fields appear in Structure of Atlas Shrugged
sections and Category Atlas Shrugged Category Lists of fictional things text
revision page page title Topics of note in Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id
id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Ds username id id contributor
minor comment reduce generalization about lack of lying comment text xml space
preserve Atlas As told in Atlas Shrugged Atlas carried the world on his shoulders
But in the Greek Mythology Greek Myths the Titan Atlas mythology Atlas stands on
the earth and holds up the sky In the statues that represent Atlas the big round
thing on his back represents the heavens which because of the apparent circular
motion of the planets around the earth were conceived of as being round Some
tellings of the Atlas myth have him carrying both the earth and the heavens on his
back but this appears to be a modern retelling further research might confirm this
Character names Some of the character names are or appear to be puns or have some
other significance See also Characters in Atlas Shrugged When asked why
so many of her names have syllables with many hard consonants like dag tag den
stad Rand said that she just liked those sounds Ragnar Danneskjold sounds like Dane
s Gold a tribute paid by the medieval English to the Vikings to bribe them into
being peaceful However note quot skjold quot means shield not gold However the hero
of Victor Hugo s first novel Hans of Iceland becomes the first of the Counts of
Danneskj ld In the s Rand told Marsha Familaro Enright that her use of this name
was not plagiarism because there really were Counts of Danneskj ld Robert Stadler
sounds like the German word for state Staat Dr Stadler is a statist in that he
believes it appropriate and necessary for the state to fund scientific research
Francisco d Anconia Rand s husband was Frank O Connor John Galt the name of a th
century Scottish novelist though this is apparently coincidental Galt is close to
Geld and gold The name was probably used because it had to be such that it could
become proverbial amp mdash this would not be possible with a long awkward name
Wesley Mouch Mouch is exactly what his name sounds like a mooch He has no real
virtue or skill but somehow becomes a powerful figure Crime Common street crime is
conspicuously absent in Atlas Shrugged Characters walk the streets with no thought
of being mugged or attacked Historical figures and events Atlas Shrugged takes
place in a world with a different history from our own but there are some
historical figures and events that are mentioned Aristotle Structure of Atlas
Shrugged section Francisco d Anconia wrote a thesis on the influence of Aristotle s
theory of the Immovable Mover Dark Ages Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Ragnar
Danneskjold s piracy is likened to something out of the Dark Ages Inquisition
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Sebastian d Anconia flees Spain to escape
persecution under the Inquisition Middle Ages Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
It is said that Ragnar Danneskjold hides in the Norwegian fjords as the Vikings did
in the Middle Ages Nero Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Francisco d Anconia
compares himself to the Emperor Nero Patrick Henry Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section The eponym of Patrick Henry University Vikings Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section It is said that Ragnar Danneskjold hides in the Norwegian fjords as the
Vikings did in the Middle Ages Humor In Structure of Atlas Shrugged section
Francisco cracks that the Mexican government was promising a roast of pork every
Sunday for every man woman child and abortion In Structure of Atlas Shrugged
section Francisco lists the various buildings constructed for the workers of the
San Sebastian Mines and notes how they are all poorly built and can be expected to
collapse except for the church quot The church I think will stand They ll need it
quot he quips Since the other things are things of value amp mdash houses roads etc
amp mdash it is ironic that only the church was built to last to Rand and her
heroes a church is of no real value Almost every nation in the world except the
United States is referred to as quot The People s State of quot and they are all
apparently the recipients of relief supplies from the United States In conversation
people casually refer to them as quot The People s State of quot rather than just
say France or Norway It is obvious that people would not refer to countries by
their formal names in casual conversation amp mdash we don t call Canada quot The
Dominion of Canada quot or Germany quot The Federal Republic of Germany quot amp
mdash so by having her characters do this Rand is exercising her dry wit Lying The
sympathetic characters of Atlas Shrugged generally do not tell lies With the
following exceptions even when they are clearly trying to conceal something they do
not rely on overt falsehood even when it is obvious that they could do so without
being found out In section Brakeman tells Dagny Taggart he does not recall the name
of the song he was whistling or where he heard it In section Francisco d Anconia
tells the press he came to Places in Atlas Shrugged New York because of a hat check
girl and the liverwurst at Things in Atlas Shrugged Moe s Delicatessen In section
we learn Dagny Taggart once lied to her mother about a cut to her lip that
Francisco had given her This was the only lie she ever told In section Dagny
Taggart asks Francisco if Richard Halley has written a fifth concerto He is evasive
and tells her that Halley has stopped writing Is this a lie In section Hank Rearden
tells Dagny that he was the one who invited Bertram Scudder to the Rearden s
anniversary party It was actually Lillian who invited him and Rearden had been
furious about it In part chapter Eddie Willers tells Dagny Taggart that his
hesitation and uncertainty is caused by the illegality of her directions In fact
Eddie was shocked by the evidence and thus realization of her affair with Hank
Rearden People s States Almost every nation that is mentioned other than the Places
in Atlas Shrugged United States is referred to as a quot People s State quot These
include The People s State of Places in Atlas Shrugged England The People s State
of Places in Atlas Shrugged France The People s State of Places in Atlas Shrugged
India The People s State of Places in Atlas Shrugged Mexico The People s State of
Places in Atlas Shrugged Norway The People s State of Places in Atlas Shrugged
Portugal The People s State of Places in Atlas Shrugged Turkey The leaders of these
countries are given the title the quot Head of the People s State quot and called
quot Mr quot or quot Senor quot The President of the United States is refered to as
quot Mr Thompson quot and called the quot Head of the State quot which seems to
imply the US is on its way to becoming a People s State as well Religion In
Structure of Atlas Shrugged section Francisco tells Dagny he named the Things in
Atlas Shrugged San Sebastian Mines after his ancestor Sebastian d Anconia a man
they both honor deeply This to Dagny is blasphemy amp mdash the only kind of
blasphemy she understands Social classes Rand is sometimes called an elitist This
claim is probably accurate if we allow for the fact that Rand had her own standard
of eliteness amp mdash throughout Atlas Shrugged virtue is equated with creative
ability It is however worth noting that in Atlas Shrugged there are no characters
with creative ability which do not function as author surrogate characters most
notably Dagny Taggart conversely all of the Straw man characters which disagree
with the author are unintelligent and creatively bankrupt and usually actively
destructive Compare to the real world where scientists inventors artists and
industrialists often have wildly varying and strongly conflicting desires and
opinions Different social classes are represented among both the heroes and the
villains of Atlas Shrugged Among the heroes John Galt and Hank Rearden are from
working class backgrounds while Dagny Taggart and Francisco d Anconia are from
wealthy families Among the villains Fred Kinnan is from a working class background
while James Taggart and Betty Pope are from wealthy families Category Atlas
Shrugged text revision page page title Atlas Shrugged title id id revision id id
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Image Atlas shrugged cover jpg thumbnail px Atlas Shrugged cover by Nick Gaetano
Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Russian born writer and philosopher Ayn Rand first
published in in the United States USA and Rand s last work of fiction before
concentrating her writings exclusively on philosophy Most regard Atlas Shrugged as
Rand s most famous work her tour de force and most Objectivist philosophy
Objectivists hold it to be objectively as in factually the greatest novel of all
time Its theme as stated by Rand is quot the importance of the individual s
reasoning mind in human life quot It is a highly philosophical and allegory
allegorical story that deals with themes of Rand s own Objectivism though she was
not yet known as a philosopher when it was written Whether or not she had
philosophical intentions and to what extent or sense the novel is an allegory are
controversial subjects In fact the ideas behind the book and their extremism as
well as its relative popularity have made it one of the most controversial novels
of the th century It is also one of the List of longest novels longest novels ever
written totaling one thousand pages or more depending on the publication spoiler
Philosophy and writing The theme of Atlas Shrugged is that independent rational
thought is the motor that powers the world In the book quot men of the mind quot go
on Strike action strike allowing the collapse of what only they hold together amp a
peaceful cohesiveness Rand claims that humans particularly those whose productive
work comes from mental effort may create wherever forceful human interference is
absent Given no alternative they remove themselves from the quot looters quot The
title is an analogy the rational men like the Greek God Atlas hold the world on
their shoulders in the form of a strike they have chosen to shrug The book is
rooted in Objectivist philosophy Objectivism the philosophical system founded by
Rand Rand suggests that society stagnates when independence and individual
achievement are discouraged or demonized and that inversely a society will become
more prosperous as it allows encourages and rewards independence and individual
achievement Rand believed that independence flourishes to the extent that people
are free and that achievement is rewarded best when private property is respected
strictly She advocated Laissez faire laissez faire capitalism as the political
system that is most consistent with these beliefs These considerations make Atlas
Shrugged a highly political book especially in its portrayal of fascism socialism
and communism or indeed any form of state intervention in societal affairs as
fatally flawed However Rand claimed that it is not a fundamentally political book
but that the politics portrayed in the novel are a result of her attempt to display
her image of the ideal man and the position of the human mind in society Rand
argues that independence and individual achievement drive the world and should be
embraced Her worldview requires a quot rationality rational quot moral code She
disputes the notion that self sacrifice is a virtue and is similarly dismissive of
human faith in a divinity god or higher being The book positions itself against
Christianity specifically often directly within the characters dialogue Setting
Exactly when Atlas Shrugged is meant to take place is kept deliberately vague In
Wikibooks Structure of Atlas Shrugged section the population of Places in Atlas
Shrugged New York City is given as million The historical New York City reached
million people in the s which might place the novel sometime after that There are
many early th century technologies available but the political situation is clearly
different from actual history One interpretation is that the novel takes place a
hundred or perhaps hundreds of years in the future implying that since the world
lapsed into its socialistic morass a global wide stagnation has occurred in
technological growth population growth and indeed growth of any kind the wars
economic depressions and other events of the th century would be a distant memory
to all but scholar s and academician s This would be in line with Rand s ideas and
commentary on other novels depicting utopian and dystopian societies Furthermore
this is also in line with an excerpt from a interview with Playboy magazine in
which Rand states quot What we have today is not a capitalist society but a mixed
economy that is a mixture of freedom and controls which by the presently dominant
trend is moving toward dictatorship The action in Atlas Shrugged takes place at a
time when society has reached the stage of dictatorship When and if this happens
that will be the time to go on strike but not until then quot thus implying that
her novel takes place at some point in the future The concept of societal
stagnation in the wake of collectivist systems is central to the plot of another of
Rand s works Anthem novella Anthem All countries outside the US have become or
become during the novel quot People s States quot There are many examples of early
th century Technology in Atlas Shrugged technology in Atlas Shrugged but no post
war advances such as nuclear weapon s helicopter s or computer s Jet plane s are
mentioned briefly as being a relatively new technology Television is a novelty that
has yet to assume any cultural significance while radio broadcasts are prominent
Though Rand does not use in the book many of the technological innovations
available while she was writing she introduces some advanced fictional inventions e
g sound based weapons of mass destruction weapons of mass destruction torture
devices as well as power plants Most of the action in Atlas Shrugged occurs in the
Places in Atlas Shrugged United States However there are important events around
the world such as in the People s States of Mexico Chile and Argentina and piracy
at sea Plot A section by section analysis of Atlas Shrugged is available on
Wikibooks Atlas Shrugged Wikibooks The novel s plot split into three sections
though the story is coherent apart from these is extremely complex The first two
sections and to some extent the last follow Dagny Taggart a no nonsense railroad
executive and her attempt to keep the company alive despite the fact that society
is falling towards collectivism altruism statism All throughout the novel people
repeat a platitude Dagny greatly resents Who is John Galt It is a reflection of
their helplessness as the saying means Don t ask important questions because they
don t have answers The geniuses of the world seem to be disappearing and the
apparent decline of civilization is making it more and more difficult for her to
sustain her life long aspirations of running the trans continental railroad which
has been in her family for several generations She deals with other characters such
as Hank Rearden a self made businessman of great integrity whose career is hindered
by his false feelings of obligation towards his wife Francisco d Anconia Dagny s
childhood friend first love and king of the copper industry appears to have become
a worthless playboy who is purposely destroying his business As the novel
progresses the myths about the real John Galt as well as Francisco d Anconia s
actions become more and more a reflection of the state of the culture and seem to
make more and more sense and Hank and Dagny begin to experience the futility of
their attempts to survive in a society that hates them and those like them for
their greatness During their plight Dagny and Hank find the remnants of a motor
that turns atmospheric energy into kinetic energy an astounding feat they also find
evidence that the minds the Atlases of the world are disappearing because of one
particular destroyer taking them away Dagny and Hank deal with the irrationalities
and apparent contradictions of their atmosphere and search for the creator of the
motor as well as the destroyer who is draining the world of its prime movers in an
effort to secure their ability to live rational lives All of this leads to an
elaborate action based explanation and eventual climax presenting an understanding
of all of the issues explored and breaking everything down into one basic conflict
The final parts of the novel involve a speech by the story s true protagonist and a
resolution concerning the fate of society The question Who is John Galt is also
answered Characters in Atlas Shrugged Characters Minor Characters in Atlas Shrugged
Minor Characters Companies in Atlas Shrugged Companies Concepts in Atlas Shrugged
Concepts Places in Atlas Shrugged Places Technology in Atlas Shrugged Technology
Things in Atlas Shrugged Things Topics of note in Atlas Shrugged Topics of note
Film adaptation Rights to the novel Atlas Shrugged were purchased by the Baldwin
Entertainment Group in with the intent of producing a feature length film Company
leader Howard Baldwin was quoted in September as saying quot everything is on track
and the movie hasn t been held up one bit I assure you that this will be a big
movie and it will get made quot Two works of Rand s amp mdash The Fountainhead and
We the Living amp mdash have been adapted into movies so far External links http
www aynrand org http www atlassociety org news atlas movie updated asp http www
cordair com gaetano index htm References and further reading Publications Atlas
Shrugged Ayn Rand Signet September ISBN Atlas Shrugged Cliffs Notes Andrew
Bernstein Cliffs Notes June ISBN The World of Atlas Shrugged Robert Bidinotto The
Objectivist Center HighBridge Company April ISBN X Atlas Shrugged Manifesto of
the Mind Twayne s Masterwork Studies No Mimi Reisel Gladstein Twayne Pub June ISBN
The Moral Revolution in Atlas Shrugged Nathaniel Branden The Objectivist Center
July ISBN Odysseus Jesus and Dagny Susan McCloskey The Objectivist Center August
ISBN Foreign translations German language German Wer ist John Galt Hamburg
Germany GEWIS Verlag ISBN Italian language Italian La rivolta di Atlante vol
Milano Garzanti Out of print Translator Laura Grimaldi Japanese language Japanese
ISBN Translator Norwegian language Norwegian De som beveger verden Kagge Forlag
ISBN hardcover ISBN paperback Translator John Erik B e Lindgren Polish language
Polish Atlas Zbuntowany Zysk i S ka ISBN Twarda Translator Iwona Micha owska
Spanish language Spanish La Rebelion de Atlas Editorial Grito Sagrado ISBN
hardcover ISBN paperback Swedish language Swedish Och v rlden sk lvde http www
timbro se rand Timbro F rlag ISBN Translator Maud Freccero Turkish language
Turkish Atlas Vazge ti Plato Yay amp nlar amp ISBN Translator Belk amp s orap amp
Reviews note geoff http www cix co uk morven atlas html Review from a self
proclaimed non Libertarian note weird bookshelf http www strangewords com archive
ayn html Review from the Weird Bookshelf quot fine science fiction books quot note
Slade Slade Robert M http victoria tc ca int grps books techrev bkatshrg rvw Review
from the Internet Review Project note pierssen http www pierssen com cfile
objectivist htm A review which while attempting to address the environmentalist
issues claims that Atlas Shrugged is a sequel to The Lord of the Rings note
analysis http atlasshruggednovel blogspot com A Review and in depth Chapter by
Chapter Motif by Motif etc analysis Satires and parodies http kamita com misc
illuminatus illuminatus html quot Telemachus Sneezed quot within Robert Anton
Wilson s Illuminatus Trilogy Search for quot Taffy Rhinestone quot in the former
link to read the spoof http www spudworks com article The Abridged Atlas Shrugged a
thousand pages distilled into about a thousand words http www modernhumorist com mh
rand Atlas Shr a look at parallel universe fiction parallel universe s wherein all
of Ayn Rand s books are four hundred pages shorter Elvis Shrugged an early s comic
book miniseries published by Revolutionary Comics in which popular entertainers
Elvis Presley a cyborg Frank Sinatra Frank Zappa Madonna entertainer Madonna Spike
Lee and others take the place of various Atlas Shrugged counterparts http www
mskousen com Books Articles shrugged html Oscar Shrugged a depiction of the first
film festival held in Galt s Gulch http www angryflower com atlass gif Atlas
Shrugged One Hour Later starring Bob the Angry Flower Category books Category Atlas
Shrugged Category Novels Category Philosophical novels Category Books critical of
Christianity Category Books by Ayn Rand de
Atlas wirft die Welt ab es La Rebelion de Atlas he sv Och v rlden sk lvde zh
text revision page page title Anthropology title id id revision id id timestamp T
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from the Greek language Greek word quot human quot or quot person quot consists of
the study of humanity see genus Homo genus Homo It is holism holistic in two senses
it is concerned with all humans at all times and with all dimensions of humanity A
primary trait that traditionally distinguished anthropology from other humanistic
disciplines is an emphasis on cultural relativity indepth examination of context
and cross cultural comparisons In North America quot anthropology quot is
traditionally divided into four sub disciplines physical anthropology or biological
anthropology which studies primatology primate behavior human evolution osteology
forensics and population genetics cultural anthropology called social anthropology
in the United Kingdom and now often known as socio cultural anthropology Areas
studied by cultural anthropologists include social networks diffusion anthropology
diffusion social behavior kinship patterns law politics ideology religion beliefs
patterns in production and consumption exchange socialization gender and other
expressions of culture with strong emphasis on the importance of fieldwork or
participant observation i e living among the social group being studied for an
extended period of time linguistic anthropology which studies variation in language
across time and space the social uses of language and the relationship between
language and culture and archaeology that studies the material remains of human
society societies Archaeology itself is normally treated as a separate but related
field in the rest of the world although closely related to the anthropological
field of material culture which deals with physical objects created or used within
a living or past group as mediums of understanding its cultural values More
recently some anthropology programs began dividing the field into two one
emphasizing the humanities and critical theory the other emphasizing the natural
science s and empiricism empirical observation Historical and institutional context
Main Article History of anthropology The anthropologist T J Brewer once
characterized anthropology as the most scientific of the humanities and the most
humanistic of the sciences Understanding how anthropology developed contributes to
understanding how it fits into other academic disciplines Contemporary
anthropologists claim a number of earlier thinkers as their forebearers and the
discipline has several sources However anthropology can best be understood as an
outgrowth of the Age of Enlightenment It was during this period that Europeans
attempted systematically to study human behavior Traditions of jurisprudence
history philology and sociology developed during this time and informed the
development of the social sciences of which anthropology was a part At the same
time the romanticism romantic reaction to the Enlightenment produced thinkers such
as Herder and later Wilhelm Dilthey whose work formed the basis for the culture
concept which is central to the discipline Institutionally anthropology emerged
from natural history expounded by authors such as Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de
Buffon Buffon This was the study of human beings typically people living in
European colonialism colonies Thus studying the language culture physiology and
artifacts of European colonies was more or less equivalent to studying the flora
and fauna of those places It was for this reason for instance that Lewis Henry
Morgan could write monographs on both The League of the Iroquois and The American
Beaver and His Works This is also why the material culture of civilized nations
such as China have historically been displayed in fine arts museums alongside
European art while artifacts from Africa or Native North American cultures were
displayed in Natural History Museums with dinosaur bones and nature dioramas This
being said curatorial practice has changed dramatically in recent years and it
would be wrong to see anthropology as merely an extension of colonial rule and
European chauvinism since its relationship to imperialism was and is complex
Anthropology grew increasingly distinct from natural history and by the end of the
nineteenth century the discipline began to crystallize into its modern form by for
example it was possible for T K Penniman to write a history of the discipline
entitled A Hundred Years of Anthropology Early anthropology was dominated by the
comparative method It was assumed that all societies passed through a single
evolutionary process from the most primitive to most advanced Non European
societies were thus seen as evolutionary living fossils that could be studied in
order to understand the European past Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric
migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful It was during this
time that Europeans first accurately traced polynesia Polynesian migrations across
the Pacific Ocean for instance although some of them believed it originated in
Egypt Finally the concept of race was actively discussed as a way to classify and
rank human beings based on inherent biological difference In the twentieth century
academic disciplines began to organize around three main domains The quot sciences
quot seeks to derive natural laws through reproducible and falsifiable experiments
The quot humanities quot reflected an attempt to study different national
traditions in the form of history and the art s as an attempt to provide people in
emerging nation states with a sense of coherence The quot social sciences quot
emerged at this time as an attempt to develop scientific methods to address social
phenomena in an attempt to provide a universal basis for social knowledge
Anthropology does not easily fit into one of these categories and different
branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains Drawing on the
methods of the natural science s as well as developing new techniques involving not
only structured interviews but unstructured quot participant observation quot and
drawing on the new theory of evolution through natural selection they proposed the
scientific study of a new object quot humankind quot conceived of as a whole
Crucial to this study is the concept quot culture quot which anthropologists
defined both as a universal capacity and propensity for social learning thinking
and acting which they see as a product of human evolution and something that
distinguishes Homo sapiens and perhaps all species of genus Hominoid Homo from
other species and as a particular adaptation to local conditions that takes the
form of highly variable beliefs and practices Thus quot culture quot not only
transcends the opposition between nature and nurture it transcends and absorbs the
peculiarly European distinction between politics religion kinship and the economy
as autonomous domains Anthropology thus transcends the divisions between the
natural sciences social sciences and humanities to explore the biological
linguistic material and symbolic dimensions of humankind in all forms Anthropology
in the U S Anthropology in the United States was pioneered by staff of the Bureau
of Indian Affairs and the Smithsonian Institution s Bureau of American Ethnology
such as John Wesley Powell and Frank Hamilton Cushing Academic Anthropology was
established by Franz Boas who used his positions at Columbia University and the
American Museum of Natural History to train and develop multiple generations of
students Boasian anthropology was politically active and suspicious of research
dictated by the U S government or wealthy patrons It was also rigorously empirical
and skeptical of over generalizations and attempts to establish universal laws Boas
studied immigrant children in order to demonstrate that biological race was not
immutable and that human conduct and behavior was the result of nurture rather than
nature Drawing on his German roots he argued that the world was full of distinct
cultures rather than societies whose evolution could be measured by how much or how
little civilization they had Boas felt that each culture has to be studied in its
particularity and argued that cross cultural generalizations like those made in the
natural science s were not possible In doing so Boas fought discrimination against
immigrants African Americans and Native North Americans Many American
anthropologists adopted Boas agenda for social reform and theories of race continue
to be popular targets for anthropologists today Boas s first generation of students
included Alfred Kroeber Robert Lowie Edward Sapir and Ruth Benedict All of these
scholars produced richly detailed studies which described Native North America In
doing so they provided a wealth of details used to attack the theory of a single
evolutionary process Kroeber and Sapir s focus on Native American languages also
helped establish linguistics as a truly general science and free it from its
historical focus on Indo European languages The publication of Alfred Kroeber s
textbook Anthropology marked a turning point in American anthropology After three
decades of amassing material the urge to generalize grew This was most obvious in
the Culture and Personality studies carried out by younger Boasians such as
Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict Influenced by psychoanalytic psychologists such as
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung these authors sought to understand the way that
individual personalities were shaped by the wider cultural and social forces in
which they grew up While such works as Coming of Age in Samoa and The Chrysanthemum
and the Sword remain popular with the American public Mead and Benedict never had
the impact on the discipline
of anthropology that some expected Boas had planned for Ruth Benedict to succeed
him as chair of Columbia s anthropology department but she was sidelined by Ralph
Linton and Mead was limited to her offices at the American Museum of Natural
History AMNH Anthropology in Britain Whereas Boas picked his opponents to pieces
through attention to detail in Britain modern anthropology was formed by rejecting
historical reconstruction in the name of a science of society that focused on
analyzing how societies held together in the present The two most important names
in this tradition were Alfred Reginald Radcliffe Brown and Bronislaw Malinowski
both of whom released seminal works in Radcliffe Brown s initial fieldwork in the
Andaman Islands was carried out in the old style but after reading mile Durkheim he
published an account of his research entitled simply The Andaman Islanders which
drew heavily on the French sociologist Over time he developed an approach known as
structural functionalism which focused on how institutions in societies worked to
balance out or create an equilibrium in the social system to keep it functioning
harmoniously Bronislaw Malinowski Malinowski on the other hand advocated an
unhyphenated functionalism which examined how society functioned to meet individual
needs Malinowski is best known not for his theory however but for his detailed
ethnography and advances in methodology His classic Argonauts of the Western
Pacific advocated getting the native s point of view and an approach to field work
that became standard in the field Malinowski and Radcliffe Brown s success stem
from the fact that they like Boas actively trained students and aggressively built
up institutions which furthered their programmatic ambitions This was particularly
the case with Radcliffe Brown who spread his agenda for Social Anthropology by
teaching at universities across the Commonwealth of Nations Commonwealth From the
late s until the post war period a string of monographs and edited volumes appeared
which cemented the paradigm of British Social Anthropology Famous ethnographies
include The Nuer by Edward Evan Evans Pritchard and The Dynamics of Clanship Among
the Tallensi by Meyer Fortes while well known edited volumes include African
Systems of Kinship and Marriage and African Political Systems Anthropology in
France Anthropology in France has a less clear genealogy than the British and
American traditions Most commentators consider Marcel Mauss to be the founder of
the French anthropological tradition Mauss was a member of mile Durkheim Durkheim s
Annee Sociologique group and while Durkheim and others examined the state of modern
societies Mauss and his collaborators such as Henri Hubert and Robert Hertz drew on
ethnography and philology to analyze societies which were not as differentiated as
European nation states In particular Mauss s Essay on the Gift was to prove of
enduring relevance in anthropological studies of trade exchange and reciprocity
cultural anthropology reciprocity Throughout the interwar years French interest in
anthropology often dovetailed with wider cultural movements such as surrealism and
primitivism art movement primitivism which drew on ethnography for inspiration
Marcel Griaule and Michel Leiris are examples of people who combined anthropology
with the French avant garde During this time most of what is known as ethnologie
was restricted to museums and anthropology had a close relationship with studies of
folklore Above all however it was Claude L vi Strauss who helped institutionalize
anthropology in France In addition to the enormous influence his structuralism
exerted across multiple disciplines L vi Strauss established ties with American and
British anthropologists At the same time he established centers and laboratories
within France to provide an institutional context within anthropology while
training influential students such as Maurice Godelier and Francoise Heritier who
would prove influential in the world of French anthropology Much of the distinct
character of France s anthropology today is a result of the fact that most
anthropology is carried out in nationally funded research laboratories rather than
academic departments in universities Anthropology after World War Two Before World
War II WWII British social anthropology and American cultural anthropology were
still distinct traditions It was after the war that the two would blend to create a
sociocultural anthropology In the s and mid s anthropology tended increasingly to
model itself after the natural science s Some such as Lloyd Fallers and Clifford
Geertz focused on processes of modernization by which newly independent states
could develop Others such as Julian Steward and Leslie White focused on how
societies evolve and fit their ecological niche an approach popularized by Marvin
Harris Economic anthropology as influenced by Karl Polanyi and practiced by
Marshall Sahlins and George Dalton focused on how traditional economics ignored
cultural and social factors In England British Social Anthropology s paradigm began
to fragment as Max Gluckman and Peter Worsley experimented with Marxism and authors
such as Rodney Needham and Edmund Leach incorporated L vi Strauss s structuralism
into their work Structuralism also influenced a number of development in s and s
including cognitive anthropology and componential analysis Authors such as David
Schneider Clifford Geertz and Marshall Sahlins developed a more fleshed out concept
of culture as a web of meaning or signification which proved very popular within
and beyond the discipline In keeping with the times much of anthropology became
politicized through the Algerian War of Independence and opposition to the Vietnam
War Marxism became a more and more popular theoretical approach in the discipline
By the s the authors of volumes such as Reinventing Anthropology worried about
anthropology s relevance In the s issues of power such as those examined in Eric
Wolf s Europe and the People Without History were central to the discipline Books
like Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter pondered anthropology s ties to
colonial inequality while the immense popularity of theorists such as Antonio
Gramsci and Michel Foucault moved issues of power and hegemony into the spotlight
Gender and sexuality became a popular topic as did the relationship between history
and anthropology influenced by Marshall Sahlins again who drew on Claude L vi
Strauss L vi Strauss and Fernand Braudel to examine the relationship between social
structure and individual agency In the late s and s authors such as George Marcus
and James Clifford pondered ethnographic authority particularly how and why
anthropological knowledge was possible and authoritative Ethnographies became more
reflexive explicitly addressing the author s methodology and cultural positioning
and its influence on their ethnographic analysis This was part of a more general
trend of postmodernism that was popular contemporaneously Currently anthropologists
have begun to pay attention to globalization medicine and biotechnology indigenous
rights and the anthropology of Europe Politics of anthropology Anthropology s
traditional involvement with nonwestern cultures has involved it in politics in
many different ways Some political problems arise simply because anthropologists
usually have more power than the people they study Some have argued that the
discipline is a form of colonialist theft in which the anthropologist gains power
at the expense of subjects The anthropologist they argue can gain yet more power by
exploiting knowledge and artifacts of the people he studies while the people he
studies gain nothing or even lose in the exchange An example of this exploitative
relationship can been seen in the collaboration in Africa prior to World War II of
British anthropologists such as Fortes and colonial forces More recently there have
been newfound concerns about bioprospecting along with struggles for self
representation for native peoples and the repatriation of indigenous remains and
material culture Other political controversies come from American anthropology s
emphasis on cultural relativism and its long standing antipathy to the concept of
race The development of sociobiology in the late s was opposed by cultural
anthropologists such as Marshall Sahlins who argued that these positions were
reductive While authors such John Randal Baker continued to develop the biological
concept of race into the s the rise of genetics has proven to be central to
developments on this front Recently Kevin B MacDonald criticized Boasian
anthropology as part of a quot Jewish strategy to facilitate mass immigration and
to weaken the West quot The Culture of Critique As genetics continues to advance
as a science some anthropologists such as Luca Cavalli Sforza have continued to
transform and advance notions of race through the use of recent developments in
genetics such as tracing past migrations of peoples through their mitcochondial and
Y chromosomal DNA and ancestry informative marker s Finally anthropology has a
history of entanglement with government intelligence agencies and anti war politics
Boas publicly objected to US participation in World War I and the collaboration of
some anthropologists with US intelligence In contrast many of Boas anthropologist
contemporaries were active in the war effort in some form including dozens who
served in the Office of Strategic Services and the Office of War Information In the
s the American Anthropological Association provided the CIA information on the area
specialities of its members and a number of anthropologists participated in the U S
government s Operation Camelot during the war in Vietnam At the same time many
other anthropologists were active in the antiwar movement and passed resolutions in
the American Anthropological
Association AAA condemning anthropological involvement in covert operations
Anthropologists were also vocal in their opposition to the war in Iraq although
there was no consensus amongst practitioners of the discipline Professional
anthropological bodies often object to the use of anthropology for the benefit of
the state Their codes of ethics or statements may proscribe anthropologists from
giving secret briefings The British Association for Social Anthropology has called
certain scholarships ethically dangerous For example the British Association for
Social Anthropology has condemned the CIA s Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars
Program http avenue org ngic about prisp htm which funds anthropology students at
US universities in preparation for them to spy for the United States government The
AAA s current Statement of Professional Responsibility clearly states that quot in
relation with their own government and with host governments no secret research no
secret reports or debriefings of any kind should be agreed to or given quot
Anthropology is the study of human diversity diversity of body and behavior in the
past and present Anthropology consists of four subfields or subdisciplines Physical
anthropology studies the diversity of the human body in the past and present It
includes how we acquired the structure of our body over time that is human
evolution as well as differences and relationships between human populations today
and their adaptations to their local environments It also sometimes includes the
evolution and diversity of our nearest relatives the primates apes and monkeys
Cultural anthropology studies the diversity of human behavior in the present This
is what most anthropologists do and what most of the public sees when they look at
quot National Geographic quot magazine or the quot Discovery quot channel on TV
Cultural anthropologists travel to foreign societies although it is possible to do
anthropology on your own society live among the people there and try as much as
they can to understand how those people live Archaeology studies the diversity of
human behavior in the past Since it studies how people lived in the past these
people are not available for us to visit and talk to or at least not people who are
currently living in the same way that their ancestors did in the past Therefore
archaeologists must depend on the artifacts and features that the people produced
in the past and attempt to reconstruct their vanished way of life from the remnants
of their culture Linguistic anthropology studies the diversity of human language in
the past and present While language is naturally a part of culture it is such a
huge topic that anthropologists have separated it into its own area of study
Linguistic anthropologists are concerned about the development of languages perhaps
even back to the first forms of language and how language changes over time They
are also interested in how different contemporary languages differ today how they
are related and how we can learn about things like migration and diffusion from
that data They also ask how language is related to and reflects on other aspects of
culture Other sciences study humans too of course History economics psychology
sociology even biology and chemistry can study humans How is anthropology different
The answer is the anthropological perspective that is the way that anthropology
approaches the subject and thinks about or studies humans and their behavior The
anthropological perspective has three components Cross cultural or comparative
anthropology investigates humans in every form that they take We are interested to
see the entire spectrum of human bodies and behaviors trying to learn the range of
humanity all the ways that we can be human By seeing humans in their every
manifestation and comparing those manifestations to each other we can ask what is
possible for humans and what is necessary for humans Holistic anthropology tries to
relate every part of culture to every other part It understands that the various
parts of culture are connected to each other and that certain combinations tend to
occur or not to occur for example there are no hunting and gathering cultures that
traditionally lived in cities that s just impossible We are also interested in how
a people s cultures is connected to their environment again without high technology
you are not going to see farming or cities in the middle of the desert or the
arctic Relativistic this is the most profound yet controversial part of the
anthropological perspective Relativism means that the rules or norms or values of a
culture are relative to that specific culture In other words say monogamy may be
normal or preferred in one culture but polygamy may be normal or preferred in
another The point is that different cultures believe different things or value
different things or even mean different things with perhaps identical looking
behaviors or objects When you go to another culture or even just interact with
another culture for example when you are doing international business you cannot
assume that other people understand things the same way you do In fact you should
assume that they don t Anthropology counsels against hasty judgement of a new
culture aspects that a Western visitor may find strange or distasteful can be
understood when situated within that culture s history and cosmology understanding
of the world There will be a rationality for the phenomenon it may be rational
however according to a cultural logic that conflicts with Western understandings
Malinowski s primacy of seeking to understand quot the native point of view quot
remains fundamental to socio cultural anthropology today The point is that if we
want to understand other people properly we must see what their behaviors or words
or concepts mean to them not what they would mean to us Meaning is relative to the
culture that creates that meaning This is not to say that all things are true or
even that all things are good cultural relativism does not necessarily entail moral
relativism Indeed the American Anthropological Association s qualified support for
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as work by Sally Engle Merry
shows the latter is not a common anthropological point of view How does
anthropology study culture One other way that anthropology is unique among the
sciences that study humans is by its emphasis on fieldwork You cannot get to know
another culture just by reading about it or watching movies about it At best you
could learn what other people have already discovered but you could not learn
anything new So anthropology requires actually going to that society and living
within their culture as much as possible This is called Participant observation
participant observation This depends crucially on finding preferrably friendly
informants within the society who will teach you their culture s rules of social
behaviour and include you in their activities Then as much as possible you will try
to eat their food speak their language and live their lives often actually residing
with a family in that society It is not easy work and it is not always fun but
there is no better way to learn Anthropological fields and subfields Biological
anthropology also Physical anthropology Forensic anthropology Paleoethnobotany
Cultural anthropology also Social anthropology Anthropology of art Applied
anthropology Cross Cultural Studies Cyber anthropology Development anthropology
Dual inheritance theory Environmental anthropology Economic anthropology Ecological
anthropology Ethnography Ethnomusicology Feminist anthropology Gender Human
behavioral ecology Medical anthropology Psychological anthropology Political
anthropology Anthropology of religion Public anthropology Urban anthropology Visual
anthropology Anthropological linguistics Linguistic anthropology Descriptive
linguistics Synchronic linguistics or Descriptive linguistics Diachronic
linguistics or Historical linguistics Ethnolinguistics Sociolinguistics Archaeology
External links http www aaanet org The American Anthropological Association
Homepage the webpage of the largest professional organization of anthropologists in
the world http www worldcatlibraries org wcpa ow dbb fc c a html Race a book by
John Randal Baker discussing the origins of racial classification and oppositions
to the concept http www antropologi info Anthropology Info http www thenation com
doc mhtml i amp c amp s price Anthropologists as Spies an article by David Price
examining the relationship between American Anthropology and US intelligence
services http news bbc co uk hi uk news education stm Pat Roberts Intelligence
Program a BBC article on the program http www antropologi info blog anthropology
Social and Cultural Anthropology in the News nearly daily updated blog http www
anthrobase com Anthrobase com Collection of anthropological texts http www
cybercultura it Cybercultura Collection of web resources about anthropology of
cyberspace in Italian http www anthropology net Anthropology net A community
orientated anthropology web portal with user run blogs forums tags and a wiki http
sscl berkeley edu afaweb reviews index html Association for Feminist Anthropology
See also List of anthropologists List of publications in biology Anthropology
Important publications in anthropology lt What are our priorities for writing in
this area To help develop a list of the most basic topics in Anthropology please
refer to Anthropology basic topics gt Category Anthropology Anthropology Category
Mammalogy Category Behavioural sciences Social sciences footer af Antropologie an
Antropoloch a ar ast Antropolox a bg bm Anthropologie bn bs Antropologija ca
Antropologia co Antropologia cs Antropologie da Antropologi de Anthropologie el eo
Antropologio es Antropolog a et Antropoloogia fa fi Antropologia fr
Anthropologie fy Antropology gl Antropolox a he hi hr Antropologija hu Antropol
gia ie Antropologie io Antropologio it Antropologia ja ko ku Antropoloj ky lt
Antropologija lv Antropolo ija mk ms Antropologi nl Antropologie no Antropologi pl
Antropologia pt Antropologia ro Antropologie ru sa scn Antropoluggia simple
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tl Antropolohiya tpi Antropoloji tr Antropoloji uk zh min nan J n l i ha k zh
text revision page page title Archaeology title id id revision id id timestamp T
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space preserve portal Archaeology or archeology from the Greek language Greek words
ancient and word speech discourse is the study of Homo genus human culture s
through the recovery documentation and analysis of material remains and
environmental data including architecture Artifact archaeology artifact s biofact s
human remains and landscape s The goals of archaeology are to document and explain
the origins and development of human culture understand culture history chronicle
cultural evolution and study human behavior and ecology for both prehistory
prehistoric and history historic societies It is considered to be one of the four
sub fields of anthropology Usage As with words such as encyclopedia and gynaecology
archaeology traditionally has an ae combination however unlike other words the ae
is all but universally retained Contrary to popular belief in other parts of the
world the spelling archeology is not predominant in United States dictionary
dictionaries and would look quite odd to most Americans Like the claim that theater
refers to a building and theatre refers to the performing arts the belief that
archeology is an Americanism is little more than an urban myth The traditional
spelling archaeology continues to be used in everyday writing throughout the world
including the U S even more so than theatre the alternate spelling of which while
considered acceptable is preferred less often than not Ontology and definition In
the Old World archaeology has tended to focus on the study of physical remains the
methods used in recovering them and the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings
in achieving the subject s goals The discipline s roots in antiquarian ism and the
study of Latin and Ancient Greek provided it with a natural affinity with the field
of history In the New World archaeology is more commonly devoted to the study of
human society societies and is treated as one of the four subfields of Anthropology
The other subfields of anthropology supplement the findings of archaeology in a
holistic manner These subfields are cultural anthropology which studies behavioural
symbolic and material dimensions of culture linguistics which studies language
including the origins of language and language groups and physical anthropology
which includes the study of human evolution and physical and genetics genetic
characteristics Other disciplines also supplement archaeology such as paleontology
paleozoology paleoethnobotany paleobotany geography geology art history and
classics Archaeology has been described as a craft that enlists the science
sciences to illuminate the humanities Writing in the American archaeologist Walter
Taylor asserted that quot Archaeology is neither history nor anthropology As an
autonomous discipline it consists of a method and a set of specialised techniques
for the gathering or production of cultural information quot Archaeology is an
approach to understanding human culture through its material remains regardless of
chronology In England archaeologists have uncovered the long lost layouts of
medieval villages abandoned after the crises of the th century and the equally lost
layouts of th century parterre gardens swept away by a change in fashion In
downtown New York City archaeologists have exhumed the th century remains of the
Black burial ground Traditional Archaeology is viewed as the study of pre
historical human cultures that is cultures that existed before the development of
writing for that culture Historical archaeology is the study of post writing
cultures In the study of relatively recent cultures which have been observed and
studied by Western scholars archaeology is closely allied with ethnography This is
the case in large parts of North America Oceania Siberia and other places where the
study of archaeology mingles with the living traditions of the cultures being
studied Kennewick Man is an example of archaeology interacting with modern culture
In the study of cultures that were literate or had literate neighbours history and
archaeology supplement one another for broader understanding of the complete
cultural context as at Hadrian s Wall Importance and applicability Most of human
history is not described by any written records Writing did not exist anywhere in
the world until about years ago and only spread among a relatively small number of
technologically advanced civilisation s In contrast Homo Sapiens Homo sapiens have
existed for at least years and other species of Homo genus Homo for millions of
years see Human evolution These civilisations are not coincidentally the best known
they have been open to the inquiry of historians for centuries while the study of
pre historic cultures has arisen only recently Even within a civilisation that is
literate at some levels many important human practices are not officially recorded
Any knowledge of the formative early years of human civilisation the development of
agriculture cult practices of folk religion the rise of the first city cities must
come from archaeology Even where written records do exist they are invariably
incomplete or biased to some extent In many societies literacy was restricted to
the elite classes such as the clergy or the bureaucracy of court or temple The
literacy even of an aristocracy has sometimes been restricted to deeds and
contracts The interests and world view of elites are often quite different from the
lives and interests of the rest of the populace Writings that were produced by
people more representative of the general population were unlikely to find their
way into library libraries and be preserved there for posterity Thus written
records tend to reflect the biases of the literate classes and cannot be trusted as
a sole source The material record is nearer to a fair representation of society
though it is subject to its own inaccuracies such as sampling bias and differential
preservation In addition to their scientific importance archaeological remains
sometimes have political significance to descendants of the people who produced
them monetary value to collectors or simply strong aesthetic appeal Many people
identify archaeology with the recovery of such aesthetic religious political or
economic treasures rather than with the reconstruction of past societies This view
is often espoused in works of popular fiction such as Raiders of the Lost Ark The
Mummy movie The Mummy and King Solomon s Mines When such unrealistic subjects are
treated more seriously accusations of pseudoscience are invariably levelled at
their proponents see Pseudoarchaeology below However these endeavours real and
fictional are not representative of the modern state of archaeology Goals There is
still a tremendous emphasis in the practice of archaeology on field techniques and
methodologies These include the tasks of surveying areas in order to find new sites
digging sites in order to unearth the cultural remains therein and classification
and preservation techniques in order to analyse and keep these remains Every phase
of this process can be a source of information The goals of archaeology are not
always the same There are at least three broad distinct theories of exactly what
archaeological research should do These are beyond the scope of the present
discussion and are discussed at length below Nevertheless there is much common
ground Academic sub disciplines Main article Archaeological sub disciplines As with
most academia academic disciplines there are a very large number of archaeological
sub disciplines characterised by a specific method or type of material e g lithic
analysis music archaeology music archaeobotany geographical or chronological focus
e g Near Eastern archaeology Medieval archaeology other thematic concern e g
landscape archaeology or a specific archaeological culture or civilisation e g
Egyptology Cultural resources management Cultural resources management CRM also
called heritage management in Britain is a branch of archaeology that accounts for
most research done in the United States and much of that in western Europe as well
In the United States CRM archaeology has been a growing concern since the passage
of the National Historic Preservation Act of and most of the archaeology done in
that country today proceeds from either direct or related requirements of that
measure In the United States the vast majority of taxpayers scholars and
politicians believe that CRM has helped to preserve much of that nation s history
and prehistory that would have otherwise been lost in the expansion of cities dams
and highways Along with other statutes this mandates that no construction project
on public land or involving public funds may damage an unstudied archaeological
site The application of CRM in the United Kingdom is not limited to government
funded projects Since PPG has required planners to consider archaeology as a
material consideration in determining applications for new development As a result
numerous archaeological organisations undertake mitigation work in advance of or
during construction work in archaeologically sensitive areas at the developer s
expense Among the goals of
CRM are the identification preservation and maintenance of cultural sites on
public and private lands and the removal of culturally valuable materials from
areas where they would otherwise be destroyed by human activity such as proposed
construction This study involves at least a cursory examination to determine
whether or not any significant archaeological sites are present in the area
affected by the proposed construction If these do exist time and money must be
allotted for their excavation If initial survey and or test excavation indicates
the presence of an extraordinarily valuable site the construction may be prohibited
entirely CRM is a thriving entity especially in the United States and Europe where
archaeologists from private companies and all levels of government engage in the
practice of their discipline Cultural resources management has however been
criticized CRM is conducted by private companies that bid for projects by
submitting proposals outlining the work to be done and an expected budget It is not
unheard of for the agency responsible for the construction to simply choose the
proposal that asks for the least funding CRM archaeologists face considerable time
pressure often being forced to complete their work in a fraction of the time that
might be allotted for a purely scholarly endeavour Field methods Survey A modern
archaeological project often begins with a archaeological survey survey Regional
survey is the attempt to systematically locate previously unknown sites in a region
Site survey is the attempt to systematically locate features of interest such as
houses and midden middens within a site Each of these two goals may be accomplished
with largely the same methods Survey was not widely practiced in the early days of
archaeology Cultural historians and prior researchers were usually content with
discovering the locations of monumental sites from the local populace and
excavating only the plainly visible features there Gordon Willey pioneered the
technique of regional settlement pattern survey in in the Viru Valley of coastal
Peru and survey of all levels became prominent with the rise of processual
archaeology some years later Survey work has many benefits if performed as a
preliminary exercise to or even in place of excavation It requires relatively
little time and expense because it does not require processing large volumes of
soil to search out artefacts Nevertheless surveying a large region or site can be
expensive so archaeologists often employ sampling statistics sampling methods It
avoids ethical issues of particular concern to descendant peoples associated with
destroying a site through excavation It is the only way to gather some forms of
information such as settlement pattern settlement patterns and settlement structure
Survey data are commonly assembled into map maps which may show surface features
and or artefact distribution The simplest survey technique is surface survey It
involves combing an area usually on foot but sometimes with the use of mechanised
transport to search for features or artefacts visible on the surface Surface survey
cannot detect sites or features that are completely buried under earth or overgrown
with vegetation Surface survey may also include mini excavation techniques such as
auger augers corer corers and shovel test pits Aerial survey is conducted using
camera cameras attached to aircraft balloon balloons or even kite kites A bird s
eye view is useful for quick mapping of large or complex sites Aerial imaging can
also detect many things not visible from the surface Plant Plants growing above a
stone structure such as a wall will develop more slowly while those above other
types of features such as midden middens may develop more rapidly Photographs of
ripening cereal grain which changes colour rapidly at maturation have revealed
buried structures with great precision Aerial survey also employs infrared ground
penetrating radar wavelengths and thermography Geophysical survey is the most
effective way to see beneath the ground Magnetometer Magnetometers detect minute
deviations in the Earth s magnetic field caused by iron artefacts kiln kilns some
types of stone structures and even ditches and middens Devices that measure the
electrical resistivity of the soil are also widely used Most soils are moisture
moist below the surface which gives them a relatively low resistivity Features such
as hard packed floors or concentrations of stone have a higher resistivity Although
some archaeologists consider the use of metal detector metal detectors to be
tantamount to treasure hunting others deem them an effective tool in archaeological
surveying Examples of formal archaeological use of metal detectors include
musketball distribution analysis on English Civil War battlefields metal
distribution analysis prior to excavation of a nineteenth century ship wreck and
service cable location during evaluation Metal detectorists have also contributed
to the archaeological record where they have made detailed records of their results
and refrained from raising artifacts from their archaeological context In the UK
metal detectorists have been solicited for involvement in the Portable Antiquities
Scheme Regional survey in maritime archaeology uses side scan sonar Excavation
Excavation Archaeological excavation existed even when the field was still the
domain of amateurs and it remains the source of the majority of data recovered in
most field projects It can reveal several types of information usually not
accessible to survey such as stratigraphy three dimensional structure and
verifiably primary context Modern excavation techniques require that the precise
locations of objects and features known as their provenance or provenience be
recorded This always involves determining their horizontal locations and sometimes
vertical position as well also see Primary Laws of Archaeology Similarly their
archaeological association association or relationship with nearby objects and
features needs to be recorded for later analysis This allows the archaeologist to
deduce what artefacts and features were likely used together and which may be from
different phases of activity For example excavation of a site reveals its
stratigraphy if a site was occupied by a succession of distinct culture cultures
artefacts from more recent cultures will lie above those from more ancient cultures
Excavation is the most expensive phase of archaeological research Also as a
destructive process it carries ethics ethical concerns As a result very few sites
are excavated in their entirety Sampling statistics Sampling is even more important
in excavation than in survey It is common for large mechanical equipment such as
backhoe s J C Bamford JCBs to be used in excavation especially to remove the
topsoil overburden though this method is increasingly used with great caution
Following this rather dramatic step the exposed area is usually hand cleaned with
trowels or hoes to ensure that all features are apparent The next task is to form a
Archaeological plan site plan and then use it to help decide the method of
excavation Features dug into the natural subsoil are normally excavated in portions
in order to produce a visible archaeological section for recording Scaled plans and
sections of individual features are all drawn on site black and white and colour
photographs of them are taken and recording sheets are filled in describing the
context of each All this information serves as a permanent record of the now
destroyed archaeology and is used in describing and interpreting the site Post
excavation analysis Once artefacts and structures have been excavated or collected
from surface surveys it is necessary to properly study them to gain as much data as
possible This process is known as post excavation analysis and is normally the most
time consuming part of the archaeological investigation It is not uncommon for the
final excavation reports on major sites to take years to be published At its most
basic the artefacts found are cleaned catalogued and compared to published
collections in order to classify them typology typologically and to identify other
sites with similar artefact assemblages However a much more comprehensive range of
analytical techniques are available through archaeological science meaning that
artefacts can be dated and their compositions examined The bones plants and pollen
collected from a site can all be analysed using the techniques of zooarchaeology
paleoethnobotany and palynology while any texts can usually be Decipherment
deciphered These techniques frequently provide information that would not otherwise
be known and therefore contribute greatly to the understanding of a site History of
archaeology Main article History of archaeology The history of archaeology has been
one of increasing professionalisation and the use of an increasing range of
techniques to obtain as much data on the site being examined as possible
Excavations of ancient monuments and the collection of antiquities have been taking
place for thousands of years but these were mostly for the extraction of valuable
or aesthetically pleasing artefacts It was only in the th century that the
systematic study of the past through its physical remains began to be carried out
Archaeological methods were developed by both interested amateurs and professionals
including Augustus Pitt Rivers and William Flinders Petrie This process was
continued in the th century by such people as Mortimer Wheeler whose highly
disciplined approach to excavation greatly improved the quality of evidence that
could be obtained During the th century the development of urban archaeology and
then rescue archaeology have been important factors as has the development of
archaeological science which has greatly increased the amount of data that it is
possible to
obtain Archaeological theory Main article Archaeological theory There is no single
theory of archaeology and even definitions are disputed Until the mid th century
and the introduction of technology there was a general consensus that archaeology
was closely related to both history and anthropology The first major phase in the
history of archaeological theory is commonly referred to as Cultural history
archaeology cultural or culture history which was developed during the late th and
early th centuries In the s a number of young primarily American archaeologists
such as Lewis Binford rebelled against the paradigms of cultural history They
proposed a quot New Archaeology quot which would be more quot scientific quot and
quot anthropological quot with hypothesis testing and the scientific method very
important parts of what became known as processual archaeology In the s a new
movement arose led by the British archaeologists Michael Shanks archaeologist
Michael Shanks Christopher Tilley Daniel Miller and Ian Hodder It questioned
processualism s appeals to science and impartiality and emphasised the importance
of relativism becoming known as post processual archaeology However this approach
has been criticised by processualists as lacking scientific rigour The validity of
both processualism and post procuessualism is still under debate Archaeological
theory now borrows from a wide range of influences including evolution neo
Darwinian evolutionary thought phenomenology postmodernism Structure and agency
agency theory Cognitive archaeology cognitive science Functionalism sociology
Functionalism Gender archaeology gender based and Feminist archaeology and Systems
theory in archaeology Systems theory Public archaeology Early archaeology was
largely an attempt to uncover spectacular artifacts and features or to explore vast
and mysterious abandoned cities Such pursuits continue to fascinate the public
portrayed in books such as King Solomon s Mines and films such as The Mummy movie
The Mummy and Raiders of the Lost Ark Much thorough and productive research has
indeed been conducted in dramatic locales such as Cop n and the Valley of the Kings
but the stuff of modern archaeology is not so reliably sensational In addition
archaeological adventure stories tend to ignore the painstaking work involved in
modern archaeological survey survey excavation and archaeological data processing
data processing techniques Some archaeologists refer to such portrayals as quot
pseudoarchaeology quot Nevertheless archaeology has profited from its portrayal in
the mainstream media Many practitioners point to the childhood excitement of
Indiana Jones films and Tomb Raider games as the inspiration for them to enter the
field Archaeologists are also very much reliant on public support the question of
exactly who they are doing their work for is often discussed Without a strong
public interest in the subject often sparked by significant finds and celebrity
archaeologists it would be a great deal harder for archaeologists to gain the
political and financial support they require In the UK popular archaeology
programmes such as Time Team and Meet the Ancestors have resulted in a huge upsurge
in public interest Where possible archaeologists now make more provision for public
involvement and outreach in larger projects than they once did However the move
towards being more professional has meant that volunteer places are now relegated
to unskilled labour and even this is less freely available than before Developer
funded excavation necessitates a well trained staff that can work quickly and
accurately observing the necessary health and safety and indemnity insurance issues
involved in working on a modern construction building site with tight deadlines
Certain charities and local government bodies sometimes offer places on research
projects either as part of academic work or as a defined community project There is
also a flourishing industry selling places on commercial training excavations and
archaeological holiday tours Archaeologists prize local knowledge and often liaise
with local historical and archaeological societies Anyone looking to get involved
in the field without having to pay to do so should contact a local group
Pseudoarchaeology Main article Pseudoarchaeology Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella
term for all activities that claim to be archaeological but in fact violate
commonly accepted archaeological practices It includes much fictional
archaeological work discussed above as well as some actual activity Many non
fiction authors have ignored the scientific methods of processual archaeology or
the specific critiques of it contained in Post processual archaeology Post
processualism An example of this type is the writing of Erich von D niken His
Chariots of the Gods together with many subsequent lesser known works expounds a
theory of ancient contacts between human civilisation on Earth and more
technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilisations This theory known as
palaeocontact theory is not exclusively D niken s nor did the idea originate with
him Works of this nature are usually marked by the renunciation of well established
theories on the basis of limited evidence and the interpretation of evidence with a
preconceived theory in mind Looting Looting of archaeological sites by people in
search of hoard hoards of buried treasure is an ancient problem For instance many
of the tombs of the Egyptian pharaoh pharaohs were looted in antiquity The advent
of archaeology has made ancient sites objects of great scientific and public
interest but it has also attracted unwelcome attention to the works of past peoples
A brisk commercial demand for artefacts encourages looting and the illicit
antiquities trade which smuggles items abroad to private collectors Looters damage
the integrity of a historic site deny archaeologists valuable information that
would be learnt from excavation and are often deemed to be robbing local people of
their heritage The popular consciousness often associates looting with poor Third
World countries Many are former homes to many well known ancient civilizations but
lack the financial resources or political will to protect even the most significant
sites Certainly the high prices that intact objects can command relative to a poor
farmer s income make looting a tempting financial proposition for some local people
However looting has taken its toll in places as rich and populous as the United
States and Western Europe as well Abandoned towns of the ancient Sinagua people of
Arizona clearly visible in the desert landscape have been destroyed in large
numbers by treasure hunters Sites in more densely populated areas farther east have
also been looted Where looting is proscribed by law it takes place under cover of
night with the metal detector a common instrument used to identify profitable
places to dig Public outreach Motivated by a desire to halt looting curb
pseudoarchaeology and to secure greater public funding and appreciation for their
work archaeologists are mounting public outreach campaigns They seek to stop
looting by informing prospective artefact collectors of the provenance of these
goods and by alerting people who live near archaeological sites of the threat of
looting and the danger that it poses to science and their own heritage Common
methods of public outreach include press releases and the encouragement of school
field trips to sites under excavation The final audience for archaeologists work is
the public and it is increasingly realised that their work is ultimately being done
to benefit and inform them The putative social benefits of local heritage awareness
are also being promoted with initiatives to increase civic and individual pride
through projects such as community excavation projects and better interpretation
and presentation of existing sites Descendant peoples In the United States examples
such as the case of Kennewick Man have illustrated the tensions between Native
Americans in the United States Native American s and archaeologists which can be
summarised as a conflict between a need to remain respectful towards burials sacred
sites and the academic benefit from studying them For years American archaeologists
dug on Indian burial grounds and other places considered sacred removing artefacts
and human remains to storage facilities for further study In some cases human
remains were not even thoroughly studied but instead archived rather than reburied
Furthermore Western archaeologists views of the past often differ from those of
tribal peoples The West views time as linear for many natives it is cyclic From a
Western perspective the past is long gone from a native perspective disturbing the
past can have dire consequences in the present To an archaeologist the past is long
gone and must be reconstructed through its material remains to indigenous peoples
it is often still alive As a consequence of this American Indians attempted to
prevent archaeological excavation of sites inhabited by their ancestors while
American archaeologists believed that the advancement of scientific knowledge was a
valid reason to continue their studies This contradictory situation was addressed
by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act NAGPRA which sought
to reach a compromise by limiting the right of research institutions to possess
human remains Due in part to the spirit of postprocessualism some archaeologists
have begun to actively enlist the assistance of indigenous peoples likely to be
descended from those under study Archaeologists have also been obliged to re
examine what constitutes an archaeological site in view of what native peoples
believe to constitute sacred space To many native peoples natural features such as
lakes mountains or even individual trees have cultural significance
Australian archaeologists especially have explored this issue and attempted to
survey these sites in order to give them some protection from being developed Such
work requires close links and trust between archaeologists and the people they are
trying to help and at the same time study While this cooperation presents a new set
of challenges and hurdles to fieldwork it has benefits for all parties involved
Tribal elders cooperating with archaeologists can prevent the excavation of areas
of sites that they consider sacred while the archaeologists gain the elders aid in
interpreting their finds There have also been active efforts to recruit aboriginal
peoples directly into the archaeological profession Repatriation A new trend in the
heated controversy between First Nations groups and scientists is the repatriation
of native artifacts to the original descendants An example of this occurred June
when a community members and elders from a number of the Algonquian nations in the
Ottawa area convened on the Kitigan Zibi reservation in Kanawagi Quebec to inter
ancestral human remains and burial goods some dating back years The ceremony marked
the end of a journey spanning thousands of years and many miles The remains and
artifacts including beads tools and weapons were originally excavated from various
sites in the Ottawa Valley including Morrison and the Allumette Islands They had
been part of the Canadian Museum of Civilization s research collection for decades
some since the late s Elders from various Algonquin communities conferred on an
appropriate reburial eventually deciding on traditional redcedar and birchbark
boxes lined with redcedar chips muskrat and beaver pelts Now an inconspicuous rock
mound marks the reburial site where close to boxes of various sizes are buried
Although negotiations were at times tense between the Kitigan Zibi community and
museum they were able to reach agreement source http www canadiangeographic ca
magazine SO indepth archaeology asp Canadian Geographic Online See also List of
significant archaeological discoveries List of archaeological sites sorted by
country List of archaeologists Biblical archaeology List of archaeological periods
Prehistory External links commonscat Archaeology http www archeologia be
Archeologia belga The Alphabetical of Archaeology French Archaeology http www
archaeologynews org Archaeology News Current News and Information pertaining to all
areas of archaeology plus free news feeds for webmasters http www
northpacificprehistory com North Pacific Prehistory is an academic journal
specialising in Northeast Asian and North American archaeology http nefer seba net
Archaeological Fieldwork php Excavation Sites Archaeological work and volunteer
pages http wasteflake com tiki index php page PopularArchaeology Archaeology in
Popular Culture http www anthropology resources org Anthropology Resources on the
Internet Anthropology Resources on the Internet a web directory part of the WWW
Virtual Library with over links grouped in specialised topics http www archaeology
org Archaeology magazine published by the Archaeological Institute of America http
www archaeologydirectory com Archaeology Directory Directory of archaeological
topics on the web http cctr umkc edu user fdeblauwe iraq html The Iraq War amp
Archaeology Information about looting in Iraq http www galilean library org newarch
html Philosophy and the New Archaeology an essay at the Galilean Library on the
philosophical underpinnning of archaeology and the debate over the New Archaeology
http www african archaeology net WWW VL African Archaeology The african archaeology
portal part of the WWW Virtual Library all the web sites relating to african
archaeology are listed here Further reading Ashmore W and Sharer R J Discovering
Our Past A Brief Introduction to Archaeology Mountain View Mayfield Publishing
Company ISBN X This has also been used as a source Neumann Thomas W and Robert M
Sanford Practicing Archaeology A Training Manual for Cultural Resources Archaeology
http www rowmanlittlefield com Rowman and Littlefield Pub Inc August hardcover
pages ISBN Renfrew Colin amp Bahn Paul G Archaeology Theories Methods and Practice
Thames and Hudson th edition ISBN Sanford Robert M and Thomas W Neumann Cultural
Resources Archaeology An Introduction http www rowmanlittlefield com Rowman and
Littlefield Pub Inc December trade paperback pages ISBN Trigger Bruce quot A
History of Archaeological Thought quot Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN
Category Anthropology Category Archaeology Category Humanities occupations Category
Social sciences af Argeologie als Arch ologie ar an Arquioloch a bg bn bs
Arheologija ca Arqueologia ceb Arkeyolohiya cs Archeologie cy Archaeoleg da Ark
ologi de Arch ologie et Arheoloogia el es Arqueolog a eo Arkeologio eu Arkeologia
fa fr Arch ologie fur Archeologjie gl Arqueolox a ko hr Arheologija io Arkeologio
id Arkeologi ia Archeologia is Fornleifafr i it Archeologia he ka csb Arche logij
ky sw Akiolojia lad Arkeolojiya la Archaeologia lv Arheolo ija lt Archeologija lb
Archeologie li Archeologie hu R g szet mk ms Arkeologi nl Archeologie ja no
Arkeologi nn Arkeologi pl Archeologia pt Arqueologia ro Arheologie ru sco
Airchaeologie sq Arkeologjia scn Archiolugg a simple Archaeology sk Archeol gia sl
Arheologija sr su Ark ologi fi Arkeologia sv Arkeologi tl Arkeolohiya ta th vi
Kh o c h c tr Kaz bilim uk vo V notav zh text revision page page title Anomalous
Phenomena title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Michael Hardy username id id contributor minor text xml space preserve
REDIRECT Anomalous phenomenon text revision page page title Agricultural science
title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Ceyockey
username id id contributor minor comment Disambiguate GMO to Genetically
modified organism using en Wikipedia Tools Navigation popups popups comment text
xml space preserve Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that
encompasses the parts of exact natural economic and social sciences that are used
in the practice and understanding of agriculture veterinary medicine Veterinary
science but not animal science is often excluded from the definition Agriculture
and agricultural science The two terms are often confused However they cover
different concepts Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the
environment for the production of animals and plants for human use Agriculture
concerns techniques including the application of agronomic research Agronomy is
research and development related to studying and improving plant based agriculture
Agricultural sciences include research and development on Production techniques e g
irrigation management recommended nitrogen inputs Improving agricultural
productivity production in terms of quantity and quality e g selection of drought
resistant crops and animals development of new pesticide s yield sensing
technologies simulation models of crop growth in vitro cell culture techniques
Transformation of primary products into end consumer products e g production
preservation and packaging of dairy product s Prevention and correction of adverse
environmental effects e g soils retrogression and degradation soil degradation
waste management bioremediation Theoretical production ecology relating to crop
production modeling traditional agricultural systems such as which serve to feed
most people in the world and which often retain integration with nature in a way
that hs proven more sustainable than modern systems Food production and demand on a
global basis with special attention paid to the major producers of China and India
Agricultural science a local science With the exception of theoretical production
ecology theoretical agronomy research in agronomy more than in any other field is
strongly related to local areas It can be considered a science of ecoregions
because it is closely linked to soil properties and climate which are never exactly
the same from one place to another Many people think an agricultural production
system relying on local weather soil characteristics and specific crops has to be
studied locally Others feel a need to know and understand production systems in as
many areas as possible and the human dimension of interation with nature History of
agricultural science Main Article History of agricultural science Agricultural
science is seen by some to have began with Mendel s insightful genetc work but in
modern terms might be better dated from the chemical fertilizer outputs of plant
physiological understanding in eighteenth century Germany Today it is very
different from what it was even in Intensification of agriculture since the s in
developed and developing countries often referred to as the Green Revolution was
closely tied to progress made in selecting and improving crops and animals for high
productivity as well as to developing additional inputs such as artificial
fertilizer s and pesticide phytosanitary product s As the oldest and largest human
intervention in nature the environmental impact of agriculture in general and more
recently intensive agriculture industrial development and population growth have
raised many questions among agricultural scientists and have led to the development
and emergence of new fields These include technological fields that assume the
solution to technological problems lies in better technology such as integrated
pest management waste management waste treatment technologies landscape
architecture genomics and agricultural philosophy fields that include references to
food production as something essentially different from non essential eeconomic
goods In fact the interaction between these two approaches provide a fertile field
for deeper understanding in agricultural science New technologies
such as biotechnology and computer science for data processing and storage and
technological advances have made it possible to develop new research fields
including genetic engineering agrophysics improved statistics statistical analysis
and precision farming Balancing these as above are the natural and human sciences
of agricultural science that seek to understand the human nature interactions of
traditional agriculture including interaction of religion and agriculture and the
non material components of agricultural production systems Prominent agricultural
scientists Norman Borlaug Luther Burbank Louis Pasteur Gregor Mendel Rene Dumont
Ren Dumont George Washington Carver Agricultural science and agriculture crisis
Agriculture sciences seek to feed the world s population while preventing biosafety
problems that may affect human health and the Natural environment environment This
requires promoting good management of natural resources and respect for the
environment and increasingly concern for the psychological wellbeing of all
concerned in the food production and consumption system Economic environmental and
social aspects of agriculture sciences are subjects of ongoing debate Recent crises
such as Avian Flu Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy mad cow disease and issues such
as the use of genetically modified organism s illustrate the complexity and
importance of this debate Fields of agricultural science Agricultural engineering
Agricultural philosophy Biosystems engineering Aquaculture Agronomy and
Horticulture Agrophysics Livestock Animal science Plant fertilizer fertilization
animal nutrition animal and human nutrition Plant protection and animal health Soil
science especially edaphology hydrology water science Agricultural biotechnology
Biotechnology genetic engineering and microbiology Farming equipment Irrigation and
water management Agricultural economics Food science Environmental science and
environmental engineering engineering Waste management Ecology and Natural
environment environment Theoretical production ecology See also Agricultural
sciences basic topics Agrology Agronomy History of agricultural science Category
Agriculture Category Agronomy Category Soil science bg da Agronomi de
Agrarwissenschaft fr Agronomie id Agronomi it Agronomia he nl Landbouwkunde ja pl
Agronomia fi Maataloustiede sv Agronomi th zh text revision page page title
Alchemy title id id restrictions move edit restrictions revision id id timestamp
T Z timestamp contributor username Silence username id id contributor minor
comment Alchemy in Medieval Europe comment text xml space preserve featured article
Otheruses Image Alchemist s Laboratory Heinrich Khunrath Amphitheatrum sapientiae
aeternae c jpg thumb right px Alchemist s laboratory by Hans Vredman de Vries c
Alchemy is an early protoscience protoscientific and philosophy philosophical
discipline combining elements of chemistry metallurgy physics medicine astrology
semiotics mysticism spiritualism and art Alchemy has been practiced in ancient
Ancient Egypt Egypt India and China in Classical Antiquity Classical Greece and
Rome in the Caliphate Islamic empire and then in Europe up to the th century amp
mdash in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least
years Western alchemy has always been closely connected with Hermeticism a
philosophical and spiritual system that traces its roots to Hermes Trismegistus a
syncretism syncretic Egyptian Greek deity and legendary alchemist These two
disciplines influenced the birth of Rosicrucianism an important esoteric movement
of the th century In the th century as mainstream alchemy evolved into modern
chemistry its mystic and Hermetic aspects became the focus of a modern spiritual
alchemy where material manipulations are viewed as mere symbols of spiritual
transformations The alchemists did not follow what is now known as the scientific
method and much of the quot knowledge quot they produced was later found to be
banal limited wrong or meaningless Today the discipline is of interest mainly to
history of science historians of science and history of philosophy philosophy and
for its mystic esoterism esoteric and artistic aspects Nevertheless alchemy was one
of the main precursors of modern science s and we owe to the ancient alchemists the
discovery of many substances and processes that are the mainstay of modern chemical
and metallurgical industries Overview Image William Fettes Douglas The Alchemist
jpg thumb right px The alchemist by Sir William Fettes Douglas Alchemy as a proto
science The common perception of alchemists is that they were pseudoscience pseudo
scientists crackpot s and charlatans who attempted to turn lead into gold believed
that the universe was composed of the classical element four elements of earth air
fire and water and spent most of their time concocting miraculous medication
remedies poison s and magic paranormal magic potion s This picture is rather unfair
Although many alchemists were indeed crackpots and charlatans many were well
meaning and intelligent scholars who were simply struggling to make sense of a
subject which as we now know was far beyond the reach of their tools These people
were basically quot proto scientists quot who attempted to explore and investigate
the nature of chemical substances and processes They had to rely on unsystematic
experimentation traditional know how rule of thumb rules of thumb amp mdash and
plenty of speculative thought to fill in the wide gaps in existing knowledge Given
these conditions the mystic character of alchemy is quite understandable to the
early alchemist chemical transformations could only seem like magical phenomena
governed by incomprehensible laws whose potential and limitations he had no way of
knowing Having discovered that a specific procedure could turn an earth like ore
into glistening metal it was only natural to speculate that some different
procedure could turn a metal into another At the same time it was clear to the
alchemists that quot something quot was generally being conserved in chemical
processes even in the most dramatic changes of physical state and appearance i e
that substances contained some quot principles quot that could be hidden under many
outer forms and revealed by proper manipulation Throughout the history of the
discipline alchemists struggled very hard to understand the nature of these
principles and find some order and sense in the results of their chemical
experiments amp mdash which were often undermined by impure or poorly characterized
reagents the lack of quantitative measurements and confusing and inconsistent
nomenclature In spite of those difficulties and of many false turns and loops the
alchemists managed to make steady progress in the understanding of the natural
world To them we owe the discovery of many important substances and chemical
processes which paved the way for the modern science of chemistry and are still the
mainstay of today s chemical and metallurgical industries Alchemy as a
philosophical and spiritual discipline The best known goals of the alchemist s were
the transmutation of common metals into gold or silver and the creation of a quot
universal panacea panacea quot a remedy that supposedly would cure all diseases and
prolong life indefinitely Starting with the Middle Ages European alchemists
invested much effort on the search for the quot philosopher s stone quot a mythical
substance that was believed to be an essential ingredient for either or both of
those goals Alchemists enjoyed prestige and support through the centuries though
not for their pursuit of those unattainable goals nor the mystic and philosophical
speculation that dominates their literature Rather it was for their mundane
contributions to the quot chemical quot industries of the day amp mdash ore testing
and refining metalworking production of ink dyes paints and cosmetics leather
tanning ceramics and glass manufacture preparation of extracts and liquors and so
on It seems that the preparation of aqua vitae the quot water of life quot was a
fairly popular quot experiment quot among European alchemists On the other hand
alchemists never had the intellectual tools nor the motivation to separate the
physical chemical aspects of their craft from the metaphysical interpretations
Indeed from antiquity until well into the Modern Age a physics devoid of
metaphysical insight would have been as unsatisfying as a metaphysics devoid of
physical manifestation For one thing the lack of common words for chemical concepts
and processes as well as the need for secrecy led alchemists to borrow the terms
and symbols of Bible biblical and Paganism pagan mythology astrology kabbalah and
other mystic and esoterism esoteric fields so that even the plainest chemical
recipe ended up reading like an abstruse magic incantation Moreover alchemists
sought in those fields the theoretical frameworks into which they could fit their
growing collection of disjointed experimental facts Starting with the middle ages
some alchemists increasingly came to view these metaphysical aspects as the true
foundation of alchemy and chemical substances physical states and material
processes as mere metaphors for spiritual entities states and transformations Thus
both the transmutation of common metals into gold and the universal panacea
symbolized evolution from an imperfect diseased corruptible and ephemeral state
towards a perfect healthy incorruptible and everlasting state and the philosopher s
stone then represented some mystic key that would make this evolution possible
Applied to the alchemist himself the twin goal symbolized his evolution from
ignorance to enlightenment and the stone represented some hidden spiritual truth or
power that would lead to that goal In texts that are written according to this view
the cryptic alchemical
symbol s diagrams and textual imagery of late alchemical works typically contain
multiple layers of meanings allegories and references to other equally cryptic
works and must be laborously quot decoded quot in order to discover their true
meaning Some humanistic scholars now see these spiritual and metaphysical
allegories as the truest and most valuable aspect of alchemy and even claim that
the development of chemistry out of alchemy was a quot corruption quot of the
original Hermetic tradition This is the view espoused by contemporary practitioners
of spiritual alchemy Most scientists on the other hand tend to take quite the
opposite view to them the path from the material side of alchemy to modern
chemistry was the quot straight road quot in the evolution of the discipline while
the metaphysically oriented brand of alchemy was a quot wrong turn quot that led to
nowhere In either view however the na ve interpretations of some practitoners or
the fraudulent hopes fostered by others should not diminish the contribution of the
more sincere alchemists Alchemy and astrology Since its earliest times alchemy has
been closely connected to astrology amp mdash which in Islam and Europe generally
meant the traditional Babylon ian Greek school of astrology Alchemical systems
often postulated that each of the seven planet s known to the ancients quot
astrological sign ruled quot or was associated with a certain metal See the
separate article on astrology and alchemy for further details Alchemy in the age of
science Up to the th century alchemy was actually considered serious science in
Europe for instance Isaac Newton devoted considerably more of his time and writing
to the study of alchemy than he did to either optics or physics for which he is
famous see Isaac Newton s occult studies Other eminent alchemists of the Western
world are Roger Bacon Saint Thomas Aquinas Tycho Brahe Thomas Browne and
Parmigianino The decline of alchemy began in the th century with the birth of
modern chemistry which provided a more precise and reliable framework for matter
transmutations and medicine within a new grand design of the universe based on
rational materialism In the first half of the nineteenth century one established
chemist Baron Carl Reichenbach researched on concepts similar to the old alchemy
such as the Odic force but his research did not enter the mainstream of scientific
discussion Matter transmutation the old goal of alchemy enjoyed a moment in the sun
in the th century when physicists were able to convert lead atoms into gold atoms
via a nuclear reaction However the new gold atoms being unstable isotope s lasted
for under five seconds before they broke apart More recently reports of table top
element transmutation by means of electrolysis or sonic cavitation were the pivot
of the cold fusion controversy of None of those claims have yet been reliably
duplicated Alchemical symbolism has been occasionally used in the th century by
psychology psychologists and philosophers Carl Jung reexamined alchemical symbolism
and theory and began to show the inner meaning of alchemical work as a spirituality
spiritual path Alchemical philosophy symbols and methods have enjoyed something of
a renaissance in post modernism post modern contexts such as the New Age movement
Even some physicists have played with alchemical ideas in books such as The Tao of
Physics and The Dancing Wu Li Masters Alchemy as a subject of historical research
The history of alchemy has become a vigorous academic field As the obscure amp
mdash hermetic of course amp mdash language of the alchemists is gradually being
quot deciphered quot historians are becoming more aware of the intellectual
connections between that discipline and other facets of Western cultural history
such as the sociology and psychology of the intellectual communities kabbala
kabbalism spiritualism Rosicrucianism and other mystic movements cryptography
witchcraft amp mdash and of course the evolution of science and philosophy
Etymology Wiktionarypar alchemy The word alchemy comes from the Arabic language
Arabic al k amp miya amp or al kh amp miya amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp or
amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp which might be formed from the article al and the
Greek language Greek word chumeia amp chi amp mu amp epsilon amp amp alpha meaning
quot cast together quot quot pour together quot quot weld quot quot alloy quot etc
from khumatos quot that which is poured out an ingot quot or from Persian Kimia
meaning quot gold quot A decree of Diocletian written about CE in Greek speaks
against quot the ancient writings of the Egyptians which treat of the kh amp mia
transmutation of gold and silver quot It has been suggested that the Arabic word al
k amp miya amp actually means quot the Egyptian science quot borrowing from the
Coptic language Coptic word for quot Egypt quot k amp me or its equivalent in the
Mediaeval Bohairic dialect of Coptic kh amp me The Coptic word derives from Demotic
Egyptian Demotic km amp itself from ancient Egyptian language Egyptian kmt The
ancient Egyptian word referred to both the country and the colour quot black quot
Egypt was the quot Black Land quot by contrast with the quot Red Land quot the
surrounding desert so this etymology could also explain the nickname quot Egyptian
black arts quot However this theory may be just an example of folk etymology
History Image Alchemy Digby RareSecrets png thumb right px Extract and symbol key
from a th century book on alchemy The symbols used have a one to one correspondence
with symbols used in astrology at the time Alchemy encompasses several
philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents These
traditions general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to
trace their mutual influences and quot genetic quot relationships One can
distinguish at least two major strands which appear to be largely independent at
least in their earlier stages Chinese alchemy centered in China and its zone of
cultural influence and Western alchemy whose center has shifted over the millennia
between Egypt Greece and Rome the Islam ic world and finally back to Europe Chinese
alchemy was closely connected to Taoism whereas Western alchemy developed its own
philosophical system with only superficial connections to the major Western
religions It is still an open question whether these two strands share a common
origin or to what extent they influenced each other Alchemy in Ancient Egypt The
origin of western alchemy may generally be traced to Ancient Egypt ancient
pharaonic Egypt Metallurgy and mysticism were inexorably tied together in the
ancient world as the transformation of drab ore into shining metal must have seemed
to be an act of magic governed by mysterious rules It is claimed therefore that
Alchemy in ancient Egypt was the domain of the priestly class Egyptian alchemy is
known mostly through the writings of ancient Hellenic Greece Greek philosophers
which in turn have often survived only in Islamic translations Practically no
original Egyptian documents on alchemy have survived Those writings if they existed
were likely lost when the Roman Emperor emperor Diocletian ordered the burning of
alchemical books after suppressing a revolt in Alexandria which had been a center
of Egyptian alchemy Nevertheless archaeological expeditions in recent times have
unearthed evidence of chemical analysis during the Naqada periods For example a
copper tool dating to the Naqada era bears evidence of having been used in such a
way reference artifact on display at http www digitalegypt ucl ac uk naqada tombs
finds html Also the process of tanning animal Rawhide skins was already known in
Predynastic Egypt as early as the th millennium BC http www touregypt net ebph htm
although it possibly was discovered haphazardly Other evidence indicates early
alchemists in Ancient Egypt ancient Egypt had invented Mortar masonry mortar by BC
and glass by BC The chemical reaction involved in the production of Calcium Oxide
is one of the oldest known references Calcium Oxide limekiln CaCO lt sub gt lt sub
gt heat CaO CO lt sub gt lt sub gt Ancient Egypt additionally produced cosmetics
cement faience and also Pitch resin pitch for shipbuilding Papyrus had also been
invented by BC Legend has it that the founder of Egyptian alchemy was the deity god
Thoth called Hermes Thoth or Thrice Great Hermes Hermes Trismegistus by the Greek
According to legend he wrote what were called the forty two Books of Knowledge
covering all fields of knowledge including alchemy Hermes s symbol was the caduceus
or serpent staff which became one of many of alchemy s principal symbols The quot
Emerald Tablet quot or Hermetica of Thrice Great Hermes which is known only through
Greek and Arabic language Arabic translations is generally understood to form the
basis for Western alchemical philosophy and practice called the hermeticism
hermetic philosophy by its early practitioners The first point of the quot Emerald
Tablet quot tells the purpose of hermetical science quot in truth certainly and
without doubt whatever is below is like that which is above and whatever is above
is like that which is below to accomplish the miracles of one thing quot ref
harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt p a This is the macrocosm microcosm belief central to
the hermetic philosophy In other words the human body the microcosm is affected by
the exterior world the macrocosm which includes the heavens through astrology and
the earth through the classical element element s ref harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt
p b It has been speculated that a riddle from the Emerald Tablet quot it was
carried in the womb by the wind quot refers to the distillation of oxygen from
sodium nitrate saltpeter a process that was unknown in Europe until its re
discovery by Sendivogius in the th century In the th century BC
the Greek speaking Macedon Macedonia ns conquered Egypt and founded the city of
Alexandria in This brought them into contact with Egyptian ideas See Alchemy in the
Greek world Alchemy in the Greek World below Chinese alchemy Whereas Western
alchemy eventually centered on the transmutation of base metals into noble ones
Chinese alchemy had a more obvious connection to medicine The philosopher s stone
of European alchemists can be compared to the Elixir of life Grand Elixir of
Immortality sought by Chinese alchemists However in the hermetic view these two
goals were not unconnected and the philosopher s stone was often equated with the
universal panacea therefore the two traditions may have had more in common than it
initially appears Black powder may have been an important invention of Chinese
alchemists Described in th century texts and used in fireworks by the th Century it
was used in cannon s by From China the use of gunpowder spread to Japan the Mongol
s the Arab world and Europe Gunpowder was used by the Mongols against the
Hungarians in and in Europe starting with the th century Black powder was most
likely invented in the middle east before it found its way to China Saltpeter the
critical oxidising component was found naturally in India and along the Salt trade
routes in the Middle East Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoist forms of
traditional Chinese medicine medicine such as Acupuncture and Moxibustion and to
martial arts such as Tai Chi Chuan and Kung Fu although some Tai Chi schools
believe that their art derives from the Hygienic or Philosophical branches of
Taoism not the Alchemical Indian alchemy Little is known in the West about the
character and history of India n alchemy An th century Iran Persia n alchemist
named al Biruni reported that they quot have a science similar to alchemy which is
quite peculiar to them which is called Rasav tam It means the art which is
restricted to certain operations drugs compounds and medicines most of which are
taken from plants Its principles restored the health of those who were ill beyond
hope and gave back youth to fading old age quot The best example of a text based on
this science is The Vaishashik Darshana of Kanad a fl BC who described an atomic
theory over a century before Democritus The texts of Ayurvedic Medicine and Science
have aspects related to alchemy such having cures for all known diseases The
similarities in Ayurveda and alchemy are that both had methods used to treat people
by putting oils over them Some people have also noted certain similarities between
the metaphysics of the Samkhya philosophical tradition of Hinduism and the
metaphysics of alchemy Whether there is any direct connection between the two
systems is an open question The Rasavadam was understood by very few people at the
time Two famous examples were Nagarjunacharya and Nityanadhiya Nagarjunacharya was
a buddhist monk who in ancient times ran the great university of Nagarjuna Sagar
His famous book Rasaratanakaram is a famous example of early Indian medicine In
traditional Indian medicinal terminology rasa translates as mercury and
Nagarjunacharya was said to have developed a method to convert the mercury into
gold Much of his original writings are lost to us but his teachings still have
strong influence on traditional Indian medicine Ayureveda to this day Alchemy in
the Greek world The Greek city of Alexandria in Egypt was a center of Greek
alchemical knowledge and retained its preeminence through most of the Greek and
Roman periods The Greeks appropriated the hermetical beliefs of the Egyptians and
melded with them the philosophies of Pythagoras Pythagoreanism ionianism and
gnosticism Pythagorean philosophy is essentially the belief that numbers rule the
universe originating from the observations of sound stars and geometric shapes like
triangles or anything from which a ratio could be derived Ionia n thought was based
on the belief that the universe could be explained through concentration on
phenomenon natural phenomena this philosophy is believed to have originated with
Thales and his pupil Anaximander and later developed by Plato and Aristotle whose
works came to be an integral part of alchemy According to this belief the universe
can be described by a few unified law principle natural laws that can be determined
only through careful thorough and exacting philosophical explorations The third
component introduced to hermetical philosophy by the Greeks was gnosticism a belief
prevalent in the Christian and early post Christian Roman empire that the world is
imperfect because it was created in a flawed manner and that learning about the
nature of spiritual matter would lead to salvation They further believed that god
monotheism God did not quot create quot the universe in the classic sense but that
the universe was created quot from quot him but was corrupted in the process rather
than becoming corrupted by the transgressions of Adam and Eve i e original sin
According to Gnostic belief by worshipping the cosmos nature or the creatures of
the world one worships the True God Gnostics do not seek salvation from sin but
instead seek to escape ignorance believing that sin is merely a consequence of
ignorance Platonic and neo Platonic theories about universals and the omnipotence
of God were also absorbed One very important concept introduced at this time
originated by Empedocles and developed by Aristotle was that all things in the
universe were formed from only four elements earth air water and fire According to
Aristotle each element had a sphere to which it belonged and to which it would
return if left undisturbed ref harvard Lindsay Lindsay p a The four elements of the
Greek were mostly qualitative aspects of matter not quantitative as our modern
elements are quot True alchemy never regarded earth air water and fire as corporeal
or chemical substances in the present day sense of the word The four elements are
simply the primary and most general qualities by means of which the amorphous and
purely quantitative substance of all bodies first reveals itself in differentiated
form quot ref harvard Hitchcock Hitchcock p a Later alchemists if Plato and
Aristotle can be called alchemists extensively developed the mystical aspects of
this concept Alchemy in the Roman Empire The Ancient Rome Romans adopted Greek
alchemy and metaphysics just as they adopted much of Greek knowledge and philosophy
By the end of the Roman empire the Greek alchemical philosophy had been joined to
the philosophies of the Egyptians to create the cult of Hermeticism ref harvard
Lindsay Lindsay b However the development of Christianity in the Empire brought a
contrary line of thinking stemming from Augustine of Hippo Augustine AD an early
Christian philosopher who wrote of his beliefs shortly before the fall of the Roman
Empire In essence he felt that reason and faith could be used to understand God but
experimental philosophy was evil quot There is also present in the soul by means of
these same bodily sense a kind of empty longing and curiosity which aims not at
taking pleasure in the flesh but at acquiring experience through the flesh and this
empty curiosity he is dignified by the names of learning and science quot ref
harvard Augustine Augustine p a Augustinian ideas were decidedly anti experimental
yet when Aristotelian experimental techniques were made available to the West they
were not shunned Still Augustinian thought was well ingrained in medieval society
and was used to show alchemy as being un Godly Much of the Roman knowledge of
Alchemy like that of the Greeks and Egyptians is now lost In Alexandria the centre
of alchemical studies in the Roman Empire the art was mainly oral and in the
interests of secrecy little was committed to paper Whence the use of quot hermetic
quot to mean quot secretive quot ref harvard Lindsay Lindsay p c It is possible
that some writing was done in Alexandria and that it was subsequently lost or
destroyed in fires and the turbulent periods that followed Alchemy in the Islamic
world After the fall of the Roman Empire the focus of alchemical development moved
to the Middle East Much more is known about Islam ic alchemy because it was better
documented indeed most of the earlier writings that have come down through the
years were preserved as Islamic translations ref harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt p c
The Islamic world was a melting pot for alchemy Plato nic and Aristotle
Aristotelian thought which had already been somewhat appropriated into hermetical
science continued to be assimilated Islamic alchemists such as Abu Bakr Mohammad
Ibn Zakariya al Razi al Razi Latin Rasis or Rhazes contributed key chemical
discoveries of their own such as the technique of distillation the words alembic
and alcohol are of Arabic language Arabic origin the hydrochloric acid muriatic
sulfuric acid sulfuric and nitric acid nitric acids sodium carbonate soda potash
and more From the Arabic names of the last two substances al natrun and al qal y
Latinized into Natrium and Kalium come the modern symbols for sodium and potassium
The discovery that aqua regia a mixture of nitric and muriatic acids could dissolve
the noblest metal gold was to fuel the imagination of alchemists for the next
millennium Islamic philosophers also made great contributions to alchemical
hermeticism The most influential author in this regard was arguably Abu Musa Jabir
Ibn Hayyan Jabir Ibn Hayyan Arabic amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp amp
Latin Geberus usually rendered in English as Geber Jabir s ultimate goal was takwin
the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory up to and including
human life He analyzed each Aristotelian element in terms of four basic qualities
of hotness coldness dryness and moistness ref harvard Burkhardt Burkhardt p d
According to Geber in each metal two of these qualities
were interior and two were exterior For example lead was externally cold and dry
while gold was hot and moist Thus Jabir theorized by rearranging the qualities of
one metal a different metal would result ref harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt p e By
this reasoning the search for the philosopher s stone was introduced to Western
alchemy Jabir developed an elaborate numerology whereby the root letters of a
substance s name in Arabic when treated with various transformations held
correspondences to the element s physical properties It is now commonly accepted
that Chinese alchemy influenced Arabic alchemists ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes pp
a ref harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt p f although the extent of that influence is
still a matter of debate Likewise Hinduism Hindu learning was assimilated into
Islamic alchemy but again the extent and effects of this are not well known Alchemy
in Medieval Europe Image JosephWright Alchemist jpg thumb px right The Alchemist in
Search of the Philosophers Stone By Joseph Wright of Derby Because of its strong
connections to the Greek and Roman cultures alchemy was rather easily accepted into
Christian philosophy and Medieval European alchemists extensively absorbed Islamic
alchemical knowledge Gerbert of Aurillac who was later to become Pope Silvester II
d was among the first to bring Islamic science to Europe from Spain Later men such
as Adelard of Bath who lived in the th century brought additional learning But
until the th century the moves were mainly assimilative ref harvard Hollister
Hollister p a In this period there appeared some deviations from the Augustine of
Hippo Augustinian principles of earlier Christian thinkers Anselm of Canterbury
Saint Anselm was a Benedictine who believed faith must precede rationalism as
Augustine and most theologians prior to Anselm had believed but Anselm put forth
the opinion that faith and rationalism were compatible and encouraged rationalism
in a Christian context His views set the stage for the philosophical explosion to
occur Peter Abelard followed Anselm s work laying the foundation for acceptance of
Aristotelian thought before the first works of Aristotle reached the West His major
influence on alchemy was his belief that Platonic universals did not have a
separate existence outside of man s consciousness Abelard also systematized the
analysis of philosophical contradictions ref harvard Hollister Hollister p b Robert
Grosseteste was a pioneer of the scientific theory that would later be used and
refined by the alchemists He took Abelard s methods of analysis and added the use
of observations experimentation and conclusions in making scientific evaluations
Grosseteste also did much work to bridge Platonic and Aristotelian thinking ref
harvard Hollister Hollister pp c Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas were both
Dominican Order Dominican s who studied Aristotle and worked at reconciling the
differences between philosophy and Christianity Aquinas also did a great deal of
work in developing the scientific method He even went as far as claiming that
universals could be discovered only through logical reasoning and since reason
could not run in opposition to God reason must be compatible with theology ref
harvard Hollister Hollister p d This ran contrary to the commonly held Platonic
belief that universals were found through divine illumination alone Magnus and
Aquinas were among the first to take up the examination of alchemical theory and
could be considered to be alchemists themselves except that these two did little in
the way of experimentation The first true alchemist in Medieval Europe was Roger
Bacon His work did as much for alchemy as Robert Boyle s was to do for chemistry
and Galileo Galilei Galileo s for astronomy and physics Bacon was an Oxford
Franciscan who explored optics and linguistics languages in addition to alchemy The
Franciscan ideals of taking on the world rather than rejecting the world led to his
conviction that experimentation was more important than reasoning quot Of the three
ways in which men think that they acquire knowledge of things authority reason
reasoning and experience only the last is effective and able to bring peace to the
intellect quot Bacon p quot Experimental Science controls the conclusions of all
other sciences It reveals truths which reasoning from law principle general
principles would never have discovered quot ref harvard Hollister Hollister p e
Roger Bacon has also been attributed with originating the search for the
philosopher s stone and the elixir of life quot That medicine which will remove all
impurities and corruptibilities from the lesser metals will also in the opinion of
the wise take off so much of the corruptibility of the body that human life may be
prolonged for many centuries quot The idea of immortality was replaced with the
notion of longevity long life after all man s time on Earth was simply to wait and
prepare for immortality in the world of God Immortality on Earth did not mesh with
Christian theology ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes p b Bacon was not the only
alchemist of the high middle ages but he was the most significant His works were
used by countless alchemists of the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries Other
alchemists of Bacon s time shared several traits First and most obviously nearly
all were members of the clergy This was simply because few people outside the
parochial schools had the education to examine the Arabic derived works Also
alchemy at this time was sanctioned by the church as a good method of exploring and
developing theology Alchemy was interesting to the wide variety of churchmen
because it offered a rationalistic view of the universe when men were just
beginning to learn about rationalism ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes p c So by the
end of the thirteenth century alchemy had developed into a fairly structured system
of belief Adepts believed in the macrocosm microcosm theories of Hermes that is to
say they believed that processes that affect minerals and other substances could
have an effect on the human body e g if one could learn the secret of purifying
gold one could use the technique to purify the soul human soul They believed in the
four elements and the four qualities as described above and they had a strong
tradition of cloaking their written ideas in a labyrinth of coded jargon set with
traps to mislead the uninitiated Finally the alchemists practiced their art they
actively experimented with chemicals and made observation s and theory theories
about how the universe operated Their entire philosophy revolved around their
belief that man s soul was divided within himself after the fall of Adam By
purifying the two parts of man s soul man could be reunited with God ref harvard
Burkhardt Burckhardt p g In the fourteenth century these views underwent a major
change William of Ockham an Oxford Franciscan who died in attacked the Thomist view
of compatibility between faith and reason His view widely accepted today was that
God must be accepted on faith alone He could not be limited by human reason Of
course this view was not incorrect if one accepted the postulate of a limitless God
versus limited human reasoning capability but it virtually erased alchemy from
practice in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ref harvard Hollister Hollister
p f Pope John XXII in the early s issued an edict against alchemy which effectively
removed all church personnel from the practice of the Art ref harvard Edwardes
Edwardes p d The climate changes Black Death Black plague and increase in war
warfare and famine that characterized this century no doubt also served to hamper
philosophical pursuits in general Image flamel figures png thumb px Nicholas Flamel
had these mysterious alchemical symbols carved on his tomb in the Church of the
Holy Innocents in Paris Alchemy was kept alive by men such as Nicolas Flamel who
was noteworthy only because he was one of the few alchemists writing in those
troubled times Flamel lived from to and would serve as the archetype for the next
phase of alchemy He was not a religious scholar as were many of his predecessors
and his entire interest in the subject revolved around the pursuit of the
philosopher s stone which he is reputed to have found his work spends a great deal
of time describing the processes and reactions but never actually gives the formula
for carrying out the transmutations Most of his work was aimed at gathering
alchemical knowledge that had existed before him especially as regarded the
philosophers stone ref harvard Burkhardt Burckhardt pp h Through the high middle
ages alchemists were much like Flamel they concentrated on looking for the
philosophers stone and the elixir of youth now believed to be separate things Their
cryptic allusions and symbolism led to wide variations in interpretation of the art
For example many alchemists during this period interpreted the purification of the
soul to mean the transmutation of lead into gold in which they believed elemental
mercury element mercury or quicksilver played a crucial role These men were viewed
as magic paranormal magicians and sorcerers by many and were often persecuted for
their practices ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes pp e ref harvard Norton Norton pp
lxiii lxvii a One of these men who emerged at the beginning of the sixteenth
century was named Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa This alchemist believed himself to be
a wizard and actually thought himself capable of summoning spiritual being spirit s
His influence was negligible but like Flamel he produced writings which were
referred to by alchemists of later years Again like Flamel he did much to change
alchemy from a mystical philosophy to an occult ist magic He did keep alive the
philosophies of the earlier alchemists including experimental science numerology
etc but he added magic theory which reinforced the
idea of alchemy as an occultist belief In spite of all this Agrippa still
considered himself a Christian though his views often came into conflict with the
church ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes p f ref harvard Wilson Wilson p a Alchemy in
the Modern Age and Renaissance European alchemy continued in this way through the
dawning of the Renaissance The era also saw a flourishing of con artist s who would
use chemical tricks and sleight of hand to quot demonstrate quot the transmutation
of common metals into gold or claim to possess secret knowledge that with a quot
small quot initial investment would surely lead to that goal The most important
name in this period is Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus Theophrastus Bombastus von
Hohenheim who cast alchemy into a new form rejecting some of the occultism that
had accumulated over the years and promoting the use of observations and
experiments to learn about the human body He rejected Gnostic traditions but kept
much of the Hermetical neo Platonic and Pythagorean philosophies however Hermetical
science had so much Aristotelian theory that his rejection of Gnosticism was
practically meaningless In particular Paracelsus rejected the magic theories of
Agrippa and Flamel He did not think of himself as a magician and scorned those who
did Williams p Paracelsus pioneered the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine
and wrote quot Many have said of Alchemy that it is for the making of gold and
silver For me such is not the aim but to consider only what virtue and power may
lie in medicines quot ref harvard Edwardes Edwardes p g His hermetical views were
that sickness and health in the body relied on the harmony of man the microcosm and
Nature the macrocosm He took an approach different from those before him using this
analogy not in the manner of soul purification but in the manner that humans must
have certain balances of minerals in their bodies and that certain illnesses of the
body had chemical remedies that could cure them ref harvard Debus Debus amp
Multhauf p a While his attempts of treating diseases with such remedies as Mercury
might seem ill advised from a modern point of view his basic idea of chemically
produced medicines has stood time surprisingly well Image Alchemik Sedziwoj Matejko
JPG thumb left px Alchemist Michal Sedziwoj quot Alchemik Micha S dziw j quot oil
on board by Jan Matejko x cm Museum of Arts in d In England the topic of alchemy in
that time frame is often associated with Doctor John Dee July December better
known for his role as astrologer cryptographer and general quot scientific
consultant quot to Elizabeth I of England Queen Elizabeth I Dee was considered an
authority on the works of Roger Bacon and was interested enough in alchemy to write
a book on that subject Monas Hieroglyphica influenced by the Kabbala Dee s
associate Edward Kelley who claimed to converse with angel s through a crystal ball
and to own a powder that would turn mercury element mercury into gold may have been
the source of the popular image of the alchemist charlatan Another lesser known
alchemist was Micha S dziw j Michael Sendivogius Micha S dziw j a Poland Polish
alchemist philosopher medical doctor and pioneer of chemistry According to some
accounts he distilled oxygen in a lab sometime around years before Karl Wilhelm
Scheele Scheele and Joseph Priestley Priestley by warming nitre saltpetre He
thought of the gas given off as quot the elixir of life quot Shortly after
discovering this method it is believed that Sendivogious taught his technique to
Cornelius Drebbel In Drebbel practically applied this in a submarine Tycho Brahe
better known for his astronomical and astrological investigations was also an
alchemist He had a laboratory built for that purpose at his Uraniborg observatory
research institute The decline of Western alchemy The demise of Western alchemy was
brought about by the rise of modern science with its emphasis on rigorous
quantitative experimentation and its disdain for quot ancient wisdom quot Although
the seeds of these events were planted as early as the th century alchemy still
flourished for some two hundred years and in fact may have reached its apogee in
the th century Robert Boyle better known for his studies of gases cf Boyle s law
pioneered the scientific method in chemical investigations He assumed nothing in
his experiments and compiled every piece of relevant data in a typical experiment
Boyle would note the place in which the experiment was carried out the wind
characteristics the position of the Sun and Moon and the barometer reading all just
in case they proved to be relevant ref harvard Pilkington Pilkington p a This
approach eventually led to the founding of modern chemistry in the th century th
and th century th centuries based on revolutionary discoveries of Antoine Lavoisier
Lavoisier and John Dalton which finally provided a logical quantitative and
reliable framework for understanding matter transmutations and revealed the
futility of longstanding alchemical goals such as the philospher s stone Meanwhile
Paracelsian alchemy led to the development of modern medicine Experimentalists
gradually uncovered the workings of the human body such as blood circulation
William Harvey Harvey and eventually traced many diseases to infections with germs
Robert Koch Koch and Louis Pasteur Pasteur th century or lack of natural nutrients
and vitamin s James Lind Lind Christiaan Eijkman Eijkman Casimir Funk Funk et al
Supported by parallel developments in organic chemistry the new science easily
displaced alchemy from its medical roles interpretive and prescriptive while
deflating its hopes of miraculous elixirs and exposing the ineffectiveness or even
toxicity of its remedies Thus as science steadily continued to uncover and
rationalize the clockwork of the universe founded on its own materialistic
metaphysics Alchemy was left deprived of its chemical and medical connections but
still incurably burdened by them Reduced to an arcane philosophical system poorly
connected to the material world it suffered the common fate of other esoteric
disciplines such as astrology and Kabbalah excluded from university curricula
shunned by its former patrons damned knowledge ostracized by scientists and
commonly viewed as the epitome of charlatan ism and superstition These developments
could be interpreted as part of a broader reaction in European intellectualism
against the Romanticism Romantic movement of the preceding century Be as it may it
is sobering to observe how a discipline that held so much intellectual and material
prestige for more than two thousand years could disappear so easily from the
universe of Western thought Modern alchemy In modern times progress has been made
toward achieving the goals of alchemy using scientific rather than alchemic means
These developments may on occasion be called quot alchemy quot for rhetorical
reasons In Ernest Rutherford used artificial disintegration to convert nitrogen
into oxygen This process of bombarding the atomic nucleus with high energy
particles is the principle behind modern particle accelerators in which
transmutations of elements are common Indeed in Glenn Seaborg transmuted lead into
gold though the amount of energy used and the microscopic quantities created
negated any possible financial benefit In George Ohsawa and Michio Kushi based on
the claims of Louis Kervran reportedly successfully transmutated sodium into
potassium by use of an electric arc and later of carbon and oxygen into iron In R
Sundaresan and J Bockris reported that they had observed fusion reactions in
electrical discharges between carbon rods immersed in water However none of these
claims have been replicated by other scientists and the idea is now thoroughly
discredited As of a universal panacea remains elusive though futurist s such as Ray
Kurzweil believe sufficiently advanced nanotechnology may prolong life indefinitely
Some say the third goal of alchemy has been fulfilled by In vitro fertilization IVF
and the cloning of a human embryo although these technologies fall far short of
creating a human life from scratch The aim of artificial intelligence research
could be said to be creating a life from scratch and those philosophically opposed
to the possibility of AI have compared it with alchemy such as Herbert and Stuart
Dreyfus in their paper Alchemy and AI Alchemy in art and entertainment References
to alchemy in art and entertainment are far too numerous to list Here we give only
a few indicative samples More titles can be found in the philosopher s stone
article Novels and plays Many literature writers lampooned alchemists and used them
as the butt of satire satirical attacks Two early and well known examples are
Geoffrey Chaucer The Canon s Yeoman s Prologue and Tale Canon s Yeoman s Tale ca
The main character an alchemist on the way to Canterbury claims that he will quot
pave it all of silver and of gold quot Ben Jonson The Alchemist play The Alchemist
ca In this five act play the characters set up an alchemy workshop to swindle
people Image Alchemical Laboratory Project Gutenberg eText jpg thumbnail right px
An Alchemical Laboratory from The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry
In more recent works alchemists are generally presented in a more romatic or mystic
light and often little distinction is made between alchemy magic and witchcraft
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley Mary Shelley Frankenstein Victor Frankenstein uses
both alchemy and modern science to create Frankenstein s monster Johann Wolfgang
von Goethe Goethe Faust Part Faust s servant Wagner uses alchemy to create a
homunculus Gabriel Garc a M rquez One Hundred Years of Solitude An alchemist named
Melqu ades adds to the novel s surreal atmosphere Paulo Coelho The Alchemist book
The Alchemist J K Rowling Harry Potter and the Philosopher s Stone Features
Nicholas Flamel as a character Neal Stephenson The Baroque Cycle Features real
and imaginary alchemists such as Isaac Newton Nicolas Fatio de Duillier de Duillier
and Enoch Root Martin Booth Doctor Illuminatus The Alchemist s Son Margaret Mahy
Alchemy Margaret Mahy book Alchemy John Fasman The Geographer s Library lt DATE gt
whose plot revolves around thirteen alchemical artifacts Gregory Keyes Age of
Unreason lt DATE gt Features Isaac Newton and Nicolas Fatio de Duillier de Duillier
Cornelia Funke Dragon Rider Twigleg the homonculus was created by an alchemist
Comics manga and video games Stan Lee and Jack Kirby Fantastic Four comics ca
Villain Diablo comics Diablo is an alchemist Darklands PC game Alchemy features
prominently throughout the game Mike Mignola s Hellboy comics The character Roger
the Homunculus was created by alchemy Nintendo s Golden Sun video game Alchemy is
an evil force that threatens the world Hiromu Arakawa Fullmetal Alchemist
Alchemists can transform anything within the principle of Equivalent Exchange
Nobuhiro Watsuki Buso Renkin Weapon Alchemist manga Kazuki Takahashi Yu Gi Oh GX
anime The character Lyman Banner Daitokuji is an alchemist who preserved his soul
within a homunculus Nintendo s Final Fantasy Tactics Advance video game Has a
playable class called Alchemist Bethesda Softworks The Elder Scrolls III Morrowind
prominently features alchemy as a method of creating various potions for use by the
player Indiana Jones and the Emperor s Tomb computer game A large portion of the
game is centered around a castle in Prague formerly owned by an alchemist king
World of Warcraft computer game Alchemy is one of the Professions World of Warcraft
Alchemy professions the player can learn lt Please provide dates gt Music Tool band
album Lateralus References note label Augustine Augustine p a cite book author
Augustine title The Confessions publisher New York Mentor Books year id Trans Rex
Warner note label Burkhardt Burckhardt p a note label Burkhardt Burckhardt p b note
label Burkhardt Burckhardt p c note label Burkhardt Burkhardt p d note label
Burkhardt Burckhardt p e note label Burkhardt Burckhardt p f note label Burkhardt
Burckhardt p g note label Burkhardt Burckhardt pp h cite book first Titus last
Burckhardt authorlink Titus Burckhardt title Alchemy Science of the Cosmos Science
of the Soul publisher Baltimore Penguin year id Trans William Stoddart Cavendish
Richard The Black Arts Perigee Books note label Debus Debus amp Multhauf p a cite
book author Debus Allen G and Multhauf Robert P title Alchemy and Chemistry in the
Seventeenth Century publisher Los Angeles William Andrews Clark Memorial Library
University of California year id note label Edwardes Edwardes pp a note label
Edwardes Edwardes p b note label Edwardes Edwardes p c note label Edwardes Edwardes
p d note label Edwardes Edwardes pp e note label Edwardes Edwardes p f note label
Edwardes Edwardes p g cite book author Edwardes Michael title The Dark Side of
History publisher New York Stein and Day year id cite book author Gettgins Fred
title Encyclopedia of the Occult publisher London Rider year id note label
Hitchcock Hitchcock p a cite book author Hitchcock Ethan Allen title Remarks Upon
Alchemy and the Alchemists publisher Boston Crosby Nichols year id note label
Hollister Hollister p a note label Hollister Hollister p b note label Hollister
Hollister pp c note label Hollister Hollister p d note label Hollister Hollister p
e note label Hollister Hollister p f cite book author Hollister C Warren title
Medieval Europe A Short History publisher Blacklick Ohio McGraw Hill College year
id ISBN th ed note label Lindsay Lindsay p a note label Lindsay Lindsay b note
label Lindsay Lindsay p c cite book author Lindsay Jack title The Origins of
Alchemy in Graeco Roman Egypt publisher London Muller year id ISBN cite book
author Marius title On the Elements publisher Berkeley University of California
Press year id ISBN Trans Richard Dales note label Norton Norton pp lxiii lxvii a
cite book author Norton Thomas Ed John Reidy title Ordinal of Alchemy publisher
London Early English Text Society year id ISBN note label Pilkington Pilkington p
a cite book author Pilkington Roger title Robert Boyle Father of Chemistry
publisher London John Murray year id cite book author Weaver Jefferson Hane title
The World of Physics publisher New York Simon amp Schuster year id note label
Wilson Wilson p a cite book author Wilson Colin title The Occult A History
publisher New York Random House year id ISBN cite book author Zumdahl Steven S
title Chemistry publisher Lexington Maryland D C Heath and Co year id ISBN nd ed
cite book author Greenberg Adele Droblas title Chemical History Tour Picturing
Chemistry from Alchemy to Modern Molecular Science publisher Wiley Interscience
year id ISBN See also Other alchemical pages commons Alchemy Vulcan of the
alchemists Philosopher s stone Hermeticism Astrology and alchemy Transmutation
Duality The four humours Alkahest arcanum berith elixir quintessence Alembic
Alchemical symbol lt Circle with a point at its centre gt Goldwasser Gold water
Related and alternative philosophies Western mystery tradition Astrology Necromancy
magic paranormal magic Esotericism Rosicrucianism Illuminati Taoism and the Five
Elements Kayaku Jutsu Acupuncture moxibustion ayurveda homeopathy Anthroposophy
Psychology and Carl Jung New Age Scientific connections Chemistry Physics
Scientific method Protoscience Pseudoscience and Anti science Obsolete scientific
theories Historicism Substances of the alchemists gold amp bull silver amp bull
lead amp bull copper amp bull zinc amp bull mercury element mercury phosphorus amp
bull sulfur amp bull arsenic amp bull antimony vitriol amp bull cinnabar amp bull
pyrites amp bull orpiment amp bull galena magnesium oxide magnesia amp bull calcium
oxide lime amp bull potash amp bull natron amp bull saltpetre amp bull kohl
cosmetics kohl ammonia amp bull ammonium chloride amp bull alcohol amp bull camphor
Acids sulfuric acid sulfuric amp bull hydrochloric acid muriatic amp bull nitric
acid nitric amp bull acetic acid acetic amp bull formic acid formic amp bull citric
acid citric amp bull tartaric acid tartaric aqua regia amp bull gunpowder Other
resources List of alchemists List of occultists External links Some websites
discussing the original notion of alchemical transmutation http aras org Archive
for Research in Archetypal Symbolism A pictorial and written archive of
mythological ritualistic and symbolic images from all over the world and from all
epochs of human history http etext lib virginia edu cgi local DHI dhi cgi id dv
Dictionary of the History of Ideas Alchemy http honolulu hawaii edu distance sci
TVtext MOD htm Skeptical Chemists from alchemy to chemistry tracing the
contributions of Paracelsus http www alchemy cz The Alchemy Museum in Kutna Hora
World s First Museum Dedicated to Alchemy in All Its Aspects http antiquity ac uk
ProjGall martinon index html A th century lab in a st century lab Analytical study
of the archaeological remains of an alchemical laboratory http www gutenberg org
etext The Story of Alchemy and the Beginnings of Chemistry from Project Gutenberg
http www levity com alchemy The Alchemy Website A collection of many alchemical
texts and other alchemical information Some websites which appear to espouse modern
versions of alchemy http www rexresearch com Rex Research Robert Nelson http www
alchemicaltaoism com Alchemical Taoism com Eases study of the complex Healing Tao
qi gong chi kung system Essays by experienced students and instructors Category
Alchemy Category Ancient Egypt Category Arabic words Category Esoteric schools of
thought Category Gold Category History of ideas Category Obsolete scientific
theories Link FA es Link FA pt af Alchemie bg ca Alqu mia cs Alchymie da Alkymi de
Alchemie eo Alkemio es Alquimia et Alkeemia fi Alkemia fr Alchimie he hr Alkemija
id Alkimia io Alkemio it Alchimia ja la Alchemia lt Alchemija nl Alchemie nn
Alkymi pl Alchemia pt Alquimia ru sk Alch mia sl Alkimija su Alk mi sv Alkemi th
tl Alkimiya tr Simya uk zh text revision page page title Automatic Dependent
Surveillance Broadcast title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor ip ip contributor comment External links comment text xml space
preserve Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast also called ADS B is a system
by which aircraft airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and
altitude category of aircraft airspeed identification and whether the aircraft is
turning climbing or descending over a dedicated radio datalink This functionality
is known as quot ADS B out quot and is the basic level of ADS B functionality The
ADS B system was developed in the s It relies on data from the Global Positioning
System or any navigation system that provides an equivalent or better service The
maximum range of the system is line of sight typically less than nautical mile s km
The ADS B transmissions are received by air traffic control stations and all other
ADS B equipped aircraft within reception range Reception by aircraft of ADS B data
is known as quot ADS B in quot Usage The initial use of ADS B is expected to be by
air traffic control and for surveillance purposes and for enhancing pilot
situational awareness ADS B is lower cost than conventional radar and permits
higher quality surveillance of airborne and surface movements ADS B is effective in
remote areas or in mountainous terrain where there is no radar coverage or where
radar coverage is limited The outback of Australia is one such area where ADS B
will provide surveillance where previously none existed ADS B also enhances
surveillance on the airport surface so it can also be used to monitor traffic on
the taxiways and runways of an airport ADS B equipped aircraft may also have a
display unit in the cockpit picturing surrounding air traffic from ADS B data ADS
B in and TIS B Traffic Information Service Broadcast data derived from air traffic
radar Both Pilots and air traffic controller s will then be able to quot see quot
the positions of air traffic in the vicinity of the aircraft and this may be used
to provide an ASAS Airborne Separation Assurance System Airborne Collision
Avoidance Systems may in the future also make use of quot ADS B in quot
supplementing the existing TCAS collision avoidance system by what is called hybrid
surveillance Airbus and Boeing are now expected to include ADS B out i e the
transmitter of information as standard on new build aircraft from onwards This is
in part due to the European requirements for Mode S Elementary Surveillance which
uses MHz Mode S transponder which now is normally capable of ADS B via Extended
Squitter and some common functionality with ADS B out Addressed and Broadcast ADS
The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA Free Flight Selection Committee
defines surveillance as detection tracking characterization and observation of
aircraft other vehicles and weather phenomena for the purpose of conducting flight
operations in a safe and efficient manner quot Automatic Dependent Surveillance ADS
is described as the process of creating and sending a message including the sender
s current position and other surveillance information such as velocity intent and
flight identification This information supports aircraft separation management by
improving surveillance information at increased ranges situational awareness and
decision making ADS data can be used in cooperation with data from current radar
beacon systems such as Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon Systems ATCRBS Mode S
Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems TCAS and primary Air Traffic Control ATC radar
and may also be used as a sole means of surveillance There are two commonly
recognized types of ADS for aircraft applications ADS Addressed ADS A also known as
ADS Contract ADS C and ADS Broadcast ADS B ADS A provides a surveillance data
report that is sent to a specific addressee For example ADS A reports are employed
in the Future Air Navigation System FANS using the Aircraft Communication
Addressing and Reporting System ACARS as the communication protocol During
transoceanic flight reports are periodically sent by an aircraft to the controlling
air traffic region When ADS B is used aircraft and other vehicles continuously
broadcast a message including position heading velocity and intent Other uses may
include obstacles transmitting a position message Aircraft ground based stations
and other users monitoring the channels can receive the information and use it in a
wide variety of applications Because of this potential for broad utilization a
system using ADS B is most often discussed as a replacement for or an augmentation
to current methods of monitoring aeronautical traffic To understand the full
capability of ADS B consider how the current Air Traffic Control system creates
information The radar measures the range and bearing of an aircraft Bearing is
measured by the position of the rotating radar antenna when it receives a response
to its interrogation from the aircraft and range is measured by the time it takes
for the radar to receive the interrogation response The antenna beam becomes wider
as the aircraft get farther away making the position information less accurate
Additionally detecting changes in aircraft velocity requires several radar sweeps
that are spaced several seconds apart In contrast a system using ADS B creates and
listens for periodic position and intent reports from aircraft These reports are
generated and distributed using precise instruments such as the global positioning
system GPS and Mode S transponders meaning integrity of the data is no longer
susceptible to the range of the aircraft or the length of time between radar sweeps
The enhanced accuracy of the information will be used to improve safety support a
wide variety of applications and increase airport and airspace capacity Use of ADS
B for ground based surveillance requires only ADS B Out transmit capability on the
aircraft With the addition of ADS B In receive capability the potential for ADS B
applications grows significantly Some of the equipment and services associated with
ADS B In capability include Cockpit Display of Traffic Information CDTI a display
of proximate traffic based on ADS B reports from other aircraft and ground based
facilities Traffic Information Services Broadcast TIS B a ground based uplink
report of proximate traffic that is under surveillance by ATC but is not ADS B
equipped This service would be available even with limited ADS B implementation
Flight Information Services Broadcast FIS B a ground based uplink of flight
information services and weather data ADS B Physical Layer Three link solutions are
being proposed as the physical layer for relaying the ADS B position reports MHz
Mode S Extended Squitter ES Universal Access Transceiver UAT and VHF Digital Link
VDL Mode Mode S The FAA has announced its selection of the MHz ES and UAT as the
mediums for the ADS B system in the United States MHz ES will be the primary medium
for air carrier and high performance commercial aircraft while UAT will be the
primary medium for general aviation aircraft Europe has also chosen MHz as the
primary physical layer for ADS B However the second medium has not yet been
selected between UAT and VDL Mode With ES the existing Mode S transponder or a
stand alone MHz transmitter supports a message type known as the ES message It is a
periodic message that provides position velocity heading time and in the future
intent The basic ES does not offer intent since current flight management systems
do not provide such data called trajectory change points To enable an aircraft to
send an extended squitter message the transponder is modified and aircraft position
and other status information is routed to the transponder ATC ground stations and
TCAS equipped aircraft already have the necessary MHz receivers to receive these
signals and would only require enhancements to accept and process the additional
information ES will not support FIS B due to regulatory requirements Universal
Access Transceiver The UAT system is specifically designed for ADS B operation A
MHz channel in the MHz frequency range is dedicated for transmission of airborne
ADS B reports and for broadcast of ground based aeronautical information UAT users
would have access to the additional ground based aeronautical data and would
receive reports from proximate traffic FIS B and TIS B VDL Mode The VDL Mode system
could utilize one or more of the existing aeronautical VHF frequencies as the radio
frequency physical layer for ADS B transmissions VDL Mode uses a protocol STDMA
that allows it to be self organizing meaning no master ground station is required
This medium is best used for short message transmissions from a large number of
users VDL Mode systems are capable of increased range in comparison to L Band Mode
S MHz or UAT systems Implementation Timetable The timetable for airborne ADS B
equipage will be determined by ground and airborne facility implementation
equipment cost perceived benefits of equipping and regulatory actions by the Civil
Aviation Authorities CAA The cost to equip with ADS B Out capability is relatively
small and would benefit the airspace by enabling increased situational awareness
ADS B In capability can provide additional benefits when ground stations and the
critical mass of aircraft are also equipped This data was taken into consideration
when building the following estimated implementation timetable Near term
Implementation The next three years will see a continuation of ADS B trials and
some implementation in pockets where limited aircraft equipage can bring
operational benefits Some of these include Capstone In Alaska the FAA is conducting
its Capstone program to improve surveillance in some of the more remote locations
of Alaska and as a test bed for implementing elements of ADS B into the ATC
environment Approximately general aviation users have been equipped with GPS
receivers UAT transceivers and flight deck displays In addition ground based
transceivers have been installed for radar like services and flight information
services data FIS B including weather information is being uplinked from the ground
Phase II of the program will expand the coverage and add more than additional users
Gulf of Mexico In the Gulf of Mexico where ATC radar coverage is incomplete the FAA
is locating ADS B MHz receivers on oil rigs and buoys to relay information received
from aircraft equipped with ADS B extended squitters back to the ATC centers to
expand and improve surveillance coverage Australia Australia is implementing ADS B
trials in Queensland to test the feasibility of MHz ADS B as an alternative to
ground based radar ADS B is expected to be a much more cost effective method of
providing ATC surveillance coverage for remote areas which currently have limited
or no surveillance coverage Cargo Airline Association Cargo carriers operating at
their hub airports operate largely at night Equipage of these aircraft with ADS B
and CDTI displays along with a ground based transceiver at these hubs will allow
better situational awareness at night and in inclement weather and offers the
potential for increased airport traffic handling capability Embry Riddle
Aeronautical University Embry Riddle Aeronautical University is equipping the
training aircraft at its two main campuses in Florida and Arizona with ADS B
capability as a safety enhancement The FAA will provide FIS B and TIS B uplink
capabilities in those areas in support of this equipage Safe Flight East Coast
Broadcast Services The FAA has announced its intention to implement
ADS B coverage for the entire east coast of the U S by the end of Service range
will extend inland miles with a goal of providing coverage at altitudes down to
feet The medium will be UAT and the implementation will also include TIS B and FIS
B information Mid term Implementation Within four to eight years an increasing
number of aircraft with ADS B Out capability along with the start of ground based
ADS B infrastructure will begin to make a number of ADS B applications attractive
Benefits of Pockets of Implementation will become evident and these areas will be
expanded encouraging more users to equip with ADS B capability Beginning in the FAA
is expected to deploy ADS B ground infrastructure based on ASDE X equipment This
infrastructure will allow the use of ADS B data for ATC purposes such as surface
movement tracking guidance and airborne surveillance Ground uplinks of TIS B and
FIS B will commence where the ground infrastructure is deployed Other Civil
Aviation Authorities may install ADS B ground infrastructure and require aircraft
to be equipped with ADS B Out for operation in selected airspace Australia is
expected to be the first country to do so however a number of other countries with
limited surveillance coverage may find ADS B an attractive alternative to radar
surveillance Significant numbers of users will become equipped with a minimum of
ADS B Out capability In Europe MHz ES will become standard capability for all new
Mode S transponder installations after March UAT will become increasingly popular
in the upper end of the general aviation market Airport Situational Awareness A
combination of detailed airport maps airport multilateration ASDE X systems
enhanced aircraft displays and ADS B have the potential to significantly improve
Runway situational awareness Oceanic In trail ADS B can provide enhanced
situational awareness and safety for Oceanic In trail maneuvers as additional
aircraft become equipped Use of ADS B and CDTI will allow decreased approach
spacing and closely spaced parallel approaches at congested airports with improved
safety and capacity during low lower visibility operations Long term
Implementations and beyond Air carriers fleets will achieve intended ADS B benefits
in the terminal and en route airspace New Aircraft Separation Assurance
applications will take advantage of the increased situational awareness and
positional accuracy available in an airspace environment largely equipped with ADS
B capability FIS B and TIS B services will encourage general aviation equipage in
all market segments References See also DO Minimal Operational Performance
Standards for Airborne Automatic Dependent Surveillance ADS Equipment External
links http www airservicesaustralia com pilotcentre projects adsb default asp
Airservices Australia ADS B info http www flyadsb com Safe Flight ADS B Projects
http www alaska faa gov capstone Capstone ADS B Project http www nup nu NUP II
Project http www adsmedup it ADS MEDUP Project http www eurocontrol int cascade
public subsite homepage homepage html Eurocontrol CASCADE Programme http www
eurocae org European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment http www janes com
aerospace civil news jar jar n shtml US crunches the numbers before committing to
ADS B Jane s Airport Review Category Avionics text revision page page title Air
Transport title id id revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp contributor
username Optim username id id contributor text xml space preserve REDIRECT
Aviation text revision page page title Austria title id id revision id id
timestamp T Z timestamp contributor username Tasc username id id contributor
minor comment Reverted edits by Special Contributions to last version by Gugganij
comment text xml space preserve Infobox Country common name Austria native name
Republik sterreich image flag Flag of Austria svg image coat Austria Bundesadler
svg image map LocationAustria png national motto none national anthem Land der
Berge Land am Strome official languages German language German lt br gt Slovenian
language Slovenian amp nbsp regional language reg Croatian language Croatian amp
nbsp reg Hungarian language Hungarian amp nbsp reg capital Vienna latd latm latNS N
longd longm longEW E largest city Vienna government type Republic leader titles
Federal President of Austria President lt br gt Chancellor of Austria Chancellor
leader names Heinz Fischer lt br gt Wolfgang Sch ssel area area rank th area
magnitude E percent water areami lt Do not remove WP MOSNUM gt population estimate
population estimate year population estimate rank th population density population
density rank th population densitymi lt Do not remove WP MOSNUM gt population
census population census year GDP PPP billion GDP PPP year GDP PPP rank th GDP
nominal billion GDP nominal year GDP nominal rank nd GDP PPP per capita GDP PPP
per capita rank th GDP nominal per capita GDP nominal per capita rank th HDI year
HDI HDI rank th HDI category lt font color quot quot gt high lt font gt
sovereignty type Independence established events From Austria Hungary established
dates lt br gt currency Austrian euro coins Euro amp sup currency code EUR time
zone Central European Time CET utc offset time zone DST Central European Summer
Time CEST utc offset DST cctld at calling code footnotes amp sup Prior to Austrian
Schilling The Republic of Austria German language German Republik sterreich is a
landlocked country in central Central Europe Europe It borders Germany and the
Czech Republic to the north Slovakia and Hungary to the east Slovenia and Italy to
the south and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west The capital is the city of
Vienna Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy consisting of nine
federal states and is one of two European countries that have declared their
everlasting neutral country neutrality the other being Switzerland Austria is a
member of the United Nations since and the European Union since For the first half
of Austria holds the seat of the Presidency of the Council of the European Union
Presidency of the EU Origin and history of the name The German language German name
sterreich can be translated into English language English as the quot eastern realm
quot which is derived from the Old German Ostarr chi Reich can also mean quot
empire quot and this connotation is the one that is understood in the context of
the Austrian Empire Austrian Austria Hungary Austro Hungarian Empire Holy Roman
Empire although not in the context of the modern Republic of sterreich The term
probably originates in a vernacular translation of the Medieval Latin name for the
region Marchia orientalis which translates as quot eastern border quot as it was
situated at the eastern edge of the Holy Roman Empire that was also mirrored in the
name Ostmark applied after Anschluss to Germany History details History of Austria
Austria and the Holy Roman Empire The territory of Austria originally known as the
Celts Celtic kingdom of Noricum was a long time ally of Rome It was occupied rather
than conquered by the Ancient Rome Romans during the reign of Caesar Augustus
Augustus and made the province Noricum in BC Later it was conquered by Huns Rugii
Lombards Ostrogoth s Bavarii Eurasian Avars Avars until c and Franks in that order
Finally after years of Hungarian rule to the core territory of Austria was awarded
to Leopold I of Austria Babenberg Leopold of Babenberg in Being part of the Holy
Roman Empire the Babenbergs ruled and expanded Austria from the th century to the
th century image Juliusz Kossak Sobieski pod Wiedniem jpeg thumb left px Battle of
Vienna After Duke Frederick II died in and left no successor Rudolf I of Habsburg
gave the lands to his sons marking the beginning of the line of the Habsburg s who
continued to govern Austria until the th century With the short exception of
Charles VII Albert of Bavaria Austrian Habsburgs held the position of German
Emperor beginning in with Albert II of Habsburg until the end of the Holy Roman
Empire During the th century th and th century Austria continued to expand its
territory until it reached the position of a European imperial power at the end of
the th century until the end of the Habsburg monarchy in Modern history Just two
years before the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in in the Austrian Empire
Empire of Austria was founded which was transformed in into the dual monarchy
Austria Hungary The empire was split into several independent states in after the
defeat of the Central Powers in World War I with most of the German speaking parts
becoming a republic See Treaty of Saint Germain Between and it was officially known
as the Republic of German Austria Republik Deutsch sterreich After the Entente
powers forbade German Austria to unite with Germany they also forbade the name and
then it was changed to simply Republic of Austria The democratic republic lasted
until when the chancellor Engelbert Dollfu established an autocratic regime
oriented towards Italian fascism Austrofascism Austria became part of Germany in
through the Anschlu and remained under Nazis Nazi rule until the end of World War
II After the defeat of the Axis Powers the Potsdam Conference Allies occupied
Austria until when the country became a fully independent republic under the
condition that it would remain neutral see Austrian State Treaty Austria also
became a member of the UN in the same year After the collapse of communist state s
in Eastern Europe Austria became increasingly involved in European affairs and in
Austria joined the European Union and the Euro monetary system in Politics details
Politics of Austria image AustrianParliament jpg thumb right px Austrian Parliament
in Vienna Austria became a federal parliamentary democracy parliamentarian
democratic republic through the Federal Constitution Austria Federal Constitution
of It
was reintroduced in to the nine States of Austria states of the Federal Republic
The head of state is the President of Austria Federal President who is directly
elected The chairman of the Government of Austria Federal Government is the
Chancellor of Austria Federal Chancellor who is appointed by the president The
government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of
no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament the National Council of Austria
Nationalrat The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers The composition of
the Nationalrat is determined every four years by a free general election in which
every citizen is allowed to vote to fill its seats A quot Four Percent Hurdle quot
prevents a large splintering of the political landscape in the Nationalrat by
awarding seats only to political parties that have obtained at least a four percent
threshold of the general vote or alternatively have won a direct seat or
Direktmandat in one of the regional election districts The Nationalrat is the
dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria However the upper house
of parliament the Federal Council of Austria Bundesrat has a limited right of veto
the Nationalrat can in most cases pass the respective bill a second time bypassing
the Bundesrat altogether A convention called the sterreich amp ndash Konvent http
www konvent gv at was convened in June to decide upon suggestions to reform the
constitution but has failed to produce a proposal that would receive the two thirds
of votes in the Nationalrat necessary for constitutional amendments and or reform
However some important parts of the final report were generally agreed upon and are
still expected to be implemented Subdivisions details States of Austria A federal
republic Austria is divided into nine states German language German States of
Austria Bundesl nder These states are divided into district s Bezirke and cities
Statutarstadt Statutarst dte Districts are subdivided into municipalities Gemeinden
Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities
The states are not mere administrative divisions but have some distinct legislative
authority separate from the federal government Image The States of Austria Numbered
png right States of Austria border style quot border collapse collapse quot colspan
English language In English colspan German language In German States of Austria
State Capital State Capital Burgenland Eisenstadt Burgenland Eisenstadt
Carinthia state Carinthia Klagenfurt K rnten Klagenfurt Lower Austria St P lten
Nieder sterreich St P lten Upper Austria Linz Ober sterreich Linz Salzburg state
Salzburg Salzburg Salzburg Land Salzburg Styria state Styria Graz Steiermark Graz
Tyrol state Tyrol Innsbruck Tirol Innsbruck Vorarlberg Bregenz Vorarlberg Bregenz
Vienna Vienna Wien Land Wien Geography details Geography of Austria image
Oesterreich topo png thumb left px Topography of Austria Austria is a largely
mountain ous country due to its location in the Alps The Central Eastern Alps
Northern Limestone Alps and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria Of
the total area of Austria km or amp nbsp square mile sq amp nbsp mi only about a
quarter can be considered low lying and only of the country is below metre s amp
nbsp foot unit of length ft The high mountainous Alps in the west of Austria
flatten somewhat into low lands and plains in the east of the country Image Au map
png thumb right px Map of Austria Austria may be divided into different areas The
biggest area are the Eastern Alps Austrian Alps which constitute of Austria s total
area The Austrian foothills at the base of the Alps and the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian s account for around of its area The foothills in the east and areas
surrounding the periphery of the Pannoni low country amount to about of the total
landmass The second greater mountain area much lower than the Alps is situated in
the north Known as the Austrian granite plateau it is located in the central area
of the Bohemian Mass and accounts for of Austria The Austrian portion of the
Viennese basin comprises the remaining Climate The greater part of Austria lies in
the cool temperate climate zone in which humid westerly winds predominate With over
half of the country dominated by the Alps the alpine climate is the predominant one
In the East the climate shows continental features with less rain than the areas
with high rainfall averages The six highest mountains in Austria are bgcolor
DDDDDD amp nbsp amp nbsp Name amp nbsp Height amp nbsp m amp nbsp Height amp nbsp
foot unit of length ft Range bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Gro glockner amp nbsp
amp nbsp m ft Hohe Tauern bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Wildspitze amp nbsp
amp nbsp m ft tztal Alps bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Wei kugel amp nbsp amp
nbsp m ft tztal Alps bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Gro venediger amp nbsp amp
nbsp m ft Hohe Tauern bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Similaun amp nbsp amp
nbsp m ft tztal Alps bgcolor EEEEEE amp nbsp amp nbsp Gro es Wiesbachhorn amp
nbsp amp nbsp m ft Hohe Tauern bgcolor EEEEEE Economy details Economy of Austria
Image ec oes png px right frame The Belvedere palace Belvedere Palace an example of
the Baroque Austria has a well developed social market economy and a high standard
of living Until the s many of Austria s largest industry firms were nationalised
however in recent years privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level
comparable to other European economies Labour movements are particularly strong in
Austria and have large influence on labour politics Germany has historically been
the main trading partner of Austria making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the
German economy Slow growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world affected Austria
slowing its growth to in But since Austria became a member state of the European
Union it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies reducing its
economic dependence on Germany In addition membership in the EU has drawn an influx
of foreign investors attracted by Austria s access to the single European market
and proximity to EU aspiring economies Therefore estimates of growth in up to are
much more favourable than in the crippling German economy Agriculture Austrian
farms like those of other west European mountainous countries are small and
fragmented and production is relatively expensive Industry Although some industries
such as several iron and steel works and chemical plants are large industrial
enterprises employing thousands of people most industrial and commercial
enterprises in Austria are relatively small on an international scale Services Like
in other western countries the biggest contributor to Austria s GDP is its service
sector Most notably is tourism especially winter tourism To meet increased
competition from both EU and Central European countries Austria will need to
emphasize knowledge based sectors of the economy continue to deregulate the service
sector and lower its tax burden See also List of Austrian companies Demographics
details Demographics of Austria image Canaletto Wien Belvedere jpg thumb right px
Vienna during the first half of the th century painting by Canaletto Austria s
capital Vienna is one of Europe s major cities with a population exceeding million
million with suburbs and constitutes a melting pot of citizens from all over
Central and Eastern Europe In contrast to this Metropolis other cities do not
exceed million inhabitants in fact the second largest city Graz is home of people
followed by Linz with Salzburg with and Innsbruck with All other cities have
fewer than inhabitants Austrians of German mother tongue by far the country s
largest group form of Austria s population The remaining number of Austria s people
are of non Austrian descent many from surrounding countries especially from the
former Eastern Bloc East Bloc nations The Austrian federal states of Carinthia
state Carinthia and Styria state Styria are home to a significant indigenous
Slovenian minority with around members Austrian census unofficial numbers of
Slovene groups speak of about So called guest workers Gastarbeiter and their
descendants also form an important minority group in Austria Around Hungarians and
Croatians live in the east most Bundesland Burgenland formerly part of Hungary The
official language German language German is spoken by almost all residents of the
country Austria s mountainous terrain led to the development of many distinct
German dialects All of the dialects in the country however belong to Austro
Bavarian groups of German dialects with the exception of the dialect spoken in its
west most Bundesland Vorarlberg which belongs to the group of Alemannic German
Alemannic dialects There is also a distinct grammatical standard for Austrian
language Austrian German with a few differences to the German spoken in Germany
Politics concerning ethnic groups Volksgruppenpolitik An estimated Slovenians in
the Austrian state of Carinthia state Carinthia as well as Croatians and Hungarians
in Burgenland were recognized as a minority and have enjoyed special rights
following the Austrian State Treaty Staatsvertrag of The Slovenians in the Austrian
state of Styria state Styria estimated at a number between and are not recognized
as a minority and do not enjoy special rights although the State Treaty of July
states otherwise The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where
Slovene and Croatian speaking Austrians live alongside with the German speaking
population as required by the State Treaty is still to be fully implemented There
is also an undercurrent of thinking amongst parts of the Carenthian population that
the Slovenian involvement in the partisan war against the Nazi occupation force was
a bad thing and indeed
quot Tito partisan quot is a not an infrequent insult hurled against members of
the minority Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims pointing
to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars
and considering that some official Slovenian atlases still show parts of Carinthia
as Slovenian cultural territory The current governor J rg Haider has made this fact
a matter of public argument in fall by refusing to increase the number of bilingual
topographic signs in Carinthia A poll by the K rntner Humaninstitut conducted in
January states that of Carinthians are not in favour of an increase of bilingual
topographic signs since the original requirements set by the State Treaty of have
already been fulfilled according to their point of view Another interesting
phenomenon is the so called quot Windischen Theorie quot http de wikipedia org wiki
Windischen Theorie stating that the Slovenians can be split in two groups actual
Slovenians and Windische based on differences in language between Austrian
Slovenians who were taught Slovenian standard language in school and those
Slovenians who spoke their local Slovenian dialect but went to German schools To
the latter group the term quot Windische quot originally the German word for
Slovenians was applied claiming that they were a different ethnic group This theory
was never generally accepted and has been ultimately rejected several decades ago
List of cities in Austria Religion Image Emperor charles v png thumb right px
Charles V Austrian Habsburg ruler and one of the major figures within the Counter
Reformation While northern and central Germany was the origin of the Reformation
Austria and Bavaria were the heart of the Counter Reformation in the th century th
and th century th century when the absolute monarchy of Habsburg imposed a strict
regime to maintain Catholicism s power and influence among Austrians Despite this
establishment of Catholicism as the predominant Christian religion Protestants have
throughout Austria s history remained a relatively small group Austria s history as
a multinational state has made it necessary for Habsburg rulers to deal with a
heterogeneous religious population Religious freedom was declared a constitutional
right as early as and Austria Hungary was home of numerous religions beside Roman
Catholicism such as Greek Serbian Romanian Russian and Bulgarian Orthodox
Christians Jew s Muslims Austria neighboured the Ottoman empire for centuries
Mormons and both Calvinism Calvinists and Lutheran Protestants Still Austria
remained largely influenced by Catholicism After First Republic Catholic leaders
such as Theodor Innitzer and Ignaz Seipel took leading positions within or close to
the Austrian Government and increased their influence during the time of the
Austrofascism Catholicism was treated much like a state religion by dictators
Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt Schuschnigg Although Catholic leaders welcomed the
Germans in during the Anschluss of Austria into Germany Austrian Catholicism
stopped its support of Nazism later on and many former religious public figures
became involved with the resistance during the Third Reich After a stricter
secularism was imposed in Austria and religious influence on politics has nearly
vanished As of the end of the th century about of Austria s population are
registered as Roman Catholic while about consider themselves Protestant s Both
these numbers have been on the decline for decades especially Roman Catholicism
which has suffered an increasing number of seceders of the church This is due
partly to child sexual abuse scandals by priests as well as the alleged
unwillingness of the Roman Catholic Church to implement reforms In addition
Austrian Catholics are obliged to pay a mandatory tax calculated by income ca to
the Austrian Roman Catholic Church which acts as another incentive to leave the
church About of the population declare that they do not belong to any church or
religious community Of the remaining people about are members of the Eastern
Orthodox Eastern Orthodox Church and about are Judaism Jewish It has to be noted
that the Austrian Jewish Community of Vienna alone counted more than of which
solely to remained after the World War II Second World War The influx of Eastern
Europe Eastern Europeans especially from the former Yugoslav nations Albania and
particularly from Turkey largely contributed to a substantial Muslim minority in
Austria around are registered as members of various Muslim communities The numbers
of people adhering to the Islam has increased largely during the last years and is
expected to grow in the future Buddhism in Austria Buddhism which was legally
recognized as a religion in Austria in enjoys widespread acceptance and has a
following of at the census A survey among people in various Europe an countries
showed that Austrians are still among the countries with the strongest belief in
god monotheism God of all Austrians do state they believe in God with only Poland
Portugal and Russia in front of the countries surveyed This is a much larger figure
than the European average of or Germany with http www readers digest de service
fuer journalisten index php id mrd amp no cache amp tx ttnews Btt news D amp tx
ttnews BbackPid D Culture details Culture of Austria Austrians image Wittgenstein
jpg thumb left px Ludwig Wittgenstein Although Austria is a small country its
history as a world power and its unique cultural environment in the heart of Europe
have generated contributions to mankind in every possible field One might argue
that Austria is internationally best known for its musicians It has been the
birthplace of many Music of Austria famous composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart Haydn Joseph Haydn Franz Schubert Anton Bruckner Johann Strauss Sr Johann
Strauss Jr or Gustav Mahler as well as members of the Second Viennese School such
as Arnold Schoenberg Anton Webern or Alban Berg Complementing its status as a land
of artists Austria has always been a country of great poets writers and novelists
It was the home of novelists Arthur Schnitzler Stefan Zweig Thomas Bernhard or
Robert Musil of poets Georg Trakl Franz Werfel Franz Grillparzer Rainer Maria Rilke
or Adalbert Stifter Famous contemporary playwrights and novelists are Elfriede
Jelinek and Peter Handke Among Austrian artists and architects one can find
painters Gustav Klimt Oskar Kokoschka Egon Schiele or Friedensreich Hundertwasser
photographer Inge Morath or architect Otto Wagner Austria was the cradle of
numerous scientists including physicists Ludwig Boltzmann Lise Meitner Erwin Schr
dinger Ernst Mach Wolfgang Pauli Richard von Mises and Christian Doppler
philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper biologists Gregor Mendel and
Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt G del It was home to psychologists
Sigmund Freud Alfred Adler Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger psychiatrist Viktor
Frankl economists Joseph Schumpeter Eugen von B hm Bawerk Ludwig von Mises and
Friedrich Hayek Austrian School and Peter Drucker and engineers such as Ferdinand
Porsche and Siegfried Marcus Although Austrians can look back with pride on their
cultural past current Austria does not stand back in art and science Austria hosts
a tremendous amount of culture with its classical music festivals in Vienna
Salzburg and Bregenz its modern artists and writers its theatres and opera houses
List of Austrians Music of Austria Miscellaneous topics Austrian folk dancing
Austrian German Communications in Austria Cuisine of Austria Education in Austria
Foreign relations of Austria Media in Austria Media in Austria Military of Austria
Public holidays in Austria Spanish Riding School Stamps and postal history of
Austria Tourism in Austria Transportation in Austria References References and
bibliography can be found in the more detailed articles linked to in this article
External links sisterlinks Austria The aeiou Encyclopedia http www aeiou at
internal amp action setlanguage action LANGUAGE en Homepage http www aeiou at aeiou
encyclop a Table of Contents http www aeiou at internal amp action search action
Search http www oevsv at Amateur Radio in Austria http www answers com austria
Answers com Article on Austria http austria europe countries com Austria in
Pictures http www austria info Austria info Official homepage of the Austrian
National Tourist Office German English and other languages http www acfny org
Austrian Cultural Forum New York Cultural meeting place in Manhattan http www
cookbookwiki com Category Austrian Austrian Recipes on CookBookWiki com http www
austrosearch at Austrosearch Bilingual Austrian Search engine and Directory German
English http www bundeskanzleramt at Bundeskanzleramt sterreich Federal Chancellor
of Austria Website of the Federal Chancellery of Austria German English http www
cia gov cia publications factbook geos au html Cia gov CIA s Factbook on Austria
http www dwellan com documents links at en html Dwellan com Tourism in Austria http
www loc gov rr international european austria au html Library of Congress Portals
on the World Austria http peter diem at default e htm Peter Diem The Symbols of
Austria http www photoglobe info ebooks austria Photoglobe info Country Studies
Austria Info http radio orf at Radio ORF Austrian Radio stations both classical and
modern music live feed http www tiscover at Tiscover at Austria travel guide http
www state gov r pa ei bgn htm US Department of State Facts and Information updated
February http www aua com Austrian Airlines EU countries Europe States of Austria
Category Austria Category Erasmus Prize winners Austria People of Category
Landlocked countries af Oostenryk als sterreich ang astr ce ar an Austria ast
Austria bg zh min nan Tang kok be bn bs Austrija br Aostria ca ustria cs
Rakousko cy Awstria da strig de sterreich
et Austria el es Austria eo A strio eu Austria fa fo Eysturr ki fr Autriche fy
Eastenryk fur Austrie ga An Ostair gd An Ostair gl Austria sterreich ko hi hr
Austrija io Austria id Austria ia Austria is Austurr ki it Austria he ka kw
Estrych ku Avusturya la Austria lv Austrija lt Austrija lb istr ich li Oosteriek hu
Ausztria mk mt Awstrija ms Austria na Austria nl Oostenrijk nds sterriek ja no
sterrike nn Austerrike oc ustria os pl Austria pt ustria ro Austria rm Austria ru
se Nuortariika sa sq Austria sh Austrija scn Austria simple Austria sk Rak sko sl
Avstrija sr fi It valta sv sterrike tl Austria ta th vi o tr Avusturya uk yi
zh fiu vro Austria text revision page page title Australia title id id
restrictions move sysop restrictions revision id id timestamp T Z timestamp
contributor username Jackp username id id contributor comment Geography comment
text xml space preserve otheruses Infobox Country the native name Commonwealth of
Australia common name Australia image flag Flag of Australia svg image coat Aust
Coat of Arms large jpg image map LocationAU png national motto none formerly
Advance Australia national anthem Advance Australia Fair official languages English
language English de facto lt sup gt lt sup gt capital Canberra latd latm latNS S
longd longm longEW E largest city Sydney government type Constitutional monarchy
Const monarchy leader titles amp nbsp Queen of Australia Queen lt br gt amp nbsp
Governor General of Australia Governor General lt br gt amp nbsp Prime Minister of
Australia Prime Minister leader names Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Elizabeth
II lt br gt Michael Jeffery lt br gt John Howard area rank th area magnitude E area
areami lt Do not remove WP MOSNUM gt percent water population estimate population
estimate year February population estimate rank nd population census population
census year population density population densitymi lt Do not remove gt population
density rank st sovereignty type Independence established events amp nbsp
Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act Constitution Act lt br gt amp nbsp
Statute of Westminster Statute of Westminster lt br gt amp nbsp Australia Act
established dates From the United Kingdom UK lt br gt January lt br gt December
lt br gt March currency Australian dollar Dollar currency code AUD time zone
States and territories of Australia various lt sup gt lt sup gt utc offset time
zone DST States and territories of Australia various lt sup gt lt sup gt utc offset
DST cctld au calling code GDP PPP year GDP PPP billion GDP PPP rank th GDP PPP per
capita GDP PPP per capita rank th HDI year HDI HDI rank rd HDI category lt font
color quot quot gt high lt font gt footnotes lt sup gt lt sup gt English does not
have de jure official status http www immi gov au multicultural inc publications
confer speech b htm source lt br gt lt sup gt lt sup gt There are some minor
variations from these three timezones see States and territories of Australia lt
div class quot noprint quot style quot float right quot gt http en wikipedia org w
index php title Template Infobox Australia amp action edit edit http en wikipedia
org w index php title Template Infobox Australia amp action watch watch http en
wikipedia org w index php title Australia amp action purge purge lt div gt lt
PLEASE USE AUSTRALIAN ENGLISH THROUGHOUT THIS ARTICLE gt The Commonwealth of
Australia is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the world s smallest
continent and a number of islands in the Southern Ocean Southern Indian Ocean
Indian and Pacific Ocean s Australia s neighbouring countries include Indonesia
East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north the Solomon Islands Vanuatu and the
France French dependency of New Caledonia to the northeast and New Zealand to the
southeast The Australia continent continent of Australia has been inhabited for
over years by Indigenous Australians After sporadic visits by fishermen from the
north and by Europe an explorers and merchants starting in the th century the
eastern half of the continent was claimed by the British in and officially settled
as the penal colony of New South Wales on January As the population grew and new
areas were explored another five largely self governing British overseas territory
British Crown Colonies were successively established over the course of the th
century On January the six colonies Federation of Australia federated and the
Commonwealth of Australia was formed Since federation Australia has maintained a
stable liberal democracy liberal democratic political system and remains a
Commonwealth Realm The current population of around million is concentrated mainly
in the large coastal cities of Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Western Australia
Perth and Adelaide Origin and history of the name The name Australia is derived
from the Latin language Latin australis meaning southern Legends of an quot unknown
southern land quot Terra Australis terra australis incognita date back to the Roman
times and were commonplace in mediaeval geography but they were not based on any
actual knowledge of the continent The Dutch adjectival form Australische quot
Australian quot in the sense of quot southern quot was used by Dutch officials in
Jakarta Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south as early as The
first use of the word quot Australia quot in English language English was a
translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la D couverte et le Voyage de
la Terre Australe a French novel by Gabriel de Foigny under the pen name Jacques
Sadeur ref Baker lt there was a version but it was suppressed gt Alexander
Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in
the South Pacific Ocean published in He used the term to refer to the entire South
Pacific region not specifically to the Australian continent In George Shaw and
James Edward Smith Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland in
which they wrote of quot the vast island or rather continent of Australia
Australasia or New Holland Australia New Holland quot Image Flinders View of Port
Jackson taken from South Head jpg px thumb left View of Port Jackson taken from the
South Head from A Voyage to Terra Australis Sydney was established on this site The
name quot Australia quot was popularised by the work A Voyage to Terra Australis by
the navigator Matthew Flinders Despite its title which reflected the view of the
Admiralty Flinders used the word quot Australia quot in the book which was widely
read and gave the term general currency Governor Lachlan Macquarie of New South
Wales subsequently used the word in his dispatches to England In he recommended
that it be officially adopted In the British Admiralty agreed that the continent
should be known officially as Australia The word quot Australia quot in Australian
English is IPA chart for English pronounced as either IPA st lj IPA st li or IPA st
j History main History of Australia The first human habitation of Australia is
estimated to have occurred between and years ago ref Gillespie The first
Australians were the ancestors of the current Indigenous Australians they arrived
via land bridges and short sea crossings from present day Southeast Asia Most of
these people were hunter gatherer s with a complex oral culture and spiritual
values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime mythology
Dreamtime The Torres Strait Islanders ethnically Melanesia n inhabited the Torres
Strait Islands and parts of far north Queensland they possess distinct cultural
practices from the Aborigines Image Endeavour replica in Cooktown harbour jpg px
left thumb Lieutenant James Cook charted the East coast of Australia on HM Bark
Endeavour HM Bark Endeavour claiming the land for Britain in This replica was built
in Fremantle Western Australia Fremantle in for Australia s bicentenary The first
undisputed recorded European sighting of the Australian continent was made by the
Dutch navigator Willem Jansz who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in During
the th century the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines
of what they called New Holland Australia New Holland but made no attempt at
settlement In James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia which
he named New South Wales and claimed for Britain The expedition s discoveries
provided impetus for the establishment of a penal colony there following the loss
of the American colonies that had previously filled that role Image Port Arthur
Seeseite jpg px thumb right Port Arthur Tasmania Port Arthur Tasmania was Australia
s largest penal colony The British British overseas territory Crown Colony of New
South Wales started with the establishment of a settlement at Port Jackson by
Captain Arthur Phillip on January This date was later to become Australia s
national day Australia Day Van Diemen s Land now known as Tasmania was settled in
and became a separate colony in The United Kingdom formally claimed the western
part of Australia in Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales
South Australia in Victoria Australia Victoria in and Queensland in The Northern
Territory NT was founded in as part of the Province of South Australia Victoria and
South Australia were founded as quot free colonies quot that is they were never
penal colonies although the former did receive some convicts from Tasmania Western
Australia was also founded quot free quot but later accepted transported convicts
due to an acute labour shortage The transportation of convicts to Australia was
phased out between and The Indigenous Australian population estimated at about at
the time of European settlement ref Smith declined steeply for years following
settlement mainly due to infectious disease forced migration the Stolen Generation
removal of children and other colonial
government policies that some historians and Indigenous Australians have argued
could be considered tantamount to Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
the Crime of Genocide genocide by today s understanding ref Tatz Such
interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by some as being exaggerated or
fabricated for political or ideological reasons ref wind ref smh This debate is
known within Australia as the History Wars Following the Australian referendum
Aboriginals referendum the Federal government gained the power to implement
policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines Traditional ownership of land
native title was not recognised until the High Court of Australia High Court case
Mabo v Queensland No overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius at the
time of European occupation Image Anzac JPG left thumb px The Last Post is played
at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne Victoria April Ceremonies such as this
are held in virtually every suburb and town in Australia A gold rush began in
Australia in the early s and the Eureka Stockade rebellion in was an early
expression of nationalist sentiment Between and the six colonies individually
gained responsible government managing most of their own affairs while remaining
part of the British Empire The Colonial Office in London retained control of some
matters notably foreign affairs defence and international shipping On January
Federation of Australia federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of
planning consultation and voting and the Commonwealth of Australia was born as a
Dominion of the British Empire The Australian Capital Territory ACT was formed from
New South Wales in to provide a location for the proposed new federal capital of
Canberra Melbourne was the capital from to The Northern Territory was transferred
from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in
Australia willingly participated in World War I ref Bean many Australians regard
the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ANZACs at Battle of
Gallipoli Gallipoli as the birth of the nation its first major military action The
Gallipoli campaign is often erroneously portrayed as or conceived to have been a
solely or mainly ANZAC campaign The reality was that British deaths during the
campaign were twice as high as those of ANZAC forces Much like Gallipoli the Kokoda
Track Campaign is regarded by many as a nation defining battle from World War II
The Statute of Westminster formally ended most of the constitutional links between
Australia and the United Kingdom but Australia did not Statute of Westminster
Adoption Act adopt the Statute until The shock of the United Kingdom s defeat in
Asia in and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United
States as a new ally and protector Since Australia has been a formal military ally
of the US under the auspices of the ANZUS treaty After World War II Australia
encouraged mass immigration from Europe since the s and the abolition of the White
Australia policy immigration from Asia and other parts of the world was also
encouraged As a result Australia s demography culture and image of itself were
radically transformed The final constitutional ties between Australia and the
United Kingdom ended in with the passing of the Australia Act ending any British
role in the Australian States and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council
Australian voters rejected a move to become a republic in by a majority ref AEC but
the result is generally viewed in terms of dissatisfaction with the specifics of
the proposed republican model rather than attachment to the monarchy Since the
election of the Gough Whitlam Whitlam Government in there has been an increasing
focus on the nation s future as a part of the Asia Pacific region Politics main
articles Government of Australia and Politics of Australia Image
NewParliamentHouseInCanberra jpg thumb right px New Parliament House Canberra
Parliament House in Canberra was opened in replacing the Old Parliament House
Canberra provisional Parliament House building opened in The Commonwealth of
Australia is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia a
role that is distinct from her position as Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom The
Queen is nominally represented by the Governor General of Australia Governor
General although the Constitution of Australia Constitution gives extensive
Executive government executive powers to the Governor General these are normally
exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia Prime Minister The
most notable exercise of the Governor General s reserve power s outside the Prime
Minister s direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the Australian
constitutional crisis of constitutional crisis of ref PL There are three branches
of government The legislature the Parliament of Australia Commonwealth Parliament
comprising the Queen the Senate and the House of Representatives the Queen is
represented by the Governor General who in practice exercises little or no power
over the Parliament The executive the Federal Executive Council the Governor
General as advised by the executive councillors in practice the councillors are the
prime minister and ministers of state whose advice the Governor General accepts
with rare exceptions The judiciary the High Court of Australia and other Australian
court hierarchy federal courts The State courts became formally independent from
the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council when the Australia Act was passed in
The Bicameralism bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen the
Australian Senate Senate the upper house of senators and a Australian House of
Representatives House of Representatives the lower house of members Members of the
lower house are elected from single member constituencies commonly known as
electorates or seats Seats in the House of Representatives are allocated to states
on the basis of population In the Senate each state regardless of population is
represented by senators with the ACT and the NT each electing two Elections for
both chambers are held every three years typically only half of the Senate seats
are put to each election because senators have overlapping six year terms The party
with majority support in the House of Representatives forms Government with its
leader becoming Prime Minister There are three major political parties the
Australian Labor Party Labor Party the Liberal Party of Australia Liberal Party and
the National Party of Australia National Party Independent members and several
minor parties including the Australian Greens Greens Family First Party Family
First and the Australian Democrats have achieved representation in Australian
parliaments mostly in upper houses although their influence has been marginal Since
the Australian legislative election election the Coalition Australia Liberal
National Coalition led by the Prime Minister John Howard has been in power in
Canberra In the Australian legislative election election the Coalition won control
of the Senate the first time that a party or coalition of governing parties has
done so while in government in more than years The Labor Party is in power in every
state and territory Compulsory voting Voting is compulsory in each state and
territory and at the federal level States and territories main States and
territories of Australia Image Map of Australia png thumb px States and territories
of Australia Australia consists of six states two major mainland territories and
other minor territories The states are New South Wales Queensland South Australia
Tasmania Victoria Australia Victoria and Western Australia The two major mainland
territories are the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory In most respects the territories function similarly to
the states but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their
parliaments By contrast federal legislation overrides state legislation only with
respect to certain areas as set out in Section of the Australian Constitution
Section of the Constitution of Australia Constitution all residual legislative
powers are retained by the state parliaments including powers over hospitals
education police the judiciary roads public transport and local government Each
state and territory has its own Parliaments of the Australian states and
territories legislature Unicameralism unicameral in the case of the Northern
Territory the ACT and Queensland and bicameral in the remaining states The lower
house is known as the Legislative Assembly House of Assembly in South Australia and
Tasmania and the upper house the Legislative Council The head of government heads
of the governments in each state and territory are called Premiers of the
Australian states premiers and Chief Minister chief ministers respectively The
Queen is represented in each state by a Governors of the Australian states governor
an Administrator of the Northern Territory administrator in the Northern Territory
and the Governor General in the ACT have analogous roles Australia also has several
minor territories the federal government administers a separate area within New
South Wales the Jervis Bay Territory as a naval base and sea port for the national
capital In addition Australia has the following inhabited external territories
Norfolk Island Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands and several largely
uninhabited external territories Ashmore and Cartier Islands Coral Sea Islands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory Foreign
relations and military main articles Foreign relations of Australia and Australian
Defence Force Over recent decades Foreign relations
of Australia Australia s foreign relations have been driven by a close association
with the United States through the ANZUS ANZUS pact and by a desire to develop
relationships with Asia and the Pacific particularly through Association of
Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum In Australia secured an
inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of
Amity and Cooperation Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in which
the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co
operation Much of Australia s diplomatic energy is focused on international trade
liberalisation Australia led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation APEC and is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co
operation and Development OECD and the WTO Australia has pursued several major
bilateral free trade agreements most recently the Australia United States Free
Trade Agreement Australia US Free Trade Agreement Australia is a founding member of
the United Nations and maintains an international aid program under which some
countries receive assistance The budget provides A amp nbsp bn for development
assistance ref AGov as a percentage of GDP this contribution is less than that of
the UN Millennium Development Goals Australia s armed forces the Australian Defence
Force ADF comprise the Royal Australian Navy RAN the Australian Army and the Royal
Australian Air Force RAAF All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN and
regional peacekeeping most recently in East Timor the Solomon Islands and Sudan
disaster relief and armed conflict including the Invasion of Iraq The government
appoints the chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services the current
chief is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston In the defence budget is A amp nbsp bn
ref label AGov a Geography main Geography of Australia Image Australia climate map
MJC png thumb px Climate map of Australia Australia s square kilometre s square
mile sq amp nbsp mi landmass is on the Indo Australian Plate Surrounded by the
Indian Ocean Indian Southern Ocean Southern and Pacific Ocean Pacific oceans
Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura Sea Arafura and Timor Sea