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CCNA RST Forum,

 LAN- LAN is a logical explanation of how big a network can be is called


as a local.
 Definition- Two or more computers or communicating devices that are in
a room, on a floor, in building or in campus, if connected are said to be
connected on LAN.
 LAN can’t be define without its characteristics.
 1- LAN should be capable of providing high bandwidth, high speed high
capacity communication.
 2- Owner of premises is owner of LAN to connect two computer on LAN
we do not leased link from service provider.
 3- Cost of deploying LAN should be cheap, equipment used in LAN
should be compact and power full enough to provide high bandwidth high
speed, high capacity communication.
 4- Size of your campus is size of your LAN, Largest LAN is campus
wide LAN.
 5- Services of your network define architecture of your network,
Next generation campus wide network architecture should be converged
architecture, it should be capable of providing voice, video and data triple
play services over single converged infrastructure.
 6- Administrative control of LAN should be centralized.
 Bandwidth- Bandwidth is matric of communication speed,
How much bits passed away in one second called as bandwidth.
Bandwidth is bits/sec
 In data communication bits flow on the wire.
 Data stored in hard disk in Byte.
 If sender and receiver have different frequency, communication can’t be
happened between them.
 Character no.5
 Services of your network define architecture of your network,
Next generation campus wide network architecture should be
converged architecture it should be capable of providing voice,
video and data triple play services over single converged
infrastructure.
 Example: If your employer is good then he is offering data as a service
to his employees for their work then he will lay a one set of network in
the campus to deliver the services. Central device of this network would
be a switch, a wire from switch go to every cubicle to connect computer.
Similarly if your employer is very good and he offering voice as a
service to his employees then he will lay a one more set of network in
the campus to deliver the services. Central device of this network would
be a PBX, a wire from PBX go to every cubicle to connect telephone.
Similarly your employer is very good and he is like his employees too
much and he is offering video and video conferencing facilities to his
employees then he will lay a one more set of network cable in the
campus. Central device of this network is MCU- Multimedia
convergence unit for a multiparty video conference
A wire from MCU go to every cubicle to connect video conferencing kit.
If employer is very good and he is offering three set of services to his
employees then he is going to lay three set of network in the campus to
deliver the services. Then he will called a fool because this kind of
network is very costly. Because he used three disparate network, here he
used three inline devices which is too much costly.
 So what is the point: Point is
 Next generation campus wide network architecture should be converged
architecture, it should be capable of providing voice video and data triple
play services over single converged infrastructure
You have to lay only one set of network in your campus. This network
should be capable of providing voice video and data all these three
services over the same infrastructure.
Converged architecture is based on IP communication, Data travel
in packed form.
 IP communication- In IP communication every device will have unique
IP address and communication between them will happen in packet
form.
Here every traffic will travel in packet form not signal.
 Why IP communication used on converged architecture.
Voice service perspective:
As soon as phone come up with their IP address, first thing that they will
do is go and registered themselves with central device PBX and get the
extension number from themselves. Because these phone at this moment
only have their IP address.
So phone will send control signal wanting to register itself, requesting
for an extension number, which will be provided to these phone. Once
these phone have been allotted extension number.
Now this phone can start sending voice call.
So when user sitting on this IP phone Dial extension 102, we human
know telephone by their extension but this IP phone know each other
with their IP address
When user dial extension 102 this phone has to first to get IP address of
this extension number. So it will send control packet to the PBX
requesting to setup a call with 102, and provide IP address of 102.
So this central PBX will first reply with IP address of extension 102 it
telling that it is 10.0.0.2
At the same time PBX will now send control signal on these two
telephone and these two telephone will now give ringtone. Packet will
mark this as a real time voice packet,
Apply source IP address, apply destination IP which it has just learnt
from PBX and send this packet on the wire, Switch will directly switch
in to phone or the wire on which this phone is connected.
Now there are two devices on wire the device which has IP address
10.0.0.2 will accept it, the other device will discards it
----- In this manner: IP has capabilities of identifying the devices
with their IP addresses, so even if there are more than one device in
a converged architecture on a wire it does not matter.
Because IP can identifies the device with help of IP address, And
hence IP is mandatory.
When user will keep the cradle down which means disconnected the
calls, Controls signal will immediately go to PBX. It will now remove
these extension from busy mode to normal mode.
Now they are ready for next call.
This PBX is there on the network it’s called as ONNET device not an
inline device
It is only required initially to setup a call and tear down the call.
Voice packet directly flow from phone to phone without going throw
PBX.
 Same things will happen in Video Perspective:
Note: In video perspective it will create three type of packet (Service)
 Real Time Video Packet
 Real Time Voice Packet
 Data Packet (Video clip and Voice will be map) Control Packet.

 Note: IP have capabilities to identify the devices and in every device,


services are also identify and classified. Source will mark the packet.
 Services:
 Data Service:
Data service is a best effort service. There is no guarantee when data
will reach, after how many retransmission data will reach and after
how many drop data’s will reach.
There in only one guarantee whenever data will reaches it will reach
perfect.
Example: If I have 700 MB files,
If I have to deliver it, computer will never deliver large file at one shot.
Because if large file go on wire then other connected devices will not be
allow to communicate. There will be lot of delay seen on the wire. Hence
when computer send data, computer will break it in to small- small
segment. Take segment one by one and used to technology to deliver it.
And the other end computer will club all the segment received together
and give it to the user.
When the breaking large file in to small-small segment it is very
important that the file are re-joined in the same way as ever broker.
In order to achieve this when computer will break into small-small
segments it will mark every segment, and based on this marking it
become easier at the other end to recreate the segment. Now when I am
sending files there is possibility that the segment is going on wire make
at corrupted.
So it is very important that we have some error checking mechanism to
check the error.
So when computer sends data it will apply CRC code for data integrity
check, with help of CRC code computer will verifying integrity of
received segment.
So again to put everything same perspective, if I have a large files to be
send it, it cannot be send at one shot.
Computer will break large files in to small-small segment, and mark
these segment,
Take segment one by one apply CRC code and used technology to
deliver it. At the other end it will check CRC code, if it is perfect then it
will send acknowledgment for next segment,
Computer will take next segment and apply CRC code used to
technology to deliver it. While the segment was being delivered, The
signal got corrupted at the other end when computer received this, it will
check CRC code and it will not match so it will discard the segment and
send acknowledgement for retransmission. Computer will take 2nd
segment again, apply CRC code used to technology to deliver it at the
other end after receiving this it will check CRC code if it is perfect.
It will send an acknowledgement for third segment. While the
acknowledgement was on the wire it got collided and got drop. After
sending the segment sender never got acknowledgement. So sender will
always wait for stipulated time to receive acknowledgement.
If it does not receive acknowledgement within stipulated time it will take
the second segment and retransmitting again.
At the other end it will check the CRC code if it is perfect, and it is find
that o it is received again so it will over write the segment and send
acknowledgement for third segment.
Computer will take 3rd segment apply CRC code used the technology to
deliver it while the third segment on wire it got collided. It was never
receive by the receiver. If receiver does not receive the segment,
obviously it will not send acknowledgement. If it does not send an
acknowledgement with in stipulated time computer will take 3rd segment
again apply CRC code used to technology to deliver it. In the way all the
segment are received. Computer will join it and then sending to the user.

In this way there is no guarantee when data will reach, how many
retransmission data will reach, after how many drop will happen
There is only one guarantee whenever the communication will happen it
will be perfect.
 Real Time Service:
Voice and Video are real time service, Stored Voice and stored video is
called as data, not service.
 The voice from your mouth reaching ears till that time it is real
time.
 The video from camera up to screen on that time it is real time.

 Real time voice and video have very crucial things is a “ Quality
of experience”

 Quality of experience and quality of service both are different


things.
 Quality of experience is controlled by three parameter in real time voice
and video service
 Delay (Latency)
 Jitter (Inconsistence Delay)
 Drop
 If voice and video communication have Delay, Jitter and drop.
This kind of communication is very bad.
Quality of experience is very bad, so we have to control on them.
Real world and IP world in both the world for voice and video have
Delay, jitter and drop are not allowed.
 Real World:
Real world is work on different-different frequency. It is TDM (Time
division multiplex), FDM (Frequency division multiplex)
One too many Example- Dish TV

 IP World:
IP world is work on same frequency voice, video and data will work on
same frequency, Voice, Video and Data will flow in packet form.

 Voice Service:
Voice is real time service, Voice is a delay sensitive (service)
communication. Voice is a low latency communication.
When I speak from my mouth I create analogue waive. My IP phone is a
digital phone he does not understand analogue signals. It has to convert
analogue to digital voice. Which means it has to convert in to binary. My
IP phone is a digital phone it will take voice samples digitized it
packetized it and send voice packet on the wire and other end my IP
phone will received packetized voice it will remove digitized voice and
join it and convert in to analogue and push it into ear.
In this way in voice communication voice flow in packet form on the
wire.
The voice packet size is very small 8Kbytes to 64Kbytes.
If any of these voice packets which are flowing on wire, if any one are
dropped, User experience does not get a hit (impact).

My end device have voice concealment program to have capabilities of


conceal drop voice and try to maintain user experience.
In voice communication if it used on intelligent network drops are
allowed but how much drop are allowed
1 in 10000 voice packets drop is allowed on IP enable network. What I
am speaking it is not in frame perspective.
 For best quality voice delay should be less than < 50mili
Second,
For best quality voice you need to scan broadband, more content
and more sampling. Normally 8000 sample is Nome.
But for getting a curvy voice for which have a good curve
replication you need to sample more. The more sample is better
recreation but it takes more time. End of the day my tolerance of
hear is 200mili sec then the drop between two pitches cannot be
more than 200mili sec So I’m going to creating 16000 sample
which means I’m creating a very sexy voice.
For best quality voice you need to scan high pitch and low pitch
voice frequency so you can create more sample, content,
 For telephonic communication delay should be < 150mili
second.
Telco voice is only taking narrow band and they are only creating
an 8000 sample.
 For internet skype delay should be < 200mili second.

 Video Service:
Video is a drop sensitive communication.
In today world cameras that we used are SD and HD video quality.
If you have SD camera your computer conferencing kit will generate
2.5Mb of file and if you using HD camera then you have create 8.5 Mb
files. This is H323 standard. This is a part 10 of H323. This is impact
standard.
Such a large file we can’t be send on a wire at one shot. So in videos
communication your video conferencing kit will break these large files in
to small-2 segment. It will deliver these segment on wire one after the
other.
Here I would rather than segment I will used word called as frame.
Because I am talking perspective of video conferencing kit.
So now what is the most important in video conferencing
(communication).
 Sequencing of video frame.
 In video communication to controlled the sequencing of video
frame.
1/100000 video frame drop is allowed.
Video conferencing software when it breaks the segment in the small -2
frames the same time where it breaking, create three type of frames, I,
B and P frames.

I Frame: I Frame is indexing frame which holds index information of


one second of video.
Which pixel will come where and which frame will come after which
frame. All the indexing information is there in I frame.
B Frame: B Frame is actual bearer frame, which have the video content.
P Frame: P frame is phillar, which is used for padding purpose, which is
paid frame.

So when you many time watching video you suddenly see “Glitch”. You
find skip in the video. Skip is the happing of the glitch. Glitch is seen
where the B Frame is dropped. If videos have nothing to show so my
software is skip it.
Whenever you see a video, it stop suddenly after one second when the
video was stop, it will start. It means I Frame is dropped
It is very important to I Frame come to before B frame or we have I
Frame for their B Frame.
When P Frame dropped nothing happened.

So in video communication dropped are not allowed. That the reason


video is drop sensitive communication. In video delay still allowed.
Delay should be less than 200mili second.

Consolidation:
In converge architecture voice, video and data will flow in packet form.
They will flow on the same time in the same wire.
If voice, video and data these three services are going too simultaneously
on the same wire. Every service has different quality requirement
Voice says I can’t accept delay, video says I will not allowed drop and
data says I’m in sensitive.
When I am going to run these services on these medium, then we need to
have intelligence device. It need to classification and prioritization of
service.
Every device have to capabilities to classify the packet. Are the three
services are running in packet form so every device should able to
classified which packet is voice and which one is data and which is the
video packet. After classification it should have to capabilities of
prioritization. Which means providing quality as require by services.
Video says I don’t like drop then make sure you are not dropping video
packet. Voice packet say I don’t like delay then you have to prioritize
voice packet over any other packet.
If you running voice video and data three services simultaneously on
same medium a lot of intelligent is required.
Every device should be intelligent to classify and prioritized the
packet.
Classification and prioritization is called as quality of service and
quality of service is which mean quality as required by service, this
is only possible in IP enable network.
And hence converge architecture should be IP enable.
Scenario:
Voice, Video and data when these three services will come on the wire,
Always voice is delay sensitive. If quality of service is enable on my
device then it will send first voice packet and then after video and last
one is data.

 MAN: Metropolitan Area Network.


Two or more computers or communicating devices or network which are
geographically separated but in the same metro city if connected are said
to be connected on MAN.
 WAN: Wide Area Network.
Two or more computers or communicating devices or network which or
geographically separated but not within same metro city if connected are
said to be connected on WAN.

 Within campus – LAN


 Beyond campus, within city – MAN
 Beyond city - WAN

 Characteristics:
1. MAN/WAN should be capable of providing high to moderate
bandwidth connectivity limiting factor is cost.
 Capacity Planning:
Example in bank perspective: Capacity planning is depends on our
services.
2- Cost of deploying MAN/WAN will be high, where links are leased
from service provider. CPEs on which links terminate can be leased or
own buy the owner of premises.
3- Owner of premises is owner of MAN/WAN. Where links are leased
from service provider.
4- Size of your city is size of your MAN. Municipal Corporation defines
your boundaries.
5- Services of your network defines architecture of your network. Next
generation MAN/WAN should be capable of providing voice, videos and
data triple play services over single converged infrastructure.
On MAN/WAN quality of services is more relevant, Quality of services
gets activated only when is bandwidth crunch. On LAN normally we
have high bandwidth available on cheap cost. Hence QOS is not so
important, but on MAN and WAN because circuit cost is very high and
we usually take laser capacity hence QOS which is in classification and
prioritization very important on MAN/and WAN.
6- Administrator control on LAN will be centralized. But on MAN/
WAN administrator control should be distributed but on MAN if the
services is not mission critical then can be centralized also.

 LAN, MAN and WAN are types of private network,


 We deploy LAN at our homes, in our branch offices for our
private communication. Similarly we deploy MAN/WAN between
our branch offices for our private communication.

 LAN, MAN and WAN are types of private network,


 Similarly internet is a public network. That does not belongs to a
single identity, it’s interconnection of multiple services provider.
Where we can go and offer our services and take other services,
In fact internet is largest WAN.

 Consolidation: We have to study through the Book


 SP,ISP
 Edge Device: Where we have sit and access the network. Example-
Phone, Mobile, Computer.
 Access Device: Where all the edge devices are connected is called
access device, and access devices is always switch. Where we are
connect weird and wirelessly at the end we are connect the switch.
 Routing Device: Routing devices means router, we used routing devices
to access the other network.
Router routes between the networks, Switch switches between the
subnet.
 IANA- Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
 ICANN- The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers
 VPN- VPN provides private communication over public infrastructure.
 Availability: If a network is unavailable for 15 minutes in a year
because of outage, then percentage availability is as follow.

Percentage Availability: (No of min in a year- Down time in min) *100


No of min in a year

(365*24*60-15) 100 = (525600-15) *100


365*24*60 525600
= 99.997%
 UP Time in year:
If 365 days is 100% then for 99.9% up time link can be down only for
8.76 Hour in a year, 525.6 Min in a year.
IPSLA is cisco tool, there are many tools available to calculate down
time, but cisco routers and switches provides a tools called IPSLA.
That can be configured on Cisco devices to calculate down time latency,
delay and drop ETC.

 Communication Technology:
 Technology facilitates communication.
 It does not communicate on your behalf.
 Somebody has to use technology to communicate.
 Technology will not communicate on its own.
GSM is a voice communication technology when we dial a GSM
number, it knows how to search for this number, whenever on this earth
under which ever cell site this phone is connected. It will search for this
phone and create a voice communication channel. But it will not pull
your voice from your mouth and push it into the ear. Somebody has to
use technology to communicate, in voice communication user directly
uses technology to communicate
There are two parts of technology:
Layer 1 Hardware: Anything that is in physical or physical in nature
used between two communicating devices to form a communication
channel is called as hardware. Things is like cable, wire, connecters,
pinout voltages, signal, boosting devices etc.
Layer 2: Software: logical, protocol that will drive communication over
the hardware.
 Ethernet and Serial technology:
 ON 100% LAN we use Ethernet technology.
 Mostly on MAN and WAN we use serial technology.
 Ethernet Technology:
 LAN characteristics meet to Ethernet technology.
 Ethernet technology is capable of providing high bandwidth, high
speed and high capacity communication.

Because:
Ethernet = 10 Mbps
Fast Ethernet = 100 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet = 1000 Mbps (1Gbps)
10 Gigabit Ethernet = 10 Gbps
100 Gigabit Ethernet = 100 Gbps
 Cost of deploying LAN should be cheap- It is very cheap because
if we want to create a network for 24 people, we have just spend
5000 of money.
 Ethernet Medium for communication:
1-Electrical Medium (Copper Medium)
2-Optical Medium (Fiber Cable)
3-Wirelessly Medium
Ethernet have capabilities to cover area easily, first we will deploy
LAN in area of 2 KM, and we can used thick wire.

Thick wire = 500 Meter


Twisted Pair = 100 Meter

For area of 2 KM we will use thick wire with help of 3 repeater


(Boosting devices) so we can cover 2 KM.
Rules = Layer 3 Cascading means only three boosting devices can
be use.
If we goes to used more than 2 KM so we can used fiber optic
cable. Fiber optic cover 500 meter to 2 KM to 40 KM to
100+++KM
And in wireless 350 FT.
 Serial Technology :
 Serial technology is created to work in open environment.
 Serial Technology is created to provide long distance coverage.
 Serial Technology takes chunks of data and line driving it’s over a
longer distance, line driving means super imposing of signals over
high intensity signals and sending it over a longer distance and
removing it at the other end.
 Because signals travel longer distance hence there is possibility of
data synchronization error, hence additional set of control signals
are used in serial technology.
 There are many type of control signals like RTS/CTS,
XOFF/XON.
 But for understanding purpose we will talk about RTS/CTS.
 Serial Technology will take chunks of data send RTS (Ready to
send), on receiving CTS (Clear to send), it will super impose of
data signals on high intensity signal and send it over a longer
distance. At the other end receiver will remove data signal of high
intensity signal and send an acknowledgement for next.
 Now sender will take next chunks of data send RTS, and receiving
CTS. It will super impose of data signals on high intensity signals
and send it over a longer distance. At the other end receiver will
remove data signal of high intensity signal and send an
acknowledgement for next.
 Some people says that serial technology is slower because data
cannot be send unless acknowledge is received. It provide laser
bandwidth. Partition of bandwidth is used by control signal.
 Point is whatever speed and performance you can get from
Ethernet technology on LAN, same speed and performance can be
achieved on MAN/WAN using Serial Technology is high speed at
high cost.
 Say for example, if service provider has to provide 10 mbps
connection. He will make 6 channel of 2 mb each
(5 for data signal and 1 for control signal) and provide a 10 mbps
circuit so cost is high.
 Ethernet technology provide high speed, high bandwidth, at low
cost. Whereas serial technology provide high bandwidth, and high
speed at high cost.
 Ethernet technology is created to work on control environment,
whereas serial is create to work in open environment.
 Ethernet does not required any additional set of control signal,
whereas serial technology require set of control signals.

 Thin wire, thick wire both cable are belongs to coaxial cable. These are
RG series cable. It provides 10 mbps speed. Used in bus topology and
devices are repeater and bridges.
Thick 10B5 > 10 mbps is based on 500 meter.
Thin 10B2 > 10 mbps is based on 200 meter.

 Twisted pair cable are used in star topology. It provides 10, 100, 1000
and 10000 mbps speed. Used devices is Hub, Switch and Router.
10BT > Ethernet or 10 mbps is based on twisted pair.
100BT> Fast Ethernet or 100 mbps is based on twisted pair.
1000BT> Gigabit Ethernet or 1000 mbps is based on twisted.
10000BT>10 Gigabit Ethernet or 10000 mbps is based on twisted pair.

 Fiber Optic cables are used to cover long distance. It provides


10,100,1000,10000 mbps speed. Used devices Switch and Router.
10BF> 10 mbps is based on fiber optics
100BF> 100 mbps is based on fiber optics
1000BF> 1000mbps is based on fiber optics

 Wireless medium cover 350FTS. It provides 11, 54,300,1000,10000


mbps speed.
Standard 802.11
802.11a > Provides speed 54Mbps
802.11b > Provides speed 11Mbps
802.11g > Provides speed 54Mbps
802.11n > Provides speed 300 Mbps
802.11ac > Provides speed 1 Gbps
802.11ax > Provides speed 10 Gbps

 Ethernet Technology:
 Ethernet Technology work on CSMA/CD fundamental
 Standard - IEEE 802.3
 Protocol - ARPA (on Cisco device)
CSMA/CD - Carrier sense multiple access/ collision
detection.
Ethernet technology innovated by funding of DIX
DIX - Digital, Intel, Xerox,
Innovation LAB -Paulo Aulto

 RFC- Request for comment.


 Intel is work on CISC based computing (Complex instruction
set computer)
 HP,IBM SONS are work on RISC based computing ( Reduce
instruction set)

 CSMA
Two or more computers or communicating devices can get connected
over same medium.
All computers can communicate whenever they feel like. As if they are
in a democratic world.
But before a computer communicates it has to sense the medium.
If medium is available and not used by others, then computer can put its
frame on wire.
For that instance it is owner of the entire medium, at that instance no
other computer can talk.
When one computer talk, all other computer will listen, only that
computer will reply for whom the frame was sent.
Because when computer put frames on the wire it will apply SMAC and
DMAC to the data.
On receiving frame computers will check the DMAC, if it is meant for
them they will accept it or else discard it.

MAC Address: MAC address is 6 bytes, 48 bits hexadecimals address.


In Ethernet communication, computer and communication devices are
identify by their MAC address. MAC address is preconfigured in RAM
of the network card. Every Ethernet network card will have unique MAC
address.
No two Ethernet network card will have same MAC address.
OUI: Organization unique identifier.
IEEE controls MAC address assignment. IEEE assign first 3 bytes to
every NIC manufacturers. And they manufacturers are assign the
remaining 3 byte unique to every NIC card. In this way all NIC have
unique MAC address.

It may so happen that 2 or more computers feel like communicating at


the same instance.
If they sense the medium and find that medium is available and put their
frame on wire at same instance,
Then these Frame on wire will get collided.
CSMA/CD says no issue, I have collision detection and avoidance
mechanism.
 Collision Detection
Because there are two parts of technology Layer1 and Layer2 hence
collision detection should be understood from both layer perspective.

Collision Detection from layer 2 perspective:


When computers layer 2 software will create frame.
It will apply SMAC and DMAC to the data, at the same time it will also
apply CRC code for data integrity check.

When two computer will sense the medium at the same time and found
medium is available and put their frame on wire. These frames on wire
will get converted in to electrical signals.
When two computer electrical signal on wire put at the same time, it will
get collided.
Electrical signal is form of energy that cannot be created and destroyed.
But after colliding it will distorted.
Distorted signal will not vanish off but after colliding it will resonate
back. It will be received by all the computer.
On receiving this collided signals layer 2 software will converted into
frame. And check CRC code it will not match because it’s collided
frame.
So layer two software will discard it as considering collided frames.
Collision detection from layer 1 perspective:
When two computers sense medium at the same time and found medium
is available and put their frame on wire.
These frame on wire will get converted in to electrical signals.
When two computer electrical signal on wire put at the same time, it will
get collided.
Electric signals is form of energy that cannot be created or destroyed.
But after colliding it will distorted.
Distorted signal will not vanish off but after colliding it will resonate
back. It will be received by the all computer.
Computer that was sending signal will suddenly realise whatever he is
sending is getting corrupted. It will immediately back off.
Computer that detected collision first now start pumping jamming
pattern.
When computer receive jamming pattern then all computer will back off.

 Collision Avoidance:
On multi-access medium
If there are multiple communicating pairs, wanting to send multiple
segments.
It will never so happen that on acquiring the medium and computer will
put all their frames at one shot,
For every segment that computer has to send,
First it will have to sense the medium and push one frame at a time and
release the medium.
For next frame it will again have to sense the medium, if medium
available acquire it and put the next frame, in this way computer will
never push all its segments at one go.
If there are multiple communicating pair with multiple segment to be
delivered, then to deliver these segment they will keep binding to acquire
medium and keep colliding again and again.
So just detecting collision once will not help.
There has to be some collision avoidance mechanism.
 How collision avoided: After collision computer will enter integral wait
state, computer calculate wait state on their own and it has nothing to do
with neighbours wait state. These wait state in micro sec and mile sec.
They are in multiple off 51.2 micro sec. As these wait state are integral,
computer can increase and reduce their wait state depending on collision,
Say for example: if computer receive more than 5 collision in a sec,
there are too many communicating devices wanting to communicate.
So as a good citizen it will increase its wait state there by providing more
time to other communicating devices to finish of their communication.
If lesser collision of happening the computer can also reduce its wait
state. When computer are waiting they cannot talk but can listen.

In our example after collision computer will enter respective wait state,
after collision first opportunity will be provided to DDD, its wait state
expire in 51.2 micro sec, for next 51.2 micro sec it is alone
communicator on the entire medium will sensing and pushing segment
one by one. After next 51.2 micro sec AAA and CCC will also come out
of their wait state and now all three computer will communicate on
medium,
Computer collision will seldom occur, but if it reoccurs then computer
will follow same process and back off. Even BBB will back off and all
computer will enter in new wait state. If collision does not occur then
after 153.6 micro sec democracy returns and all computer can
communicate at their wish.
In this way by interring in two wait state and providing other computer
more time to finish of communication, computer try to avoid further
collision.
In wire LAN collision detection and collision avoidance both are happen.
But in wireless communication will happen on 802.3 standard.
Wireless use RTS and CTS for their communication and in wireless
LAN CSMA/CA will happen, collision detection will not happen.
CSMA/CD and CA will happen in wire LAN.
CSMA/CA will happen on only wireless LAN.

Communication Type: There are three type of communication.


Unicast: If data is sent on one individuals MAC/IP address.
Multicast: if data is sent on group MAC/IP address,
Broadcast: If data is sent to broadcast MAC/IP address.

Every computer accept 3 type of frame/Packet,


If it is come on its own MAC/IP
If it is come for group MAC/IP
If it is come on broadcast MAC/IP.
 Introduction of technology:
As soon as we plug Ethernet network card in our computer. Our
computer will detect it. Once network card is detected which means
Ethernet technology layer 1 is installed.
There are two parts of technology: layer 1 hardware, layer 2 software.
My network card driver is the same software, logic, protocol that is
created on CSMA/CD fundamental.
Technology layer 1 and layer 2 are installed which means Ethernet
technology is ready for communication.
If Ethernet technology is ready for communication your operating
system will detect it.
If your operating system is windows operating system then it will start
reflecting in your network centre.
LAN card is ready for communication.
Ethernet is ready for communication.
Technology is ready for communication but you know technology can’t
communicate on its own.
Technology job is only facilitates communication. It does not
communicate on your behalf. In voice communication user directly uses
technology.
But in data communication user can not directly uses technology to
communicate.
There has to be a mediation or agent that work between technology
and user.
This mediation or agent is called as upper layer protocol stacks.
There are many types of upper layer protocol stacks
IP/IPX/Apple talk
But world uses IP so our further conversation will be on IP upper layer
protocol stacks.
IP upper layer protocol stacks: There is no single software called as
IP,
IP is a stacks, its bunch of software, its work between user and
technology, IP tells user whatever your communication requirement take
my help. I have thousands of tools which will help you.
If you want to send file I have FTP tool use it,
You need a console of that computer so you can remotely configure, I
have telnet tool use it.

A small flow: IF user says FTP 10.0.0.1 Put ASH.JPG.


FTP is a software of IP upper layer protocol stacks.
10.0.0.1 is an IP address where file is supposed to go,
IP upper layer protocol stacks knows computer by their IP address, Like
Ethernet technology knows computer by their MAC address. So because
you using IP tools FTP, so you have to give IP address.
As soon as the user writes its command FTP software will gets activated
and ask for the file to be delivered.
Now user will give second command put ASH.JPG.
Put is the command and ASH.JPG is file that you want to send.
FTP software will go to hard drive and fetch ASH.JPG file. Its 700 MB
file which can’t be delivered at one shot.
So it is IP upper layer protocol stacks tools that will segment it into
small-small pieces.
It will mark these pieces, and take segment one by one apply CRC code
use the technology below to deliver it.
At the other end it will take the information from technology below
check CRC code if it is perfect, it will send an ACK for next segment.
Now it will fetch the 2nd segment apply CRC code use technology below
to deliver it.
While file is going on wire frame make at corrupted. The receiver
receive it, it will check CRC code, and it will not match, so it will
discarded. And it will send an ACK for retransmission, All this things is
done by IP, now the computer will fetch the 2nd segment again apply
CRC code use the technology to deliver it, At the other end IP upper
layer protocol stacks will fetch it form technology check CRC code if it
is perfect, now it will send ACK for third segment.
Now it will take third segment apply CRC code use the technology to
deliver it, at the other end it will take information from technology check
CRC code if it is perfect then send ACK for next.
While the ACK was going on wire got collided and got dropped, if after
sending user does not receive an ACK in stipulated time, it will take
third segment again Apply CRC code use to technology to deliver it at
the other end it will check CRC code if it is perfect, it will send an ACK
for next segment.
Once it received all the segment it will club it together and give it to the
user.

In this way it is IP upper layer protocol stacks that is responsible for end
to end error free successful communication.
It is IP that is correct data, technology does not correct.
Punch Statement:
It is IP that is communicating on behalf of user using the technology
below.
Reverse Gear:
My Ethernet technology is ready for communication, but technology
does not communicates on its own, somebody has to use technology to
communicate.
IP upper layer protocol stacks (software) that drive communication over
the hardware (over the technology).
We have to define which IP upper layer protocol stacks will
communicate.
We will go in network card properties and select TCP/IP,
Once we select TCP/IP which means IP upper layer protocol stacks will
work on this network card.
Now it will ask for IP address, like technology does identify computer
with their MAC address.
Same like in IP upper layer protocol stacks identify computer with their
IP address. So we have to give IP address to network card.
We gives IP address to network card not on network card.
Once you allotted IP address to network card, it will create mapping of
IP address and MAC address and keep it in ARP table.
Layer 3 address is called as logical address,
Layer 2 address is called as physical address.
There are many types of table such as ARP table, Host table, Routing
table……. Etc

How to check ARP table entry in windows ….


 arp –a is a command for check ARP table
How to check Routing table entry in windows….
 route print is a command for check Routing table.

 Final Flow:
User sitting on computer will say FTP 10.0.0.4 put ASH.JPG. Its means
user wants to send file to 10.0.0.4, and file name is ASH.JPG.
FTP will fetch 700 MB file from hard disk.
But it can’t be send 700 MB file at one shot.
Some software will make it small-small segment, some software will
mark it and some software will take segment one by one apply CRC
code.
IP upper layer protocol stacks will say to technology, go and deliver it to
10.0.0.4 .
Technology will say I can’t go because technology identify computer
with their MAC address not IP address.
IP upper layer protocol stacks identify computer with their IP address.
So now technology will ask for MAC address,
So in this scenario IP upper layer protocol stacks will take help of ARP
table.
ARP table is not IP upper layer protocol stacks tool, it is associated tool
of IP upper layer protocol stacks.
ARP tool maintain ARP table, computer will go in his ARP table and ask
what MAC address of 10.0.0.4.
Initially every computer keep mapping of their MAC address and IP
address in their ARP table.
So in this scenario it will say I have not MAC address of 10.0.0.4
So now computer will send ARP broadcast.
ARP broadcast means- Send IP request for MAC
So now all the computer will receive broadcast frame but only 10.0.0.4
will reply with their MAC address DDD.
Now computer will update in his ARP table with DDD, and again ask to
technology to deliver it.

 Ping
 Ping is a tool or application of IP upper layer protocol stacks that
is created to get network layer / IP layer / layer 3 status.
 Ping sends ICMP echo packet to get the network layer status.
 Ping is also used for fallowing
- To check connectivity
- To calculate latency ( Delay )
- To verify link quality ( Drops )
 Result of PING may not be relevant for real time packets used over QOS
enabled path.
For QOS enabled path we can used IP packets with different size and
TOS (type of service) marking (184 for voice packet, 136 for videos
packet).
 Local Host Address : Local host address is universal loop back address,
127.0.0.1 used by software developers
Local host address range 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255
Reserved for NTP 127.127.7.1 (Network Time Protocol) used for time
synchronization
 IP Flow :

 If a person sitting on 10.0.0.1 and say ping 10.0.0.4 which means


he need network layer status of 10.0.0.4.
 To get network layer status computer (10.0.0.1) will create frame.
 First field in frame will be data, he will be written “ I need your
network layer status”
 To deliver this data computer will apply header.
 First field in header will be source IP, Ip means layer 3
information, and computer will go to the routing table and ask
what our IP address is.
 Routing table will say- we have only one network card, IP is
10.0.0.1, it will pull information and feed it here.
 2nd field will be destination IP address, DIP means where frame is
supposed to go. It will pull information from command but before
writing there is the twist in the story. Computer will go the routing
table and ask can we reach 10.0.0.4,
 Routing table will say yes we have only one network card that’s
belongs to same network we can reach 10.0.0.4, it will pull
information and feed it here.
 Next field will Source MAC address, Source IP’s MAC. MAC is
layer 2 information. Computer will go in ARP table and ask what
is MAC address of 10.0.0.1,
 It will say AAA, computer will pull information and feed it here.
 Next field in header will DMAC, Destination IP’s MAC address.
MAC is layer 2 information.
 Computer will go in ARP table and ask what MAC address of
10.0.0.4 is, it will say I don’t know.
 Because- Initially every computer keep mapping of their MAC
and IP address in their ARP table.
 So when computer don’t know DMAC, it will park this frame in
side and now computer will create ARP broadcast to learn MAC
address, then after he will write whatever he will learn.
 ARP broadcast means – Send IP request for MAC.
 Now computer will create new frame,
 In data field he will write I need your MAC address.
 Source IP- 10.0.0.1
 Destination IP- 10.0.0.4
 Source MAC- AAA
 Destination MAC will broadcast MAC address - FF: FF: FF: FF:
FF: FF. This is ARP broadcast means this is for everyone.
 Now computer will create broadcast frame and feed all the
information here and put this frame on the wire. When computer
will learn MAC address of 10.0.0.4 then after he will write this
information in first frame.
 Now computer will put this frame on wire. On wire it will get
converted in to electrical signal and find by the all other computer.
 On BBB signal will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software
will open layer 2 information and ask where do you want to go. It
will say I’m distinct for FFF. Computer will say I’m BBB. You
have not come for me but because of you are broadcast you are
FFF so I will accept you.
 Computer will accept it and remove layer 2 information and pass
on the remaining information to layer 3 software.
 Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information and ask, where you
want to go. It will say I’m distinct for 10.0.0.4, then computer will
say I’m 10.0.0.2 you have not come for me, I will discard you.
 But there is the twist in the story because computer has open layer
2 and layer 3 information. It has visibility of layer 2 and layer 3
information so it will record this information in ARP table and
then discards it.
 Same things will happen with CCC.
 On DDD Similarly frame will come from layer 1 to layer 2.
 Layer 2 software will open layer 2 information and ask where you
want to go, it will say I’m distinct for FFF. Now it will say I’m
DDD you have not come for me but you are broadcast so I will
accept you. Layer 2 software will remove layer 2 information and
pass on remaining information to layer 3 software.
 Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information and ask where you
want to go, it will say 10.0.0.4
 Computer will say I’m 10.0.0.4 you have come for me so I will
accept you. It will remove layer 3 information and pass on
remaining information to upper layer, and also create mapping of
layer 2 and layer 3 information in thier ARP table.
 Upper layer software will read data, he will find ‘I need you MAC
address’
 Then after it will create reply frame and in data field he will write
his MAC address.
 Now source IP will 10.0.0.4, destination IP will 10.0.0.1.
 Source MAC will DDD and destination MAC will AAA.
 Then after it will put information on the wire. On wire it will get
converted into electrical signal and find by the all other computer.
 On CCC it will go from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software will
open layer 2 information and ask where you want to go, it will say
I’m distinct for AAA, computer will say I’m CCC you have not
come for me I will discards you.
 Same things will happen with BBB
 On AAA it will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software will
open layer 2 information and ask where you want to go. It will say
I’m distinct for AAA, now computer will say I’m AAA you have
come for me so I will accept you. Layer 2 software will remove
layer 2 information and pass on remaining information to layer 3
software.
 Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information and ask where you
want to go. It will say 10.0.0.1, computer will say I’m 10.0.0.1
you have come for me I’m accepting you. Layer 3 software will
remove layer 3 information and pass on remaining information to
upper layer software. Now it will create mapping of layer 2 and
layer 3 information in his ARP table.
 When upper layer software will open information and see it is
MAC address of 10.0.0.4 then he will go to save this information
in his ARP table but he will find this information is already save in
his ARP table then it will over write.
 Devices:

 Switch:

 Switch is an intelligent device


 As soon as switch receives a frame on its port it will read MAC
address, refer MAC table and take forwarding decision.
 MAC address is layer two address, and MAC table is layer two
table hence switch is layer two device.
 On receiving a frame on its port, switch will open layer two
information, read destination MAC address, refer MAC table and
forward the frame to the relevant port only not to all other port.
Whereas HUB will forward to all other port.
 Switch segment the network HUB extend the network.
 Because switch refer MAC table to take forwarding decision,
Hence MAC table should be populated with MAC address.
 MAC address can be populated in 2 ways
1- Administrator can make static MAC entry in MAC table.
2- Switch can do self-learning of MAC addresses when frame
traverses switch.
 Because switch does self-learning of MAC address in MAC table
hence MAC table size can become huge.
 Huge MAC table size have 3 issues.
1- High memory utilization.
2- High CPU utilization
3- Frame forwarding delay.
 To overcome these issue following solution were created.
 Cisco defined a limit of 4096 MAC entries in its MAC table.
 Any MAC entries in MAC table, that is not sending frame
within 5 min will be consider as stale and removed from MAC
table.

 Operation No 1.

 If switch receives a broadcast frame on its port, it will create multiple


copy of broadcast frame and forward to all other port but not on same
port.
 Switch can’t broadcast but on receiveing broadcast frame it will
forward it to all other port, but not on the same port.
 Layer two switch is technology device that facilitates
communication, it does not participate in communication. Device
that does not participate in communication cannot broadcast.
 Layer 2 Switch have 3 types of port.
1- Auxiliary Port ( RJ45 to USB or Serial )
2- Console port ( RJ45 to USB or Serial )
3- Ethernet port
 We can take console directly from Auxiliary and console port with
help of putty or hyperterm software and can make changes in the
switch.
 If we want to take console of switch through Ethernet port then we
have to assigned IP address of switch port, but on layer 2 switch
port we do not configure IP/MAC address.
 We can create SVI (Software virtual interface) on switch.
 We used software virtual interface for telnet to take console of
switch.
 On layer 2 Switch, all port are initially member of same VLAN
(VLAN1)
 VLAN1 is default VLAN, We can say VAN1 is management
VLAN.
 On layer 2 switch we cannot configure IP address on ports but we
can configure IP address on VLAN using following command.
 Interface VLAN1
 Ip address 10.0.0.100 255.0.0.0
 This IP address is management IP used for telnet purpose only.

 Operation No 2.

 If sender and receiver are on the same port switch will discard the
frame,
 Switch, switches between the ports not within the port.
 If destination MAC is not known in MAC table, switch will create
multiple copy of frame and forward it to all other port.
 Switch create multiple copy of frame in two scenario,
 If it receives broadcast frame
 If destination MAC in not known in MAC table.
 If sender and receiver are on different ports, switch will bridge the
information to relevant port only not to all other port.
 Switch allows simultaneous communication between multiple
communications pairs connected on different ports.
 Switch work exactly as CSMA/CD rule, it will sense the port
before putting the frame on wire, It will check the CRC code on
receiving frame and so on.
 But help of hardware it over comes the flow of CSMA/CD , that
says only one computer can talk at a time and everybody else will
listen.
 Every port of switch has its own dedicated bandwidth, Switch is a
dedicated bandwidth device,
 Every port of hub shared the same bandwidth, and Hub is a shared
bandwidth device.
 IP communication is 2 types of communication, TCP and UDP
 TCP is connection oriented communication (Guarantee delivery)
 UDP is connection less communication (Non guarantee delivery)
 TCP provides guarantee communication with help of ACK, if
ACK is not received within stipulated time, Sender will retransmit
if sender does not receive ACK after 3 successive retransmission,
then after session will be terminated.
 Every port of switch in member of same broadcast domain, switch
is a single broadcast domain.

 MTU :
 Beat Serial technology or Ethernet technology there is a maximum
size of frame that can be put on the wire is called as MTU.
 I want to send 700 MB file over network, Computer will break it
into the small-small segment and then add
DATA,SMAC,DMAC,SIP,DIP and CRC so one frame will get
created.
 The maximum time to deliver entire 700 MB file is depends on
MTU.
 Ideal MTU size = 1500 Bytes
 Ethernet/Serial Technology some time( on transmission line ) =
1518 to 1519 bytes
 Jumbo and Baby Jumbo frame size = 1564 to 1599 Bytes
 If medium is 1GB or above 9004 to 9006 bytes.
 MTU: MTU is every things else excluding Ethernet header.
 CSMA/CD always check CRC code for each frame, in that case if
CSMA/CD will check CRC code for all frame then it will take
more processing power and will take more time to check all the
frame.
 In that case if two computer put their frame on the wire, and these
frame are get collided, if the size of frame is 1500 bytes but after
colliding it may become three different size of frame.
 Such as 1160 bytes, 1800 bytes and 40 bytes.
 Type of collision frame:
 RUNT < 64 bytes ( minimum size of frame where we can
feed Ethernet header is 64 bytes, if the size of frame is less
than 64 bytes is called as RUNT frame.
Layer 2 software will check size of frame and discard it as
considering RUNT frame.

 Giants > Port MTU


If the frame size is greater than port MTU is called as
Giants.
Layer 2 software will check size of frame and discard it as
considering Giants frame
 After collision when 40 bytes frame will come on the port, and
port will check the size of frame and discarded. Because 40 bytes
is less than 64 bytes so it will discard as considering RUNT frame.
 When 1800 bytes frame will come on the port and it will check the
size of frame and it is find greater than MTU port so it will discard
the frame considering as giants. Because MTU port is here only
1500 bytes.
 If port MTU is 9004 to 9006 bytes then the 1800 bytes frame will
be considered as normal frame and its CRC will be checked and
frame will get discarded as corrupt frame.
 And when 1160 bytes frame will go on ideal MTU port it is
considered as a normal frame and its CRC will be checked and
frame will get discarded as corrupt frame.

 You have application that creates jumbo frames that you should buy
switch that support jumbo frame, allow you to change its port MTU
using following command.
 int f 0/1
 IP MTU 1599

 Uplink Port :
 Uplink Port is High bandwidth Port.
 Uplink port are high bandwidth port created for up linking
purpose. Up link to other switches and server.
 We are used UP link port where some other server or some other
switch or network work with high load.
 If a server or computer is connected to the uplink port or 1 GB or above
port that is created to 9004 to 9006 bytes size of frame. When frame will
come to ideal port which support 1500 bytes frame, it will discard it as
considered Giants frame.
 So when frame comes higher MTU port to Lower MTU port

 Switch may have fragmenting capabilities


So it can fragment higher size to lower size of frame.
 Application can send trace packet to learn port MTU and
used lowest path MTU.

 If person sitting on this computer, say ping 20.0.0.4
Which means he needs network layer status of 20.0.0.4,
To get network layer status computer will create frame.
First field is data, where he will be written I need your network layer
status.
To deliver this data computer will apply header.
First in header will source IP, IP is layer 3 information, computer will go
to routing table and ask- what’s our IP address- Routing table will say
we have only one network card, IP is 10.0.0.1. It will pull information
and feed it here.
DIP is destination IP address where frame is supposed to go, it will pull
information from command. But before writing there is twist in the story.
- Computer will go to routing table and ask can we reach
20.0.0.0 network, Routing table will say no, we have only one
network card that belongs to 10.0.0.0 network, we cannot reach
20.0.0.0 network.
- If computer can’t reach 20.0.0.0 network, it will discards the
frame.

 Punch Statement-
 At layer 3- If destination network is not reachable computer
will discard the frame
 At layer 2- If destination MAC add is not reachable, it will
send ARP broadcast, learn MAC address and there send of
you.
 By default computers can communicate within same
subnet, if you want to get away from your network and
communicate with computers in other network, then you
have to take help of Gateway device.
 Gateway device will help you get away from your network
and help you communicate with computers in other
network.

 Gateway device is a router or Proxy server that routes


between the networks.
 Gateway device should be in same network where your computer
will belongs, because by default computer can communicate
within same subnet. If your gateway is not in same network, then
your computer will not communicate with the gateway, and also
cannot get away from your network.

10.0.01 20.0.0.4 Computer Gateway MAC(RRR)


SIP DIP SMAC DMAC

 Destination IP is IP where frame is supposed to go, Computer will


pull information from command, but before writing, there is twist
in the story. Computer will go its routing table and ask can we
reach 20.0.0.0 network, routing table will say no we have only one
network card that belongs to 10.0.0.0 network, we cannot reach
20.0.0.0 network.
 If we cannot reach, then computer will ask second question, do we
have default gateway, Routing table will say YES.
 Administrator has configured one gateway device. Computer will
say ok if I cannot reach directly, we will take help of gateway.
 Computer will pull information and feed it here.
 Source MAC- Source IP’s MAC, MAC is layer 2 information,
computer will go to ARP table and ask what MAC address of
10.0.0.1 is, it will say AAA, and it will pull information and feed
it here.
 Destination MAC- That’s MAC where frame is supposed to go
20.0.0.4 where frame is supposed to go But.
 If source IP and destination IP are in different network (Subnet)
then destination MAC is gateway’s MAC.
 Computer will go to routing table and ask what our gateway IP is.
It will say 10.0.0.10, and then it will go to ARP table and ask what
is MAC address of 10.0.0.10 is,
 If it is known then very good, otherwise it will send ARP
broadcast for learn the MAC address and then it will write RRR.
 Now computer will put frame on the wire and it will get converted
into electrical signal.
 At Switch it will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software
will open layer 2 information and ask from where you have come,
it will say AAA. Now switch will check his MAC table, if entry is
already done then it will refresh the MAC table and now ask
where you want to go, it will say RRR.
 Switch will go in his MAC table and check RRR. If there is
already entry available and
 If sender and receiver is connected on different port then switch
will bridge the information to the relevant port only not to all other
port.
 On router it will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software
will open layer 2 information and ask where you want to go. It
will say I’m distinct for RRR. Now router will say I’m RRR you
have come for, I will accept you. Layer 2 software will remove
layer 2 information and pass on remaining information to layer 3
software.
 Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information and ask where you
want to go it will say I’m distinct for 20.0.0.4. Now router will say
I’m 10.0.0.10 you have not come for me but I’m router and my job
is to work between the networks so I will try to help you.
 So now router will go in his routing table and ask can we reach
20.0.0.4, routing table will say yes we have one interface that is
belongs to the same network.
 If router can reach destination address then router will modify the
frame.
 Now source IP and destination IP will never change “For end to
end IP traceability source IP and destination IP will never change
but at every hope (router) source MAC and destination MAC will
change”
 Now source MAC will router MAC and destination MAC will
where frame is supposed to go.

10.0.01 20.0.0.4 Gateway RRR 20.0.0.4’MAC


SIP DIP SMAC DMAC

 Now again on switch frame will come from layer 1 to layer 2,


layer 2 software will open layer 2 information and ask from where
you have come, it will say RRR. Switch will go in his layer 2
MAC table and check if entry is already there then it will refresh
the MAC table and now ask where you want to go. It will say I’m
distinct for DDD.
 Now switch will again go in his layer 2 MAC table and check,
If entry is already there it will refresh MAC table and forward the
frame to the relevant port where DDD is connected.
 Now on computer frame will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2
software will open layer 2 information and ask where you want to
go it will say I’m distinct for DDD. Computer will say I’m DDD
you have come for me I will accept you. Layer 2 software will
remove layer 2 information and pass on remaining information to
layer 3 software. Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information
and ask where you want to go. It will say I’m distinct for 20.0.0.4,
it will say I’m 20.0.0.4 you have come for me, I will accept you.
Layer 3 software will remove layer 3 information and pass on
remaining information to upper layer.
 Upper layer software will open upper layer information and find in
data he want his network layer status. Now computer will take
network layer information and create reply frame.
 Punch Statement:
 Router can broadcast but switch can’t broadcast
Because router participate in communication, and switch
facilitates the communication.
In our scenario PC has send frame to the router MAC and router
has also modify the packet so router is participating in
communication so router can broadcast.
 Because router participate in communication so we required IP
and MAC address on router port and we don’t required IP and
MAC on layer two switch port but we can create SVI (software
virtual interface) on switch and can give IP address.
 Router will discard the packet if destination IP in not reachable but
if switch have not known destination MAC address, switch will
create multiple copy of frame and forward to all port.
 Router modify the packets and switch does not modify the frame
because router participating in communication and switch
facilitates the communication.
 Router

 Router is an intelligent device.


 As soon as router receive packet on its port it will read IP address,
refer routing table and take forwarding decision.
 IP address is layer 3 address, routing table is layer 3 table hence
router is layer 3 device.
 On receiving a packet on its port, router will open layer 3
information read destination IP address, refer routing table and
forward the packet only if it has route to reach the network or else
discard it.
 Because router refer routing table to take forwarding decision,
hence routing table should be populated with routes. Routes can be
populated in 3 ways.

 Directly connected routers will automatically reflect in routers


routing table.
 Administrator can make static route entry in routers routing
table.
 Dynamic routing protocol can learn routes dynamically in
router routing table.
 Switch switches within the subnet,
Router route between the networks
Because router route between the networks hence every port of
router should be in different network, no two port of router can
belongs to same subnets.
 Router will never forward a broadcast received on its port to other
port, Router has been created to break the broadcast domain.
 Every port of router is member of separate collision and broadcast
domain, Router breaks broadcast domain.
 Router is multiple collision and multiple broadcast domain
device.
 Every upper layer device will do lower layer function also.
Router refers routing table to take forwarding decision
[L3 function]
It will modify frame and change MAC address [L2 function]
And also restore signal level before forwarding the frame
[L1 function]
 Multiple port of router can have same MAC address or multiple
MAC address because every interface of router is in different
network.

 Consolidation:

 If a person setting on this (10.0.0.1) computer say ping 30.0.0.1,


its means he want to network layer of 30.0.0.1.
 Then computer will create frame, in frame first field will data. He
will be written there I want you network layer status. After the
data he will apply header on frame.
 In header first field will source IP, IP means layer 3 status.
Computer will go in his routing table and ask, what our IP address
is? It will say we have only one network card that’s IP address is
10.0.0.1, it will pull information and feed it here.
 Next field in frame will destination IP, destination IP means where
frame is supposed to go. IP means layer 3 status, before writing
from command there is twist in the story, Computer will go in his
routing table and ask can we reach 30.0.0.1, it will say no. then
computer will ask 2nd question is there any default gateway. It will
say Yes. Administrator has configured one default gateway, it will
say ok if we can’t reached directly we will take help of gateway
device. It will pull information from command and feed it here.
 Now 3rd field will SMAC, Source IP’s MAC, MAC is layer 2
information, it will go layer 2 ARP table and ask what MAC
address of 10.0.0.1 is, and it will say AAA.
 Now the 4th field will DMAC, destination MAC, destination IP’s
MAC but If source IP and destination IP are in different network
(subnet) then destination MAC is gateways MAC.
Now computer will go in his routing table and ask what IP address
of default gateway is? It will say 10.0.0.10 now it will go to ARP
table and ask what the MAC address of 10.0.0.10 is, and it will tell
RRR. Now computer will pull information and feed it here.
 Now computer will put this frame on the wire, on switch it will
come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer software will open layer 2
information and ask from where you have come, it will say I came
from AAA.it will go in his MAC table if there is entry already
available it will refresh the MAC table and ask 2nd question where
you want to go it will say RRR. It will say I’m distinct for RRR,
now switch will again go in his MAC table if entry is already, it
will refresh the MAC table, and if on switch sender and receiver
are in different port switch will bridge the information to the
relevant port only not to all other port.
 On router it will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer 2 software
will open layer 2 information and ask where you want to go it will
say I’m distinct for RRR. Router will say I’m RRR you have come
for me. Layer 2 software will remove layer 2 information and pass
on remaining information to layer 3 software. Layer 3 software
will open layer 3 information and ask where you want to go, it will
say I’m distinct for 30.0.0.1, it will say but I’m 10.0.0.10 you have
not come for me. But I’m router, my job is to work between the
networks, so I will try to help you. Router will go in his routing
table and ask can we reach 30.0.0.1, it will say no. I have not route
to reach 30.0.0.1,
If router can’t reach the destination network router will discard the
packets. At layer 3 destination network is not reachable, packets
are discarded.
 Note: Initially every router have the route of the directly
connected network. Because it will get automatically reflect,
routers routing table.
 Rule: For end to end IP communication every router should
have route to reach all the network.
 Directly connected routers will automatically reflect in
routers routing table.
 Administrator can make static route entry in routers routing
table.
 Dynamic routing protocol can learn routes dynamically in
router routing table.
 RRR router have route of directly connected network
 C 20.0.0.1/24 Directly Connected on S 0/0
 C 10.0.0.10/24 Directly Connected on E 0/0
 S 30.0.0.0/24 Via 20.0.0.2
 SSS router have the route of directly connected network
 C 20.0.0.2 Directly Connected on S 0/0
 C 30.0.0.1 Directly Connected on E 0/0
 S 10.0.0.0 Via 20.0.0.1
 Rule: For end to end IP communication every router should to
reach all the network. Now administrator will make static entry in
routers routing table then router can reach all the network
 Now router will go in his routing table and ask can we reach
30.0.0.1, it will say yes, we have one route available via 20.0.0.2
that is connected on serial port.
 Note: If router can reach destination address then router will
modify the frame. For end to end IP traceability Source IP and
destination IP will never change but at every hope in Ethernet
communication Source MAC and destination MAC will change.
 But because we can reach destination network VIA 20.0.0.2 that is
connected on serial port, on serial communication there is no need
to modify the frame, it will only add PATS and put on the wire.
 On SSS router frame will come from layer 1 to layer 2, layer
software will open layer 2 information and read PATS and pass on
remaining information to layer 3 software.
 Layer 3 software will open layer 3 information and ask where you
want to go, it will say I’m distinct for 30.0.0.1, now router will say
but I’m 20.0.0.2, you have not come for me but I’m router my job
is work between the network so I will try to help you.
Now router will go in his routing table and ask can we reach
30.0.0.1 it will say yes we have one route that is connected on
E 0/0 which belongs to 30.0.0.1 network.
 If router can reach the destination network, then router will modify
the frame, but for end to end IP traceability source IP and
destination IP will never change but at every hope in Ethernet
communication Source MAC and destination MAC will change.
 Router modify the frame and put on the wire.

 OSI Model: Read from Printout and listen recording to clear


everything.

 IP Addressing and Subnetting:

 10.10.10.10 /24
 IP address is a 4 Octate, 4 Byte, 32 bit decimal address.

10 .10 .10 .10


11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111

 10.10.10 .10 /24


Network Bit Host bit

 Note: Mask- Mask is number of bit on network side.


 If someone ask what is network address of this 10.10.10.10 /24
address
 Step 1st – Look at the mask, mask is indicating 24 bits is on
network side from left to right 24 bit on network side.
 Step 2nd – To get network address copy the network bit as is
it, and the host bit make it zero, apply the mask to have you
network address.
Network address: 10.10.10.0 /24
Host address : 10.10.10.10 /24
 Question: 210.10.10.10 /8 what is network address.
In this question 8 bits on network side so network address will be
210.0.0.0 /8 and host address will 210.10.10.10. /8 .
Routing and Routing Protocol

 Routing Protocol select best path with help of matric.


 Router select best path with help of AD (administrator distance)
value.
 AD value defines trustworthiness.
 Possible AD value 0 - 255
 AD value 0 most trustworthy
 AD value 255 not trustworthy (will be removed from routing table)
 Directly connected routers AD value is - 0
 Static route defines by administrator,
AD value is- 1
 RIP AD value is- 120
 OSPF AD value is- 110
 EIGRP AD value is- 90, External EIGRP ad value is- 170
 ISIS AD value is- 115
 Unreachable- 255
 EBGP AD value is- 20,
IBGP AD value is- 200
 Load Balancing: If routing protocol have multiple paths to reach a
network, and if all these paths are equal matric and best then these paths
will reflect it routers routing table,
If router has multiple paths to reach a network provided by routing
protocol and if all these paths are equal matric and best then router will
do load balancing over equal matric paths.
Router can do load balancing over 32 equal matric paths.
Router does load balancing per packet based, and Cisco router achieved
load balancing,
Load sharing is done by PPP protocol it gives nearest load sharing.
 Static Route Load balancing:

 If a router has multiple paths to reach a network provided by


administrator,
 Static route is provided by administrator,
 There is no matric for static route, as static route is defined by
administrator
Static route matric is zero.
AD values is 1.
 So static route is always equal matric and best then router will do
load balancing.
 Default AD value is for static route is 1 but we can change it with
any other number (0 to 255)
For static route command is
Example: Ip route 20.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1

 Static Route: Best Path Selection


 Best path selection in static route is done on basis of AD value

To change AD value for static route command is


Example: Ip route 20.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1 200
(Floating static route)
This is floating static route with AD value 200 not preferred over
normal static route.
 Floating static route: Floating static route is a route with AD
value other than 1
 Static Route: AD value 0

 Static Route: Permanent


 Static Routing Protocol:
 Use static routing protocol when network is simplex
 Static route paths are selected by administrator
 Require minimum resources
 Dynamic Routing Protocol
 Used dynamic routing protocols when network is complex
 Dynamic routing protocols are responsible for path selection
 Require sufficient resources like Memory, CPU, Bandwidth etc
 Stub Router:

Stub router is a router with single exit point, on stub router instead of
writing individual static route we should use default route.
To default route command is
Ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1

 Dynamic Routing Protocols: Function of routing protocol


 To learn about all the networks
 To learn about all the paths to reach all the networks
 And to select best path to reach all the networks
 Anatomy of routing protocol:

 There are two types of routing protocol-


1- IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol): Interior gateway protocol is
a protocol that’s work within an autonomous (Organization).
RIP V1, RIPV2, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS
2- EGP (Exterior Gateway protocol): Exterior gateway protocol
is a protocol that’s work between two autonomous
(Organizations). When two autonomous connected with each
other’s on internet lot of flow control are required so we used
special protocol- BGP

 Classless Routing Protocol: Classless routing protocols are


protocols which send mask as part of update.
RIPV2, EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, BGP
 Classful Routing Protocol: Classful routing protocols are
protocols in which-
1. Mask is not sent as part of update
2. They will automatically summarize at Classful boundary
3. May lead to sub-optimal path forwarding.
Example: RIPV1 and IGRP
 Distance Vector Routing Protocol:
RIPV1, RIPV2, IGRP
 Hybrid Routing Protocol (Advanced Distance Vector)
EIGRP
 Link state Routing Protocol:
OSPF, ISIS
 Distance Vector Routing Protocol: are protocols is which
 Updates are periodic sent every 30/90 sec
 Entire routing table sent as an update
 Updates are broadcast 255.255.255.255
 Updates are sent to directly connected neighbours only
 Distance Vector routers does not have end to end visibility of entire
network, directly connected neighbours are the world.
(Routing by rumours)
 Because updates are periodic hence convergence is slow.
To converge means to change,
Convergence means adapting to change.
 Because convergence is slow hence there is possibility of a patch
get created on your network that carries wrong information called
as black-hole.
 Distance Routing Protocol not in use in now days.
 Distance Vector- Routing loops :
 Distance Vector- Routing loops: Even though the network is down
routers will keep exchanging routes with ever increasing hop count.
The symptom of counting to infinity indicates routing loop
situation.
 Solution: Multiple solutions were created to overcome routing loops
issue
 Defining a maximum-
16 hops were defined as a maximum, possible hops 0 to 15,
16th hop unreachable.
 Split Horizon-
Never send update back in direction from where it came.
 Triggered Updates-
If there is topology change, router will send triggered update
to its neighbours.
 Consolidation:
 We have learnt distance vector routing protocol characteristics.
 Distance vector routing protocol send periodic updates.
 If any network goes down then due to periodic updates router will
create loops.
 To overcome these issue were created 6 solution,
 When we incorporate these 6 solution in distance vector routing
protocol, behaviour will change of distance vector routing
protocol,
It will sent routing updates in every 30/90 sec and if any network
goes down then it also send triggered updates.
 Link State routing protocol:
 Hybrid Routing Protocol:

 RIP Routing Protocol:

RIP V1 RIP V2

Class Full Classless


Does not send mask as part of Sends mask as part of updates
updates
Updates are broadcasted Updates are multicast (224.0.0.9)
(255.255.255.255)
Does not support authentication Supports authentication
Auto Summary Auto and Manual summarization
( No manual summarization) Allowed
 RIP v2 is a-
Classless routing protocol
AD value = 120
Matric = Hop-count
Load Balancing = 4 equal matric paths (Default)
Maximum hops = 15 hops
 RIP Configuration:
 EIGRP: