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Sampling questions on Manufacturing processes (1)

MBE 3119 Manufacturing Technology

1) Fig, 1(a) shows the configuration structure of a horizontal milling


machine and Fig. 1(b) of that its counterpart on vertical milling
machine. Fig. 1(c) illustrates the setup of peripheral milling while Fig.
1(d) and Fig. 1(e) the setup of face milling and end milling, respectively.
(i) From the configuration structural point of view, comment
on the rigidity of the cutter in operations with the
individual types of machines.
(ii) Discuss the advantages and limitations of the individual
types of milling machines.
(iii) Elaborate why peripheral milling generally using
horizontal milling machine while face mills and end milling
commonly performed by vertical milling.

(a) horizontal milling (b) vertical milling (c) Peripheral milling


machine machine
Fig. 1: Structural
configuration of
horizontal and vertical
milling machines, and
three types of milling
(d) Face milling (e) End milling operations

Guides to Solutions: (Ref to Slides 3 and 5 in notes “Machining (2)”


(i) For the horizontal milling machine, the free end of overarm is
mounted with bearing to hold shaft on which the cutter can be
mounted. Such feature makes the shaft relatively more rigid
since it forms as built-in beam with less defection occurring.
The cutter mounted to the cutter holder spindle forma a
cantilever system, which likely produces large defection or
unstable condition during heavy milling.
(ii) For horizontal milling machine, the cutter blades rotating about
horizontal shaft results in a non-sharp slope f in both
conventional milling and climbing milling (Fig. G1(A)) and hence it
is hard: (a) to terminate a cut in anywhere along cutting path,
and (b) to generate sharp slope at the termination position.
However, the rigidity and cutting methods make the machine to
be best for straddle milling, form milling, slotting, and slitting,
as seen in Fig. G1(B).

Cutting with cutter on horizontal


milling process – hard to
terminate anywhere in cutting
path, hard to produce sharp
edge on termination position.

(A)

The rigidity of the horizontal


milling machine allows mounting
of two cutters as shown in (a)
for straddle milling, and two
back to back cutters for form
milling as shown in (b).
Furthermore, it is rigid enough
for performing relatively heavy
slotting as shown in (c) and
slitting as shown in (d) with good
quality and relatively perfect
straightness.
(B)

For vertical milling machine, the mounting of cutter into the


chuck of vertical spindle forms a cantilever structure, which
may create larger defection relative to the cutter tip. Such
arrangement generally means the cutter blades are orientating
vertically. As a result, it would produce sharp edge in face (Fig.
1(d)) and end (Fig. 1(e)) millings. The milling can also stop
anywhere in the cutting path. The design of cutters also allows
more versatile in cutting many features on or in a workpiece.
(iii) In peripheral milling, it only involves with shaping the peripheral
surfaces of a workpiece to the anticipated dimensions with
sufficient flatness and straightness. The mounting of cutter
(Fig. 1(c)) in a manner of built-in beam enhances the rigidity of
the system to absorb larger reaction force, and performs heavy
duty of metal removal to speed up cutting process.
In face milling (Fig. 1(d)) with cutter mounted to spindle chuck
vertically, the large cutting base and tapping upwardly of cutter
may spread out cutting force relatively and absorb certain
amount of end defection of the cutter mounting spindle. It
allows facing a regional or whole surface with shallower cut. In
end milling (Fig. 1(e)), the side blades of cutter are orientating
vertically to remove materials from their vertical vicinities.
Furthermore, the cutting tip on the bottom face of cutter
removes materials from the horizontal surface. Hence, its
mounting into the vertical milling machine facilitates the milling
local slot or feature from the end surface of a workpiece.

2) Fig. 2 shows a milled T-slot in a block of workpiece. From the milling


feature and the design of both horizontal and/or vertical milling
machines, mention with adequate reasoning the type of milling machine
to be used for milling such slot. Give sequence of operations to
achieve such T-slot.

Fig. 2: A milled T-slot in a block of workpiece

Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slides 9, 3, and 5 in notes “Machining (2)”)


From the feature of T-slot with the large slot in the bottom which is
followed with an open slot on the top. Such arrangement of slot makes
the large bottom slot hard to be producible by horizontal milling
machine. Hence, vertical milling machine can be utilized to accomplish
such slot. Basically, the slot can be produced by firstly cutting the
narrow to the depth of the T-slot as shown in Fig. G2(a), which is
followed by milling the bottom wider slot using the cutter tool as
shown in Fig. G2(b) with the cutter shown in Fig. G2(c) mounted at its
end.

(c) The cutter mounted


(a) First cut to the depth
(b) Cutting tool for to the bottom of
of the T-slot
milling wider slot cutting tool shown in
(b)

Fig. G2: Cutting tool and sequence for milling T-slot

3) The complexity of a casting varies with the fluidity of melt. Describe


with the aid of sketches the setup features and operational principles
of a system for comparing such fluidity.
Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slide 6 in notes “Manufacturing Processes
(1)”
Note: Fluidity of melt is a measure of ability of fluid to flow. Higher
fluidity means lower the viscosity and eases of fluid in filling narrow
and thin channel for the production of more intricate geometry of a
casting. Although there is viscometer available, it is impossible using it
to compare metallic materials since their solidification will jam and
spoil the viscometer.

In foundry, the device, as sketched in Fig G3, is normally used to


compare fluidity of metallic melts.

Fig. G3: A device for comparing fluidity of metallic melts

The setup feature consists of a pouring cup connected to a well or


barrel at the bottom by a sprue. Spiral tubes are connected to the
barrel as shown in Fig. G3.
The operational principles: Liquid metal is poured via pouring to sprue,
barrel, and flow through spiral tube. Due to heat loss, the melt at flow
front is cooled to its frozen temperature and solidified. The
solidification stops the liquid metal flow across the solidified flow
front. Hence, longest the solidified flow front from the barrel means
highest the fluidity of the liquid metal.

4) The bisected shell wall (Fig. 3) of casting, which is formed by pouring


melt into the cavity of a mold and leaving to cool for 1 minute,
followed by pouring away the remaining melt. Elaborate why the
corner A is thinner than Corner B. What is the implication of such
finding?

Fig. 3: Bisected shell wall of a casting poured away the remaining melts after
1 minute cooling

Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slide 9 in notes of “Manufacturing Processes


(1)”
If we take an element height dx on the vertical surface of the smaller
outer wall for the inner corner A and on that of large outer wall for the
outer corner B. Their corresponding surface with dx high for corner B is
larger than that for inner corner A. Hence, more heat can be transferred
via the surface at external corner B than that via that at inner corner A.
This partly attributes to form thicker casing at B than A. Furthermore,
there are horizontal surface and vertical surface for heat to disperse
from the mold to give higher amount of heat accumulation and
temperature at A. The external corner B only allows heat to disperse
outwardly and hence no heat accumulation at B, thus with lower corner
temperature. As TA > TB, the melt thus transfers more heat out at B then
at A to give thicker shell wall at B than at A.

5) Fig. 4 shows a casting design which is just removed from the molds
and still with solidified casting materials remained in pouring cup,
sprue, well, runner, gate, side riser, and top riser. Mention the
functions of riser in casting. Discuss the likely problem occurs in the
casting if the risers are completely absent.

Fig. 4: Profile of a casting with frozen materials in its gating systems and
risers

Guides to solutions: (refer to Slide 6 in notes “Manufacturing


Processes (1)”)
Functions of risers in casting: (i) entrapping air from the cavity and
gating systems; (ii) ensuring completely filling of melt into mold cavity;
(iii) re-distributing temperature of mold wall in controlling the
solidification direction of melt in mold cavity; and (iv) remaining melt
in riser to refill any possible shrinkage cavity in the middle of bulk
melt region in casting.
Problem without risers: Melt in some cross sectional plane between
the two larger bulk materials at either end is likely to solidify first,
which isolates the melts at either side of the early solidified plane.
Hence, the middle of the largest bulk at the far side from pouring cup
may have melt to solidify the latest and it creates shrinkage cavity
due to contraction problem when the remaining melt finally solidified.

The problem clearly indicates that utilizing risers to modify the


temperature distribution of mold wall so as to promote direction
solidification is favourable in casting process. Additional, designing
casting with appropriate geometries is a must in ensuring the casting
quality.

6) Briefly mention the sequence of operations of sand casting process.


Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slide 16 in notes “Manufacturing
processes (1)”)
The sequence of operations is illustrated as sketches below.

It basically involves with the following steps. The flask is rammed with
sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (h) The drag half is
produced in a similar manner with the pattern inserted. A bottom
board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. (i) The pattern ,
flask, and bottom board are inverted; and the pattern is withdrawn,
leaving the appropriate imprint. (j) The core is set in place within the
drag cavity. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the
drag and securing the assembly with pins. The flasks the are
subjected to pressure to counteract buoyant forces in the liquid,
which might lift the cope. (l) After the metal solidifies, the casting is
removed from the mold. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and
recycled, and the casting is cleaned, inspected, and heat treated
(when necessary).

7) Describe with the aid of sketches the setup features and operational
principles of squeeze-casting.
Guides to solutions: (Refer to Slide 20 in notes “Manufacturing
processes (1)”)
Following sketches the setup features and illustrates its operational
principles.

Basically, the setup features (LHS Figure) include a bottom die with
cavity at its top, an ejector pin at its bottom hole, a top die with
protrusion part at its bottom, and a crucible for scooping melt from
furnace.

Its operational principles include (i) firstly melt the metal and setup
the features accordingly; (ii) scooping the melt from furnace and pour
the molten metal into the cavity of the bottom die with the crucible;
(iii) lowering the top die with its protrusion part squeezing the molten
metal in the cavity of bottom die; (iv) the molten metal in the bottom
die is squeezed to fill the clearance formed between the inner wall of
bottom die cavity and the outer surface of the protrusion part of the
top die; (v) the melt in the clearance is then allowed to cool and
solidify; and (iv) lifting up the top die and ejecting the ejector pin up
to retrieve the solidified cup from the cavity of bottom die.
8) Describe with the aid of sketches the setup features and operational
of ring rolling process. Mention how to use the process to pattern the
inner wall as shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5: The inner wall pattern of a rolled ring

Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slide 10 in notes “Manufacturing


processes (2)”)
The sketch of the setup is as shown in Fig. G4 below.

Fig. G4: Setup of a ring rolling process

Setup features: The setup includes (i) a main roll which is driven by
power transmission machine, (ii) an idler roll, (iii) a rounding roll, and
(iv) a pair of edging rolls if needed, together with the pre-formed and
cut ring workpience, as shown in Fig. G4.

Operational Principles: After the setting of the rolling system as


shown in Fig. G4, the ring wall at the positions where are in contact
with main roll, idler roll, and rounding roll is compressed by the
exertion of compression between idler roll and main roll, and between
the idler roll and rounding roll. The annular between them is thus
getting thinner, with its height and both inner/external diameters
increase. By suitably setting the gap between the pair of tapped
edging rolls, it is possible to control the height or depth of the
annular wall.

Inner wall pattern of the rolled ring, as shown in Fig. 5, is achievable


by properly shape the anticipated profile on the idler roll which is
subsequently compressing against the flat main roll and the flat
rounding roll.
9) Fig. 6(a) shows a simple upsetting process to height of an original
workpiece while Fig. 6(b) illustrates the setup features of a cogging
operation in progressively forging a workpiece with smaller die-
workpiece contact. Elucidate the corresponding advantages and
limitations of the two processes.

(a) Upsetting a billet from ho to h1 (b) Cogging of a workpiece

Fig. 6: Two upsetting processes in reducing height of workpiece

Guides to solutions: (Refer to Slides 14 and 15 in notes


“Manufacturing processes (2)”)

For the upsetting of billet with the use of a pair of flat dies as shown
in Fig. 6(a), the volume due reduction of height from ho to h1 is
suitable amortized to expand the volume around its surface, which
leads to increase in instantaneously contact surface Ac between die
and billet. On the basis that force F to initiate the instantaneous
deformation can be approximately expressed as F = Yf Ac in which Yf
is the instantaneous yield stress of the billet. Theoretically, the
forging force of the process is thus increasing with the increase in Ac
as the forging is progressing. It may come to a stage that the tonnage
of a press may be exhausted and not possible to precede further (let
alone the possible increase in Yf). Furthermore, its deformation can
be quick under the limiting surface contact.

For the cogging process as shown in Fig. 6(b), the die width is kept
constant, hence giving constant contact surface area of Ac which
means the forging force is supposed to be constant throughout any
cogging stage. The progressive cogging allows the deformation of
large surface to be achievable with limiting press tonnage although its
summative power involved in the deformation may be much higher than
the case in Fig. 6(a). Furthermore, the completion of deformation is
relatively much slower.
10) Fig. 7 shows the various pre-forming stages in forging a cylindrical
rod (Fig. 7(1)) to a finished product as shown in Fig. 7(5). Elaborate
why the shape in Fig. 7(1) should firstly change to the shape as
illustrated in Fig. 7(2). Describe with the aid of sketches the setup
features and operational principles to the two processes which can be
used to transform the shapes.

Fig. 7: Stages of pre-forming involved in converting a cylindrical rod


to finishing product of a connecting rod.

Guides to solutions: (Ref to Slide 17 in notes “Manufacturing


Processes (2)”)

Comparing the shape of the raw material (Fig. 7(1)) with the finished
product (Fig. 7(5)), it requires more materials accumulating to either
end of the product to form both end-features (Fig. 7(5)) and also to
squeeze the materials from the connecting part at the centre. As
seen in the geometry of the part shown in Fig. 7(2), it consists of the
large bulk of material which is connected by the slim region in the
middle to a small bulk of material at the other end. The large bulk is
for the production of the l.h.s. feature and the small bulk for making
the r.h.s. feature of that shown in Fig. 7(5).

Ref to the sketches of the two processes as shown in Fig. G5, the one
shown in Fig. G5(a) is for squeezing away materials from the middle to
either end. The one shown in Fig. G5(b) is to accumulate materials
from either end to the middle.

Fig. G5: Two processes to displace and/or to accumulate materials

Fig. G5(a) is a fullering process and its setup consists of a pair of


convex dies. During the operation, a workpiece is sandwiched in
between, its convex surface when is pressed into the workpiece
serves to displace materials from the centre to either end of the dies.

Fig. G5(b) is an edging process and its setup consists of a pair of


concave dies where allows the accumulation of materials from either
end of the die pair, when a workpiece is compressed between the pair
of dies.

11) Describe with the aid of sketches the setup features and operational
principles of (i) a direct extrusion process and (ii) a tube drawing
process. Contrast the two processes.

Guides to solutions: (Refer to Slides 22 and 25 in notes


“Manufacturing processes (2)”)

(a) Direct extrusion (b) Tube drawing

Fig. G6: Illustration of extrusion and/or drawing processes

Direction Extrusion Process:


Setup features: As shown in Fig. G6(a), it consists of a container or
chamber in which container liner is mounted. A die with opening for
the shape of product is located in front of the chamber and mounted
tightly onto the end surface of its outlet by a die backer. At the back
of the container, a press stem is activated to move to and fro by a
hydraulic cylinder. There is a dummy block sandwiching between the
workpiece in the chamber and the piston of the press stem.

Operational principles: After setting up the system, a workpiece is


placed in the inner hole of container line. The hydraulic cylinder is
then activated to move the press stem forward, which creates force
to compress and deform the workpiece within the chamber.
Subsequently, the deformed workpiece is pressed out from the
opening of the die situated in front of the chamber. Generally, the
relative slip between the inner surface of container liner and
workpiece wears of the liner which can be replaced easily and cheaply.
The indented dummy block can also be easily be replaced so that it
would not affect the throughput during replacement duration.

Tube drawing process:


Setup features: As illustrated in Fig. G6(b), a die with opening for the
shape of product is mounted in a drawing bench rigidly.

Operational principles: A tube which is pre-fabricated by other


process is firstly shaped to insert through the die opening. A clamping
mechanism is then gripping on the inserted through end and pulling the
pre-fabricated tube out from the die opening. Subsequently, the tube
outside and inner diameters are reduced with possibility of wall
thickening.

Contrasting the two processes:


In extrusion, the workpiece is placed in a container/chamber and
being pushed by a press stem to deform flowing out from the die
opening. The constraint of chamber wall prevents the workpiece to be
buckling during compression. However, the interfacial contact between
container inner wall and the workpiece creates friction when relative
slip takes slip as press stem moving the workpiece forward in direct
extrusion. In direct extrusion, such friction force is reducing with the
workpiece being shortened in the container.
In tube drawing, the tube is not placed in container and its surface
upstream of the opening of die is not constrained, hence no friction
involved. Loading force may not be possibly applied to compress the
tube forward through the die since buckling likely hinders the
successful operation of the process. The front end of the tube is thus
pre-formed to insert through the opening of die, which is followed by
gripping to pull it out from the die. As the pulling may apply tensile
force to deform the drawn tube, hence sufficient cross sectional area
should be given to prevent any premature breakage during drawing.