Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

Literature Review Report


FingerPrint to reduce time consumption using OCT


M.E. – Embedded and IOT

Guided By

Mrs. Vineeta Tiwari

Co-Guided By

Mr. Siddhant Verma

Prepared By
Soonrutha Karothu


September - 2018


This is to certify that the Seminar entitled “Fingerprint to

reduce time consumption using OCT” is prepared and
presented by Ms. Soonrutha Karothu (37040011)bearing
Enrolment Number: 170861384010, third semester of 2018
Year of M.E Embedded and IOT and her work is satisfactory.

Mrs. Vineeta Tiwari Mr. Siddhant Verma

I owe my gratitude and appreciation towards Mrs. Vineeta Tiwari and Mr. Siddhant
Verma for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of
this seminar.
I would also like to thank all the staff members of SATHYABAMA INSTITUTE OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY and CDAC for their valuable assistance and support
during my academia.
Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents
for their blessings, my friends/classmates for their help and wishes for the successful
completion of this seminar.

Place: Pune
Date: -Soonrutha Karothu


Fingerprint recognition is an important security technique with a steadily

growing usage for the identification and verification of individuals. However,
current fingerprint acquisition systems have certain disadvantages, which
include the requirements of physical contact with the acquisition device, and the
presence of undesirable artifacts, such as scars, on the surface of the
fingerprint. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a complete framework for
capturing the undamaged, undistorted fingerprints from below the skin’s surface
using optical coherence tomography method on the hardware by the extraction
and conversion of the subsurface data into a usable fingerprint and matching of
such fingerprints to avoid fraudulence.

Keywords:. Internet of things(IOT), Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT)


Acknowledgement i
Abstract Ii
Table of Contents iii
List of Figures iv
List of Tables v
Abbreviation vi
1 Introduction 1
1.1 SOA 1
1.2 SOA in IOT 1
1.3 SOA Patterns 2
1.3.1 Service Provider 2
1.3.2 Service broker, Service registry or Service repository 2
1.3.3 Service requester/consumers 2

1.4 Microservices 3
1.5 Microservices Architecture 3

2 Background and Related Work

2.1 Characteristics of Service Oriented Architecture Services 4
2.2 Features of Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) 5

3 Literature Review 6
4 Proposed Work 16
4.1 Microservices Architecture Using Event Driven SOA 16
4.1.1 Problems which EDA solve?? 16
4.2 Block Diagram of Microservices using Event Driven SOA 18
4.2.1 Comparison between the protocols 19

5 Conclusion 21
6 Reference 22


Figure No Figure Description Page No.

Figure 1 Block Diagram of Microservices using Event driven 18



Table No Table Description Page No.

Table 1 Description of Event driven SOA 17

Table 2 Application type protocols 17

Table 3 Comparison between the Application type 18



Acronym Abbreviation

SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition

SOA Service Oriented Architecture
IOT Internet of Things
MDA Model Driven Architecture
EDA Event Driven Architecture
EDASOA Event Driven Architecture Service Oriented Architecture
HyPA Hybrid Process Algebra
ECA Event Condition Action
QOS Quality of Service
WCF Windows Communication Foundation
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition

REST Representational State Transfer




The most popular and widely used biometric identification method is fingerprint
recognition. Fingerprints are unique and remain permanent throughout a person’s life.
Fingerprint identification has a great utility in forensic science and aids criminal
investigations etc. Most of the automatic fingerprint recognition systems are based on local
ridge features known as minutiae. Fingerprint images are prone to degradation and
corruption due to factors such as skin variations and impression conditions such as
scars, dirt, humidity and non-uniform contact with the scanning device. The new
sensor uses a variant of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is
already used for medical imaging and works by analyzing an interference
pattern created when a beam of light that travels through a biological
sample, like a finger, is recombined with a reference beam of light.
Standard OCT systems gather 3D data and often require sophisticated
lasers systems and light detectors. Because not everyone's internal
fingerprints are located at the same depth, the researchers also
developed a method to first take an image of the fingertip at an angle.
The first image was used to determine the depth of the internal
fingerprint, and then a second image of the fingerprint itself was taken.
The system can also image sweat pores, which provide an additional
means of identification. In case of a fingerprint identification system, the
captured fingerprint image needs to be matched against the stored fingerprint
templates of every user in the database.
A fingerprint is a distinct pattern of ridges and valleys on the finger surface of an
individual. A ridge is defined to be a single curved segment whereas a valley is the
area between two adjacent ridges. So the dark areas of the fingerprint are called
ridges and white area that exists between them is known as valleys. The
technique of fingerprinting is known as dactyloscopy

Fingerprints are even more unique than DNA, the genetic
material in each of our cells. Although identical twins can
share the same DNA -- or at least most of it -- they can't have
the same fingerprints. Fingerprints are made of an
arrangement of ridges, called friction ridges. Each ridge
contains pores, which are attached to sweat glands under
the skin. You leave fingerprints on glasses, tables and just
about anything else you touch because of this sweat.

Fingerprint IN lOT

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices,

mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are
provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a
network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer
interaction. . The identification of IoT device types is a strong step towards identifying IoT device instances,
which will be useful in establishing strong authentication of a device. The existing IoT devices have too much
variation in protocols/functionality and it is difficult to come out with one general approach for fingerprinting.


Fingerprints could be described as having three basic patterns – arches, loops and whorls. These shapes and
contours were later sub-divided into eight basic patterns

The ridges of the finger run continuously from one side of the finger to the other and make no backward turn.
There are two sub-types of arch patterns

Plain arch
It starts on one side of the finger and the ridge then slightly cascades upward. This almost resembles a wave out on
the ocean and then the arch continues its journey along the finger to the other side.

Tented arch
he difference is that the tented arch lies in the ridges in the centre and is not continuous like the plain arch. They
have significant up thrusts in the ridges near the middle that arrange themselves on both sides of an axis. The
adjoining ridges converge towards this axis and thus appear to form tents.

The ridges make a backward turn in loops but they do not twist. This backward turn or loop is distinguished by how
the loop flows on the hand. A loop pattern has only one delta.
There are three sub-categories of loops

Radial loops
The flow of these loops runs in the direction of the radius bone i.e. the downward slope of the radial loop is from
the little finger towards the thumb of the hand. These loops are not very common and most of the times will be
found on the index fingers.

Ulnar loops
These are named after a bone in the forearm called ulna. This bone is on the same side as the little finger and the
flow of this pattern runs from the thumb towards the little finger of the hand.

Double loop
This pattern consists of two distinct and separate loop formations. It has two distinct and separate shoulders for
each core, two deltas and one or more ridges that make a complete circuit. There is at least one re-curving ridge
within the inner pattern area between the two loop formations that gets touched or cut when an imaginary line is

Some of the ridges in a whorl make a turn through at least one circuit. Therefore any pattern that contains two or
more deltas will be a whorl.
There are three sub-groups of whorls

Plain whorl
The ridges in these whorls make a turn of one complete circuit with two deltas and are therefore circular or spiral in

Central pocket loop whorl

These whorls consist of at least one re-curving ridge or an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow with two
deltas and if an imaginary line is drawn in between then no re-curving ridge within the pattern area will be touched
or cut. These whorl ridges make one complete circuit and may be oval, circular, spiral or any variant of a circle.

Accidental whorl
The composition of the pattern in accidental whorl is derived from two distinct types of patterns that have at least
two deltas. Therefore whorls containing ridges that match the characteristics of a particular whorl sub-grouping are
referred to as accidental whorls.




Background and Related Work

A single rolled fingerprint may have as many as 100 or more identification points that can be used for
identification purposes. These points are often ridge characteristics. There are many different ridge
characteristics, although some of them are more common than others. These points can be used as points
of comparison for fingerprint identification. Depending on how prevalent the ridge characteristics, fewer
or more points of comparison may be needed for a positive identification.

Ridge Dots

An isolated ridge unit whose length approximates its width in size


The point at which one friction ridge divides into two friction ridges

Double Bifurcation Opposed Bifurcation


The point at which one friction ridge divides into three friction ridges

Ending Ridge

A single friction ridge that terminates within the friction ridge structure

Ridge Crossing

A point where two ridge units intersect

Enclosures (Lakes)

A single friction ridge that bifurcates and rejoins after

a short course and continues as a single friction ridge

Short Ridges (Islands)

Friction ridges of varying lengths

Spurs (Hooks)

A bifurcation with one short ridge branching off a longer ridge


A connecting friction ridge between parallel running ridges, generally right angles


The fingerprint system is a popular biometric system and actively researched area in biometric technologies.
It is a low cost system as compared with others, e.g., iris and face recognition systems.


Literature Review

PAPER I: SOA Based IOT Communication Middleware [1]

It becomes a typical heterogeneous network and it is very difficult to design a
communication layer which satisfy the requirements such as dynamic, loose coupling,
robustness, versatility, flexibility at the same time.
To Solve that problem, a generic SOC based IOT communication middleware has
been presented in this paper.
The following test in a PC and a virtual machine which is hosted in that PC

 PC: Windows XP sp3, Intel core 2Duo E7300 2.66GHz; 3G Ram.

 Virtual Machine: Windows XP sp3;intel core 2Duo E7300 2.66GH; 1G Ram.
 Agent and agent gateway are running on PC while test clients are running on virtual
machine in debug mode. All the programs are not using Throttling features which are
provided by WCF.
The time-consuming curve of these processes is generated. The first time for agent
gateway to create a agent proxy instance is more time-consuming than ever after, especially
the download wsdl part. Once the wsdl and service metadata have been generated, WCF
runtime will hold them in cache automatically. So there is no need to re-generate them in
coming requests.
The gateway transmission mode communication is used, for making the
unpackaging, packaging and network communication process once more.

 In low number of Threads , the agents Throughput increases with the growing invoke
times and will stabilize in a certain limit.
 There is an optimal number of threads range, in this range agent will have a maximum
limit throughput. The range is considered from 10 to 20 according to our test.
 The performance test reveals that the middleware can service about 60 requests per
second which is good enough for general IOT applications.


PAPER II: Improving Heterogeneous SOA-Based IoT Message Stability by Shortest

Processing Time Scheduling[2]

Issues: As more devices participate in the IoT system, the service scale of entire system
increases. To overcome the limitation of the number of direct links to an single working
element, the whole IoT system should be divided into many subsystems, called IoT units, to
form the system hierarchy.

Method: SOA technique

Solution: The implemented scheduling scheme supported by a priority queue model can
effectively stabilize the response messages from the scattered IoT sensors per each client
In a service-oriented architecture, the OSGi framework has been standardized as a
gateway for application in a home or vehicular environment. Due to its stability, portability
and extendibility, many application systems (e.g., eHealth systems and vehicle systems) have
been developed over the OSGi framework.
The period of sending request messages for different devices would be changed at the
client side based on the STP rule.
The response times for 500 IoT messages for these two network environments, with
results showing that the proposed SPT scheduling algorithm can effectively stabilize HTTP
based IoT messages no matter in fixed Internet or mobile Internet.

This paper proposes a practical skeleton for the construction of an IoT environment
based on HTTP techniques. Developers can follow the design concept to build the IoT
system. The proposed integrated interface can aggregate all messages from each IoT unit
including a broker and several sensor devices. However, if the user interfaces for a realtime
IoT system are built using common web technologies, HTTP-based polling will inevitably
result in transmission inefficiency. Especially in an unstable network, the polling request may
result in a serious delay without effective scheduling. To prevent such a situation, we first use
a queuing model to analyze system traffic intensity. Using the priority queue model, each IoT
message is considered as an arrival message that in the server’s system queue. Next, the
proposed scheduling algorithm evaluates traffic intensity to determine the order of requests
by following the SPT rule. Evaluation results validate the proposed skeleton and proposed
scheduling scheme for an IoT system.

PAPER III: Event-driven SOA for IoT Services [3]

Issues: To integrate Event-driven Architecture(EDA) and Service-oriented Architecture for

IoT services, and how to realize scalable EDSOA,

Methods: Event-driven SOA technique

In this paper, an Event-driven Service-oriented Architecture (EDSOA) for IoT
services is discussed, where distributed events act as a primary mechanism for each IoT
service to share independent meaningful events, to express its requirements and capabilities,
and to decouple itself from other services. Such distributed events however do not provide
powerful expressiveness to describe business logic in SOA because business activities are not
completely independent each other.
In order to fill the gap and keep consistency with event-driven methodology, we
propose an information-centric session mechanism to describe service behaviour and
interactions working upon distributed events, called event session.
The theory of Hybrid Process Algebra (HyPA) defined in to describe IoT services,
where IoT services’ discrete behaviour can be directly embedded into the bigger hybrid
system model.
They use resource information to create IoT services, use independent and shared
events to run the IoT services, and use event session to coordinate the IoT services. In order
to integrate EDA and SOA, the event session concept is introduced, which was often
neglected in most existing works about EDSOA.

This paper is then proposes an EDSOA infrastructure for IoT services, which consists of
distributed resource pools, distributed event-based service environment, and event relation
synergizing utility. Some applications and experiments are given to show the concept proof
for such event-driven SOA for IoT services.


PAPER IV: Trust Management for SOA-Based IoT and Its Application to Service
Composition [4]

Issues: A future Internet of Things (IoT) system will connect the physical world into
cyberspace everywhere and everything via billions of smart objects. On the one hand, IoT
devices are physically connected via communication networks. The service oriented
architecture (SOA) can provide interoperability among heterogeneous IoT devices in physical

Method: SOA technique

Solution: They develop a technique based on distributed collaborative filtering to select

feedback using similarity rating of friendship, social contact, and community of interest
relationships as the filter
Further they develop a novel adaptive filtering technique to determine the best way to
combine direct trust and indirect trust dynamically to minimize convergence time and trust
estimation bias in the presence of malicious nodes performing opportunistic service and
collusion attacks.
Designed and analyzed an adaptive and scalable trust management protocol for SOA-based
IoT systems. We developed a distributed collaborating filtering technique to select trust
feedback from owners of IoT nodes sharing similar social interests. We considered three
social relationships. Further, developed an adaptive filtering technique by which each node
adaptively adjusts its best weight parameters for combining direct trust and indirect trust into
the overall trust to minimize convergence time and trust bias of trust evaluation.

They demonstrated via simulation the superiority of our adaptive IoT trust protocol over
Eigen Trust and Peer Trust in trust convergence, accuracy and resiliency against malicious
nodes performing self-promoting, bad-mouthing, ballot stuffing, and opportunistic service
attacks. They also considered on persistent attackers.


PAPER V: Situation-Aware IoT Service Coordination Using the Event-Driven SOA

Paradigm [5]

Issues: disposal process of coal mine safety monitoring and control automation scenarios,
and also report the measurement and analysis of the platform’s performance.

Methods: Event driven service-oriented architecture (SOA) paradigm.

reliable real-time data distribution model to support the effective dispatching sensory data
between information providers and consumers, which is based on the grid quorum
mechanism to organize those brokers into a grid overlay network to facilitate the
asynchronous communication in a large-scale, distributed, and loosely coupled IoT
applications environment.
The publish/subscribe communication model can distribute the messages in an
asynchronous fashion on demand, however when the scale of the brokers in publish/subscribe
communication model is growing up in IoT environment, and the packet delivery rate of data
packet will decrease dramatically
SOA provide extremely large number of third-party systems or legacy enterprise
systems, which requires the IoT service system to have a strong integration capability and
adaptability to a heterogeneous and dynamically changing environment.
SOA primarily begins by decoupling the system. It focuses on decomposing the entire
application into a series of independent services and defines various standards and
infrastructures to facilitate the reuse of these services, i.e., to allow them to be easily used by
applications on various platforms.
The event-driven, service-oriented IoT service coordination platform is based on SOA and
uses Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) as its infrastructure.

Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules were originally used in active database systems to

provide event-driven, instantaneous responses for conventional database systems. The entire
process requires no intervention from users or external applications. Unified message
distribution network uses the Publish/Subscribe mechanism to distribute messages, which
provides event publication, subscription, notification, and routing functions.


An expansion of existing lightweight service mash up middleware, visualization
technology, such as 3D technology, can further improve the visibility of sensor objects.
Second, it will be essential to optimize the real-time data distribution service and the data
congestion scheduling strategy with different QoS for large-scale IoT application
deployment. To facilitate the asynchronous communication and on-demand distribution of
sensory data in a large-scale distributed IoT environment

PAPER VI: Agile IoT Service Communication and Orchestration Platform Using
Event Driven SOA Paradigm[6]
Issues: Large scale IoT applications involve cross-domain or even cross-organizational
users, business processes and physical entities, which requires to integrate multiple
distributed applications to achieve certain business goals.

Methods: Event-driven and service-oriented agile IoT services communication and

orchestration platform

To enhance the flexibility and agility to response quickly to the dynamic changes in
the physical world in a timely manner.
The agile IoT service communication and orchestration is depicted, which adopts
event-driven SOA mechanism, and consists of uniform sensory devices access management,
resource management, common message communication infrastructure and services
orchestration engine. The unified message space is a distributed overlay network, which is
based on publish/subscribe mechanism.

It shows the district heating scenario with a variety of different boilers, heat transfer
stations and wireless room heat metering in smart city, it can realize real-time monitoring of
physical devices and remote control of physical equipment, and provide integrated IoT
service for heating, energy saving, management and operation in the district heating industry.
The district heating IoT service scenarios. It allows the IoT service communication and
orchestration respond quickly to the dynamic changes in the physical world in a timely


PAPER VII: An Event-driven Service-oriented Architecture for the Internet of

Things Service Execution[7]

Issues: Analyses IoT sensing service characteristics and proposes future services
architecture. It is focused on middleware architecture and interface presentation technology

Methods: A new sensing service system based on EDSOA (Event Driven SOA) architecture.

To support real time, event-driven, and active service execution. It presents new IoT browser
features, including using augmented reality technology for input and output and realizing the
superposition of the physical world and abstract information. Here SOA plays a role in which
it can organize and use all computing ability distributed in different ownership domains to
fulfill user requirements.
Here they design and implement a perceived service system - Road Manhole Cover
Monitoring System (RMCMS). On the key roads, RMCMS deployed the cameras over road
manholes to monitor the status, and the position sensors were installed at the bottom of the
manhole covers.

The services in EDSOA can be executed concurrently if they receive the event at the same
time. So the performance of EDSOA is better than SOA in which the services execute in
sequence called by another service.

PAPER VIII: Development of an event-oriented, cloud-based SCADA system using a

microservice architecture under the RAMI4.0 specification: Lessons learned [8]

Issues: The major characteristics and lessons learned by the development and prototype
implementation of an event-oriented and cloud-based SCADA system that is constructed
using a microservice architecture

Methods: Implementing product-driven production systems under the RAMI4.0 specification


The microservice structure has implemented with two separated but integrated areas, an
internal and an external area. The external area includes the representation of an asset, like
the product or a work station, e.g. a drill station. The representation is based on the RAMI4.0
and contains the administration shell.

The introduction of a microservice-based architecture to enhance a cloud-based SCADA
system has been described. In addition, a new approach is introduced to extend the RAMI4.0
digitalisation dimension.

PAPER IX: Monolithic to Microservices redesign of event driven integration

platform [9]

Issues: Monolithic microservices redesign of event driven.

Methods: Redesign of SOA (service oriented architecture) integration platform by following

principles of microservices design.

Recognized group of microservices . Implementation of DB microservice with REST
interface for main database utilization. Component decomposition into small independent
microservices. Removing service contract dependencies. Switching DB consumption to be
by using created microservice for that purpose. Creation of local microservice configuration
where it was needed. Switching ALL configurations to be local. Setting up queue monitors
and queues per microservice. Process message data MP microservice will handle process
activities related to the message processing and ensuring that information is stored correctly.
Call event publisher microservice by using local configuration and information from message
will determine which business provider can be utilized. Also, this microservice is passing
message to the DP.

With microservices platform redesign they have made ability for resolving issues, they are
maintenance, Deployment scalability, improvement of resource management, platform
hosting and production deployment.


PAPER X: Microservices Approach for the Internet of Things [10]

Issues: To investigates patterns and best practices that are used in the microservices approach
and how they can be used in the internet of things

Methods: Brief the overview on some new patterns and best practices that have emerged
from the microservice approach or have made it possible.

The container technology was investigated as well as if orchestration or choreography should
be used to put services together.Brief overview on some new patterns and best practices that
have emerged from the microservice approach or have made it possible. We covered the
aspect of self-containment, dealing with service versions, monitoring and fault handling. The
container technology was investigated as well as if orchestration or choreography should be
used to put services together. As a result of this paper we can see that the architectural goals
of both, microservices and the internet of things, are quite similar. The practice instead
sometimes is different as shown in table I. The best practices and patterns that can be found
in the microservices approach are partially already part of the SOA in the internet of things.
Some, like to favor choreography, might already be known, but are in many cases not
adopted in the internet of things, especially when using RPC or REST based protocols.
Maintaining two versions in parallel which means there is e.g. a service of version 1 and one
of version 2. This is highly discouraged as both code bases have to be maintained in parallel.
The other way would be to have one service of the new version that is accessible by the new
and the old interface.

As a result of this paper we can see that the architectural goals of both, microservices and the
internet of things, are quite similar.


Proposed Work

Microservices Architecture Using Event Driven SOA

As with most of our methods, the event driven architecture approach comes with pros.
The most obvious reason for this is a user interaction with the application can be best
represented by events and not with a procedural programming. Event driven
architecture applications share a single threaded container where work runs to
completion. Thus, it’s a cooperative tasking model, which makes for an asynchronous
application architecture.
The loosely coupled approach in an event driven architecture is achieved through
messages that trigger routines. So if your job is to change anything in your software,
the only thing you will have to work on is the event and not the routine.
There are several key parameters to asses this type of architecture, being usability,
efficiency, functionality, maintainability, transferability and reliability. Regarding the
complexity of a larger application, usability is not its strength. Due to the fact that a
system only responds when events are triggered, an event driven application can be
evaluated as efficient. For software services that are only accessed programmatically,
pure interchange ability is often more feasible, meaning very standardized formats,
protocols and APIs are usually able to deliver the same services, like a HTTP request.
Therefore, routines can be called through different events and is therefore good for
interchange ability.

Problems which EDA solve??

• Capturing events from many diverse sources – including those that do not
emit event streams – in real-time.
• Efficiently processing and storing fine grained asynchronous events in near
• Optimized for dynamic, parallel, asynchronous processing.
• Able to scale to hundreds of thousands of events per second.
• An EDA is optimized for problems where the Variety, Volume, and Velocity
of information is an issue.
• Efficiently correlating information from a large number of events over a
long period of time into useful information in near real-time.


• Use of declarative rules reduces correlation modelling complexity and

enables dynamic modelling.
• Some implementations implement both rules based and machine
learning based correlation techniques
• An EDA is optimized for enterprise handling exceptions in a declarative
Capability Description
Decoupled interactions Event publishers are not aware of the existence of event subscribers

Many-to-many Publish/Subscribe messaging where one specific event can impact

communications many subscribers

Event-based trigger Flow of control that is determined by the recipient, based on an

event posted

Asynchronous Supports asynchronous operations through event messaging

Table 1: Description of EDSOA

Application type properties:

Properties Structured Object Component Service Event Driven

Applications Oriented Based Oriented
Coupling Tight Tight Medium Loose Decoupled
Granularity Very Fine Fine Medium Course Any
Contract Defined Public / Public Published Published
Reusability Low Low Medium High High
Dependencies Compile Time Compile Compile Time Run Time Run Time
Determined at Time Source Source
Scope Intra- Intra- Inter- Inter- Inter-
Application Application Application Application Application
Table 2: Comparison between the Application type properties


Block Diagram of Microservice using Event Driven SOA

Fig 1:Block Diagram for Microservice using Event Driven SOA

In this block diagram, Event Sources will collect all data from various sources like
sensing parameters. Gradually it sends the data to the service layer, Service provider,
network layer.
Service layer will detect and decide the data and it performs two way
communications. Network layer will collect and analysis the data and send that data
to the service provider. Report Monitor is another layer where the report and
dashboard are generated once the entire process gets over, and also this layer also
exist with two way communication process. The Interface layer will act and it will
execute one way communication. The event bus will be based on the service provider.
As we going to discuss the protocols which will suit this Event driven service oriented


Comparison between the protocols:



Web Sockets TCP, HTTP-like IETF, W3C  Two-way communication over TCP
 Designed for web browsers & web
 Good for lower overhead scenarios
 Supported in all major browsers

Web hooks URI, HTTP –  User defined “HTTP call backs”

 Triggered by an event HTTP
 Requests are made to Web hook URI
 Enables real-time event triggering

REST Hooks HTTP Zapier  Lightweight subscription layer

 Manipulated by a REST API
 Essentially a Web Hook in REST

Pub-Sub – –  Client subscribes to classes

 Bidirectional
 Middleman layer between client and
 Loose coupling

Server Sent HTTP, HTML5 , WHATWG, W3C  Server constantly sends updates to the
DOM client
 Unidirectional push notifications as
DOM events

Table 3: Comparison between Protocols


 So by this comparison table, there is no one event-driven solution that works

in every use case. While many would argue that event-driven solutions should
be REST based, which suggests REST Hooks as the answer, many others
would argue that it is entirely situational, and that REST is not always the
silver bullet it’s touted to be.
 WebSockets are a great solution. If you are building for scalability with low
overhead in a browser environment Conversely, if you’d like those same
benefits but are working in a non-browser system, then WebHooks should be
your approach.
 REST Hooks are not only great for RESTful services, they’re also much easier
to set up than either, and thus are great in low-time high-rush situations.
 Pub-Sub can be great if you need to enforce a division between client and
server, and this can further be established and controlled in an even stronger
way with Server Sent.
 Simply put, the best solution will be the one that fits your specific situation
and build any of these solutions, given the correct system, is a great solution.
To that end, each solution has a very specific use case.




By this Microservices can be used in Internet of Things since the microservices is

easy to develop and be developed independently by small team of developers.
Microservice-based architecture in soa has been a growing choice as an architectural
style for software development. In this architectural style, the services provided by
software solutions are divided into smaller parts and focused on the specific service
of some functionalities. The approach of developing microservices with the
construction of smaller software components has a number of advantages over the
traditional monolithic architecture, such as increasing the resilience of the software
implemented as a microservice and the ease of scaling the solution implemented
through the microservices. The development of software using the microservice
based architecture comprises important aspects that must be observed in order to
obtain good results.



[1] Wang Zhiliang, Yang Yi, Wang Lu, Wang Wei,” A SOA Based IOT
Communication Middleware” 2011 International Conference on Mechatronic
Science, Electric Engineering and Computer August 19-22, 2011, Jilin, China.

[2] Wendi B. 2. Jenq-shiou leu, member, Ieee, Chi-feng chen, and kun-che hsu,
”Improving heterogeneous soa-based iot message stability by shortest processing
time scheduling” IEEE transactions on services computing, vol. 7, no. 4, october-
december 2014.

[3] Yang Zhang, Li Duan, Jun-liang Chen, “Event-driven SOA for IoT Services”, 2014
IEEE International Conference on Services Computing.

[4] Ing-ray chen, Jia guo, and Fenye bao, “Trust management for Soa-based iot and
its application to service composition” IEEE transactions on services computing,
vol. 9, no. 3, May/June 2016.

[5] Bo Cheng, Member, IEEE, Da Zhu, Shuai Zhao, and Junliang Chen, “Situation-
Aware IoT Service Coordination Using the Event-Driven SOA Paradigm”, IEEE
transactions on network and service management, vol. 13, no. 2, June 2016.

[6] Bo Cheng, Shuai Zhao, Meng Niu, Junliang Chen,” Agile IoT Service
Communication and Orchestration Platform Using Event Driven SOA
Paradigm” 2018 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Poster and
Demo (INFOCOM'18 Poster/Demo).

[7] Lina Lan1, Bai Wang1, Lei Zhang1, Ruisheng Shi1, Fei Li2, “An Event-driven
Service-oriented Architecture for the Internet of Things Service Execution”,
2018 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Poster and Demo.


[8] Thomas Porrmann# Roland Essmann* Armando W. Colombo, “Development of

an event-oriented, cloud-based SCADA system using a microservice architecture
under the RAMI4.0 specification: Lessons learned”2017 IEEE conference.
[9] Ervin Djogic*, Samir Ribic**, Dzenana Donko,” Monolithic to Microservices
redesign of event driven integration platform” IEEE 2018 41st International
Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and
Microelectronics (MIPRO).
[10] Bjorn Butzin, Frank Golatowski, Dirk Timmermann,” Microservices Approach
for the Internet of Things”, IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging
Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA)