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Rule 11 (RULES ON ELECTRONIC EVIDENCE)

AUDIO, PHOTOGRAPHIC, VIDEO, AND EPHEMERAL EVIDENCE

Section 1. Audio, video and similar evidence. – Audio, photographic and video evidence of events, acts
or transactions shall be admissible provided it shall be shown, presented or displayed to the court and
shall be identified, explained or authenticated by the person who made the recording or by some other
person competent to testify on the accuracy thereof.

The rule in this jurisdiction is that photographs, when presented in evidence, must be identified by the
photographer as to its production and testified as to the circumstances under which they were
produced. 48 The value of this kind of evidence lies in its being a correct representation or reproduction
of the original, 49 and its admissibility is determined by its accuracy in portraying the scene at the time of
the crime. 50 The photographer, however, is not the only witness who can identify the pictures he has
taken. 51 The correctness of the photograph as a faithful representation of the object portrayed can
be proved prima facie, either by the testimony of the person who made it or by other competent
witnesses, after which the court can admit it subject to impeachment as to its accuracy. 52Photographs,
therefore, can be identified by the photographer or by any other competent witness who can testify to its
exactness and accuracy. 53 (Sison vs. People, G.R. Nos. 108280-83 November 16, 1995)