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# CS001, DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

Prepared by
Division of Mathematics
Saveetha School of Engineering
Saveetha Institute of Medical and
Technical Sciences
Thandalam, Chennai
UNIT 1

PROPOSITIONAL CALCULUS

## 2. Construct the truth table for (𝑝 → 𝑞) → (𝑝 ∧ 𝑞) (4 Marks)

3. Write the symbolic representation of “ If it rains today, then I buy an umbrella”. (2 Marks)

4. State the truth value of “If tigers have wings then the earth travels round the sun”.
(2 Marks)

## 5. Symbolize: Every book with a blue cover is a mathematics book. (2 Marks)

6. Prove that (𝑝 → 𝑞) ∧ (𝑞 → 𝑟) ⟹ (𝑝 → 𝑟) (6 Marks)
7. Obtain PCNF & PDNF of [𝑝 → (𝑞 ∧ 𝑟)] ∧ [¬𝑝 → (¬𝑞 ∧ ¬𝑟)]. (10 Marks)
8. Show that (𝑝 → 𝑞) ∧ (𝑟 → 𝑠), (𝑞 → 𝑡) ∧ (𝑠 → 𝑢), ¬(𝑡 ∧ 𝑢) and (𝑝 → 𝑟) ⟹ ¬𝑝. (6 Marks)
9. Prove that 𝐴 → ¬𝐷 is a conclusion from the premises 𝐴 → 𝐵 ∨ 𝐶, 𝐵 → ¬𝐴 and D→ ¬𝐶 by using

## rule CP. (6 Marks)

10. Determine the validity of the following argument: My father praises me only if I can be proud of
myself. Either I do well in sports or I can’t be proud of myself. If I study hard, then I can’t do well in sports.
Therefore if father praises me, then I do not study well. (10 Marks)
UNIT II

PREDICATE CALCULUS

1. Using CP (or) otherwise prove that (∀𝑥)[𝑃(𝑥) → 𝑄(𝑥)], (∀𝑥)[𝑅(𝑥) → ¬𝑄(𝑥)] ⟹ (∀𝑥)[𝑅(𝑥) →
¬𝑃(𝑥)]. (6 Marks)

2. Verify the validity of the following argument. Every living thing is a plant or an animal. John’s gold fish is
alive and it is not a plant. All animals have hearts. Therefore John’s gold fish has a heart. (10 Marks)
3. Verify the validity of the following argument. Lions are dangerous animals. There are Lions. Therefore,
there are dangerous animals. (10 Marks)

4. Show that ∃𝑥𝑃(𝑥) ∧ ∃𝑥𝑄(𝑥) and ∃𝑥[𝑃(𝑥) ∧ 𝑄(𝑥)] are not logically equivalent. (4 Marks)
5. Write the symbolic form & negate the following statement (6 Marks)

## (ii) Some people are not admired by everyone.

(iii) Everyone should help his neighbors or his neighbors will not help him.

6. Write the following statement in the symbolic form “It is not true that all roads lead to Rome”.
(2 Marks)
7. Symbolize: Every book with a blue cover is a mathematics book. (2 Marks)

8. Verify the validity of the following argument. All integers are rational numbers. Some integers are
powers of 2. Therefore, some rational numbers are powers of 2. (10 Marks)