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TECHNICAL B ULLE TIN No.

50 JULY 1962

ANTHURIUM CULTURE
With Emphasis on the
Effects of Some Induced Environments
on Growth and Flowering

H. Y. Nakasone
and
H. Kamemoto

HAWAll AG RICULTURAL ExPERIMENT STATION, UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII


CENTENNIAL OF" THE MORR ILL ACT OF" 1862
CREATING THE LANO -GRANT COLLEGE SYSTEM
CONTENTS

PAGE

I NT HO DUCTIO N . 3

M ATEHI A LS AN D M ETHODS 3

EXPEHL\IENTAL H ESULTS 4

·E ffects of Bagass e as a Cultural Med ium 4

Effects of L eaf Pruning 8

E ffec ts of Diff er ent Shade L evels 9

Effec ts of Gibbe rellic Acid on Gro wth and Fl ow ering . 14

E ffects of Co ntaine rs on Fl owering IS

D ISC USSI ON AND C ONCLUS IONS 16

S U l\[ l\ [ A R Y 18

L IT EHATUHE C ITED 19
ANTHURIUM CULTURE
W ith Emphasis on the Effects of
Some Induced Environments on Growth and Flowering

H . Y. NAKASON E A ND H. K AME;\IOTO

INTRODUCTION
Efficien cy in growth and flowering of th e anthurium plant d ep ends upon
a number of fa ctors, of which growing medium and sunlight level may
he considered th e two most important fac tors. Media tests conducted
som e years ago ( 2) indicated that anthuriums may b e grown successfully
in a number of materials, when properl y used. The fa ctor of avai lability
is a det erminant for large-scal e use of th e materials test ed , and since
woodshavings and/or bagasse are readily avai lable on all the major islan ds
of Hawaii, th ese media wer e singled out for furth er testing. Results of th e
tests involving woodshavin gs in various mixtures have alread y b een pub-
lished (3).
This paper giv es th e resu lts of testing bagasse as a medium for grow-
ing anthuriums, Also included in this paper ar e results from exp eriments
showing th e effec ts of various lev els of sunlight intensity, a fa ctor eq ually
as important as th e growing m edium.
In order to develop a bro ad understandi ng of the nature of th e
an thurium p lant, especially wi th respect to th e cultural aspec ts, sev eral
other factors which mi ght affect growth and flowering wer e also investi-
ga ted and the r esu lts ar e presen ted her ein .

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Because of th e indep endent nature of sev eral exp eriments dis cussed in
th is p aper, ma te ria ls and m et hods will be presented tog et her wi th the
resu lts for each experime nt, excep t for methods or materials which ar e com-
mon to all expe riments.
4 HAWAII AGRlC U LT U HA L E XP EHI :>lE:--'T ST ATIO N

In all expe riments, p lants were set into th e expe rime ntal plots and grown
for several months b efor e data wer e accumulated. Data consisted of meas-
ur em ent s of length of flow er stem, spa the size, and flow er producti on.
Len gth of flow er stem was measured in inch es from th e ba se of th e stem to
the point of attachment to th e spathe. Spathe size is presented as th e pro-
du ct of th e length and the width , and flow er produ ction was measured b y
recording th e date of spathe unfurling. The number of flow er s per pl ant
per yea r wa s calculated by dividing th e mean number of weeks b etween
flow ering into 52 weeks. Anthurium flow er , as used in this paper , refers to
th e spathe and spadix complex and not to the tru e botanical flow er , which is
very small and found in lar ge quantities on th e spadix.
Fertilizer used in all expe rime nts wa s th e Orchid Or gani c F ertilizer
( 6-14-7.5 with 8.7 CaO ), form erly known as th e Anthurium F ertilizer.
Complet ed dat a wer e summarized and subjec ted to th e conventional
variance ana lysis method and wh er e more th an two tr eatment mean s wer e
comp ared, Duncan's (1 ) multiple range and F test was used to delimit
differ ences between means.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Effe cts of Bagasse as a Cultural Medium
It wa s mentioned earlier that ba gas se wa s found to b e a good medium
for growing anthuriums and it is ava ilab le in qu antity wherever suga r cane
factori es are locat ed . Since th e ba gasse utili zed in th e previous test was
well decomposed , th e qu esti on arose whether fresh bagasse wou ld b e
equally as satisfactory for growing th ese plants, and th e expe riment reported
her ein was designed to test th e effects of ba ga sse in differ ent sta ges of
decompositi on .
Since fresh ba gasse was ob ta inable at almos t any tim e from th e local
sugar plantations, tr eatments consisting of four stages of decomposition
(fresh, 5, 9, and 13 months old ) were selected and comb ined with three
fer tilizer levels; nam ely, no fertilizer, 1 teaspoon Or chid Or gani c Fertilizer
per plant per month, and th e same amount p er pl ant p er 2 mo nths. For
controls, th e stand ard wood sha vings-manure mixture ( 5 :1 ) was used with
the same fertilizer variables as imposed upon th e bagasse. \Voodsha vin gs
used her e were well decomposed. Th e various medium-fertili zer combina-
tions are listed in tabl e 1, for convenient refer en ce, with th eir assigned
symbo ls and treatment means for th e three criteria mea sur ed .
Ten sing le-plant repli cat es of th e variety Kaumana wer e completely
randomized. As th e media becam e depl et ed in th e course of th e expe ri-
ment, each pot was repl eni shed with medium at th e ap propriate stage of
decomposition.
>-Z
T ABL E 1. Summar y of 15 medi a treatments, w ith treatment mean s for ste m len gth , §
~
spathe size , and flo wer production for va riety K I/I/IIl (//1Il
~
a,..,
TREA T ~ IENT ~ [EAN So
o
THEAT l\I EKT Stem Len gth Spa th e Size Number of c
SY;\ [fl O L T HEATl\ fE N T ( inch es) L X W ( inch es) Fl ow er s/ Plant j Y car s;
- - - c
AO Fresh b agasse, no fertilizer 15.2 8.2 3.5 F.l
A1 Fresh b agasse, 1 tsp , fert. / month 2 1.6 14..5 .5 .4
A2 Fr esh b agasse, 1 t sp , fert. / 2 months 19.1 10 .7 o~ .z
"
BO 5-mo nth -ol:1 bagasse, no fer tilizer 16.1 9.6 3 .6
TIl 5-m onth-old bagasse, 1 tsp . fert. / month 20 .3 13.0 .5.2
B2 5-mo nth-old b agasse, 1 tsp, fert. / 2 months 18 .5 10 .7 5 .0
CO 9-mo nth -old bagasse, no fertili zer 10.3 9.7 4 .0
Cl 9-mo nth -old bagasse, 1 tsp , Fert. ymon th 22.8 15 .9 .5 .7
C2 9-month-olcl ba gasse, 1 tsp , fer t. /2 months 22 .2 14.1 .5.3
DO 13-month-old ba gasse, no fertilizer I D.8 12.0 4 ..5
Dl 13-mont h-old bagasse, 1 tsp. fer t .yrnon th 2 1.6 15.1 5.4
D2 13-m onth-old b agasse, 1 tsp . fert. /2 months 19.1 12 .3 5.1
EO Con tro l : wcoclshu vings-m an urc 5 : 1, no fert ilizer 23.2 14.2 5..5
El Cont rol: wo odshuving s-m anure 5 : 1, 1 tsp . Iert .ym ont h 23.7 15 .8 05 .9
E2 Control : woodsliavi ngs-man ure 5 : 1, tsp . fert. / 2 months 24 .0 15 .9 6.1

O ~ee t a bl e 2 f or s t a tis ti ca l s igni f ica n ce of ,l iffe l'enc e b e t w e en tre at m e n t mea ns.

CJ\
6 IlA WAIl AGHlCULTUIlAL EXPEHI"IE:"T STATION

Plants were set into the various media in July, 1956, and data taking was
initiated in September , 1957, and terminated in June, 19.58.
Data on mean Bower stem length, spathe size, and number of Bowers
p er plant p er year for 15 tr eatments ar e presented in ranked order in table 2.
M can ste m lcngth -Considering th e tr eatment means for stem length
only , it is clearly shown that relatively fr esh bagasse without fertilizer
induced poor stem elongation. Five months of decomposition of th e
baga sse appear also to b e inadequate for providing good st em elongation .
However , th er e see ms to b e som e improvem ent in th e elongation of stem
length with furth er decomposition, even without fertilizer, as indicated by
th e mean st em length for treatment CO ( 9 months, no fertilizer ) and DO
( 13 months, no fertilizer ).
Fresh bagass e with fertilizer appears to b e as good as th e decomposed
material, as shown b y treatment means for Al ( fre sh bagass e, 1 tsp, p er
month ). Cl and C2 ( 9 months, 1 tsp. p er month; and 9 months, 1 tsp , p er
2 months, resp ectively ) gave th e b est results among th e baga sse series,
although statistically th ere was no differen ce even b etween Al (fres h
bagasse with 1 tsp. fertilizer per month ) and DI ( 13 months, 1 tsp , fer -
tiliz er per month ).
Th e wo od sh avin gs-manure control series gave th e b est p erforman ce
wh ether additi onal fertilizer was adde d or not. H ow ever , th er e wa s no
sta tistical differ en ce between th e woo dshavings -ma nure series and th e b est
of th e bagasse seri es.
M ean spathe size- For mean spathe size, fr esh bagass e without fertilizer
wa s again th e poorest medium, followe d b y 5-month-old b agasse without
fertilizer. In fa ct , bagasse at all stages of decomposition without fertilizer
gave poor results, although statistically th ey did not differ from B2 and D2
(.5- and 13-month-old bagasse with 1 tsp . fertilizer p er 2 months ).
As with stem len gth, 9-month-old b aga sse, fertilized monthly, gave
results as sati sfa ctory as with th e woodshavings -manure control seri es. Th e
bagasse seri es, regardless of decomposition, wh en fertilized monthly,
induced a significant increas e in spathe size over thos e fertilized onc e every
2 months. The differ en ce b etween low est and highest tr eatment means was
almost 2 tim es, which indicates that spathe size is hi ghly responsive to
fertilizer application.
Flower production-Flower production was poorest for unfertilized
bagass e at all stages of decomposition, followed b y thos e fertilized once
eve ry 2 months. Again , with monthly application of fertilizer , even fresh
bagasse gave satisfactory results, indicating th e importance of regular fer-
tilizer applications. Th e woodshavings-manure seri es gave th e best results,
although not statisticall y differ ent from bagass e tr eatments with monthl y
fertilizer application.
z>
T ABLE 2. Resul ts of b agasse-fertilizer expe rime nt, sho wing treatment means in ra nked orde r
for stem len gth, sp athe size , and nu mber of flower s p er plant per yea r ( va riety K arl/l/l/llu )
::l
I~
AO Dl C2 Cl EO El F 'J
a ~
T IIEA T~ I E NTS ° 130 B2 D2 A2 CO DO Bl AI ....
o
Mean stem C
length 15.2 16.1 18 .5 19.1 19.1 19.3 19.8 20 .3 21.6 21.6 22.2 22 .8 23.2 23.7 24 .0 ..,t"
C
f;i

I
NOTE : Mean s not under scored by th c same line arc sign ificantly differ ent at th e 1 percen t I ~ vel.

T HE A T l\lENTS AO BO CO A2 B2 DO D2 Bl C2 EO Al Dl El Cl E2
Mean spathe
size ( L X W ) 8 .2 9.6 9.7 10.7 10.7 12.0 12.3 13.0 14.1 14.2 14.5 1.5.1 1.5 .8 1.5 .9 l S.D

N OTE : Significanc e level same as ab ove .

TH EA T ~IE NT S AO BO CO DO 132 D2 Bl A2 C2 Al Dl EO Cl El F'J

Mean number
of flowers 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5 .1 5" .) . -
-" 5 .3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.7 5 .9 6.1

NOTE: Sign ifican ce level same as ab ove.

° F or ac t ua l t r ea t m e n t s r epr e s en t ed by t he t reat men t sy mbols , s e e tab le I.


I~
8 H AWAII A GHI CULT U HAL E XPEHI ::-.m"T STATIO:\,

Effects of Leaf Pruning


A ge ne ra l pr acti ce of a nth urium growe rs is to include three or four
lea ves with each d ozen flowers deli ver ed to the florist or consume r. Exces-
sive pruning of th e lea ves for thi s purpose ma y b e detrimental to the pl ant
in subs equent growth and flowering. For this reason it wa s considered
impor tant to det ermin e th e least number of lea ves necessar y for a pl ant to
perform satisf ac tori ly.
A leaf-pruning experime nt con sisting of retaining two, three, four, five,
and six leaves per plant, and an unprun cd plant, wa s design ed an d initiated
in January, 19.57, on th e Man oa cam p us. F ive pl ants eac h p er plot of two
commercia l va rieties, Kauma na and N itt a, were pl anted in cem ent po ts in
Jul y, 19.56, and set ra ndo mly on th e benches in the lathhon se. Pl ants wer e
gro wn in woodshavin gs-manure mixt ur e ( .5 :1 ) and fertili zed with Or chid
Organi c F ertilizer at th e rat e of 1 tabl esp oon p er pl ant p er 2 months.
Act ua l leaf prunin g was initiated approximately 6 mo nths after planting
date, and initi al recordi ng of dat a began 3 months after leaf p runing was
initiated . Th e required number of leaves per plant was maintained through-
out th e expe rimental p eri od by p runing th e old est leaves on the da tes set
aside for recordin g new flow ers.
In ta b les 3 and 4 are presented th e tr eat men t m ean s in ranked orde r for
mean Hower ste m len gth , sp athe size, and Hower produ cti on of Kauman a
a nd N itt a va rieties .
M ean stem len gth - A ccordi ng to th e dat a on stem len gth in ta bles :3
and 4, both varieties were a ffected in a simila r manner. In b oth va rieties, r e-
tention of only two or three leaves per plant significantly redu ced th e lengt h
of th e stem. Unprun ed pl an ts prod uced the lon gest flow er stems, b ut
statistically the difference in ste m leng th for plan ts with four, five, and
six lea ves per pl ant was not significant.

M can spathe sizc- T he d at a for spa the size for b oth varieties aga in
sho we d similar tr ends. Size of th e spathe was significantly red uced in pl ants
having only two or three leaves. Unp ru ne d pl ant s gave larger [lowers ,
a lthoug h not differin g statistically from plants havin g five and six lea ves.
The data for both va riet ies indi cat e th at op timum size of flowers ma y be
ob tained wit h a minimu m of five leaves.

Floicer p rod uctioll-Flow er product ion appear s to be less sen sitive to


effects of d iffer ent number of lea ves retain ed on th e pl ant. In th e case of
varie ty N itta, altho ug h th er e was no statistical d iffer en ce b et ween an y of
th e tr eatm ents im po sed, pl an ts wi th two leaves pro d uced th e least nu mber
of flow ers. For the variet y Kaumana, th e m ea n nu mber of flowers, 4.7
flowers per plant p er year, for pl ant s with tw o lea ves, was significantly less
ANTHUR IU::-r CULT UHE 9

TABLE 3. Effect s of dif fer en t number of leaves retained on a n thu rium plants
upon stem length , spathe size, and How er producti on (variety KaulI/lIII(J )

x ux rus n OF LEAVES LEFT ON PLA~""

PH UNI N G T HEAT~ lENTS 2 3 4 ,5 6 Unpruned


M ean flower stem
len gth in inches 20.3 21.8 23.9 24.7 25.4 2.5.9

N OTE : Mean s not und er scored hy th e sa me lin e are sign ificant ly


di llcrcnt at th e 5 percent lev el.

Nu ~ r BE H OF LEA VES LEFT ON PL A N T

P I\ UN ING T HEAT~ IENTS 3 4 5


Mean spa the size
(L X W ) 11.8 13.3 15.4 16.2 16.8 17.7

NOTE: St ati st ica l treatment sa me as abo ve.

N U~lB E n O F LEA VES LEFT ON PLA N T

PI\ U NI N G T HEAT ~ lEN T S 2 4 6 5 3 Unpnm ed


Mean number of flow ers
per pl ant per year 4.7 5 .5 5.7 5.8 5.8 S.9

NOTE: Sta tistica l tr eatm ent same as above.

than th e means for other tr eatm ents, Th ere were no sta tistical differen ces
am ong all other tr eatments.
Effects of Different Shade Levels
It is a well-established fa ct that an thurium p lants do not thrive well
under high light int en sit y and that some shade mu st b e provid ed for sati s-
factory grow th and flowering. Since experimental evide nce relative to th e
degr ce of shade necessar y for optimum performan ce is lacking, an experi-
ment was design ed to det ermine th e relative degrec of shad e b est suited
for growth and flowering of th e an thurium.
For thi s purpose, a saran clothhouse ( see fig. 1 ) providing four sha de
levels ( 7.5, 6:3, 47, and 30 p er cent ac tual shade ) an d a lathhouse with tw o
sha de levels ( 7.5 and 6.5 p er cent shade at midday ) were used. Th e shad e
levels in th e saran clothhonse were indu ced by differ ent-meshed sara n cloth
wh ich provid ed th e sam e relati ve shade at each level th rou ghout th e day.
10 H AWA II A GRI CULTUH AL EXPEI\I:1\IE;\T ST AT IO:"

T A BL E 4. Eff ect s of d iffer ent number of leaves ret ained on anthurium plants
up on stem len gth, spa the size, and flow er p roducti on (variety N itta )

NUM BE R OF LEAVES LEFT ON P LA~T

P HUN ING TH E ATM E NTS 2 3 6 4 5 U np r unc d

Mean flower ste m


length in inches 23.0 24 .0 25.4 25.8 26. 0 26.8

NOTE: Means no t underscored by th e sam e line are significantly


d ifferen t at the 5 per cent level.

N UMD ER O F L EA VES L E FT 0:-< PLANT

PR UN I:-<G T IIEAT:' IE~TS 3 4 6 5 Unp rune d


Mean spathe size
(L x W ) 14 .1 15.7 18 .7 19.5 19.9 20 .0

NOTE: Mean s no t underscored by th e same lin e ar e significantly


differ ent at th e 1 p ercent level.

NUM IlER OF LEAVE S LEFT O N I' L A X T

P R UN IN G T HEA T MEXTS 6 4 3 Unpru nc d 5


Mean number of flowers
p er plant p er year 5 .1 5 .4 5 .4 5 .6 5.6 5.8

N OTE : Means underscored by th e sam e lin e are not significantly


different.

Th e lathhouse shade percent ages were taken at midday and sha de was
provided by calculated spacing of 1 X 3 laths. .
Ten plants per treatm ent of th e variety Kaumana were planted indi-
vid ually in cement pots and randomized on benches under each of th e
shade levels. All plants were grown in woodshavings-manure mixtur e (5:1 )
and fertili zed with Orchid Organic F ertilizer at th e rate of 1 tablespoon
per plant every 2 months. Recording of data was initiated approximat ely
6 months aft er planting and was continued for 1 complete year.
Mean flower stem length-In tabl e 5 ar e presented th e six tr eatm ent
means in rank ed order for th e three categories measur ed. F lower stem
length was po sitively associated with the degree of shade. Shortest stems
were found in th e light est shade, and with an increase in shade, th ere was
a corresponding increase in length. Fi gure 2 shows flower stem length
ANTIIumUM CU LTURE 11

F IGU HE 1. Saran clothhouse with four shade levels: 30, 47 , 63, and 75 percent shade .

under four shade levels in th e saran clothho use , Th e tr eatment mean for th e
30 percent shade was th e only on e significantly differ ent from th c oth ers .
However, in pract ical terms, th e range of shade level provided by 63 to 75
p ercent appears to b e desirable for stem elongation.
The stem len gth for th e 7.5 percent shade ( Iathhouse ) was slightly longer
than for th e same shade level in th e saran clothhouse . This may b e explaine d
on th e basis that th e lathhouse shade wa s 75 p ercent onl y at midday and
slightly shadier at other tim es of th e day. However , thi s differ en ce was
not statistically significant.
Mean spath e size- Data for m ean spathe size presented in table 5 indi-
cate significant difference only b etween th e two extreme s, 30 and 75 p er-
cent shade levels. Practically, this differ ence of 2.4 is rather small. Spathe
size does not appear to b e influ enced gr eatly by th e light intensities imposed
upon this variety in this experiment.
Mean flower produ ction-The treatment m eans for mean number of
flow ers per plant p er year, given in table 5, sh ow a revers ed tr end. In ge n-
era l, th ere was a reduction in flow er producti on with increas e in sha de.
The m ean number of 4.7 flowers per plant p er ye ar under 75 p ercent shade
( Iathhouse ) is significantly less than th e mean numbers for 75, 30, and 47
12 HAWAII AG HICU LTUHA L E X l' E HLMEN T ST AT ION

T ABLE .5. Treatm ent m ean s in ranked order for ste m len gth , spa the size, and
in terva l b et w een flow er in g for pl a n ts exp ose d to d iffe re nt su n lig h t
in tensi ties ( va riety Kallll w lllI )

SIlADE LEVELS I I': PEIICENT


SIIAD E TIIEAT;\lENTS 30 47 63 6.50 7.5 75 0
F low er stem len gth
( inc he s) 16.8 I D.2 21. 4 22 .2 22 .8 23.1

NOTE: Mean s no t un d e rscored b y th e sa m e lin e a re signific an tly


d iffe ren t at th e 1 p er cent level.

SIIADE LEVELS IN PEIICENT


SIIADE TIIEAT;\lENTS 30 63 47 75
~/ ca n sp ath e size
(L X W) I D.3 20.0 20.0 20.7 20 .8 2 1.7

N OTE: Sign ifica n ce level same as above.

SIIADE LEVELS IN PEIIGENT


SIIADE TIIEAT;\IENTS 7o- 0 63 7.5 30 47
M ea n nnmb er of flow er s
p er p la nt p er year 4 .7 4.D 5.4 5.8 .5.8 6 .0

NOTE: M eans n ot underscor ed b y th e sa me lin e a re sign ifica n t


at th e 5 p er cent level.

° Sh a d e l e v el s in l a t h h ou s e .

per cent shade levels in th e sara n clothhouse. Sixty-five per cent sha de in
th e lathhou se also gave poor results. Th e fa ct that th e sam e vari et y grown
in th e same kind of medium and in th e same sha de level in th e lathhouse
for th e medi a test ( see table 1, tr eatment E 2, Hower producti on ) produced
an averag e of six flowers p er pl ant p er year indi cat es th at some unknown
fa ctor or factors affect ed th e growt h of th e plants advers ely in th e lath-
house-grown pl ants for th e light inten sit y study.
Considering th e flower pro d uct ion for th e shade levels in th e saran
clothhouse only, th er e app ears to b e an increase in producti on wi th increase
in light int en sit y. However , th e quality of th e plants and Hower s is affected
adversely. Under 30 and 47 p er cent sha de, plants appea red stunted with
yellow and occasionally burn t leaves. T his is clea rly shown in figure 3.
F I G UHE 2 . Diffe ren ees in flower stem len gth indu ced hy th e four sha de leve ls in t h e
sar a n clothho usc, Lef t to right: 30, 4 7, 63 , and 7.'5 percen t shad e, respecti vely .
14 IlA WAll AGRICULTUHAL EXl'EHL\lE"T STATION

Thi s photograph was taken during th e winter months wh en less b urning


occurs. The old er leaves of p lants in th e 30 and 47 p er cent sha de show
burnt effects. Although not sho wn in th e photograph, spa the color was
somewha t affecte d with loss of gloss, especially in th e 30 p er cent shade.
Effects of Gibberellic Acid on Growth and Flow ering
Gibbe rellic acid has been shown to stim ulate grow th an d flowerin g of
man y plants. Based on th e premi se th at if ant huri um plants could b e stim-
ulat ed to grow more rapidly in terms of leaf production, th en flower pro-
du ction wo uld also be increa sed .
To d etermine th e ac tual effects of gibber ellic acid on anthuri um, an
expe rime nt consisting of four concentra tions and two frequ en cies of appli-
cation was initi at ed. Conce ntrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm were
applied once and four tim es a t monthly int er vals. Eac h tr eatment con-
sisted of ten relati vely uniform plants grown individually in ceme nt pots
randomi zed on b en ch es in th e lathhouse under 67 p er cent shade. These
p lants wer e gro wn in woodshavings-manure mixture ( 5 :1 ) for several
months before application of tr eatments.
D ata accumulat ed ove r a period of 5 months are summa rized and pre-
sented in tabl e 6. Vari an ce ana lysis showed no real differ en ces between
treatment means for th e three charac ters measured.

TABLE 6. Treatm en t m ean s for stem len gth , spa the size , an d flower p rodu ction
of p lant s t reat ed wit h gibb er ellic acid (varie ty Karwul/l a )

ONE APPLICATION ~ [O ;o.;TIILY

Concen tration (ppm )


Ch eck 10 25 50 100 10 25 50 100

Stem len gth ( in.) 25.8 2.5.4 26 .1 26 .5 26.3 26.5 26 .9 26 .9 25.8


Spa the size (sq. in. ) 19.6 20.1 20..5 21.3 20.1 19.9 19 .0 2 1.6 21.2
F lower prod uc tion
( Pe r plant per yea r) 5.2 5 .2 4 .9 5.5 5.0 5.0 5 .1 4 .8 5 .3
NOTE: No sign ificant di ffer ence between m ean s for all categ ories.

Avera ge stem length of the check plants wa s no d iffer ent from th e mean
len gth of an y tr eatment. Plants sprayed four tim es showed no incr ease in
elongation over plants sprayed onl y once.
Gibber ellic acid at the conce ntra tions and frequen cies used in thi s
expe riment did not in crease th e size of th e sp athes. Flower production was
also unaffect ed b y an y of th e tr eatments imposed under th e cond itions of
thi s expe rime nt.
>-
d
I
o
~
§
t'1

,."
"

F IG URE 3. Photograph of plant s rep resentin g each of th e shade levels in the saran c1othhouse. Note the bu rnt leaves of plants in
the 30 and 47 p ercent sha de and also the luxuriant growth of th e plant in the 75 percent sha de.

......
CJl
16 H AWAll AGHICULT UHAL EXPEHI" m XT STA TIO"

Eff ects of Co ntaine rs on Flowering


A min or expe riment in volvin g th e culture of pl ants in ceme nt pots and
in cans wa s cond ucte d to det ermin e wh ether th er e wer e any grow th diff er -
ences resu lting from th e use of th ese two typ es of containe rs. Th e ceme nt
pots wer e approximately 10 in ch es in diam et er and 11 in ch es deep , while
th e cans were approximately 10 in ch es in diam et er and 13 inch es deep.
E ach containe r was pl anted with one plant , usin g coarse tr ee-fern fib ers as
the growing medium. E ach pl ant received L'tahl csp oon of Orchid Organic
F ertilizer once eve ry 2 months. Ni ne pl ants per treatment of th e variety
A saku ra Pink wer e paired on th e basis of plant size and floweri ng cycle
and gro wn under 75 per cent shade in th e lathhou se. D at a were ana lyzed
by th e paired com parison method usin g th e t test, and th e summa rized
resul ts ar e pr esented in table 7. Although th e differ en ce in How er produc-
tion bet ween cem ent pot- and can-cultur ed plants was statisti ca lly signifi -
cant at th e 5 p er cent lev el, th e diff er en ce of 0.17 flow er p er p lant per year
is too small to h e of practi ca l valu e.

T AIl L E 7. N umber of flowers pe r pl ant per yea r for pla nts grown
in ce me nt pot s and in ca ns (variety Asakura Pillk )

N U:' I IlEH O F F LOWE HS


C O NTA INE H P E H P LANT P EH Y E AH

Cem ent pot 4.89


Can 5 .06
NOT E : D ifference is significa nt a t the 5 p ercent level.

F or pr acti cal purp oses, altho ugh cans are favo red sta tistically, th e choice
of conta ine r sho uld b e based upon factors suc h as ava ilah ility and cost..

DISCUSSION AND CONCLU SIONS


A p reviou s medi a test ( 2) sho wed that h agasse was a good material for
growing anthuri ums, T he results of furth er tests in volv ing the effec ts
of hagasse at diff erent stages of decompositi on rep ort ed her ein confirm
previous conclusions. It was foun d th at fresh b agasse m ay h e used satis-
factoril y as a medium for anthurium cu ltur e, provid ed add ition al fertilizer
is applied . T he ra nked order of tr eat ment m ean s give n in tabl e 1 for th e
three ca teg or ies m easur ed shows that, in gen era l, fresh b agasse without
fer tilizer wa s the poorest, followed b y b agasse at an y stage of decomposi -
tion hut fe rtilize d only once p er 2 months. It may h e conclud ed from these
results th at for optim um grow th and flow er ing, bagasse is a good med ium
wh er ever th is materi al is ava ilab le in large quantities at low cost, prov ided
ANTIIURI U),[ C ULTURE 17

a m onthly fer tilizer schedule is follow ed. In areas wh ere bagasse is not
rea dily available, tree fern or woodshavings may b e used with eq ual satis-
fac tion , provided a well-d efined fertilizer sched ule is practiced .
Amon g th e three character s studied, spa the size and flower production
showed a high degr ee of sensitivity to th e tr eatments. Monthly applica-
tion of fertilizer , regardless of th e stage of decomposition of th e baga sse,
gr ea tly inc reas ed spath e size and flow er production . Th e woodshav-
ings- ma nur e mix tur e (5 :1 ) use d as a control in this exp erime nt ha s b een
foun d to b e a highl y satisfactory medium for anthurium culture.
A leaf-p ru ning experiment showed that flower production was least
affected by th e variations in th e number of lea ves retained on th e pl ants.
This indi cates that growth in term s of flow er produ ction wa s not affect ed
by th e number of leaves on th e p lant. Regardless of th e tr eatment, excep t
for th e two- leav ed tr eatment on th e vari ety Kauma na, the rate of leaf p ro-
duction and, h en ce, flower production was th e sam e.
Flower stem len gth and spathe size wer e more sensitive to th e effects
of number of leaves retained on th e plants. Co nsidera b le differ en ces were
noted in st em len gth and spathe size of pl ants with two leaves and th ose
with more than four leaves. Efficien cy of th e pl ant is improved with
four to six leav es p er plant, but an y furth er in crea se in th e number of
leav es do es not seem to increase effi ciency as shown b y th e p erforman ce of
unpruned p lants.
Shade level studies sho wed that in genera l th er e is an in crease in ste m
len gth and spa the size with increas ing shade. Significant differ en ces w ere
noted in stem len gth and spa the size b etween pl ants grown in 30 and 75
per cent sha de levels.
F low er production increased with gre ater light int en sity , altho ug h th ere
was no statistica l differ en ce in flower production of plants grow n in 30 and
75 p er cent shade in th e saran c1othhou se. The low flower produ cti on of
plants in th e 65 and 75 p er cent sha de in th e lathhou se for th e light inten-
sity stud y conflicted with r esul ts ob tained un der th e same light and m edi um
conditions for th e co ntrol series in the bagasse m edia studies. Pr odu cti on
of six flowers per p lant p er yea r for tr eatment E 2 in tabl e 1 indi cat es that
th e 75 p ercent lathhouse shade did not affec t flower production adversel y.
The low producti on shown in table 5 for th e lathhouse shade levels appears
to be affected b y an unknown facto r or factors other than light inten sit y
itself. It ha s alr eady b een menti on ed in p resenting th e results of th e sha d e
level study th at , in spite of th e trend towards in creased flowerin g under
hi gh er light int en siti es, other adv erse effec ts were not ed . Plants becam e
yellow and lea ves wer e fr equ ently burnt. Fl owers lacked th e natural gloss
of th ose gro wn under 63 and 75 p er cent shade levels.
18 HAWAIl A GHI C UL T UH AL EX P E lU MENT STATION

F or optimum perform an ce, as conclu ded from th e dat a in tabl e ,5, th e 75


p er cent sha de level provid ed by saran cloth appea re d to b e b est unde r th e
conditions of th e expe riment. For areas ot he r th an th e vicinity of th e Uni-
versity of H aw aii, Manoa cam p us, where th is expe rime nt was con d uc ted ,
shade levels ranging b et ween 60 and 75 p er cent wo uld most likely b e
a dap tab le, but th e selectio n of a specific shade level for op timum plant
p erform an ce mu st necessari ly b e based up on tr ials within th e various areas .
In th e expe rime nt invo lving th e use of gibber ellic acid to induce grow th
a nd flower ing, no posi tive result s were obtained with th e con cen trations
a nd freq uencies of ap plication used . Th e lack of p ositive effects ma y be d ue
to two reasons: ( a) anthuriums are no t sensitive to gibb erellic ac id stim ula-
tion , and ( b) inad equate conc entra tion and/ or fr equ en cy of application.
These p oints ma y easily b e reso lved b y further tri als usin g hi gh er concen-
trations and /or increa sed fr equen cies of appli cati on.
In th e case of th e experime nt involvin g cem ent p ots and ca ns for grow-
in g anthur iums, th e differ en ce in mean number of flower s b et ween tr eat -
m ents, altho ug h sta tistica lly significa nt at th e 5 p er cent level, appea rs to b e
to o sma ll to influ en ce th e choice of containers . Ec ono mic fa ctors such as
durabilit y, availability, and cost of containe rs would b e of greater value
than th e small differ en ce in flow er produ ction.

SUMMARY
1. Baga sse at an y stag e of decompositi on used in thi s experiment wa s
found to p rom ot e satisfa ctory gro wth and flowerin g of anthuri ums ,
provid ed a monthly fertili zer sched ule was ma intain ed .
2. Size of spathe and number of flowers produ ced per pl ant per yea r were
influen ced considerably b y fertilizer practi ces.
3. A minimum of four leaves per plant appeare d to h e necessar y for opti-
mum growth of anthuriums.
4. Among the three charac ters measured , flow er production was least af-
fected by th e number of lea ves retain ed by a plant.
5. III genera l, ste ms wer e lon ger and spathe size was inc reas ed with in-
creasing shade, while flower producti on wa s in crea sed som ewhat with
d ecr ease in sha de.
6. Under th e conditions of this experiment, sha de levels between 63 a nd
75 p er cent provided by saran cloth gave satisfactory resu lts, taking into
con sid eration th e appearance of th e plants and th e qualit y of th e
flower s produc ed .
ANTHUlUUM CULTUHE 19

7. Gibberellic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm and applied
once a nd four times at m onthly inter vals sh owed no vi sible e ffec ts upon
th e pl ants.
8. The difference in m ean Hower production p er plant p er yea r of pl ants
g rown in cemen t pots an d in cans w as st a tis tica lly significant, favo ring
ca ns, but this d ifference ap pe ared too sm all as a practical b a sis for
se lec tion of con tainers.

LITERATURE CITED
1. D U;,\ CAN, D. B. 1955. :MULTIPLE HAl\'GE AND MULTIPLE l' TESTS. Bio-
m ctri cs 11( 1 ): 1-42.
2. KAl\IEl\IOTO, J-I., and H. Y. NAKASONE. 1953 . EFFECT OF MEDIA ON PHO-
nu crro» OF ANTIIUHlUMS. Hawaii Agr. E xp. Sta. Prog. Notcs No. 94.
3. NAKASONE, H . Y., and I-I. KAMEMOTO. 1957. WOODSIIAVINGS AS A MEDlUl\!
ron ANTIIUHlUl\[S. Hawai i Agr. Exp. Sta. ei re. 53.
UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
COLLEGE OF TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
HONOLULU, HAWAII

LAURENCE H. SNYDER
President of the University
MORTON M. ROSENBERG
Dean of the College and
Director of the Experiment Station