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Asynchronous motor braking

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


Method for stopping
pp g the motors

● There are many ways to stop


Speed
Stop order

Controlled stop

Free wheeling
Dynamic braking

Time

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Dynamic braking or hypersynchronous


braking

Torque
Q4 Q1
MOTOR
PHASE ORDER : 1-2-3

Tn
N’n >Ns
Ns
Speed
Nn NN’n
n

Q3 Q2
MOTOR
PHASES ORDER: 1-2-3

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


Hypersynchronous
yp y braking
g

● Braking without specific external device

Rectifier Filter Inverter

D1 D2 D3 T1 T3 T5 Way of energy
L1 Rd
M
L2 Vdc C 3~
L3

D4 D5 D6 T2 T4 T6
Driving load

DC Bus Load

The energy is limited at 1/2 CV² => The capacitor will quickly reach maximum voltage

The energy can also go in the discharge resistor and also in the drive control supply
=> Maximum braking at about 20% Tn

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Hypersynchronous
yp y braking
g

● Example of a cycle with light load


Motor speed DC Bus voltage

Motor torque

Braking
Acceleration St d state
Steady t t (generator)

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


Hypersynchronous
yp y braking
g

● The braking without accessories can be performed in 2 ways:

● BRA = YES : BBraking


ki R Ramp A Auto-adaptation
t d t ti :
●The ramp is automatically change in order not to go over the maximum DC bus
voltage for BRA (a little below the overvoltage DC Bus trip level).

● BRA = DYN_A , Dyn B ou Dyn C (Specific to ATV61 or 71):


●Same thing than with BRA but with special algorithm that enhance losses inside
the motor and cables Idem to increase the braking torque
torque.

●This king of braking must remain ”exceptional” in the way that the energy is
dissipated in heat inside the motor or cables and repetitive use can lead to
overheat for both motor and cables.
●Example : A 400kw fan stops in free wheeling in 500s and with BRA enabled
stops in 200s. With Dyn C braking, stop is achieved in 50s. (1 stop per day).

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Hypersynchronous
yp y braking
g

● Braking with BRA enabled:

DC Voltage
g Vdc Overvoltage (OBF)

Vdc max

Speed
If BRA active, no trip but a longer stop time

St order
Stop d If BRA disabled,
disabled trip of the
drive and free wheeling

Set ramp (DEC)


Time

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


Hypersynchronous
yp y braking
g

● DynA, B or C braking with ATV61 et 71


● ex: motor/drive 7.5 kW, SVCU law
● inertia of 8 time motor inertia
● Ramp of 0.1s, deceleration from 60hz to 0Hz

BRA=YES braking time 6.5s BRA=DYNA braking time =2.5s

Speed

Torque

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

External braking
g device: resistor

● Braking with a braking resistor


Rectifier bridge Inverter

D1 D2 D3 T1 T3 T5 Braking
Tf
L1
M
L2 PA C
L3
3~
PB
D4 D5 D6 T2 T4 T6

Rb: Braking Load

resistor Rb

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


External braking
g device: resistor

● Example of a cycle with high inertia and braking resistor

DC bus voltage
Motor speed

Motor torque
Rb current

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

External braking
g device: REGEN

● Braking with network braking unit (NBU)


Rectifier Filter Inverter

D1 D2 D3 T1 T3 T5

L1 M
L2 C
L3 3~

D4 D5 D6 T2 T4 T6

Load
d

T1’ T3’ T5’

Energy back to the network

T2’
T2 T4’
T4 T6’
T6
B ki iinverter
Braking t
Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking
External braking
g device: REGEN

● Example of a cycle with high inertia and network braking unit

M t speed
Motor d

DC bus voltage

Motor torque
q
Regenerated current (*3)

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Other topologies
p g

● Active Front End (sine wave rectifier)

Rectifier Filter Inverter

T1’ T3’ T5’ T1 T3 T5

L1 M
L2 C
L3 3~

T2’
T2 T4’
T4 T6’
T6 T2 T4 T6

Load

Sine wave current consumed and regenarated on the network


At PF=1 (reactive power compensation available)

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking


Active Front End

● Example of a cycle with high inertia and AFE

Motor speed

DC bus voltage reguled at 600V

Network current (*10) consumed then regenerated

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Dynamic
y braking:
g Conclusion

● Without any accessory


● Benefits : No extra cost for the customer
● Limitations: limited to 20% of torque (Value can change according to the drive power
but decreasing with the power)
● With a braking resistor
● Benefit : Little extra cost and possibility to brake at 100% of torque or more
● Limitations:
Li it ti wasting
ti energy, allll iis ttransformed
f d iin h
heat.
t
● With a REGEN module
● Benefit : Efficiency, possibility to connect modules in parallel, less thermal losses
● Limitations: Beware during running on emergency generator or islanded network:
Risk of important overvoltage or overspeed of the generators.
● No network = No braking (Beware of emergency stop regulations)
● With AFE
● Benefit : No more harmonics problems, the current is quite sinus with a possibility to
compensate the network cos φ (avoid a capacitor bank)
● Limitations: Same as REGEN + beware of EMC due to high frequencies on the
network side
Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking
Example
p of a return on invest
● For hoisting
● Power Pf = 100kW
Braking time per cycle tb = 10s
Number of cycles per hour n = 30/ h
Operating hours per day h = 18h / d
Working days per year d = 350d / y
Energy costs K = 0,1 EUR / kWh
NBU cost VW3A7210 - 120kW Rk= 18800 eur
RB cost VW3A7814 - 112kW Ck= 7550 eur
AFE cost VW3A7250-260-265 – 120kW Ak= 9970 eur
● Energy savings per year
100kW ⋅ 10s ⋅ 30 / h ⋅ 18h / d ⋅ 350d / y
W = 52500 kWh / yyear W =
3600
● Costs savings per year:

E = 5250 eur / year E =W ⋅K E = 52500 kWh / yyear ⋅ 0,1 eur / kWh

● R.O.I : could be shorter thanks to environmental policy or price agreement


REGEN A = 2.14 years  26 months ( RK − CK ) (18800eur − 7550eur) ⋅ 3600s
A= A=
PB ⋅ tB ⋅ n ⋅ BT ⋅ K ⋅ F 100kW ⋅10s ⋅ 30 / h ⋅18h / d ⋅ 0,1eur
AFE A = 0.5 year  6 months
Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking

Example
p of a return on invest

● For a conveyor
● Power Pf = 10kW
Braking time per cycle tb = 5s
Number of cycles per hour n = 30/ h
Operating hours per day h = 22h / d
Working days per year d = 350d / y
Energy costs K = 0,1 EUR / kWh
NBU cost VW3A7203 – 11 kW RK = 5435 eur
RB cost VW3A7710 - 25kW CK = 2860 eur

● Energy savings per year 100kW ⋅ 5s ⋅ 30 / h ⋅18h / d ⋅ 350d / y


W=
3600
W = 3208 kWh / year

● Costs savings per year :


E =W ⋅K E = 3208 kWh / year ⋅ 0,1 eur / kWh
E = 321 eur / year

● R.O.I : could be shorter thanks to environmental p


policy
y or p
price agreement
g
(RK − CK ) (5435eur − 2860eur) ⋅ 3600s
A = 8.02 years A=
PB ⋅ tB ⋅ n ⋅ BT ⋅ K ⋅ F
A=
10kW ⋅ 5s ⋅ 30 / h ⋅ 22h / d ⋅ 0,1eur

Schneider Electric - Training – Induction motors braking