Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

http://www.jstage.jst.go.

jp/browse/jpsa
doi:+*.,+.+/jpsa.*+**0.
Copyright ῍ ,*++, Japan Poultry Science Association.

Rattana Nukreaw+, Chaiyapoom Bunchasak+, Kanchana Markvichitr+, Apassara Choothesa,,


Somkiert Prasanpanich+ and Wiriya Loongyai+
+
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
,
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

This study was conducted to evaluate the e#ects of adding methionine (Met) to low-protein diets and subsequent
re-feeding on the growth performance, serum lipid profile, body composition and carcass quality in male broiler chicks during
+ῌ., days of age. During the starter-grower period (+ῌ,+ days of age), 2** male broiler chicks (Ross -*2) were divided into
/ groups and given the following diets: +) positive control diet (all nutrients meet the requirements of the strain), ,) negative
control diet (low-protein diet in which all amino acids meet the requirements of the strain, except Met), -) negative control
diet supplemented with Met to meet the total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) requirement at +**ῌ, .) negative control diet
supplemented with Met to meet the TSAA requirement at +*/ῌ, and /) negative control diet supplemented with Met to meet
the TSAA requirement at ++*ῌ. During the finisher period (,,ῌ., days of age), all groups were fed a diet containing the
same nutrients and according to the recommendations for the strain. At Day ,+, adding Met to the low-protein diet resulted
in a similar body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) to that of the positive control group. Feed intake in the +*/ῌ
TSAA group significantly increased compared to that in the positive control and negative control groups (Pῌ*.*/). Met
supplementation in the low-protein diet significantly improved the protein e$ciency of chicks (Pῌ*.*+), while Met deficiency
increased feed cost per body weight gain (Pῌ*.*+). Abdominal fat contained in chicks fed the low-protein diet was
significantly increased, although Met supplementation slightly decreased the abdominal fat. In the ++*ῌ TSAA group,
triglyceride in serum was significantly increased (Pῌ*.*+), while low density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum was
significantly depressed (Pῌ*.*+). After the re-feeding phase (at Day ., of age), the growth performance of the negative
control group was still significantly poorer than that of other groups (Pῌ*.*/). Adding Met to the low-protein diet
significantly improved the protein e$ciency ratio compared to the positive and negative control groups (Pῌ*.*/). The body
compositions and abdominal fat of broiler chickens did not significantly di#er among the treatments (P῍*.*/). The carcass
yield, breast meat and wings of the ++*ῌTSAA group were significantly higher than those of the negative control group (P
ῌ*.*/). The results indicate that reducing the protein concentration with Met supplementation during +ῌ,+ days of age, then
re-feeding with a conventional diet is an appropriated tool for improving overall protein utilization and slightly reduces the
production cost.

Key words: body composition, carcass, chicks, compensatory, low-protein, methionine


J. Poult. Sci., .2: ,,3ῌ,-2, ,*++
῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎῎

of broiler chickens (Leeson and Summers, +33+). The


Introduction
negative e#ects of using a low-protein diet can be pre-
Feeding low-protein diets clearly reduces feed costs vented by adding supplementary synthetic amino acids to
(Cauwenberghe and Burnham, ,**+), and improves pro- the diet to improve the amino acid pattern balance
tein e$ciency, whilst increasing fat accumulation (Faria (Khajali and Moghaddam, ,**0; Saki et al., ,**1).
Filho et al., ,**-) and decreasing the growth performance Methionine (Met) is the primary limiting amino acid in
Received: July 2, ,*+*, Accepted: June ,,, ,*++
poultry diets, particular in a corn-soybean meal based diet
Released Online Advance Publication: July ,/, ,*++ (Jianlin et al., ,**.). Several researches have reported
Correspondence: C. Bunchasak, Department of Animal Science, Fac- that the requirement for this amino acid is substantial but
ulty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. variable as a result of changes in the genetics, nutrition
(E-mail: agrchb@hotmail.com) and management of broiler chicks (Kalinowski et al.,
230 Journal of Poultry Science, .2 (.)

,**-). Met acts as a lipotropic agent through its role as an decreased by +῍ every - days until a final temperature of
amino acid in balancing protein, or through its role as a ,/῍ was reached. The lighting management and vaccina-
methyl donor and it is incorporated into carnitine and tions were provided according to commercial practice.
creatine (Kalinowski et al., ,**-). Focusing on fat metab- Each pen was equipped with one hanging feeder and three
olism, Bunchasak (+331) showed that the serum tri- nipple drinkers. The broiler chicks were allowed access to
glyceride level tends to be decreased, and the breast meat water and feed ad libitum throughout the experimental
triglyceride content is significantly reduced when Met is period.
added to diets, thus Met may have the potential to disturb Experimental Design and Diet
the ability of lipid transporters such as lipoproteins (liver A completely randomized design was used. Five exper-
into blood). imental diets (mash form) were provided as follows; +)
In terms of economic returns, a low-protein diet supple- positive control diet (providing ,,ῌ CP during +ῌ+* days
mented with synthetic amino acids is still less e$cient than of age and ,+ῌ CP during ++ῌ,+ days of age; all nutrient
the conventional diet (Hussein et al., ,**+). Improved requirements were adjusted as per strain recommenda-
growth performance due to amino acid supplementation tion), ,) negative control diet (providing +3ῌ and +2ῌ
can be inconsistent (Keshavarz and Austic, ,**.), which CP without Met supplementation, but other essential
may be due to several factors such as inadequate knowl- amino acids were according to strain requirements), -)
edge about essential amino acid requirements, the amino negative control diet supplemented with Met to meet
acid content of feed ingredients, the digestibility and TSAA requirement at +**ῌ, .) negative control diet
bioavailability of amino acids in feed ingredients, and the supplemented with Met to meet TSAA requirement at
proper ratio among essential amino acids in a low-protein +*/ῌ, and /) negative control diet supplemented with
diet. Moreover, Takahashi et al. (+33.) reported that at Met to meet TSAA requirement at ++*ῌ. Except dietary
,+ days of age, maximum performance cannot be achieved CP and Met, all nutrients in low protein diets were for-
by feeding broilers a low-protein diet supplemented with mulated according to the recommendations of the strain.
amino acids, because young chicks are more sensitive to The broiler chicks were fed dietary treatments from + to
amino acid inadequacy than older birds. This means that ,+ days of age. Subsequently, all chicks were fed a diet
su$cient amino acid intake during the starter period does containing +3ῌ CP and -,,,/ ME kcal/kg of energy
not always achieve maximal growth performance, which (according to the recommendations of the strain) during
depends on duration of feeding low-protein, age, degree of the finisher period (,,ῌ., days of age). The feed formulas
protein reduction as well as environmental conditions. and nutrients contained in the diet are shown in Table +.
In light of the fact that many studies have reported im- The supplemented levels of Met are presented in Table ,.
provements in feed e$ciency during compensatory growth The total sulfur amino acid/Lysine and Met/Lysine ratio
in restricted-refed broilers (Zubair and Leeson, +330), the are shown in Table -. The quantities of Met supplementa-
concept of feeding a low-protein diet with Met supple- tion are shown in Table ..
mentation during the starter-grower period merits investi- Feed samples were collected and subsequently ground
gation along with associated compensatory responses in using a +-mm screen in a grinder. All diets were analyzed
order to address the inconsistent e#ects of such a diet. for protein and ether extract according to AOAC (,***)
Recently, moreover, Azarnik et al. (,*+*) recommended methods. The amino acid composition of positive control
that supplementing a low-protein diet with amino acids and negative control diets in starter and grower periods
during feed restriction may partially correct the depres- was analyzed by Amino Acids Analyzer (AminoTac
sion in the growth performance of broiler after re-feeding. JEOL model JLC-/**/V [JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan]).
Therefore, this study focused on the e#ects of Met Growth Performance
supplementation in a low-protein diet during starter- The body weight and feed intake of the chicks were
grower periods and consequent re-feeding during the finis- measured weekly. Subsequently, protein intake, protein
hing period on the growth performance, lipid profile, body e$ciency, ADG and FCR were calculated from these
composition and carcass yields of male broiler chickens. data. Feed cost per body weight gain was estimated from
the value of FCR multiplied by feed cost. Mortality was
Materials and Methods
checked daily for calculation of the mortality rate.
Animal and Managements Sampling Procedures
Eight hundred male broiler chicks (Ross -*2) were used At ,+ days of age, after overnight feed deprivation, all
in this trial. The study was conducted in the animal re- chicks were weighed. Eight chicks (one chick per pen)
search station of the Department of Animal Science were randomly selected from each treatment for collection
(Bangkok). The chicks were divided into / treatment of blood from the wing vein and then sacrificed using CO,
groups and each treatment group consisted of 2 replica- asphyxiation in an atmosphere of less than ,ῌ oxygen (air
tions of ,* chicks each. The chicks were kept in floor pens displaced by CO,) for +./ῌ,.* min. Subsequently, the liver
(*.*3 m, floor space per bird) that were located in an and abdominal fat (including fat surrounding gizzard,
evaporative cooling house system during +ῌ., days of age. Cabel et al., +321) of each bird were collected, weighed
The temperature was set at -,῍ at day-old and then was and stored at ῌ,*῍ until used for chemical analysis.
Nukreaw et al.: Supplementation of Methionine in Low-protein Diet 231

Table +. Composition of the experimental diets and chemical analysis


Amount

Ingredient Positive Negative Positive Negative Conventional


control diet control diet control diet control diet diet
(+ῌ+* days) (+ῌ+* days) (++ῌ,+ days) (++ῌ,+ days ) (,,ῌ., days)
(ῌ)
Corn /.4210 0,4-.* //4-33 0,43-+ 0*4,.
Rice bran oil +41*- +4**+ .4**, -4,11 -4,3
Soybean meal -04+3. ,24/3- -.4+1, ,04/1, ,/4.-
Full fat soybean meal ,4*** ,4*** ,4*** ,4*** 14**
Monodicalcium phosphate ,4-+- ,4-2/ ,4*., ,4++. +43+
(P ,+ῌ, Ca +0ῌ)
Lime stone +4-+* +4--* +4+10 +4+30 +4+-
Salt *4,+* *4,*3 *4,+/ *4,+- *4,,
L-Lysine *4,32 ῌ *4+*- ῌ ῌ
DL-methionine *4.*3 ῌ *4,3- ῌ *4+3
L-threonine *4*22 *4,+- ῌ *4++2 ῌ
Premix *4/** *4/** *4/** *4/** *4/*
Sacox *4*/* *4*/* *4*/* *4*/* *4*/
Antioxidant *4*/* *4*/* *4*/* *4*/* *4*/
Corn starch ῌ +4-,3 ῌ *432* ῌ
Total +**4** +**4** +**4** +**4** +**4**
Feed cost/kg (Thai Baht) +04,, +.422 +04,/ +/4++ +/43*
Chemical composition,
calculated (analyzed)
Crude protein (ῌ) ,,4** ῎,-4..῏ +34** ῎+24-1῏ ,+4** ῎,+4.*῏ +24** ῎+24/3῏ +34** ῎+34*0῏
Energy (ME) kcal/kg -5*+* -5*+* -5+1/ -5+1/ -5,,/
Ether extract (ῌ) .401 ῎.4//῏ .4+3 ῎.4**῏ 043. ῎14/.῏ 04.. ῎04,+῏ 14,0 ῎24+*῏
Calcium (ῌ) +4** +4*+ *43* *43+ *42/
Avail. phosphorus (ῌ) *4/* *4/+ *4./ *4./ *4.,
Lysine (ῌ) +4.. ῎+4.*῏ +4*, ῎+4*0῏ +4,- ῎+4.*῏ *430 ῎*430῏ +4*, ῎+4*/῏
Total sulfur amino acid (ῌ) +4*3 ῎+4**῏ *40, ῎*412῏ *43/ ῎*43*῏ *4/3 ῎*4/.῏ *42* ῎*411῏
* DL-methionine (ῌ) *41. ῎*40-῏ *4-* ῎*4,/῏ *40+ ῎*4/+῏ *4,3 ῎*4,.῏ *4.2 ῎*4.-῏
Threonine (ῌ) *43- ῎*42.῏ *43. ῎*42+῏ *42+ ῎*41/῏ *42+ ῎*41/῏ *41- ῎*402῏
Arginine (ῌ) +4/, ῎+4.0῏ +4-* ῎+4,,῏ +4./ ῎+4.,῏ +4,, ῎+4+/῏ +4,3 ῎+4,.῏
Isoleucine (ῌ) *432 ῎*43.῏ *42. ῎*42*῏ *43. ῎*43-῏ *42* ῎*41,῏ *42. ῎*413῏
Leucine (ῌ) +42. ῎+42+῏ +40. ῎+4/3῏ +411 ῎+411῏ +4/2 ῎+4.2῏ +40/ ῎+40*῏
Valine (ῌ) +4*1 ῎+4*/῏ *43- ῎*43-῏ +4*, ῎+4*0῏ *422 ῎*42.῏ *43- ῎*43,῏

Premix: vitamin A +,,***,*** IU, vitamin D- -,***,*** IU, vitamin E +/,*** mg, vitamin K- +,/** mg, vitamin B+ +,/** mg, vita-
min B, /,/** mg, vitamin B0 ,,*** mg, vitamin B+, +* mg, nicotinic acid ,/,*** mg, D-calcium pantothenate +,,*** mg,
folic acid /** mg, biotin +,* mg, manganese 2* g, zinc 0* g, iron .* g, copper 2 g, iodine *.*/ g, cobalt *.+* g, selenium *.+*
g; filler added to + ton.
* Synthetic DL-methionine was supplied by Sumitomo Chemical, Japan.
(῍) Analytical analysis value.

Table ,. Dietary Met supplementation levels

Positive Negative control diet (Low-protein diets)


control Non- +**ῌ +*/ῌ ++*ῌ
diet addition TSAA TSAA TSAA
Starter period (+ῌ+* days of age)
Met (g/+** kg diet) .*3 ῌ .20 /-2 0*+
TSAA requirement (ῌ) +4*3 *40+1 +4*3 +4+. +4,*
Grower period (++ῌ,+ days of age)
Met (g/+** kg diet) ,3- ῌ -1* .+3 .03
TSAA requirement (ῌ) *43/* *4/23 *43/* *4331 +4*./
232 Journal of Poultry Science, .2 (.)

Table -. Total sulfur amino acid/lysine and Met/Lysine ratios in experimental diets

Positive Negative control diet (Low-protein diets)


control Non- +**ῌ +*/ῌ ++*ῌ
diet addition TSAA TSAA TSAA
Starter period (+ῌ+* days of age)
TSAA/Lys ratio *41/0 *40*/ *41/0 *413+ *42--
Met/Lys ratio *4/+, *4,3. *4/-3 *4/1. *40+2
Grower period (++ῌ,+ days of age)
TSAA/Lys ratio *411, *40+- *411, *42+* *42.3
Met/Lys ratio *4.30 *4,33 *4/,2 *4/01 *40*0

Table .. Quantities of Met supplementation

Positive Negative control diet (Low-protein diets)


control Non- +**ῌ +*/ῌ ++*ῌ
diet addition TSAA TSAA TSAA
Starter period (+ῌ+* days of age)
Additional Methionine (g/+** kg) .*3 *4** .20 /-2 0*+
Corn starch (g/+** kg) *4** +5-,3 ,31 ,./ +2,
Grower period (++ῌ,+ days of age)
Additional Methionine (g/+** kg) ,3- *4** -1* .+3 .03
Corn starch (g/+** kg) *4** 32* ,/3 ,+* +0*

At ., days of age, after overnight feed deprivation, all mbH, Co., Ltd, Germany). Low density lipoprotein-cho-
chickens were weighed. Sixteen chickens (two chickens lesterol (LDL-C) was measured by enzyme colorimetric
per pen) were randomly selected from each treatment method (Test kits of Roche Diagnostics GmbH, USA).
group for sacrifice using CO, asphyxiation for +./ῌ,.* min. The homogenized whole body composition was subse-
Subsequently, the abdominal fat (including fat surround- quently analyzed for moisture, crude protein, total ash
ing the gizzard, Cabel et al., +321) of each bird was col- and fat according to the standard procedures of AOAC
lected and weighed. The carcass yield of a broiler chicken (,***). While, gross energy in the whole body was
was defined as the carcass without blood, feathers and analyzed by bomb calorimeter (e,k isothermal bomb cal-
giblets. Breast (without skin), wings, thighs and drum- orimeter, CAL,k, Digital Data Systems, South Africa).
sticks (with skin) were weighted and expressed as a per- Statistical Analysis
centage of live weight. For body composition analysis, the This experiment had a completely randomized design
whole body of a broiler chicken (including feathers, ab- (CRD) with eight replications. Data were analyzed with
dominal fat and blood) from each replication was ground analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure using the fol-
by an industrial mincer and then homogenized by a blend- lowing model. Significant di#erence among the mean of
er twice. Twenty gram samples of the homogenate were groups was separated by Tukey’s honestly significant
collected into a zip-lock bag and stored at ῎,*ῑ until di#erence test at a /ῌ probability level.
chemical analysis according to the method of AOAC Yij῏m῍Ai῍eij
(,***). When; Yij is the observed response, Ai is the e#ect of diets
Biochemical Analyses and eij is the experimental error; eijῌNID (*, s,).
Liver lipid was measured according to the method of
Results and Discussion
Sutton et al. (+32.). The blood samples were centrifuged
at -,*** rpm for +/ minutes and the serum was decanted Growth Performance
into aseptically treated vials. One gram of liver sample The e#ects of adding Met to low-protein diets during +ῌ
was taken and placed in a test tube with /-fold ethanol: ,+ days of age are given in Table /. The body weight and
acetone (+:+ v/v), then homogenized at ,*,*** rpm for + FCR of the negative control group were significantly
minute, centrifuged at -,*** rpm for +* minutes and the lower than those of other groups (Pῐ*.*+), while adding
supernatant was collected in vials. The samples were Met to low-protein diets significantly improved the growth
stored at ῎,*ῑ until further analyzed. rate and FCR to levels similar to those of the positive
Serum and liver lipid samples were analyzed for tri- control group. Feed intake in the low-protein diet with
glyceride by enzyme colorimetric method (Test kits of the +*/ῌ TSAA group was significantly higher than that
Human Gesllschaft fur Biochemica und Diagnostica of the positive and negative control groups (Pῐ*.*/).
Nukreaw et al.: Supplementation of Methionine in Low-protein Diet 233

Table /. E#ects of adding Met to low-protein diets on productive performance of broiler chicks during +ῌ,+ days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Initial body weight (g/chick) .-420ῌ *4.3 .-420ῌ *4-2 .-420ῌ *4.+ .-420ῌ*4., .-420ῌ *4-3
Body weight (g/chick) 1214/+ῌ-/4-.A 1*+4-.ῌ+341.B 12/4-3ῌ-14,*A 1334,0ῌ+.40-A 1224.0ῌ,14.+A
Body weight gain (g/chick) 1.-40/ῌ-/4.-A 0/14.2ῌ+3422B 1.+4/,ῌ-14/*A 1//4.*ῌ+.40-A 1..40*ῌ,140+A
ADG (g/chick) -/4.+ῌ +403A -+4-+ῌ *43/B -/4-+ῌ +412A -/431ῌ *403A -/4.0ῌ +4-+A
Feed intake (g/chick) +*,.423ῌ,,4,-b +*--4/+ῌ,340*b +*/14..ῌ..4.,ab +*1*4/1ῌ 340/a +*/+4*3ῌ-/4-2ab
Protein e$ciency -4-1ῌ *4+*B -4..ῌ *4*1B -413ῌ *4+,A -42+ῌ *4*0A -42,ῌ *4*2A
Protein intake (g/chick) ,,*4-/ῌ .412A +3+4,*ῌ /4.2B +3/40-ῌ 24,,B +324*/ῌ +412B +3.4./ῌ 04/.B
FCR +4-2ῌ *4*.B +4/1ῌ *4*-A +4.-ῌ *4*.B +4.+ῌ *4*,B +4.+ῌ *4*-B
TSAA intake (g/chick) +*4*3ῌ *4,+B 04+0ῌ *4+1C +*4.+ῌ *4.-B ++4*/ῌ *4+*A ++4-2ῌ *4-2A
Feed cost/body weight gain ,-4*+ῌ *4/,AB ,-4/*ῌ *4,0A ,,41,ῌ *4/-B ,,41*ῌ *4/,B ,,4.3ῌ *4.,B
(baht/kg)
Mortality rate (ῌ) ,4/*ῌ ,401 *4**ῌ *4** +4,/ῌ ,4-+ +421ῌ ,4/2 +421ῌ ,4/2
MeanῌSD.
a and b
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*/).
A, B and C
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*+).

Table 0. E#ects of adding Met to low-protein diets during starter and subsequent re-feeding on growth performance of
broiler chickens during ,,ῌ., days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Body weight gain (g/chicken) +21/4.+ῌ .14*.a +13*401ῌ /+40.b +2-/4,1ῌ//40.ab +2-142,ῌ0-4/0ab +2,34+1ῌ .24,3ab
ADG (g/chicken) 234-*ῌ ,4,.a 2/4,1ῌ ,4.0b 214-3ῌ ,40/ab 214/+ῌ -4*-ab 214+*ῌ ,4-*ab
Feed intake (g) -..24+2ῌ+*,40/a -,314*.ῌ+**41.b -.*2420ῌ2*4.+ab --1043*ῌ/-4,1ab --134/1ῌ+*-40,ab
TSAA intake (g/chick) ,14/2ῌ *42,a ,04-1ῌ *42*b ,14,1ῌ *40.ab ,14*+ῌ *4.-ab ,14*.ῌ *42-ab
Protein intake (g) 0//4+/ῌ +34/*a 0,04..ῌ +34+.b 0.1402ῌ+/4,2ab 0.+40+ῌ+*4+,ab 0.,4+,ῌ +3403ab
FCR +42.ῌ *4*1 +42.ῌ *4*. +420ῌ *4*. +42.ῌ *4*1 +42/ῌ *4*3
Protein e$ciency ,420ῌ *4++ ,420ῌ *4*1 ,42-ῌ *4*/ ,420ῌ *4++ ,42/ῌ *4+-
Feed cost/body weight gain ,34,/ῌ +4+, ,34,2ῌ *41- ,34/.ῌ *4/2 ,34,/ῌ +4+0 ,34.*ῌ +4-2
(baht/kg)
MeanῌSD.
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*+).
a and b

The TSAA intakes of low-protein diets in the +*/ῌ TSAA ῏*.*/).


and ++*ῌ TSAA groups were higher than those in other Overall growth performances of chickens (+ῌ., days of
groups. The protein intake of the positive control group age) are shown in Table 1. Body weight and ADG of the
was the highest (P῎*.*+), while adding Met to low- negative control group were significantly poorest (P῎
protein diets showed better protein e$ciency rates (PER) *.*/), while adding Met to the low-protein diet groups
than the positive and negative control groups (P῎*.*+). significantly increased growth rates to levels similar to
Moreover, feed cost per body weight gain of the negative those of the positive control group. Feed intake was not
control group was the most expensive (P῎*.*+). The significantly di#erent among treatment groups (P῏*.*/),
mortality rate of chicks was not significantly di#erent although the negative control group tended to decrease
among the experimental groups (P῏*.*/). feed intake compared to the positive control group and
Growth performances of the chickens during the re- low-protein diet groups with +** and +*/ῌ TSAA (P῍
feeding phase (,,ῌ., days of age) are shown in Table 0. *.*1). TSAA intake was lower for the negative control
The negative control group still had significantly lower group than for other groups (P῎*.*+). Adding Met to
ADG, feed intake, TSAA intake and protein intake than the low-protein diet significantly improved the FCR of
the positive control group (P῎*.*/), although adding broiler chickens compared to the negative control group,
Met to the low-protein diet groups showed no significant and had better PER than the positive and negative control
di#erence compared to the positive control group and the groups (P῎*.*/). The feed costs per body weight gain of
negative control group. FCR, PER and feed cost per body the chickens fed low-protein diets supplemented with Met
weight gain were also una#ected by dietary treatments (P were slightly lower than those of the positive and negative
234 Journal of Poultry Science, .2 (.)

Table 1. E#ects of adding Met to low-protein diets during starter and subsequent re-feeding on growth performance of
broiler chickens during +ῌ., days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Body weight (g/chicken) ,00,43,ῌ /*4*- A
,.3,4*+ῌ //4+. B
,0,*400ῌ 2,4,+ A
,0-14*2ῌ0*4.. A
,0+140.ῌ .*4.3A
Body weight gain (g/chicken) ,0+34*/ῌ .3421A ,..24+/ῌ //4*+B ,/1042*ῌ 2,4/1A ,/3-4,,ῌ0*4.+A ,/1-412ῌ .*41-A
ADG (g/chicken) 0,4-0ῌ +4+3A /24,3ῌ +4-+B 0+4-/ῌ +431A 0+41.ῌ +4..A 0+4,2ῌ *431A
Feed intake (g) ..1-4*1ῌ++/4-3 .--*4//ῌ+,+40/ ..004-*ῌ+*,42, ...14.1ῌ /*40, ..-*400ῌ+,34.*
TSAA intake (g/chick) -1402ῌ *43.A -,4/-ῌ *43-B -1402ῌ *422A -24*0ῌ *4.*A -24.,ῌ +4++A
Protein intake (g) 21/4/+ῌ ,,4,2a 2+140.ῌ ,-4**b 2.-4-+ῌ +34-2b 2-3401ῌ 340-b 2-04/1ῌ ,.4..b
FCR +41+ῌ *4*. +411ῌ *4*. +41-ῌ *4*- +41+ῌ *4*/ +41,ῌ *4*/
Protein e$ciency ,433ῌ *4*2b ,433ῌ *4*0b -4*/ῌ *4*/ab -4*3ῌ *4*2a -4*2ῌ *4*3a
Feed cost/body weight gain ,14.0ῌ *4/2 ,1420ῌ *4/1 ,14-/ῌ *4,3 ,14*+ῌ *4/+ ,14+-ῌ *41+
(baht/kg)
MeanῌSD.
a and b
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*/).
A and B
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*+).

control groups. low-protein diet improved the feed e$ciency and PER
The low-protein induces an imbalance of the amino acid value of broiler chicks. This means that feeding a low-
pattern in the diet (Saki et al., ,**1). Azarnik et al. protein diet supplemented with Met clearly promotes pro-
(,*+*) showed that the body weight at ,+ days of the tein utilization better than feeding a low-protein diet
chicks fed a low-protein diet was significantly lower than alone. Additionally, feed costs per body weight gain in the
that of the groups fed a higher protein diet. Since low Met supplementation groups tended to be decreased when
TSAA intake depresses the feed intake and production compared with the positive control group. As long as feed
performance of broiler chicks (Khajali et al., ,**,; intake is maintained by Met supplementation to the
Bunchasak, ,**3), adding Met clearly prevents this nega- normal range, adding Met to low-protein diets may be a
tive e#ect via improvement of the amino acid balance and method of reducing the production cost of broiler chicks.
increment of feed consumption (Takahashi et al., +33.). Focusing on the compensatory responses, during ,,ῌ.,
During +ῌ,+ days of age, therefore, a close positive corre- days of age, it seems that chicks did not positively respond
lation between TSAA intake and body weight gain of to the strategy of re-feeding by a conventional diet after
broilers was found (r῍*.32), whereas the feed intake of feeding a low-protein diet with or without Met supple-
the negative control was similar to that of the positive mentation. Accordingly, Plavnik and Hurwitz (+33*)
control group. However, Waldroup et al. (+310) stated showed that ad libitum feeding of a diet containing 3..ῌ
that if a slight amino acid deficit exists, the chick will crude protein from 2 to +. days decreased the feed intake
attempt to compensate by consuming more food, subse- of broilers by some /1ῌ and .+ῌ growth retardation,
quently the growth rate may reach a maximum. In the which was not recovered after 0 weeks of realimentation.
current study, chicks fed the negative control diet have a For the overall feeding period (+ῌ., days), the growth
lower Met consumption by about .*ῌ and a lower growth rate of the negative control group was significantly poorer
rate by ++./ῌ compared to chicks fed the positive control than that of other groups, whereas adding Met to low-
diet. On the other hand, adding Met to a low-protein diet protein diets still increased the growth rate and FCR to
at +*/ῌ of the TSAA requirement resulted in a higher levels equal to those of the positive control group. More-
feed intake than the positive and negative control groups. over, adding Met at the level of +*/ῌ and ++*ῌ TSAA
Met deficiency at a level of around 0*ῌ of the TSAA requirement to a low-protein diet had significantly better
recommendation (negative control group) suppresses the PER and slightly lower feed cost/gain than positive and
growth rate without any e#ect on feed intake, which negative control diets. Since feeding a low-protein diet
indicates that factors a#ecting and the mechanism con- significantly depresses protein intake, this generally pro-
trolling feed intake involved with Met supplementation motes better protein utilization (Hevia and Cli#ord, +311;
are complicated. Cheng et al., +331). Taniguchi et al. (,**2) also demon-
PER is calculated from weight gain divided by the strated that adding Met to a +*ῌ soybean protein isolate
amount of protein consumed (weight gained/protein in- (SPI) diet improved PER from ,.,2 to ,.31. After the
take) and shows the direct e#ect of protein quality on re-feeding phase, feeding a low-protein diet supplemented
growth rates (Mitchell et al., +323). In this study, PER with Met during starter-grower periods promotes protein
was improved in Met supplementation groups compared utilization and lowers production cost compared to feed-
to the positive and negative control groups. Similarly, ing a low-protein diet or a conventional diet alone.
Bunchasak (+331) demonstrated that adding Met to a
Nukreaw et al.: Supplementation of Methionine in Low-protein Diet 235

Table 2. E#ects of methionine supplementation in low-protein diets on abdominal fat pad, lipoprotein and triglyceride
in the liver and serum of broiler chicks at ,+ days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Liver weight (g) ,+4*,῍ +4.* ,+4*+῍ +4*. ,+4*0῍ ,4,, ,,4,-῍ ,4// ,,4//῍ ,43.
Liver weight (ῌ of live weight) ,4/2῍ *4+- ,43*῍ *4+2 ,4/3῍ *4,/ ,41,῍ *4-+ ,41.῍ *4-/
Liver
TG (mg/g) +24*2῍ ,411 +/43/῍ ,4,0 +14.1῍ -4+- +/4*-῍ +42, +14..῍ ,42.
Abdominal fat pad (ῌ live weight) +4-/῍ *4-,b ,4**῍ *4,.a +42.῍ *4.*a +43/῍ *4,1a +423῍ *40+a
Serum
TG (mg/dl) ++24,,῍1/4.-B ++/4/*῍114.3B ++34*+῍.*42,B +/+41+῍.041/AB ,*-43*῍+*3400A
LDL-C (mg/dl) -+420῍ 04,/A ,,422῍ ,4/-B ,-4-2῍ .4/*B ,0422῍ /4.3AB ,.4/*῍ -412B
Mean῍SD.
a and b
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῏*.*/).
A and B
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῏*.*+).

Fat Accumulation (Kamran et al., ,**2). One possible interpretation is that


Measurements of abdominal fat pads, serum lipoprotein a high energy/protein ratio forces over-consumption of
and triglyceride of chicks at ,+ days of age are shown in dietary energy, in order to meet the protein and amino
Table 2. The weight of the abdominal fat pads of the acid requirements. Conversely, diets with a low calorie/
low-protein diet groups (with or without Met supple- protein ratio are believed to decrease carcass fat, because
mentation) was significantly heavier than that of the pos- broilers consume less energy in order to meet the protein
itive control group (P῏*.*/), while abdominal fat was requirements (Aletor et al., ,***). Another reason is that
slightly decreased by Met supplementation, and a negative chicks fed a low-protein diet need less energy for nitrogen
correlation between TSAA intake and abdominal fat was excretion as uric acid and provide more energy for lipid
found (r῎ῌ*.03). The liver of chicks fed the low-protein synthesis (Bartov, +313). Adding Met to low-protein
diet without Met supplementation seems to be bigger than diets may promote growth performance and protein utili-
that of other groups. Liver triglyceride level was not zation, but high fat accumulation still remains. Therefore,
significantly a#ected by the treatments, but a negative supplementing low-protein diets with Met until the market
correlation between liver weight (ῌ live weight) and liver weight is reached may be inappropriate because high fat
triglyceride level (r῎ῌ*.0,) was found. The serum deposition in the carcass is not wanted by consumers.
LDL-C level of the positive control group was signifi- Lipogenesis mainly occurs in the liver of poultry.
cantly increased (P῏*.*/) compared to that of other Aletor et al. (,***) reported that decreasing dietary pro-
groups except for the +*/ῌ TSAA group. tein increased liver weight, which might be caused by high
Abdominal fat constitutes approximately ,ῌ-ῌ of the activities of lipogenetic enzymes. Focusing on the e#ect of
broiler live weight (Leenstra, +320). Sex, age, feed e$- Met, Takahashi and Akiba (+33/) reported that supple-
ciency, genotype and feeding are some of the main factors menting *.3-ῌ of TSAA in the corn soybean meal-
a#ecting abdominal fat in broilers. In the present study, glutamic acid diet decreased the activity of malic enzyme,
the weight of abdominal fat pads of the chicks fed low- which is closely related with lipogenesis in the liver.
protein diets (with Met and without Met) was higher Austic (+32/) also showed that Met deficiency in the diet
than that of the positive control group. According to increased abdominal fat deposition and malic enzyme
Yamazaki et al. (,**0) who demonstrated that chicks fed activity in the liver. The results of the present study show
low-protein and amino acid supplemented diets had sig- a low-protein diet deficient in Met tended to increase liver
nificantly increased abdominal fat weight compared to weight (ῌ of body weight) and high abdominal fat accu-
that of chicks fed a control diet. Aletor et al. (,***) and mulation was found. Conversely, adding Met to low-
Faria Filho (,**-) indicated that decreasing dietary pro- protein diets tended to reduce the liver weight, conse-
tein generally increases the relative weights of the abdom- quently a negative correlation between TSAA intake and
inal fat to body weight. This phenomenon may be due to liver weight per body weight gain was found (r῎ῌ*.0-).
high feed intake or less energy used for protein synthesis. The decrease in liver weight (asῌ of body weight) may be
According to several investigators, feeding low-protein attributed to balanced amino acids by Met supplementa-
with amino acid supplementation increases feed consump- tion, since amino acid imbalance stimulates protein metab-
tion, and consequently increases carcass fat deposition olism in the liver or increased rate of amino acid synthesis
(Rosebrough and Steele, +32/). Moreover, the negative in order to provide su$cient amino acids (Hiramoto et al.,
control group in our study had a higher energy: protein +33*).
ratio than that of the positive control group. Diets with a There was no significant di#erence in the triglyceride
high energy: protein ratio promote energy retention as fat content in the liver among the experimental groups. In
236 Journal of Poultry Science, .2 (.)

Table 3. E#ects of methionine supplementation in low-protein diets during starter and grower periods and
subsequent re-feeding on the body composition of broiler chickens at ., days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Moisture (ῌ) 0/4+3ῌ+4+0 0/4-2ῌ+41/ 0.411ῌ+43. 0.40+ῌ+4/- 0/4+0ῌ+42-
Gross energy (kcal/g) 04*-ῌ*4*2 /432ῌ*4+. 04**ῌ*4,. /433ῌ*4*3 /431ῌ*4+-
Total ash (ῌ) ,4.-ῌ*4+. ,4.1ῌ*4,. ,4.3ῌ*4-* ,4.3ῌ*4,. ,4/0ῌ*4,+
Fat (ῌ) +.4-,ῌ*42* +-41-ῌ*40, +.4.,ῌ*43+ +-402ῌ+4*0 +-4.0ῌ*4.,
Protein (ῌ) +24*3ῌ*4/3 +1413ῌ*42/ +24,,ῌ*423 +24..ῌ*411 +142/ῌ+4+,
MeanῌSD.

poultry, triglyceride is synthesized in the liver and trans- The body composition of broilers is a#ected by many
ported by the blood system and then taken up into adipose factors such as strain, age, sex, quality and quantity of the
cells by lipoprotein lipase (Bunchasak et al., +331). High dietary protein and energy, slaughter, sampling method
triglyceride content in the liver could be caused by a nu- and environmental conditions (Koide and Ishibashi,
trition imbalance such as low-protein, high energy, amino +33/). Our study indicates that the experimental diets had
acid imbalance and amino acid deficiency (Gri$th et al., no e#ects on the whole body composition of broiler chick-
+303), lipotropic (Met, choline and vitamin B+,,) deficie- ens after the re-feeding phase. Nevertheless, the groups
ncy (Chen et al., +33-). In laying hen studies, triglycer- with added Met tended to have decreased whole body fat.
ide and lipid in the liver were increased by supplementing According to Bunchasak (+331) who reported that car-
the diet with Met (Bunchasak and Silapasorn, ,**/). cass compositions of broiler chicks showed no significant
Therefore, the e#ect of Met on the fat metabolism of di#erence by adding Met to low-protein diets after the
immature birds (during starter period of broiler chicks) re-feeding period. An additional study, Auckland and
may be di#erent from that of mature birds (laying hens), Morris (+31+) demonstrated that turkeys fed lower pro-
since laying hens need more fat synthesis to support egg tein diets during the early rearing period resulted in weight
production (fat accumulation in yolk), which involves the gain and carcass composition similar to that of control-fed
activity of the hormone estrogen. birds at ,* weeks of age. Pokniak and Cornejo (+32,)
Triglyceride is produced by the esterification process of reported no significant di#erence in body composition
acyl-CoA and glycerol---phosphate in the liver, and then between previously restricted and full-fed chickens at 2
transported via blood circulation to extra-hepatic tissue by weeks of age. The study of Priemnguluam (,***) also
lipoprotein (Hermier et al., +32.). Apart from de novo reported that adding Met to low-protein diets during the
lipogenesis, fat deposition in adipose tissue depends on a starter period did not a#ect the whole body composition of
change in the relative activity of lipoprotein lipase, which broiler chickens after the re-feeding phase, although ab-
mediates the uptake of fatty acid from the blood and of dominal fat pads during the starter period were increased.
hormone sensitive lipase, which mediates the output of This indicates that reducing the protein intake with Met
fatty acid from adipose tissue (Paik and Yearick, +312). supplementation during the starter-grower period followed
Adding Met to a low-protein diet linearly increased the by re-feeding with a conventional diet induces changes in
triglyceride concentration in serum (r῍*.20) and a posi- the chemical composition of the bodies of chicks similar to
tive correlation between TSAA intake and serum tri- the case of feeding a conventional diet throughout the
glyceride level (r῍*.0.) was also found. experimental period.
The turnover rates of plasma cholesterol and LDL-C Carcass Qualities
are higher in chickens fed a high protein diet compared Carcass qualities of broiler chicks at ., days of age are
with those fed a low-protein diet (Yeh and Leveille, +31-). shown in Table +*. After the re-feeding phase, the carcass
In our study, the serum LDL-C level in chicks fed a high yield, outer breast, inner breast and wings of the ++*ῌ
protein diet was higher than that in those fed low-protein TSAA group were significantly higher than those of the
diet, while serum LDL-C was decreased by Met supple- negative control group (P῎*.*/). However, dietary treat-
mentation, while positive correlation between TSAA ments did not significantly a#ect the thighs, drumsticks
intake and serum LDL-C levels was found (r῍*.0-) and abdominal fat (P῏*.*/).
among low-protein supplemented with Met groups. Since no significant compensatory response was shown
Body Composition during the re-feeding phase, the carcass and breast meat
Whole body compositions of broiler chickens after the yields of the negative control group were still inferior to
re-feeding phase (at ., days of age) are presented in Table those of the other groups, which is in agreement with the
3. Dietary treatments did not significantly a#ect the findings of the study of Moran (+313), while the group of
moisture, gross energy, total ash, fat and protein in the chickens fed ++*ῌ TSAA had higher breast meat yield
whole body of broiler chickens (P῏*.*/). than the negative control group and equal breast meat
Nukreaw et al.: Supplementation of Methionine in Low-protein Diet 237

Table +*. E#ects of Met supplementation in low-protein diets during starter and grower periods on carcass
quality and abdominal fat of broiler chickens at ., days of age
Low-protein
Item Positive control
Negative control +**ῌ TSAA +*/ῌ TSAA ++*ῌ TSAA
Carcass yield (ῌ) 11433ῌ+4.3 ab
104/0ῌ+4*+ b
114/-ῌ*421 ab
10421ῌ+4/+ ab
124/1ῌ+4+0a
Outer breast (ῌ) +.40-ῌ+4/,a +,4/2ῌ+4*0b +.4*0ῌ+4//ab +.4+/ῌ*4/3ab +/4,.ῌ+4+.a
Inner breast (ῌ) -402ῌ*4--ab -4-*ῌ*4,/b -41+ῌ*4-,ab -4.1ῌ*4+.ab -41/ῌ*4-1a
Thigh (ῌ) +,4,1ῌ+4.. ++4/+ῌ*41. ++43,ῌ*410 ++4/1ῌ+4., +,4-3ῌ+4*/
Drumstick (ῌ) 3433ῌ*403 34+0ῌ*40- 34-+ῌ*40- 34.+ῌ*41. 3423ῌ*4/+
Wing (ῌ) 140-ῌ*4.2a 0432ῌ*4+3b 14.*ῌ*4-3ab 14/*ῌ*4./ab 141+ῌ*4-2a
Abdominal fat (ῌ) ,4*+ῌ*4,3 ,4*/ῌ*4-, ,4*2ῌ*4.1 ,4+2ῌ*4,3 ,4+/ῌ*4.2
MeanῌSD.
a and b
Treatment means with di#erent superscripts in the same row are significantly di#erent (P῎*.*/).

yield to the positive control group. This indicates that and e$ciencies of nutrient utilization. Journal of the Science
high TSAA intake (++*ῌ TSAA group; TSAA intake῍ of Food and Agriculture, 2*: /.+ῌ//.. ,***.
-2.., g/chick) produces high breast meat yield of broilers. AOAC. O$cial Method of Analysis, +1th ed. Association of
O$cial Agricultural Chemists, Washington, DC. ,***.
A positive correlation between TSAA intake and outer
Auckland JN and Morris TR. Compensatory growth in turkeys:
breast meat yield was found (r῍*.3+). Accordingly, e#ect of undernutrition on subsequent protein requirements.
Moran (+33.) reported that sulfur amino acid increased British of Poultry Science, +,: .+ῌ.2. +31+.
the mass of breast meat yield more than that of other Austic RE. Feeding poultry in hot and cold climates. In: Physiol-
amino acids. The study of Saki et al. (,**1) demonstrated ogy in Livestock (Youssef MK Ed.). pp. +,-ῌ+-0. CRC
that Met supplementation (+,*ῌ of NRC recommenda- Press. Boca Raton. FL. +32/.
tion, *..0 and *.-2ῌ, at starter and grower stage) in a Azarnik A, Bokarpour M, Eslami M, Ghorbani MR and Mirzadeh
K. The e#ect of di#erent levels of diet protein on broilers
low-protein diet improved carcass quality and breast meat
performance in ad libitum and feed restriction method.
of broilers. Several investigators have also reported that Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 3: 0-+ῌ0-..
excess Met level in the diet elevates breast meat yield ,*+*.
(Schutte and Pack, +33/; Hickling et al. +33*). Bartov I. Nutritional factors a#ecting quantity and quality of
The abdominal fat pads of broiler chickens at ., days of carcass fat in chickens. Federation Proceedings, -2: ,0,1ῌ
age (Table +*) showed no significant di#erence among ,0-*. +313.
treatments, in contrast to the results at ,+ days of age Bunchasak, C. The e#ect of supplementing sulfur amino acid to
a low-protein diet on growth performance and fat accumu-
(Table 2). Abdominal fat may not be a good index of
lation of broiler chicks. Ph.D. Gifu University. +331.
carcass fatness in male broilers (Rosebrough and Steele, Bunchasak C. Role of dietary methionine in poultry production.
+32/), but the results of fat accumulation in the whole Journal of Poultry Science, .0: +03ῌ+13. ,**3.
body also show no significant di#erence among treatment Bunchasak C, Santoso U, Tanaka K, Ohtani S and Collado CM.
groups after the re-feeding phase (Table 3). Although no The e#ects of supplementing methionine plus cystine to a
compensatory response in terms of growth performance low-protein diet on the growing broiler chicks. Asian-
was shown, it is clear that fat accumulation was reduced Australasian Journal of Animal Science, +*: +2/ῌ+3+. +331.
Bunchasak C and Silapason T. E#ects of adding methionine in
after the re-feeding phase.
low protein diet on production performance, reproductive
We suggest that feeding a low-protein diet with Met organs and chemical liver composition of laying hens under
supplementation at +*/ῌ or ++*ῌ of the TSAA require- tropical conditions. International Journal of Poultry Sci-
ment during the starter-grower period and subsequent ence, /: -*+ῌ-*2. ,**/.
re-feeding is an e#ective tool for improving broiler chicken Cabel MC, Goodwin TL and Waldroup PW. Reduction in
production. abdominal fat content of broiler chickens by the addition of
feather meal to finisher diets. Poultry Science, 00: +0..ῌ
Acknowledgments +0/+. +321.
Cauwenberghe SV and Burnham D. New developments in amino
We are grateful to Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., Japan acid and protein nutrition of poultry, as related to optimal
for supplying funding and the methionine and also to the performance and reduced nitrogen excretion. +-th European
sta# of the Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart Symposium Poultry Nutrition. Blankenberg, Belgium. ,**+.
University, Thailand. Chen F, Noll SL, Waibel PE and Hawkins DM. E#ect of folate,
vitamin B+, and choline supplementation on turkey breeder
References performance, Poultry Science, 1,: (Suppl. +): 1, (Abstr.).
Aletor VA, Hamid II, Nied E and Pfe#er E. Low protein amino +33-.
acid supplemented diets in broiler chickens: e#ects on per- Cheng TK, Hamre ML and Coon CN. Responses of broilers to
formance, carcass characteristics, whole-body composition dietary protein levels and amino acid supplementation to
238 Journal of Poultry Science, .2 (.)

low-protein diets at various environmental temperatures. Mitchell GV, Jenkins MY and Grundel E. Protein e$ciency
Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 0: +2ῌ--. +331. ratios and net protein ratios of selected protein foods. Plant
Faria Filho DE, Rosa PS, Vieira BS, Macari M and Furlan RL. Foods for Human Nutrition, -3: //ῌ/2. +323.
Protein levels and environmental temperature e#ects on Moran ETJr. Carcass quality changes with broiler chickens after
carcass characteristics, performance and nitrogen excretion dietary protein restriction during the growing phase and
of broiler chickens from 1 to ,+ days of age. Brazilian finishing period compensatory growth. Poultry Science, /2:
Journal of Poultry Science, 1: ,.1ῌ,/-. ,**-. +,/1ῌ+,1*. +313.
Gri$th M, Olinde AJ, Schexnailder R, Davenport RF and Moran ET Jr. Responses of broiler strains di#ering in body fat to
Mcknight WF. E#ect of choline, methionine and vitamin B+, inadequate methionine: live performance and processing
on liver fat, egg production and egg weight in hens. Poultry yields. Poultry Science, 1-: +++0ῌ++,0. +33..
Science, .2: ,+0*ῌ,+1,. +303. Paik HS and Yearick ES. Influence of dietary and meal frequency
Hermier D, Chapman MJ and Leclercq B. Plasma lipoprotein on lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase in rat
profile in fasted and refed chickens selected for high or low adipose tissue. Journal of Nutrition, +*2: +13ῌ+2/. +312.
adiposity. Journal of Nutrition, ++.: +++,ῌ++,+. +32.. Plavnik I and Hurwitz S. Performance of broiler chickens and
Hevia P and Cli#ord AJ. +311. Protein intake, uric acid metabo- turkey poults subjected to feed restriction or feeding of
lism and protein e$ciency ratio in growing chicks. Journal low-protein or low-sodium diets at an early age. Poultry
of Nutrition, +*1: 3/3ῌ30.. +311. Science, 03: 3./ῌ3/,. +33*.
Hickling D, Geuenter W and Jackson ME. The e#ects of dietary Pokniak I and Cornejo SB. E#ects of energy and protein under
methionine and lysine on broiler chicken performance and nutrition on productive performance and carcass, liver and
breast meat yield. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 1*: digestive tract composition of broiler males. Nutrition
01-ῌ012. +33*. Reports International, ,0: -+3ῌ-,1. +32,.
Hiramoto K, Muramatsu T and Okumura J. E#ect of methionine Priemnguluam C. E#ects of sulfur amino acid supplementation
and lysine deficiencies on protein synthesis in the liver and in low protein diet on growth performance and carcass
oviduct and in the whole body of laying hens. Poultry quality in broiler chicks. M.S. Thesis, Kasetsart University.
Science, 03: 2.ῌ23. +33*. ,***.
Hussein AS, Cantor AH, Pescatore AJ, Gates RS, Burnham D, Rosebrough RW and Steele NC. Energy and protein relationship
Ford MJ and Paton ND. E#ect of low protein diets with in broilers.+. E#ect of protein levels and feeding regimens on
amino acid supplementation on broiler growth. Journal of growth, body composition and in vitro lipogenesis of broilers
Applied Poultry Research, +*: -/.ῌ-0,. ,**+. chick. Poultry Science, 0.: +,0ῌ+33. +32/.
Jianlin SI, Kersey JH, Fritts CA and Waldroup PW. An evalua- Saki AA, Mohammad Pour HA, Ahmdi A, Akhzar MT and
tion of the interaction of lysine and methionine in diets for Tabatabie MM. Decreasing broiler crude protein require-
growing broiler. International Journal of Poultry Science, -: ment by methionine supplementation. Pakistan Journal of
/+ῌ0*. ,**.. Biological Sciences, +*: 1/1ῌ10,. ,**1.
Kalinowski A, Moran ET and Wyatt CL. Methionine and cystine Schutte JB and Pack M. Sulfur amino acid requirement of broiler
requirement of slow and fast-feathering broiler males from chick from fourteen to thirty-eight days of age. +. Perform-
zero to three weeks of age. Poultry Science, 2,: +.,-ῌ+.,1. ance and carcass yield. Poultry Science, 1.: .2*ῌ.21. +33/.
,**-. Sutton CD, Muir WM and Mitchell GE. Cholesterol metabolism
Kamran Z, Sarwar M, Nisa M, Nadeem MA, Mahmood S, in the laying hen as influenced by dietary cholesterol, caloric
Babars ME and Ahmed S. E#ect of low-protein diets having intake and genotype. Poultry Science, 0-: 31,ῌ32*. +32..
constant energy to protein ratio on performance and carcass Takahashi K and Akiba Y. E#ect of methionine supplementation
characteristics of broiler chickens from one to thirty-five day on lipogenesis and lipolysis in broiler chicks. Japanese Poul-
of age. Poultry Science, 21: .02ῌ.1.. ,**2. try Science, -,: 33ῌ+*0. +33/.
Keshavarz K and Austic RE. The use of low-protein, low- Takahashi K, Konashi S, Akiba Y and Horiguchi M. The e#ects
phosphorus, amino acid and phytase supplemented diets on of dietary methionine and dispensable amino acid supple-
laying hen performance and nitrogen and phosphorus excre- mentation on abdominal fat deposition in male broiler. Ani-
tion. Poultry Science, 2-: 1/ῌ2-. ,**.. mal Science and Technology (Japan), 0/: ,..ῌ,/*. +33..
Khajali F and Moghaddam N. Methionine Supplementation of Taniguchi M, Nagao K, Inoue K and K Imaizumi. Cholesterol
Low Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Per- lowing e#ect of sulfurcontaining amino acids added to
formance and E$ciency of Protein Utilization. Internation- soybean protein diet in rats. Journal of Nutrition Science,
al Journal of Poultry Science, /: /03ῌ/1-. ,**0. /.: ..2ῌ./-. ,**2.
Khajali F, Moghaddam N, Mesgaran MD and Shareghi B. Waldroup PW, Mitchell RJ, Rayne JR and Hazen KR. Perform-
Growth performance and e$ciency of nitrogen utilization of ance of chicks fed diets formulated to minimize excess levels
broilers as a#ected by methionine deficiency. Iranian Jour- of essential amino acid. Poultry Science, //: ,.-ῌ,/-. +310.
nal of Agricultural Science and Nature Resource, 3: +3-ῌ Yamazaki M, Murakami H and Nakashima K. E#ect of excess
,*.. ,**,. essential amino acid in low protein diet on abdominal fat
Koide K and Ishibashi T. Threonine requirement in female deposition and nitrogen excretion of the broiler chicks.
broilers a#ected by dietary amino acid levels. Japanese Poul- Journal of Poultry Science, .-: +/*ῌ+//. ,**0.
try Science, -*: -+ῌ-3. +33/. Yeh SJC and Leveille GA. Significance of skin as site of fatty acid
Leenstra FR. E#ect of age, sex, genotype and environment on fat and cholesterol synthesis in the chick. Proceedings of the
deposition in broiler chickens. World’s Poultry Science Jour- Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, +.,: ++/.
nal, .,: +,ῌ,/. +320. +31-.
Leeson S and Summers JD. Feeding programs for broilers and Zubair AK and Leeson S. Compensatory growth in the broiler
broiler breeders, In: Commercial Poultry Nutrition. pp. +0+. chicken: a review. World’s Poultry Science Journal, /,:
University Books. Guelph. Ontario. +33+. +23ῌ,*+. +330.