Proc. Instn Ciu. Engrs, Part 1, 1986,80, Feb.,145159
8802
ENGINEERING
STRUCTURAL
GROUP
Concrete pressure on formwork
N. J. GARDNER. PhD*
The Paper reviews recent literature concerned with the lateral pressure exerted by fresh concrete against vertical form surfaces. For formwork design purposes the lateral pressure envelope can be considered hydrostatic from thefree surface up to alimiting valueand then constant at the limiting value. The limiting lateral pressure increases with concrete density, slump, flyash or slag content, admixtures, rate of pour, vibration and decrease in concrete temperature. From the literature review and laboratory experimental results a method is presented to calculate the limiting lateral pressure for formwork design purposes.The lateral pressure method presented and the CIRIA method are compared with field and laboratory experimental results. After statistical analysis, it is concluded that the proposed method is more reliable than the CIRIA method.
Introduction
The pressure exerted by freshly poured concrete against vertical form surfaces is of concern to construction engineers because an overestimate of the pressure results in heavy expensive formwork and anunderestimate results in malformed structur al elements or, in extreme cases, failure of the formwork.
2. In conventional construction practice concrete is poured into wall and
column forms in lifts which are vibrated to consolidate the concrete. The concrete
is consolidated by pokertype vibrators which are immersed into only the top metre or so of concrete and only the concrete in this top metre or so will be vibrated sufficiently to develop full fluidpressure.
3. While the concrete is being vibrated it acts as a homogeneous slurry with
the properties of a fluid having the density of concrete. When the concrete is not being fluidized because the vibrator is off or the concrete is remote from the vibrator the heavier aggregate particles settle in the cement gel and the hydrating cement gel starts to form a crystalline structure between the heavy particles. During the hydration process the sand and cement particles join together in a
weak particulate structure; the fluid phase of the cement gel becomes less dense and consequently the pore fluid pressure reduces. Eventually the composition 01 the fluid component reverts to water with all the solids having crystallized out. If for any reason the now semiset concrete dilates the fluid pressure can become tensile. As soon as the fluid phase ceases to be continuous the pore fluid pressure will cease being hydrostatic.
4. The lateral pressure exerted by the particulate structure reduces as the
structure develops shear strength capability and becomes capable of carrying
vertical loads.
Written discussioncloses 18 April 1986;for further detailssee p. (ii). * University of Ottawa.
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GARDNER
Previouswork
5. Rodin' reviewed the published experimental data on the pressure of fresh
concrete against formwork and concluded that the major factors influencing the lateral pressure were rate of pour, vibration, mix consistency and mix proportion, concrete temperature, concretesetting time and size and shape of the form. Rodin concluded that where external vibrators are used the formwork should be designed for the full hydrostatic pressure of a liquid having the same density as concrete. For internally vibrated concrete Rodin proposed the lateral pressure
envelope given in Fig. 1 where P,,, and H,,, are given by the equationbelow for a 1 : 2 : 4 concrete with 150mm slump at a temperatureof 21°C.
H,,, 
= 1.63R1l3 
(m) 
(14 
P,,, 
= 23.5H,,, 
(kPa) 
(1b) 
where the concrete densityis assumed to be 2400 kg/m3, H,,, is the head atwhich maximum pressure occurs(m),P,,, is the maximumlateral pressure (kPa) andR is
the rate of pour (m/h). Rodin presented correction curves, to adjust for mix pro portions, slump and concrete temperature.
6. Schojdt' developed a theoretical model for the pressure envelope using soil
mechanics concepts, including pore pressure andlaterala pressure coefficient. The factors consideredin Schojdt's derivationwere rate of pour, immersed depthof the vibrator, setting time, slump, permeabilityof the form, and the size and shape of the form. Schojtd's method did not receive acceptance due to its complexity and the problem of determining the strength propertiesof fresh concrete.
I T
Fig. 1. Lateral pressure envelopesforformwork design purposes
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CONCRETE PRESSURE
ON FORMWORK
7. ACI Committee 3473 concluded that the significant variables affecting the
lateral pressure were rate of pour, consistency of the concrete, maximum aggregate
size, temperature of the concrete, smoothness and permeability of the form, size and shape of the form, method of consolidation, placement method, porewater pressure, type of cement, and depthof placement.
8. The Committee proposed that for form design purposes the lateral pressure
envelope should be hydrostatic
equations and then constant at this limiting value. For walls with R (rate of placing) < 2.14 m/h
785R
up to the limiting value given by the following
P,,,
P,,,
= 7.19 +
17.78 _{+} T not to exceed 23.5h or 95.8
(kPa)
For walls with 2.14 < R < 3 m/h
For columns
P,,, 
= 7.19 + 
P,,, 

P,,, 

P,,, 
= 7.19 +
1155
244
R
17.78 + T + 17.78 + T
not to exceed 23.5h or
785R
17.78 _{+} T
not to exceed 23.5h or 143.7
(kW
(kPa)
(2b)
where h is the total depth of formwork (m), P,,, is the limiting value of lateral pressure (kPa), Ris the rateof pour (m/h) andT is the temperature (“C). 9.Ritchie4x5 and Ritchie and McDowel16published a number of articles reporting laboratory measurements of form pressure and work on the triaxial testing of fresh concrete.
10. Adam et al.’ conducted laboratorytests on a large form, 3 m high by 2.5 m
wide with variable thickness, to study the effect on form pressure of cement type,
additives, aggregate size, rate of pour, slump and vibration.
11. The results of this study were summarized in the lateralpressure equations
given below. WhenR < 2 m/h
P,,, 
= 
19.6 + 12.3R 
(kPa) 
temperature 
< 5°C 
(34 

P,,, 
= 19.6 + 
9.8R 
(kPa) 
temperature = 15°C(3b) 

P,,, 
= 19.6 + 
8.3R 
(kPa) 
temperature > 25°C(3c) 

When R > 2 m/h 

P,,, 
= 
40.1 + 1.96R 
(kPa) 
temperature < 5°C 
(34 

P,,, 
= 35.3 + 1.96R 
(kPa) 
temperature = 15°C 
(34 

P,,, 
= 32.4 + 1.96R 
(kPa) 
temperature > 25°C 
(3f) 

12. TheConstructionIndustry 
Research and Information 
Association 
(CIRIA) sponsored a largescale field study into formwork pressures which was
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GARDNER
carried out by the Cement and Concrete Association and published in 1965.8
13. The CIRIA study proposed a lateral pressure design method which
involved consideration of rate of pour, concrete temperature, slump, minimum form dimension, and continuity of vibration. The CIRIA design procedure con sidered the lateral pressure envelope to be hydrostatic up to a value P,,, limited by the lesser of concrete stiffening and arching effects. Arbitrary limits were placed upon the maximum values of P,,, . For the arching criterion
P,,, = 14.37 + 0.094d + 3.14R (kPa) (44
and for the stiffening criterion
p,,,
=
+
+ (4.6  1.89R)
(kPa)
but P,,, is not to exceed 24h or 143.7 (kPa), where R is the rate of pour (m/h), d is the minimum form dimension (mm), t is the time from start of pour (h), t,,, is the
stiffening time (h), c is the vibration constant,y, is the unitweight of concrete and h is the height of pour; and where c and tmaXwere defined in empirically derived charts.
14. In 1978 CIRIA published a twopage design chartg to replace equations
(4a) and (4b). Because of the rounding to metric
minimum value of the limiting lateral pressure of 35 kPa the chart gives slightly more conservative values than theoriginal CIRIA equations.
15. Gardner and Quereshi" and Gardner" reported a series of laboratory
studies using a large instrumented form. The variables considered were depth of vibration, power of the vibrator, rate of pour, concrete temperature, member dimension and concrete slump. A formula was proposed for calculating the limit ing lateralpressure.
16. A subsequent investigati~n,'~*'~using the same apparatus, investigated
the effect on lateral pressure of superplasticizers and type F flyash concrete. It was
found that provided the slump used in equation (5) was the slump of the concrete after application of the superplasticizer the equation gave suitably conservative values for P,,, . The initial slow strength development of flyash concretes increases formwork pressures and an additional factor was introduced in the equation for flyash percentage. The equation was shown to give conservative design values for flyash concretes.
17. The comparisons presented later in this Paper show that equation (5) can
also be used for slag cement concretes simply by substituting percentage slag for
percentage flyash.
numbers and an arbitrary
(
~
100
100F
)
f
= 24hi + 3000HP
d
d
++
40
400R'''
18+T
slump  75
10
P,,,
(kW
(5)
P,,,
< 24h
(kPa)
where d is the minimum form dimension (mm) (not to exceed 1000 mm), h is the total height of the form (m), hi is the immersed depth of vibrator (m) (to be not less than 1 m), HP is the horsepower of the vibrator,F is the percentage flyash or slag slump in mm after application of superplasticizer and R is the rate of pour (m/h).
18. The German Standard DIN 1821814 on form pressure presents a series of
148
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CONCRETE PRESSURE ON FORMWORK
equations to calculate the limiting lateral pressures of internally vibrated concrete of various mobilities at a concrete temperature of 15°C.
P,,, 
= 21 + 5R 
(kPa) 
stiff mix (64 

P,,, 
= 
19 + 10R 
(kPa) 
soft mix 
, , , P,,, P 
18 + 14R = 17 + 17R = 
(kPa) (6c) (kPa) 
mix fluid liquid concrete (64 
where R is the rateof pour (m/h).
19. To adjust for concrete temperatures other than 15°C the limiting pressure
must be increased by 3% forevery degree below 15°C and can be decreased by 3%
for everydegree above 15°C to amaximum
published the results of recent site pressure measurements and
compared them with both the ACI and CIRIA design values. Some of Harrison's site measured pressures were for slag cement concretes. This paper also compared the original CIRIA (pre1965)field data with the ACI and CIRIA methods. Harri son presented a porewater pressure theory to explain the lateralpressure problem.
reduction of 30%.
20. Harrison'
Comparison of the theoretical methods
21. Validation of any formwork pressure equation is difficult owing to the lack
of welldocumented data relevant to current construction practices. The most extensive field data are those sponsored by CIRIA, between 1960 and 1962, and used in the derivation of the CIRIA method.' Gardner and Quereshi" and Gardner' 'l3 investigated the form pressures resulting from Portland cement concretes, superplasticized Portland cement concretes and flyash concretes. Harri son's results'$ included Portland cement concretes, superplasticized Portland cement concretes, partial slag cement concretes and low heat slag cement con
cretes. The CIRIA9 formwork pressure method, and the method suggested by Gardner, equation (5),are compared with the above experimental data.
22. To use equation (5) it is necessary to know, or to assume, the depth to
which the vibrator is immersed and the vibrator power relative to the size _{o}_{f} the element being formed. Unfortunately, values for neither of these items are reported in either the CIRIA data or Harrison's results. Hence for comparison purposes it was assumed that the vibrator was immersed 1 m into the concrete and that the horsepower was unity per 300 mm of minimum form dimension. Because equation
(5) was developed on a form with a maximumminimum form dimension of 500 mm the minimum form dimension was arbitrarily limited to a maximum of 500 mm.
23. For graphical illustration the experimental data are grouped into the orig
inal CIRIA 1965 data, the Portland cement concrete data of Gardner and Harri
son and the nonPortlandcement data of Gardner andHarrison.
24. The CIRIA method and equation (5) are compared with the original
CIRIA field data in Figs 2 and 3. Experimental results with measured pressures less than 30 kPa were discarded on the basis that the pressure was too low for vibrated concrete.
25. The more recent Portland cement concrete results of Gardner and
Quereshi," Gardner" and Harrison" are compared with the CIRIA data and
equation (5) in Figs 4 and 5.
26. The CIRIA method was not developed to apply strictly to flyash or slag
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GARDNER
15c 

3000 

CIRIA method 

Experlmental data 

ClRlA 65 

100 

2000 
a, 

VI 

VI 

a, Q 

kPa 
p.s.f. 
/ 

L 

3 

VI 

m 
I
5c
1000
0
0
0
0
/
/ ^{/}
/
/
/ 1000
I
I
P.S.f.
2000
I
kPa
Calculated llrnltlng pressure
50
1Q0
Fig.
2. Comparison o f
pressures
CIRIA 65
experimentaldatawith
3000
1
150
CIRIA calculated
concretes but Harri~on’~used the method to compare with his slag element
concretes results. The nonconventional concrete results, excluding the flyash con cretes, are compared with the CIRIA method in Fig. 6. Equation (5) is compared with the nonconventionalcement concretes in Fig. 7.
27. By observation of Figs 25 the proposed method has fewer unconservative
data points than theCIRIA method for Portland cement concretes. The proposed
method is more
cement, flyash or slag cement concretes.
Statistical analysis
reliable than the CIRIA method
for superplasticized Portland
28. From Figs 27 it is difficult to quantify the relative goodness of the three
methods in describing the experimental results.
29. The statistical parameters considered here
were the mean and standard
deviation of the ratio of measured pressure/calculated pressure, the 95% t dis tribution confidence limit of calculated pressure/measured pressure, the correla
tion coefficient, special correlation coefficient and integral absolute error of the
pressure. Regression analysis is not appropri
pressure and calculated pressure are not dependent and
independent variables. Similarly, the correlation coefficients and the integral
150
measured pressure to ate as the measured
the calculated
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a,
v)
v)
15c
100
^{a}^{,} Q kPa
Tl
a,
v)
m
‘F I
3000
2000
p s.f.
50 1000
CONCRETE PRESSURE
Gardner method
Expenmental data
ClRlA 65
./
0
0
0,’
/
/.
/
/
/
0
ON FORMWORK
/ ^{/}
0
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/‘
/
/
_{/} ^{/} p.s.f.
_{0}
0
Fig. 3. Comparison o f pressures
1000
I
50
k 150
Pa
2000
I
100
3000
I
Calculated ltmitlng pressure
CIRIA 65
experimental
data w i t h Gardnercalculated
absolute error areonly indicators of the goodness of fit. The 95% confidence limit index is given by
Index =
1
mean  95% t X standard deviation
The correlationcoefficient is givenby
_{R}_{=} XOiPi  nOP
(n  1H0, up
The special correlation coefficient is givenby
_{R}_{,} _{=} 2XOiPi  XP?
X02
The integral absolute error(IAE) is given by
IAE =
Z[(Oi  Pi)Z]”*
EOi
151
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GARDNER
150 

3000 

100 

2000 

0, 

m 

m 

a 

kPa 
p.s f 

L 

3 

0 

m 

z 

50 
/ ^{/}
ClRlA methodOPC concrete
/
/
/
1000
I
_{5}_{0}
e
p.s f
_{k}_{P}_{a}
2000
I
I
100
Calculated llmlting pressure
3000
l
150
Fig. 4. Comparison of OPC experimental data with calculated pressures
in which Oi is the observed value and Pi is the predicted value.
30. The experimental results in Table 1 are grouped into the original CIRIA
data for Portland cement concretes; the more recent data of Gardner and Harri son for Portland cement concretes; and separately superplasticized concretes, slag
cement concretes and fly ash cement concrete.
31. For Portland cement concretes each of the five indicators of consistency,
standard deviation, 95% confidence limit, correlation coefficient, special correla tion coefficient and integral absolute error show that equation (5) is more consis
tent than the CIRIA method. For Portland cement concretes the only indicators for which the CIRIA method is marginally better than equation (5) are the mean values for the original CIRIA 1965 results and the recent experimental results of Gardner andHarrison.
32. For slag cement concrete the CIRIA method fits the results better than
equation (5) for mean value, 95% confidence limit, special correlation coefficient and integral absolute error. However, the original CIRIA data sheets were devel oped for Portland cement concretes and had a mean value of approximately 0.8. Slag cement concretes develop higher formwork pressures and thus the mean value of the experimental pressure/calculated pressure ratio will increase. The
152
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ar
v)
v)
2
a
7J
W
m
2
1
15c
3000
CONCRETE PRESSURE
Gardner methodOPC concrete
1 oc
1

2000
kPa
p.s.1.
5c
C
1 1000
/
/
/
/
/ ^{/}
/
/
/
/ 1000
IL
0
I
i0
PSf.
k Pa
8
2000
1
100
Calculated llmltlng pressure
ON FORMWORK
/
/
/
/'
/
/
/
_{3}_{0}_{0}_{0}
I
_{i}
150
Fig. 5. Comparison of OPC experimental data with Gardner calculated pressures
deliberate conservatism in the original method has been eliminated, which appar ently 'improves' the statistical mean and 95% confidence limit; however, the standard deviation indicates poor consistency.
33. For superplasticized concretes, with the exception of the mean value, equa
tion (5) is better than the CIRIA method. For completeness it must be noted that when the original CIRIA method was developed concrete slumps above 150 mm were not envisaged.
34. It would be unrealistic to expect any empirically derived formulae to fit
exactly the measured results. A good theory would be conservative with a mean measured/predicted value between 0.8 and 0.9 and a standard deviation of about 0.20. Using this criterion caution shouldbe exercised in using the CIRIA method for slag or superplasticized concrete. The proposed method is consistently more reliable than the CIRIA method and can be used for flyash, slag and super plasticized concretes with the same confidence as for ordinary Portland cement
concretes.
Code provisions
35. The preferred form of a code provision would be to have an equation(s)
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GARDNER
,000 
ClRlA method 

Expenmental data OPC + superplastlclzerGardner 


50% OPC+50%slaq 
I 

+ superplasticlzerHarrson(rei 

0 
LHPBFC 

A 
Slag cement 

!OOO 
1 s.f
I000
/‘
/
m/ ^{/}
/
(ref. 8)
/
/
9)
/ 
1000 
p.s 1. 
2000 
3000 
50 
kPa 
1 do 
150 
Calculated llmlting pressure
Fig. 6. Comparison of nonOPC experimental data withCIRIA calculated pressures
which took account of the effect of all the possible parameters on the formwork pressureobviously this is not practicable.
36. A more practical method is to present a simplified method or equation
which accounts for the major parameters and a phenomenological description of
what to expect under various construction methods.
Phenomena
37. From a
review of the literature the
following factors can be considered
significant to the lateral pressure problem.
Density ofconcrete
38. The lateral pressure contribution from the solid phase of the concrete is
directly proportional to the submerged unit weight of the concrete but thelateral pressure contribution from the fluid phase is proportional only to the density of the fluid phase. The published experimental results relate only to normal weight concrete.
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15c
CONCRETE PRESSURE ON
3000 
Gardnermethod 
Experimental data 
0
OPC + superplastnzer
Flyash
50% OPC + 50% slag + superplasllclzer LHPBFC
A OPCSuperplastuxer
0
0
}
!
Gardner(re1 8)
Harrlson (ref 9)
FORMWORK
100 
/ 

2000 
/ 
/ 

2 

VI 

VI 

~ a, a 
kPa 
P s.1 

a, 

VI 

m ’ 

50 

L 
3000 

0 
I 
I 

0 
50 
kPa 
100 
150 
Fig.
7. Comparison o f
pressures
Vibration
Calculated llmlllng pressure
nonOPC
experimentaldatawithGardnercalculated
39. If concrete is vibrated using pokertype vibrators the depth of immersion
of the vibrator, power of the vibrator and duration of vibration all influence the lateral pressure on the formwork. For external vibration the formwork should be
designed for full hydrostatic pressure.
Revibration
40. If revibration is used
the formwork must be designed for
depth of the vibrator during revibration.
Size of member
being
formed
the immersed
41. It is easily justified that, the larger theminimum dimension of the member being formed, the larger the lateralpressure on theform as the wall shear becomes smaller relative to themass of the concrete. Frictional restraintfrom reinforcement reduces the lateralform pressure.
Temperature
42. The mechanical properties of fresh concrete, which can be measured indi
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GARDNER
156
d
*v) W2
Ov)
Pc? ?3 l" Nt N
N
00
00
0 00 00
C'OP?? (**?op*
_{0}_{0}
_{0}_{0}
0
00
00
dd
wm
m
v)
rm
ww\Dw ww
3
13w=mm
3
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CONCRETE PRESSURE
ON FORMWORK
rectly as setting time, are a function of the temperature of the concrete. The lower the temperature, the slower the concrete hydrates and the slower the mechanical properties of the concrete develop, and consequently, the higher the lateral press ure exerted by the concrete on the formwork. It is the temperature of the concrete, not theambient temperature,which controls the hydration of the cement.
Rate of pour
43. With fast rates of pour, less time is available for the concrete to develop its
strength and, therefore, the limiting lateral pressure is greater.
Slump
44. Slump is a measure of the early age shear strength of concrete. Tests have
shown that themore workable a concrete the higher the lateralpressure.
Superplasticizer
45. Using superplasticizer to increase the workability or slump of the mix increases the maximum lateral pressure exerted on the formwork compared with the unplasticized concrete. The duration of effect of a superplasticizer to increase mobility is relatively short lived and hence the rate of apparent strength gain is relatively higher than for conventional concrete. The effectiveness of a super plasticizer is temperature dependent and is different for each of the various prop rietary brands.
Flyash
46. Slump tests show that the use of flyash to partially replace the cement in a
concrete increases the mobility of the concrete and also reduces the rateof gain of
strength. Consequently concrete made with flyash partial cement replacement will exert higher form pressures than the same slump conventional concrete.
Slag cement
47. Concretes made with blended blastfurnace slag and Portland cement exert
higher lateral pressure on formwork than do conventional Portland cement con
cretes.
Admixtures
48. Any admixture that reduces the rate of strength gain of the concrete will
increase the pressure on the formwork.
Pumped concrete
49. If concrete is pumped from the base of the form the formwork must be
designed for full hydrostatic pressures plus the pumphead.
Expansive cements
50. Concretes using shrinkage compensating cements and expansive cements
can cause forces in formwork greater than those that would be calculated from the full hydrostatic pressure. Contractors and engineers using such cements should monitor closely the formwork and remove the formwork before significant expan sion of the concrete occurs.
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GARDNER
Design method
51. For formwork design purposes it would be
preferable to eliminate the
horsepower term in equation (5) by assuming 3 horsepower per 300 mm of section width.
P,,,
d
= 24hi ++
40
400R’’’
~
18+T
(
~
100
100F
)
slump
+
(64
10
(kW
where d is the minimum form dimension (mm) (not to exceed loo0 mm), h is the total height of the form (m), hi is the immersed depthof the vibrator(m) (to be not less than 1 m), HP is the horsepower of the vibrator andF is the percentageflyash or slag slumpin mm after application of superplasticizer.
52. Further, at very low rates of pour the concrete set can be considered to be
an upper bound. Assuming a set time for the concrete of 4 hours irrespective of temperature the upper bound becomes
P,,,
< 96R
(kPa)
Finally, the pressure cannot be greater than the hydrostatic pressure
Conclusions
P,,,
< 24h
(kPa)
53. For formwork design purposes the lateral pressure envelope can be taken
as hydrostatic from thefree surface to alimiting valueand thereafter constant.
54. The limiting lateral pressure increases with increases in concrete density,
concrete slump, flyash or slag cement content, admixtures, rateof pour, vibration
rate of placement, and decrease in temperature.
55. The method presented to calculate the limiting pressure is consistently
statistically more reliable than the CIRIA method.
Acknowledgement
56. The Author would
like to acknowledge the financial assistance
of the
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada under grant
A5645.
57. The Author would also like to thank CIRIA for permission to access the
original field data andthe Cement and Concrete Associationfor the facilities given in accessing the original data.
References
1. RODINS.Pressure of concrete on formwork. Proc. Instn Cio. Engrs, Part 1,1952,1, Nov., No. 6,709746.
2. SCHlODT R.
Calculations of pressure o f concrete on forms.
Proc. Am. Soc. Cio. Engrs,
1955,81, May, 116.
3. ACI COMMITTEE 347 (formerly ACI COMMITTEE 622).Pressure on formwork. J. Am. _{C}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{r}_{.} Inst., 1958,55, Aug., No. 2, 173190.
4. RITCHIE,A. G. B. The triaxial testing of fresh concrete. Mag. Concr. Res., 1962,14, Mar., No. 40,3742.
5. RITCHIE,A. G. B. Pressure developed by concrete on formwork. Ciu. Engng Publ. Wks Reo., 1962,57, July, No. 672,885888.
6. RITCHIE,A. G. B. and MCDOWELL,D. C. Effects of mix characteristics
on the early
stiffening ofconcrete onformwork pressure. Unpublished report to CIRIA, Project No.
RP64,1969.
158
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CONCRETE PRESSURE ON FORMWORK
7. ADAM,M. et al. Poussee du beton frais sur les coffrages. Ann. Inst. Tech. Biitiment Trav. Publics, Ser. Btton,1963, Mar.Apr., Nos 207208,403423.
Research and
8. CIRIA. The pressure oJ concrete on formwork. Construction Industry
Information Association, London, 1965, CIRIA Research Report No. 1.
9. CIRIA. Data sheet. Construction Industry Research and Information Association,
London, 1978.
10. GARDNERN. J. and QUERFSHI A. R., Internal vibration and the lateral pressure exerted by fresh concrete. Can. J. Ciu. Engng., 1979.6, Dec., No. 4,592600.
J. Am. Concr. Inst., 1980, 77,
11. GARDNER N.J. Pressure of concrete against formwork.
JulyAug., NO.4,279286.
12. GARDNERN. J. The effect of superplasticizers and flyash on formwork pressures. Proc. Int. Con$ on Forming Economical Buildings, PCA, Chicago, 1982,No. 810,
13. GARDNERN. J. Formwork pressures and cement replacement byflyash. Concrete Interna
tional, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, October1984,pp. 3255,
14. DIN 18218. Frischbeton auJLotrechte (Pressure ofconcreteon vertical formwork), Berlin,
1980.
15. HARRISONT. Pressure on uertical Jormwork when concrete is placed in wide sections.
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130.
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