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Don E. Clabtree

with the editorial assistance of

Guy Muto
Christine Lovgren
Earl H. Swanson

and illqstrations by

Mary Keeler


Terrn Definition

Aberrant Deviation frorn norrnal. Odd, peeuliar.
Not exhibiting characteristics peeuliar
to a particular technology or technique.

Aboriginal Original inhabitant; native inhabitants

of a region"

Acurninate Taper-pointed; taperíng gradually to the

¿ipr e" B. , perforator, acurninate bulb.
Alternate Flakes rernoved alternately frorn the
Flaking sarne edge frorn first one face and
then the other. Applies to both
pressure and pereus sion techniques.

.g,rnorphous Denoting an irregular shape. Of no

deterrninate forrn, without classifiable
shape especially with reference to
sorne coTes.

Arnputated The severing of a flake, blade, or

artifact either by applied force or end
shock. Syn.: truncated, severed,
(p.61 ).
Angle of Force The angle at which the force of flaking
or is applied either by percussion,
Angle of indirect percussion, pressure or the
Apptied Force cornbination of pressure and pereussion.
Usually a vector of force representing a
straight line. Having both rnagnitude
and direction. An exeeption is the eurved or
arc-like path of flight when using a specia.l
percussion technique, e. g. , billet or
baton, cobble edge technique, block on
block or anvil"

Term Definition
ÏoO. End opposite the posterior.
Exarnple: the platforrnlurface of
a core is the anterior portion.
Anvil Technique Objective piece is projected against
a stationary object of sufficienl
hardness with sufficient force to
accornplish fracture. See Block on
Biock (p. 35.).
Applied Force \{hen the type of force used to fabricate
an artifact is unknown, or questionable,
the terrn I'applied forceil is substituted
for pressuïe or percussion force until
the actual technique is verified" Used
until the analyst has verified whether
the object was made by p"rcussion,
indirect percus sion, direct pressrlre,
or a natural force.
Arris See Ridge, Crest.


fracturing irnplements needed for their

A rtifice r Sarne as flintknapper. See rFlintknapper. ,,

Attribute of Forrn Characteristics and peculiarities of

shape which show an indication of
culture traits. Example: ou-t1ine.

Anvil technique

Attribute of Techniques having diagnostie
Technology show modes of manufacture, values which
traits, and patterns of human characteristic;
Examples: fluting, behavior.
"r"iff,r"*", rr"s¡-lres.
Axis of See I'Angle of Force. rl
Applied Force

Backed The intentional dulling of one

flake or blade by ,u..rãvirg rnargin of a
flakes from the later"i ,rågin" series o.f
the-sharp edge. In, some inãta.nces,
tooknaker took advantage of the
backíng, such a.s cortex, to serve
as the
,".-^" dulling rnedium. The method of Backed blade Basal thinning Denticulate tool
ftunlinS mav* be of diagnostic signifie
(p.37 a.nce.
Barb A projection on the lateral margins
artifaet _ sornetimes neaï tfre of an
slants in a direetíon f::orn the Uase * whieh
the proximal end. distal toward
Basal Intenti.onal abrading and srnoothing
Grind:lng proximal mangins and end of o.f the
an a::tíf,aet uo
¡revent cutting the serving. Ace omplished
by rubbing the base of theLrtifaet
type of abrasive maüeríal. presumablyon sorne
done to fae:i.litate hafting.
Basal A techníque of removing either
Thinning unifacíallr¡t
or.bíiacially one or rnore tongiruainãì
flakes frorn the prox:ima.l end] presurnabll,
done to fae ilita.re haÍting. -;.úf,!¡eurrr
(p." ,;-
BasaI Portion The proxirnal end. See rrproximal
(end) .Bnd.rl

Basalt Dark igneous rock with variable

Igneous derived frorn the texttl,res.
rrfire.rr A volcanie Latin ignis ,
origin 7
Biface fron Rock Creek, Idaho
Baton or The use of a rod_like baton
Cylindrical thin flakes or blad." f;;;-;heto percuss
Flarnrner rne percussor should bd-ãf rnass.
Technique which wiil yield when contactmaterial
with the objectj.ve piece. is rnade
of antler, ho rfi, bone, o= ,"ror." rnay be
BÍllet. *oo¿. See
Beak A hooked projection made by unifacial
flaking. Generally made Uy tfru pressure
technique. Syrr.: spur. Exarnple:
beaked burin. A

Bending Usually d
Flakes The flake e retouch.
the prane curves on Bi-directional tabular core Bi-conical percussion core
on the arrifacts which
laterat rnargin t:y""9 "*t".¿tru"tJå:::t"
tne ofposire edge
and pass the median line. ,ii.y
cornmonly diagonal. "r"
Beveled An edge which has been rnanufactured
Edge to produce the desired .Ag"
exposure for the removal of "rgle or
flake or flake series. Alss a desíred
sharpening or strengthening. ryÌa)¡ be for
Bi- d;ire ctional Nuclei which bear scars resulting
Cores flakes or blades having been frorn
from two direcrions. J*t."fr"¿
io. 3t
Bi-dire ctional Scars on cores or lithic tools
Flake and the result of rernoving blades which are
Blade Scars by applying the force -fro.rr twoor flakes
Biface Artifact bearinq flake scars on both faees.
(p. 37 ).
Billet obverse TEVETS €
A club-lfüe rod of materíal, other Bi-directional cylindrical core
stone, used to detach flake" than
material. Usually of wood or antler.lithíe
See Braton.
Bi-directional cores

Bi-polar technique

Split Cobble
Technique of resting core on anvil for percussion blow.
Bulbs of force are not present at both ends. The cone of force
is shattered or severed.
Terrn Definition

present on both ends of bipolar flakes or

blades. This technique causes the eone
of force to be shattered or severed. Cone
confined to one end and is sornetirnes
sheared. (p. 40r.
Bit An insert of bone, aniler, ivory or
rnetal into one end of a handle, or L 2 3. Alternate
cruteh, to rnake a coryì.posite pressure flaking to produce
tool. The ti.p or forepiee e of a e ornposite ridge.
pressure tool.
Blade Specialized flake with paraLlel or sub_
parallel lateral edges; the tength being
equal to, or rnore tItan, twice the wÍdùh.
Cross sections are plano:eonvex, trí_
angulate, sub-tríangulate, rectangu-1.a,::,
trapezoidal. Sorne have rnore than two
crests or ridges. Assocíated with p::e_
pared cone and blade technique; not a
randorn flake. (pp. 43, 47 e 5Sl"
Blade Tool s Tools rnade frorn blades detaehed f:rorn
4 5
a col:e. E. g., end se l:apeï on a blade,
backed blade, burin on a blade, and
Blank A usable piece of líthic rnaterial of

not disclosed in the blank. A series of

objects in the early stages in the rnanu*
facturing process before the p::eforrn ås
6 7.
Sequence of core and blade manufacture

Soft Hsmmer




a. platform soft hamme rb lade
b. Lip f . Fissures or hackles o
o . Contact tsú
c. Eraillure area
h . Previous blade scar
d. Diffuse bulb of force i . Dorsal ridge or arris s

e. Preparation flake scars

o o
.Fl '-l
+J (ü
o U
o 'Fi
Ø {J
d. pronounced b"Ï;'3r^ffi:: brade

g. Slight1y curshed contaci areaj xf{

absence of lip cd

He¡d Honne¡ t{











Variant block on b,lock technique for producing blades

Block on Method of rernoving flakes by swinging
Block the core against an anvil. See Anvil
Technique. May be used to produce
large thick flakes as in the Clactonian
industry or blades with thin platforrns.
(pp. 35 & 4z).
Bulb of The bulbar part on the ventral side at
ApplÍed the proximal end of a flake. The
f-oree remnant of a cone part, the result of )
the application of either pïessuïe or
percussion force. Cornrnonly calted the
rrbulb of percussíon,
" howevár, this
signifies only one group of speeiaLized
techniques. Since the bulb of foree is

Stop notch and platform preparation
('pp. ++ & 53).
Bulb of See Bulb of Applied Force,
Pe rcus s åon

Bu-lb of See Bulb of Applied tr-orce.

l1 Pre s s uye
Bulbar Scar 4.
The negative scar found on a coïe or Angle of burin blow
core tool that results frorn the bulb of
_toT"" - either percussion or pïessure.
ri It is a mirror surface or rnold of the
ii cone part resulting frorn flake detachment.
In this use bulbar scar is not synonyrnous with
Eraillure scar. Syt., negative bulb force.
Bur:in A chisel-like implement derived frorn a flake
or blade; or the modification of other im_
plernents by using the burin technique 5.
to burin spal1 or burin blade
rernove the edges parallel to their long Detached
andf or transversely or obliquely.
forrns a right angle edge on one or both
gins. The specíaLized flake rernoved asmar_
result of the burin break is called a burina
blade or spall. ( p. 49).

Sequence of burin manufacture
Terrn Definition
Burin Blade A specialized flake rernoved frorn a Terrn Definition
burin coïe, generally rectangular in
transverse section. The dorsal side Cast Replicas of artifacts prepared in acrylic
of the blade generaiiy shows a single fiber, epoxy, plaster of paris or other
blade scar with lateral margins at suitable rnediurn. Their types should
right angles. The first burin blade always be specified, e. g.: acrylíc fiber
rernoved frorn the core rnay show casts by Eichenberger.
numerous variants, depending on the
type of rnaterial used and because it Chalcedony A cryptocrystalline variety of qwartz,
bears scars of the workerrs preparation predorninantly silica and having the rLear
to establish a ridge to guide ihe first luster of paraffin wax. May be trans-
blade. Syr. : burin spall. parent or translucent and of various tints.
Çhalcedony with different colors arranged
Burin Break Scar left on flake or blade resulting in strips or layers is called agate. If the
frorn the rernoval of a burín spall. strips or layers ate horizontal, it is onyx.
The right angle edge or break, severed Chrysoprase is green chalcedony. Carnelian
transversely frorn force applied to the is flesh-red and sard is either greyish-red

margin. or brown.
Burin Core A core rnade frorn thin, tabular flakes, Chert A fine-grained siliceous rock. Impure
blades, or lithic irnplernents frorn which variety of chalcedony resernbling flint.
orle oT more burin spa1ls have been Cenera[-y light colored.
rernoved. May serve as a tool or a
source of burin blades, or both. Chevron See Double Díagonal Flakine (n. aZ¡.
Burin Scar The negative bulb of force scar found on
a core or core tool. produced by either Chip See Flake.
percussion or pressuïe. The rnold of
the cone part resulting frorn flake detach_ Chopper Heavy core tool presurned to be used for
ment. Syn.: burin facet. chopping. May be unif3ce or biface.
Burin Spall Specialized flake or blade removed frorn Cleavage Planes along which the mineral rnay be
burin coïe. Because of the nature of the a Plane easily split. Tendency of the rnaterial
coTe, the burin blade rnust be thick in to split along either the crystallography,
relation to its length and is usually triang_ natural structural planes, bedding planes,
ular or rectangular in section. Such a andf or planes of non-hornogensity. The
blade has irnportant functional varue because hurnan-induced fracture rnay follow or be
its forrn supplies strength without bulk. rnade to fqllow a cleavage plane. f'lakes
Ma-de-both by the pressure and percussion step fractured at intersection of cleavage
te chnique s. plane. E. g . : quartz crystal, petrified
It{sTiTUi[ tF l\¡lcli[0L0Gv & ANTI'lR0P0L0GY
51 u¡{TvERSITY oF souTH cABoLINA
Terrn Definition
Cleaver A tool approximately U-shaped wíth one
transverse cutting edge. Bifacial cleavers
resernble truncated hand axes with straight
or oblique edge at the tip.
Tranchet Blow F1ake cleavers are rnade by allowing the
C leave r rrtranchetrr (percus sion) blow to intersect
the prirnary flake surface to produce a
sharp cutting edge.
C ollate ral Expanding flakes rernoved frorn the lateral
Flaking edges of the artifact at right angles to the
Iongitudinal a:<is. The technique is varied
and does not require using ridges, or crests,
to guide the flakes. Can be produced by
percussion, indirect percussion, or pres_
sure, depending on the desired size of the
flakes. (p.8?).
C ornrningle To rnix or rningle rnaterial frorn two or
ûÌore sou.rces.
Cornpression Ripple rings radiating frorn the poinü of
Rings force. Can be both positive and negative _
positive on the flake and blade; and negative on
the core. Can be cornpared to ripples forrned
in a pool of still water after the dropping of
a pebble. Cornpression rings are generally
rnoÏe prorninent with percussion than with
pressure. A wave rnotion that can be used
as an indícation of the direction of force.

Cornpressor Irnplernent used by the flintknapper to exert

pressure to the artifact. Synonyrnous with
I'indenterrr used in the litho-rnechanic
lite rature.

5Z Cone of force (Hertzian Cone)

Terrn Definition CÚ
C onehoidal A diagnostic fracture on a plane surface
F:acture which resernbles and has the character-
istics and forrn of half a bivalve she11.
It is the result of definite striking pat- r<
terns. The striking area would be at the Ê{
rrhingerr part of the bivalve shell and the o
conchoidal fracture below on the part that
was plane-

Cone of The forrnation of a cone is the ::esult of

Fore e whieh have the
force applied to rnaterials'When
(He::tzian property of isotropisrn. force is t,

C one) applied vertically to a fl'at surface, the cd

force will spread causing a cone to forrn. r-{

The apex of ühe cone wî11 be t::uncated in c)

proportion to the surface contaeted by the o

agent transferríng the fore e. Each f"l-ake 0)

is a cone part - or part of the bulb of force. o
(p. 531. F{

Shear of rnidsectåon due to cleaving frorn
Cone Shear x
opposing forces, frorn inertåa or: frorn F-t
support. This happens rr.ore often wiÈh h
rounded cobbles. There is often rninor o)
crushing at cone truneation. The scar ,F{

is distinctive, being quíte flat wåth bi- o
section of the cone, elosely spaced ao
radiating inundations and little or no 0)
bulb defini"tion.

Conieal. Cor:e A eore type resernbling a cone, the apex

of which is the distal end. Generally r-{
assc¡eiated with speeialized blade cores. h
C ore Nueleus. A rnass of rnaterial often pre-
forrned by the worker to the desired
shape to allow the rernoval of a definite
type of flake or blade. Påeee of isotropie
rnaterial bearing negative flake scars, or
scaï. Cores can be ernbr:'yonic - such as a
piece of natural, unprepared, raw rnaterial

54 55

Terrn Definition Terrn Definition
with scarr oï scars, reflecting the
detachrnent of one oï rnore flakes Crested Blade See Larn4 a Ctêt..
as the Mexican polyhedral core. such
fiaked tool industries aïe ïepïesented Crude A word often used - and widely rnisused -
by either flakes or cores. to describe character of workrnanship of
(pp. 39, 40, 43, 46, 47 e 5Ð. aboriginal artifacts. The refinernerrt, or
lack of refinernent of the work rnust be
Core TooI Ambiguous term, usually reserved evaluated and related to the rnaterial
techniques based on nodular reduction,for before the word t'crudet' is a.pplied.
such as cobble choppers, or Ernbryonic, inferior, or bad work found
hand axes. Large flakes seïve
Acheu,learr on good rnaterial could weII be called
also as
the core for later axes, and in the crude, but at the sarne tirne, allowance
of the original cortex this distinction should be rnade for the learner or beginner.
futiie. Carried to íts logicat extrerneis But the finding of less controlled flaking on
tools from which flakes ão. ,.rrroved all poor rnaterial rnay indicate that the worker
core tools. are was, indeed, a skilled fabricator to have
accornplished any degree of flaking. Here,
Core Typu A core which ha it is aknost unnecessary to allow for the
t'l; learner or beginner for it is doubtful they
and. te chnor ogic ;ì ilfi:
indicative of a culture). n. g.,
:Lr",r_r::- could do work on bad or inferior rnaterial.
arne rican polyhedral core,
Meso_ Also to be considered is the intent and
bidirectional core.
b.-iconical ultirnate design of the worker - fqr instance,
he rnay have been designing a preforrn, drilI,
C ortex Natural surface, or rind, on flint:Iíke or digging tool and, therefore, not wanted,
materials. or bothered with, the rnore refined flaking
character. Sorne analyst ûlay consider the
C rater j.ng
Multiple intersecting ilmoon_like,r preforrn work as rrcrudet' whereas the worker
on the surface of vitreous cones was intentionally flaking in this rnanner to
rocks resulting allow for further thinning.
from either intentional or natural
turnbling, or bruis ing. pounding,
Crutch A wooden staff of varying dirnensims with
Crazing Minute surface cracks _ generally a chest rest cross-piece at the upper end
hatched - causing the surlace to e ross_ and a pressure tip inserted at the working end.
be weak_
ened. Cornmon to over_heated silie The shoulder crutch is a srnall version of
materials. eous the chest crutch. Size and çonstruction de-
pends on individual preference and the type
Crest .Word of work to be accomplished. Usually used as
used to denote both the raised
on the rnarginal parts of a flake portion pressure tool1, butcan be used in a cornbina-
scar and the ridge or blade tion of pressure and percussion.
flake scars. Edge allel
fracture. The opp plane of C ryptocrystalline A fine-grained crystalline rock but having
distinct particles which are unrecognizable
without the aid of rnagnification. The size
of the rnicrocrystals deterrnine the texture.

Term Definition
Curved Flaking See Bending Flakes. Terrn Definition
Darnpen To weaken, abate, diminish. Large pieces Diffuse Bulb A bulb of force which lacks the definition of
being worked a1e. frequently darnpened the cone part. The bulb is disserninated, in-
support on the thigh of the flintworker. by dicating a broad contact with the pressure or
percussion tool. Cornrnon to billet technique.
Debitage Residual lithic rnateríal resulting frorn Generally lacks an eraillure scaï and ripple
tool manufacture. Useful to determine rnarks are rnuch subdued. See Truncation.
techniques and for showing technological (p. 44]'.
traits. Represents intentional and uninten_
tlonal breakage of artifacts either through Direct A rnethod of holding the rnaterial to be flaked
rnanufacture or function. Debitage flakà Freehand in the unsupported hand and directing the
usually represent the various stages of Percus sion percussion or pressure irnplernent with the
progress of the raw material frorn the or Pressure other hand to detach flakes or blades.
original forrn to the finished stage.
Direct Rest A rnethod whereby the objective piece is
Debris 'W'aste
rnaterial _ such as quarrying or supported on an anvil during the flaking
mining waste - having little or no definitive process.
characte ristics. See Detritus, Debitage.
Di.scoidal Core Bi-convex core having flakes or blades
Denticulation Prominences resembling teeth sirnilar to rernoved frorn the perirneter and usually
those on a saw. Tooth_like serrating on on both faces. (p. 39).
margins of artifacts. (p. 37).
'Waste of Dorsal Outer surface. Keeled part of blade or
Detritus disintegrated rocks, such as ac- flake. For instance, the dorsal side of
cumulated waste at a natural exposure. a blade is the face of the core prior to
Having little or no diagnostic value. See detachrnent.
Debitage, Debris.
Double Parallel diagonal flakes reûr.oved frorn
Diagonal Sirnilar to parallel flaking, except the pres- Diagonal both lateral rnargins and terrninated
Parallel sure is directed at an oblique angle from FIakíng along the rnedian line but directed toward
Flaking right to left. This is the tãchnique of right- the base of the artifact. An herringbone,
handed persons, but a Ieft_handed worke or Christrnas tree pattern results. A
would direct the pressuïe at an angle
from rnost difficult teehnique because one rnust
left to right. The preforrn is held in the either be arnbidexterous or rnust corn-
palrn of the left hand with a right_handed pletely reverse both the platforrn prepa-
worker and in the right hand *h"r, the knapper ration and the direction of force.
is left-handed. 'When a right_handed peïson (p.82).
holds the preform in the fingers or the left
hand and the pïessure is directed away frorn Downward Method of coordination of rnuscular rnotoï
the knapper, the results will resernble those and Outward habits which allor¡'s the worker to push
of a left-handed person. The same as dir_ Pr:e s sure down and out sirnultaneously in order to
ection of detaching the flakes. start detachrnent of a flake or blade frorn
(n. az¡. a core at the proxirnal end and, at tlne
Terrn Definition
sarne tirne, follow through to the point of
release at the distal end. Ratio of downward
and outward pressure is adjusted by the
worker to control the character of the flake.
See Angle of Force. This terrn applies pri- 1
rnarily to detachrnent of blades by pressuïe.
See In and Away.

Elasticity The property of stone to return to its

forrner state after being depressed by
application of force. Ideal lithic rnaterials
are aknost perfectly elastic.
Elastic Lirnit The rnaxirnurn stress a specirnen can with-
stand before fracture occurs.

Elastic The inherent prooerty in certain rnaterials

Rebound allowing the recovery frorn elastic strain.
End Beveled irnplernent made on flake or blade
Scraper with working edge on one or both convex
ends. The bevel is forrned by unifacial
flaking or by use.
End Shock Transverse fracture due to the stone ex-
ceeding its elastic lirnits. Failure of the
rnaterial to rebound and recoil before frac-
ture occurs. (n. Ot¡.
End View Perpendicular view of either proxirnal or
distal end.

E raillure An enigrnatic flake forrned between the

Flake bulb of force and the bulbar scaï.
Usually adheres to the core in the bulbar:
scar. The eraillure flake, itself, leaves
no scar on the core. The dorsal side of the
eraillure flake bears no cornpression rings
but the ventral side of the eraillure flake
does bear cornpression rings that rnatch

F il;ì i-: I:;''-- ''' i:i:'

i:r Sijli!-ìi iirltLINA
60 End shock or ampuratiòliE Aí:;ir:.1i:0101;,1,1,i i, ;:,ii.l\/
lllsìl lii iÍ] 0;' l'ilill-ll'l'i.iiil'' ¡; irl'ìiÌiF'ÛtcLrjiìY
6L iif'iììIf ì:'i;it' íil i'r'jJil '':j\liírÌliil.
cÛ'LuÌ"iiiIA, sJU1 ii Üi\llfji-ii'ì/\ i9¿ij8
Term Definition
the scar left on the bulb of force. The
eraillure flake is convex, concave.
Exarnple: Menis cus lens.
Exhausted Used up. Consurned, either frorn function À
wearoor by the flintknapper. Adjective o
applied rnost often to cores. Exhaustion tt
rrray occur for the following reasons:
steps and hinges, reduction of platforrn
size or angle, lack of material, too srnall.
Exhausted Artifacts which have been rende::ed useless
T ools because of resharpening whieh produces an
angle inadequate for further retouch. Cores
consurned frorn flake and k¡lade rernoval or
frorn rejuvenation. tît
Experirnental irnental approaeh to repJ.ieating '-l
Flintworking stone work. This initially

epli.cation of flake and flake scar ,Ft E
attråbutes of technology, after which those F

techniques which produce the least sat,ts_

factory results are elirnínated and the
other teehniques refined.
Fabricator Any of the tools used to apply force to the
objective pi-ee e in the knapping process.
Includes: harnrnerstones, billets, batons,
pressure and notching toolsr punches, etc.
Face The dorsal or ventral surface of the
Facet tr
Either a natural or artifieal plane surface. (¡)

If artifical, facet is produced by intentional {J

grinding. The word ilfacet'r shou-ld not bê o

used when dese råbing parts of flake scars.

Fatigue Undetected strains indueed ín lithic rnaterial

causing molecular stress and weakness.
Generally due to irnpropeï ïecovery of
e lasticity.


Te rm Definition
Terrn Definition
Feathering A technique which produces a flake which
terrninates in an edge with a rninirnal Flaker A pressure irnplernent used to rernove flakes
margin. produces biades or flakes wiih during the process of forrning or sharpening.
edges and distal ends which are Sarne as colrLpressor. The word rrflakerrt
very sharp. relates to pressure flaking whereas the
l"."rh:red edge leaves siight ridges
objective piece, a characteristic of on the irnplernent used for percussion work is
collateral flaking. (e. O:¡. referred to as a rrpercussor'r or harnrner.
Fire Checks Distinctive rninute cracks in stone, Flaking Process of rernoving srnall pieces of rnaterial
rectangular in shape. Appears in chalcedonic frorn objective piece by pressure, percussion,
Tocks which have been either heated indire'ct percussion oT the cornbination of
or cooled
too rapidly. May be associated with planned pressure and percus sion.
therrnal treatrnent or rnerely be the result
accidental of I'lake Typ. Groups of flakes which bear technological
heat contact. Exãessive heat will
cause rocks to becorne granular and scaly attributes showing rhythrns and prototypes
and will usually change the color to of their rnode of rernoval frorn a core.
a por_ See Thinning Flake.
celain white. See Crazing, Thermal
FIat Flaking Technique which reryloves flakes resulting
Fis sure s Lines of radii usually originating at the in a plane surface.
rnargins of the flakes on ventral face
directed toward the point of force. Fissures Flexibil.ity The arnount of bending without breaking
are not cracks, but aïe crests and troughs. exhibited by sorne lithic rnaterials. Not
The appeaïance of fissuïes on the e lastic ity.
bulb of
for_ce usually indicates that a percussion
technique was used. Fis"rrr"" are
also Flint A siliceous rnaterial ideally suited for fla.ked
known as hackles. Syr. , Gro_oved irnplernent rnanufacture. Responds well to
shatler the application of force, either percussion
or pressure. Usually a fine-grained rock
FIake of the darker shades. Occurs as nodes oT
nodules in lirnestones and chalks, and as
rounded or irregular rnasses.

F1ints A general terrn denoting all flaked artifacts

rnade of stone. Associated, probably, with
pieces of flint used in flintlock rifles.

Flintknapper One who forrns stone irnplernents by con-

trolling the fracture of the rnaterial. An
artificer. A stoneworker using rnaterial
exhibiting a conchoidal fracture.

Terrn Definition
Flintlike Used to refer to any lithic rnaterial which
reacts like fiint when subjected to force.
Material having the properties of iso-
tropisrn and s ornewhat cryptocrystalline
and hornogeneous.

Flute A negative serni-concave flake scar having

parallel sides. The result of force applied
to the objective piece which has previously
had special preparation of the surface and
platforrn area to accornplish fluting. A
concave trough on the artifact frorn the
proxirnal toward the distal end. Generally A
related to bladernaking and basal thinning
of projectile points. Produced to allow
special hafting. The act of rernoving a
channel flake the vertical length of the A. Grinding
artifact. Syn.: Channel flake scar.
I"luted Point A projectile point bearing one or two longi-
tudinal channel flake scaïs frorn base toward
the tip on one or both faces of the artífact.
Cross section is bi-concave if both sides are
fluted. If only one side is fluted, the trans-
verse section is then concave-convex, or
plano-convex. The sÇ,ar is convex in section
and is norrnally produced by pressure or in-
direct. Ordinarily applíed to Folsorn points.
(e. as¡.

Foliate Applied either to willow leaf or laurel leaf

type poínts.
Geornetric Srnall geornetric tools with either pointed or -
Mie roliths various shaped sharp edges. Usually rnade
by severing blades into transverse sections. ì

Sorne cornrnon forms are called rectangular,

triangular, lunate. Probably used for the
rnanufacture of cornposite tools. B. Polishing
(p. 751.
Grinding and polishing
(mag. 32.5 x)
Term Definition
Graver A stone irnplernent generally rrade by pres_
sure flaking and intentionally designed to
have a functiqnal point or points. It is gen_
erally assumed that gravers are used to
inÇise or forrn organic materials and soft

Grinding A dual-purpose preparation technique.

'Weakens a plane
surface ard strengthens
a rounded surfaqe. Accornpiished by lr
grinding fþe platforrn, core top, or rnargins
qf artifacts with an ablasive stone.
(p. 67).
Grindstone Abrasive stone cornposed of bonded gran_
ules of rock. Abrasive stones with gran_
ules of various sizes and different bonding
agents. Typ" of abrasive stone is selected
to conform to the lithic material being
formed or sharpened. Generally, the harder
the material beíng worked, the softer the
Hackle ç See Fissures.

Hand-held Mannçr of holding the objective piece in

the left hand white force is exerted by
the right hand through the percussor or
comPtessor. Free-hand: objeCtive piece
held with no support. Free-hand rest:
objective held in rested hand.
Hinge I'racture A fracture at the distal end of a flake or
blade which prevents detachment of the
flake at its proposed terrninal point. A
hinge fractu:re terrninates the flake at
ríght angles to the longitudinal axis and
the break is usually rounded or blunt. Dorsal Ventral
Not to be confused with a step fracture.
(n. o9¡.
Secondary decortication and hinge
fracture recovery b1ade.
68 69
Term Terrn Definition
Homogeneous Of the sarne structure, nature or kind Indire ct A percussion technique which involves
throughout. Of líke substance. In selec_ Freehand striking a punch-like object with a Percussor.
ting rnaterial for replication one of the The punch is held in the fingers of the left
rnajor criteria is hornogeneity. A horn_ hand with its tip rested on the platforrn of the
ogeneous rnaterial can be worked with artif.act which is held in the unsuPPorted palrn
consistency because it has no planes of of the sarne hand. Norrnally requires the
weakness or included rnaterial that would services of a second person.
irnpair the conchoidat fracture process.
See Inclus ion. In Situ Natural undisturbed position of an oþject or
rnaterial. 'Where first forrned or deposited.
Igneous Rock Rock forrned by soiidification of rnolten
volcanic rnaterial such as rhyolite, basalt, Inte rrnediate A punch-like object of antler, bone, wood,
obsidian. T ool stone, or rnetal on which the percussion
blow is delivered to irnpart force to a pre-
Ignimbrite A silicic volcanic rock forrned in thick, deterrnined area on either a core or stone
rnassive cornpact, lava_like sheets. Usu* tool. 'Worker strikes the base of the punch
ally deposited over a wide area. The rock wíth a percussor. See Punch Technique.
is chiefly a fine-grained rhyolite tuff formed (e. aa¡.
mainly of glass particles welded by incan_
descent volcanic cloud. Often confused with Interval of Factor of contact tirne between the percussor
obsidian. C ontact and the objective piece. The hard percussor
has a short interval of contact f.or it delivers
Impact Scars Scars resulting frorn using a hard percussor instantaneous concentrated force. The softer
to deliver the force to the rnaterial, causing percussor has a longer interval of contact
radiating fj.ssures on the bulb of force because it is rnore yielding and, therefore,
allows the force to be irnparted rnore slowly.
In and Away
Interval of The spacing distance between the rnarginal
Spacing flake scars.

Is olated A platforrn which has been freed frorn the

Platf orrn rnass by the rernoval of flakes to isolate or
cause the platforrn part to protrude or becorne
prorninent. Example: the platforrn (nib) on
In and Down See Downward and Outward pressure, In and the base of a Folsorn point on which the fab-
Away. ricating tool is seated prior to fluting. Sarne
as Prornontory.
Inclusion An impurity or foreign body in stone which
deters the hornogeneity of the lithic rnaterial I s otr opic Material having the sarne properties in all
and causes problems for the flintworker. directions. Typical of arnorphous substances
See Hornogeneous.

and of crystals of the isornetric
an isotropic elastic medíum, system. In
the velocities of
propagation of elastic waves .aïe
of direction. independent

Jade A rnetarnorphic rock of varied colors.

variety is apple_gïeen and wa;<y_white. Gern
material of extraordinary toughne"" A
six and one_half on the tviofr" scale Urrt orrty
ness. Must be formed by grinding,of hard_
not ttating.
Jasper An impure variety of chalcedony
various oFqqu: colors. Adaptableformed in
and forrning stone artifacts. for ffJlr.g
Keel Ridge formed by a feathering termination
flakes at the rnedian line. of
C-an also be a
single ridge on the dorsal side
of a biade
generally on the median line resulting
a previously detached blade. frorn
Knapper One who works_ stone by
knapper or artificer. ôf¿ Wãrld i. u., flint-
sibly derived from the knapiirrg terrn pos_
by stone masons. rr"rrrrrrer used

Knapping Process of fracturing stone. Forrnerly

indicated a percussion technique
includes the pressure technique but now
as weII.
LarnJ a crête First blade rernoved frorn a core.
directional flake scars on the Bears bi_
the result of the worker pïeparing surface,
guide the blade. a ridge to

Lanceolate Lance or spearlike.

Lateral Margins Margins of flakes, blades and other
tools on either or both sides of stone
the longitudinal


Levallois core technique

Terrn Ðefinition
Leading Edge \t'orking part of either the stone irnplernent
or core which is nearest the knapper. Edge
of the objective piece facing the knapper.
Levallois A special core preparation technique which
Technique allows the percussion removal of flake irn_
plements requiring litfle or no rnodification.
The Levallois tool is plano_convex and is
characterized by intersecting flake scars on
the dorsal side. Generally, only one or two
usable flakes are detached before the coïe
is discarded. This technique encorì.passes
several rnethods of flake removal.
(p. 7 3).

Lip 1) Projection found on core or artifact

which results frorn the bulbar scar. -A
concavity causing an overhang usually Flake showing pronounced lip
found on the leading edge
2l Projection found on the proxirnal ventral
surface of sorne flakes, believed to be as_ Geometric nicroliths
sociated with soft harnrner percussion or
pressure. (pp. 44 e 75).
Lithic Derived from the Greek word lithos_ilstone. il
Pertaining to stone.
Longitudinal The area of the artifact bounded by the prox-
Lateral imal and distal ends and both lateral ,nargins.

Longitudinal The thickness of the artifact between the

Transverse dorsal and ventral side and bounded by the
Section proxirnal and distal ends.
Marginal See I'issures.
tr-is sure s

Marginal Process of srnoothing rnargins prior to

Grinding flaking to rnake thern stronler and .nore
regular and to facilitate hafting.
Triangular Trapezoidal

74 75

Terrn Definition
Mas s A quantity of rnatter forrning a body.
Mechanics of The principles of rnotion and force applied
Fracture to isotropic rnaterial to accornplish a
planned and preconeeived fracture"

Median Line An imaginary line pertaining to the rniddle

part of the artifact frorn the proxirnal to
the distal end. Can be on either face.
Menise us Coneave ori. one side and cosìvex on the
other. See Erailltrre Flake"
Mental The visualizatian, in the mind of the rnaker,
Ternplate of the ideal type of irnplernent to be rnade.
trt is this which rnakes "typest' such as
Folsorn, Clovis, etc., ídentifiable.
Method That part of the fabrication pïocess wholly
in the rnind of the flintworker, rnental
ternplate, knowledge of possible techniques
to ernploy, farniliarity of style and response
of the stone being worked. A eharacteristic
rnode oT ryl.anner of proeedu::e.

Microblade s Dirninutive blade generally rnade by pres-

sure technique" Cornrnon to sorne Aretic
cultures. See Bl.ade. (p. ZZ).
Microburin Waste product not intended for funetion.
Usually the proxirnal or distal end of a
blade. Residue of geornetrical rnicrolith
industries. Not to be confused wíth either
a dirninutive burin spal.l or burín coïe. Can
be rnade by a special technique or severing
prisrnatie blade s.
Mie roburin Method of severing blades to rnake geornet-
Technique rical rnie roliths" Technique .requires first
weakening the blade by rnargína1 notching and
then breaking it at the notch.
Micro-core and blades
76 77
Terrn Definition
Terrn Definition
Notch Basal indentations to facilitate hafting.
Microliths Very srnall geornetric-forrn tools cornrnonly
used in cornposite tools. Forrned frorn pris- Notching Technique of indenting the base of a
rnatic blades, using the sharp unrnodified projectile point or knife to facilitate
lateral edges as the cutting edge. hafting. Usually by the pressure tech-
(n.zs ¡. nique. Several traits rnay be identified'
Deep serrations are a style of notching.
Mingle To rnix or rningle rnaterial frorn one souïce.
Nucleus The core. A central rnass or a kernel.
Morphological An unreliable rnethod of typing stone tools The part rernaining after rernoval of
Typology according to forrn alone. This can be rnis- excess rnaterial, or after flakes or blades
leading, for tools having the sarne forrn have been detached. A core tool could be
rnay well have been produced by different a nuclear artifact.
techniques, have different technological at-
tributes, and could have been intended for Objective Lithic rnaterial being worked or forrned
different functional purposes. Piece by various techniques. Can be nodule,
flake, blade, blank, preforrn, core uni-
Multidire ctional Core bearing scars which show that flakes face, biface or a Perrnutation of object
Core or blades were rernoved in rnore than one to cornpleted forrn.
dire ction
Oblique Flaking Flakes rem.oved diagonally to the long axis
Naturefacts Pseudo-artifacts caused by natural soil of the artífact, Parallel flaking directed
( Pseudo-tooIs ) rnovernent, glaciation, wave action, high diagonall| a.toss the surface of the arti-
velocity water rnovernent, gravity (such as fact. Generally done by the pressure
alluvial fans or steep inclines), rapid tern- technique. See Diagonal Flaking.
perature changes, internal pressure (such as (p. 87).
starch fractures and pot lids), exfoliation,
tectonic rnovernents, diastrophisrn, solifluction, Obsidian Igneous glass, volcanic rock. Generally
foot trarnpling and other unintentional activity black although sorne deposits are red, green
caused by nature rather than by rnan. These and of different
or brown. Is often banded 'WeIl
conditions can detach flakes frorn the rnass in degrees of transparency. suited for
such a manner that the piece ûÌay resernble an flaked irnplernent rnanufacture for it produces
ernbryonic tool. a very sharp cutting edge.

Negative Bulb A rnirror surface of the cone part always on Obs cure Side Terrn used to denote the underside, or
of Force the objective piece and not on the flake or urrexposed face of an attíflact. Used to
blade. See Bulbar Scar. help explain the hotding rnethod during
pressure flaking. For exarnple, during
Non-undulated Flakes and flake scars showing the absence the pressure flaking process, the attífact
of cornpression rings on the plane of fracture" is generally held flat in the hand and flakes
Related to rnaterial and special techniques. pressed off the face resting on the palrn.


Terrn Definition
This face is not visible to the worker and,
therefore, it is called the "obscure side. il
Outrepas se/ Over and beyond the opposite rnargin. (See
Tixier 1963, Typologie De LrEpipaleo_
lithique Du Maghreb. )
Ovates Long oval irnplernents. Can be blanks or
preforrns" Elliptical. Bifacial or unifacial.
Overhang See Lip. (p. 44 e 75)"

ParalleI F1ake scars are parallel to each other, uni_

Fiaking form or graduated in size, and leave a sharp
straight edge. This technique was applied
to direct the flakes across th-e face of the
artif.act, rnaking it stronger and rnore regular.
This type of flaking is accornplished by the
serial rernoval of blades continuously acïoss
the face of the surface worked. The flake
platforrn is placed in line with a ridge with
the greatest force applied directly peïpen_
dicular to rnargin with pressure tip. The
tool rnust be kept in line with ridge during
detachrnent. (p. gZ).
Patina An alteration of the surface by rnolecular or
chernical change and not to be confused with
sand blasting.

Pecking The percussion technique used to forrn oveï_

Iapping superimposed coïles, usually with
the direction of force being applied to the
surface of the rnaterial in a perpendicular
direction. Cornrnonly used in grooving and
the shaping of harnrnerstones.
Perrnutation Interchange. To change one thing for another.
Pe rcus s ion A rnethod of striking with a percussor to
Flaking detach flakes or blades frorn a core or rnass.

80 D 1r e c t p ETCUS S 1 on fr ak in{H E A R CH EOL OG ^


Terrn Definition

Percussion flaking includes varied techniques

to rernove flakes by either irnpact, collision
or concussion. (p. 8t).
Percus sor An irnplernent used for striking. Includes
harnrners, harnmerstones or billets.
Perverse Fracture A helical, spiral or twisting break initiated
at the edge of an objective piece. Natural
flaws, excessive force and rnass to be re-
rnoved add to the possibility of perverse
fracture. Production errors such as step
fractures rrì.ay produce rrtore rnass than plat-
forrning and force can overcorrÌe. Energy is
then deflected into and through the rnass of
the object.. (p. e¡).
Phylogeny The line" or lines of direct descent in a
given group.

Pick Long, narrow, thick core tool. Prorninent

keel on dorsal side and plano on ventral side. -
Pointed on one or both ends.
Plane of The splittíng or tendency to split, along
Cleavage planes deterrnined by ctystal structure, or
by bedding planes in sedirnentary rocks.
Parallel planes of weakness within the
structure which destroy the hornogeneity
of the lithic rnaterial.

Plane of The surface on the ventral side of the flake

Fracture bearing the positive scar of the bulb of force{
the negative scar being on the coïe or stone
Plano- convex Flat on ventral surface - curved on dorsal
surface. Cornrnon to unifacial artifacts.
Platforrn The angle of the platforrn rneasured frorn This segment Ìotated backward
Angle the dorsal to the ventral side. At right and tilted up.

8Z Perverse fracture
Terrn Definition
Terrn Definition
angles, or less to the longitudinal axis.
Angle of platforrn on flake or blade cor- Generally they are a natural occurrence
responding with parental platforrn angle rather than intentional results of rnan-rnade
of core. flake s.

Platforrn The table or surface area receiving the Precision A precision rnethod of thinning by which the
force necessary to detach a flake or blade Thinning worker controls the direction and terrnination
Can be either natural or prepared. The of the flakes at the rnedian line of the artifact
truncation of the cone part. by applying either the parallel or collateral
flaking technique. Flakes are intentionally
Platforrn The grinding, polishing, faceting, beveling terrninated in a hinge or step fracture at the
Preparation of that part of the platforrn to receive the rnedian line to allow flakes detached frorn the
applied force. Usually done to strengthen opposite rnargin to rneet and intersect these
the platforrn in order to carry off a larger hinge fracture s.
flake" See also Turned Edge, Grinding,
Polishing, Facet, Beveled Edge" Preforrn Preforrning denotes the first shaping" Preforrn
is an unfinished, unused forrn of the proposed
Point of Platforrn part or cone truncation. Area artifact. It is larger than, and without the
C ontact of the forceful rneeting of percussor or refinernent of, the cornpleted tool. It is thick,
coryr.pressor and the objective piece" with deep bulbar scars, has irregular edges,
and no rrreans of hafting. Generally rnade by
Polishing To rnake srnooth by rubbing with fine direct percussion. Not to be confused with a
abrasive rnaterial. Strengthens the plat- 'rblank.rl
forrn" Can also be the result of function.
See Grinding. (p. 671" Prehistoric The science of knowledge of forrning stone
Lithic into useful cutting, chopping, and other
Polyhedral Core bearing rnultiple biade scars. Technology functional irnplernents, cornprised of two
Core Generally cylindrical (p" 55). factors - the rnethods and the technique" See
Method and Technique.
Positive Bulb of Rounded ( onion- shaped) protubeïance
Force found on the ventral side of a flake or Pre s sure Process of forrning and sharpening stone by
blade at the proxirnal end. Bulb is part Flaking rernoving surplus rnaterial - in the forrn of
of the cone of force. flakes - frorn the artifact by a pressing force
rather than by percussion. There are various
P oste rior Bottorn. Base. Opposite of anterior. individual techniques of pressure flaking.

Pot Lid A plano-convex flake leaving a concave scar. Prirnary Rernoval of irregularities on the artifact by
Pot lids are the result of differential expansion Retouch the pressuïe technique to rnake the piece
and contraction of isotropic rnaterial but are ready for the second retouch.
rninus the coûlpression rings of force lines
usually associated with these conditions"

Terrn Definition
Prirnitive Pertaining to the beginning or origin or to
early tirnes. Original, first, p::irnary,
Prisrnatic Long narrow specialized flake with para_
Blade 11e1 sides. Genèrally triangulate or trap-
ezoidaL in section and bearing two or three
prisrn-like facets on the dorsal side. Assoc_ 2. Less reguJ.ar Parallel
iated with blades refiloved frorn a polyhedral 1. Very regular parallel
c ore.

Pr oje ctile Spear point, dart point or arrowpoint. An

Point arrowhead rnay be unpoínted or transverse.
(n. sz¡.
Prornontory See Isolated Platforrn"

Pseudoburin Flake fragrnent exhibiting right angle edge,

sirnilar to those produced by the rernoval of
burin spalls, but not presenting the typical
burin concavity, or the negative bulb force.
Pseudotools See Naturefacts.
3 Diagonal parallel 4. Collateral 5 Randon or non-
or oblique patterned
Punch An interrnediate tool of antler, bone, wood,
rnetal or stone used in the percussion tech_
nique" The punch is placed on the objective
piece and ree eives the blow frorn the pel:cnssor.

Punch A rnethod of applying peïcussion force to an

Technique interrnediate tool (punch). (n. AA¡"
Randorn Flaking Multi-directional, rnultiforrn and without
order for rnaking the axtífact regular in
forrn" Used without further refinernent
or a stage of prirnary retouch prior to
precision flaking. (p" 8Z)"
Re c oil Rebound. Recovery frorn the shock due to 6. Flute or channel 7 Double diagonal or
the sudden application of force" Does not flake scar chevron
exceed elastic lirnit of rnaterial.

Idealized projectile points showing

86 varieties of pressure flaking
Terrn Definition

Rejuvenate To renovate, renew, restore, r€-create, or

Te-establish. An exarnple would be blade
core platforrn rejuvenation: a process by
which the exhausted or ruined platforrn would
be rernoved as a tabular flake thereby estab-
lishing a new Platforrn.

Residual Core An arnorphous core without definite forrn,

having the platforrn area exhausted. Bears
scars denoting the rernoval of flakes or
blade s.

Retouching A technique used to thin, straighten, sharpen,

srrrooth and rnake the artifact rnore regular
in forrn. Generally involves the use of Pres-
sure in one or rnore stages. Retouching
usually follows peïcussion preforrning. Before
precision pressuïe work rnay be accornplished,
one rnust first rernove all irregularities on
the objective piece by a prirnary retouch and
then do a secondarY retouch.

Ridge A projection. The intersectj-on of two surfaces

forrning a salient angle. The rnedian longi-
tudinal lines of an artifact which is rhornboidal
in transverse section. Long crest, or spine,
either natural or forrned by unifacial or tri-
facj.al flaking. Generally used to guide the
blade frorn the core.
'Waves appearing on the plane of fracture'
Ç ornpre s s ion rings " Characteristic of s olids
which have the properties of viscous liquid'

Salient Bulb A bulb of force having good definition of the

cone part. Indicating a confined contact force"
(p. 44, 45 & 53).
Sandstone A sedirnentary rock cornposed of sand and
bonding rnineral. Generally used for grinding
and polishing. Very cornpact and hornogeneous

Punch technique or intermediate tool

Terrn Definition

varieties can be forrned into various artifacts

by percussion flaking.
Scalar Flaking A technique which produces irregular ex-
panding, overlapping flake scars which
resernble scales. May be the result of
pïessure or percussion.

Seriation Cradation frorn early forrns to later forrns

in lithic rnanufacture.
Se r rating Indenting the edges by alternatíng the rernoval
of flakes; or the repeating of notches at reg-
ular intervals. See Denticulation.
Shearing Technique of turning the edge by wiping a
rod-Iike pïessure tool along the rnargin
while pressing inward. Rapid rnethod of
platforrn preparation prior to pressure

Shearing of Cone See Split Çone Technique. (e. f t1.

Shear Stress To sever frorn opposing forces"

Side Víew The lateral edge or rnargin of the artifact

when it is held horizontal to the viewer.

Side Scraper knplernent with beveling on one or rn'ore

rnargins of a flake or blade to obtain a
strong cutting edge.

Silex A terrn cornrnonly used to define Old \{-orld

rocks of a siliceous or chalcedonic nature. X- section
Possibly derived frorn the French word
silex -rrflint.'r Not to be confused with a
FFna.ne of a rnanufactured glass.
Silice ous Of or pertaining to silica. High silica

Sheared cone and X-section

Terrn Definition
Terrn Definition
ilicification The introduction of or replacernent by Step I.racture A flake or flake scar that terrninates
abruptly in a right angle break at tlne
s ilica. point of truncation. Caused by a dis-
sipation of force or the collapse of the
Silicified Slate S1ate with a high silica content causing
it to be rnuch harder than norrnal" flake. (p.63).

Sinuous Snake-like, alternating or wavy. Margins Strangled Intentional flaking directly opposite on
of artifacts are rnade sinuous by rernoving Flake or both rnargins to rnake a constriction or
Blade narrowing.
flakes alternatèly frorn the lateral edges.
Slate Metarnorphosed fine-grained sedirnents with Strengthened A platforrn which has been strengthened
Platforrn by prbviding a greater area to receive the
well-defined cleavage. Artifacts are usually applied force, or rnade stronger by
forrned by grinding rather than by flaking. polishing an isolated platforrn. See
Platf orrn Prepar ation.
Snapping 1) A rnethod of producing a transr¡erse
fracture to sever flakes or blades. Pres- Protuberance. High point. Apex. See
sure or percussion force is applied frorn Surnrnit
C re st.
the ventral toward the dorsal side.
Z) May also be accornplished by finger Tabular Core Core type resernbling a tablet, generally
pre s sure.
bi-directional. 1p. 39).
S olifluction The process of slow rnovernent of water- A basal projection. See Barb.
saturated ground rrì.asses frorn higher to
Iower leveIs. Movernents of earth rnay Taxonorny Science of systernatics. Arrangernent and
cause I'naturefactsrr to be forrned" classification according to relationship.
Spall See Flake.
Techniques which have diagnostic value
Attribute s showing rnodes of rnanufacture, character-
Split C one At present, the technique is enigrnatic but istic traits, and patterns of hurnan behavior.
Technique has been observed on artifacts found in
e. g. , grinding or percussion flaking. See
c-obb1e irnplernent industries which have had
large exterior flakes rernoved frorn the cobblers Attribute of Technology.
surface. These flakes have no visible bulb of
force, the result of the worker using the anvil Technique The word I'technique'r applied to stone tool
technique and splitting the cone of force. This rnanufacture denotes the rnethod, execution,
technique has been noted by Charles Borden perforrnance or rnanipulation of a definite
on the Fraser River artifacts and by others.
practice of forrning lithic rnaterial but re-
(p. ¿t & 9t). flecting distinct flaking character and pat-
terns and displaying technological attributes.
The rnaking, fabrication or preparation of -

Spur See Beak.

stone tools under certain identifiable conditions.

9Z 93
Terrn Definition Terrn Definition
Exarnple: bladernaking, per se, is not a Trajectory of Curve or straightness at which force is
technique. But blades rnade by sirnulated Force applied to the objective piece.
conditions represented byvarietie.s of plät-
forrn preparation, degrees and kinds of Trajectory Curve or flatness of flake and flake scar.
force, angles of force, rests or anvils, of Fracture
rhythrns and rnuscular rnotor habits, and
diversified fabrication irnplernents will Tranchet Blow Technique of striking to sharpen or resharpen
represent a technique. cleavers and handaxes. BIow is struck oblíquely
to the rnarginal edge to rernove a flake crosswise
Te chnology The study of techniques" Science of studying and at right angles to the rnain axis of the tool,
and interpreting the cornbined or distinct. leaving a sharp transverse edge.
attributes of individual techniques. knplies (p.go).
a systernatic control of rninute and distin-
guishable detail. Transverse C r os swise.

Tenacity Resistance to fracture. Exarnple: jade" T ransve rse ParaIIeI flaking directed horízontally to the
Flaking long a;<is of the artifact and rneeting at the
Therrnal Method of altering siliceous rnaterials by rnedian line. (p. 87).
Treatrnent exposure to controlled heat. This treatrnent
rnakes the stone rnore vitreous. Transverse Old 'ü/orld points rnade frorn a section of blade
Pr oje ctile s with the lateral rnargin serving as the tip of
Thickne ss Measurernent of the denseness between the the projectile or arrowhead. 'When ernployed,
dorsal and ventral sides" they cause profuse hernorrhaging.
Thinning Flakes rernoved frorn a preforrn either by Transverse The area bounded by and between the lateral
Flakes pressure or percussion to thin the piece for Section rnargins.
artifact rnanufacture. Thinning flakes are
also rernoved to thin a biface or a uniface" Trough Depression or hollow between crests. Low
Usually shows special platforrn preparation. point between flake or blade scars. Channel
(p. e6). scar left by flake or blade rernoval leaving
a concavity frorn the proxirnal to the distal
Tipping The technique of rnaking a tip or point on the end of the plane of fracture. Single trough
distal end of an artifact. Several rnethods is known as a flute.
rnay be used to accornplish this"
T runcation Cutting short or cutting off; i. e., truncated
Top of Core Proxirnal or platforrn part of the core. cone, truncated blade, transverse truncation"
Tradition Established custorn. Historic style. Turned Edge Marginal edge that has been beveled by
shearing or rernoval of rnultiple flakes by
pressuïe or peïcussion. See Beveled Edge.

94 95

Terrn Definition

Typology Science of classifying stone tools by forrn,

techniques and technological traits. Must
include duplication of the technique by first
observing the intentional forrn, then recon-
structing or replicating the tool in the exact
order of the aboriginal workrnan. Shows
elements of culture. Typology cannot be
based on function.

Undulations Sirnilar to cornpression rings and rippling.

Cornrnon to blades when the downward and
outward forces are not equalized.

Unidire ctional Core showing that flakes or blades were

Core rernoved frorn one platforrn surface and in
only one direction. (p. 55).

Unidirectional Scar on a core denoting that force was applied

Thinning flake scars Flake or Blade in one direction only. The lateral rnargins of
Scar these scars intersect previously rernoved flake
or blade scars.
Tranchet blow cleaver Uniface Artifact flaked on one surface only.
Unifacial Objective piece bearing flake or blade scars
on one surface only.

Unilateral A type of diagonal flaking rnade by bending

ParalleI the bladelets frorn one edge to the other
Flaking and terrninating thern by feathering before
they reach the opposite edge. May be rnade
by either palrn or finger holding of the ob-
jective piece.

Unpatterned See Randorn Flaking. (P. 87).


Ventral Plano side or inner surface of flake or blade'

The under surface.

" '5 uÈ ¡
s0uTll '

97 IN ^ÑrHnopot-osY'
96 INA 29.¿08

Terrn Definition
Vertex The top, turning point, zenitln, or highest

Visible Side The apparent face of the artifact. The

upward, visible face"
VitreÖus Having the near luster and texture of glass"
'Waste Flakes Discarded flakes not suitable for function"
Usually resulting frorn platforrn preparation,
trirnrning, rernoving of cortex, and discarded
non-hornogeneous parts. See Debris.


Force The quantity of energy or power exerted by a

a rnoving body; power exerted; cornpulsory
power; energy exerted to rn-ove another body
frorn a state of inertia.
The worker can alter the character of levering
force by slowing or accelerating the action but
this does not alter the arnount of force for the
rnoïe intense the force the slower and rnore
lirnited its action.
Fracture Irregular surface produced by breaking a
rnineral across as distinguished frorn split-
ting it along the planes of cleavage.

Strock A condition established in the lithic rnaterial

to counteract the stresses and strains induced
by the applied force.

S plit To divide longitudinally or otherwise; to cleave,

to separate or part by force.
'Wave An undulation on the surface resulting frorn
the cornponent particles of the lithic rnaterial
be;ing didturbed by force; to raise irregular-
ities of the surface.

Occosionol Popers of the ldoho Stqte University Museum
No. The Archqeologicol Survey Sydcn of rhe Mu¡eum. By Eorl H. Swonson, Jr. 195g. p.
No. 2
Bryon. 1959. O. P.
R'äi,l 3;.j'f,ili
No. 3 Federsl lndion Lond Policy ond the FoÉ Holf lndlonr. By SollyJeon Loidlow. 1960. O. p.

No. 4 Geology of the Lovo Hot Springr Arco, ldoho. By Dovid Mortin Schworze. l9ó0. gl.oo.
No. 5 The old cordilleron Gulrure in rhe Pocific Norrhve¡I. By B. Robert Butler. l9ó1. o. p.

No. 6 Archoeology of Wil¡on Butte Cove. By Ruth Gruhn. l9ó1. g4.OO.

No. 7 Ssri Ethnozoology. By Borys Molkin. 1962. $3.00.

No. 8 Emergence of Ploteou Cutture. By Eorl H. Swonson, Jr. l9ó2. 93.00.

Contributions to the Prehi¡t-ory_ of
-the Cgrluqrbio .Plcteou: A Report onp.
No. 9 Ercovotion¡ in
Polou¡e ond Croig Mountoin Section¡. By B. Robert Butter. lgô2, O.
-- the

No. l0 The Fir¡t Conference of We¡tern Archoeolooi¡t¡ o¡ Proble¡ng of Point Typology. By Eorl H.
Swonson, Jr., ond B. Robert Butler. 1962. NC.

No. ll An Archoeologicol survey of NoÉhern Puget sound. ByAlon Lyle Bryon. ¡9ó3. $2.00.
No. 12 suwev svsrern ofthe univerrity Museum. By Eorr H.
No. 13 Birch Creek Poperr No. l. An Archaeologicol Reconnoi¡¡once in the Birch Creek Vollev of
Eo¡tern ldoho. By Eorl H. Swonson, Jr., ónd Alon Lyle Bryon. 1964. $1.00.

No. 14 Birch Creek Popers No. 2. Notursl ond Gulturol Strotigroohy in the Birch Creek Vollev of
Eostern ldoho. By Eorl H. Swonson, Jr., B. Robert Butler, ónd Robson Sonnichsen. Íió4.

No. 15 Contribution¡ to the Prehi¡tory of Voncouver l¡lond. By Kotherine H. Copes. l9ó4. $2.00.

No. ló Poleo-Americon Prehi*ory. By Alon Lyle Bryon. l9óS. 95.00.

No. 17 Birct Creek Poperr No. 3. The Archoeology of the Shoup Rock¡hetter¡ in Eo¡t Centrol ldoho.
8y Eorl H. Swonson, Jr,, ond Poul G. Sneed. l9óó. $2.00.

No. l8 Corcodio Cove. By Thomos M. Newmon.1966. $1.00.

No. 19 A Survey of Acculturotion in the lntermontone Areo of the United Stote¡.

By Shirley W. Lee, l9ó7. $1.00.

No. 20 Archoeologicol Tests in the Lower Grond Coulee, Woshington. By Douglos Osborne. l9ó7.

No. 2l The Noture of the Centrol Andeon Preceromic. ByThomos F. Lynch. 1967, g2.OO,

No. 22 Utoztekon Prehistoty. Edited by- Eorl H. Swonson, Jr. 1969.94.00 except to Greot Bosin An-
thropologicol members, then 92.00.

No. 23 Stylistic Locoles orrd Ethnogrophic Groups: petroglyphs of the lower Snoke River. By Poul
Edword Nesbitt. l9ó8. $1.00.

No. 24 The Yiew From wenos: A Study ln Ploteou Prehirtory. By cloude N. worren, l9ó8. 92.00.

No. 25 Archoo¡logicol Excovotions in Willow Creek Conyon, Southeostern ldoho, 1966. By Williom
Roger Powers. l9ó9. $2.00.

No. 2ó Excovotions ot Quishqui Puncu in the Cotlejon De Huoylos, Peru. By Thomos F. Lyrþh. 1970

No. 27 Birch Creek Popers No. 4. Strotigrophy snd Stone Tools from Meodow Conyon¡ Eo¡tefn
ldoho. By Anthony Jomes Ronere. 1971. $3.50.
No. 28 An lntroduction to Flintworking. By Don E. Crobtree. 1972. $4.00

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