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Please answers these following questions.

Please notice that there can be more than one question for
each number. Each one of you must answers all the questions below.

1. Provide relevant measurable attributes for the following objects.

a. Restaurant:

atmosphere, food quality, responsiveness of employees, location.

b. Business person:

job satisfaction, job loyalty, career success, income.

c. Consumer:

price consciousness, shopping enjoyment, attitutude toward internet shopping, impulsiveness.

d. Tennis racket:

brand image, price, product quality.

e. Strategic business unit:

sales, market share, organizational effectiveness, ROI, market orientation.

2. Operationally define the following:

a. Customer loyalty
Airline example

•I would continue flying with this airline.

•The next time I need to air travel, I would fly with this airline.
•I would consider this airline my first choice to air travel.
•I would use the services of this airline in the next years.

b. Price consciousness

I tend to buy the lowest-priced brand of (category) that will fit my needs.
When buying a brand of (category), I look for the cheapest brand available.
When it comes to buying (category), I rely heavily on price.
Price is the most important factor when I am choosing a brand of (category).

c. Career success

Career Success could be either objective (as judged by the profession), or subjective (as judged by
Objective career success is usually defined in terms of the prestige of the position and status one
holds, and by one’s salary. Subjective career success is defined in terms of how one feels about where
one aspired to be at that particular point in one’s career and where one actually is.

Some items to measure subjective career success are:

To what extent do you feel you have:
i. Achieved whatever you had hoped to achieve at this stage in your career
ii. Accomplished the kinds of goals you had set for yourself
iii. Compared to others of similar background, made progress in your career

3. Why is the ratio scale the most powerful of the four scales.
The ratio scale is the most powerful of the four scales, because it not only indicates the magnitude, but
the proportion of the differences. Whereas an interval scale only indicates that the distance between
any two points on the scale is the same, and any identical additions or subtractions will maintain the
differences, the ratio scale, because of its true zero origin, also indicates the proportion of the
differences. A person with IQ 150 is expected to be two times as intelligent as the one who has scored
75 on the IQ test. Any division or multiplication of the data by the same number, will still maintain
this proportion. Because of this, the geometric mean and the coefficient of variation can be calculated.

4. Why is it important to establish the “goodness” of measures and how is this done?

The goodness of measures indicates whether the scale we use are reliable and valid. In other words,
they indicate to what extent we are accurately measuring the concept (reliability), and whether we are
indeed measuring whatever we are supposed to measure (validity). If we are not measuring the
intended concept accurately, then, our study will not yield the correct results.
Reliability is established by assessing the stability of the measure through test-retest reliability and
parallel form reliability, and internal consistency of the measure through Cronbach’s alpha.
Validity is established through construct validity, criterion-related validity (concurrent and
predictive), and congruent validity (convergent and discriminant).