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ASSIGNMENT OF SYNTAX

(CLAUSE I)

Lecture: Dayat, MP.d

Written By:
Dede Apri (321410223)
Noval Agustian (321410171)

C. MORNING

IKIP PGRI PONTIANAK


2015/2016
PREFACE

First of all, grateful to God's love and mercy for us. Thanks to God to help me and
give me the opportunity to complete this task on time. And We want to thank the lectures
who always taught us and gives a lot of knowledge about how to practice good English.
This task is one of the tasks of English consisting of Practical Use of English As a
Second Language We realize this task is not perfect. But I hope to be useful for us. Criticisms
and suggestions are needed here to make this task better. Hopefully we as a student in the
"English" can work more professionally by using English as a second language no matter
what we do. Thank’s.

Group 6

Pontianak, April 2016


TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE .............................................................................................................

TABLE OF CONTENT .......................................................................................

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................

A. Background ...................................................................................................

B. Purpose ..........................................................................................................

CHAPTER II DISCUSSION ...............................................................................

A. The Definition of Clauses ..............................................................................

B. Types of Clause..............................................................................................

1. Main or Independent Clause ....................................................................

2. Subordinate or Dependent Clause ............................................................

a) Noun Clause .......................................................................................

b) Relative Clause ..................................................................................

c) Adverbial Clause ................................................................................

C. How to connect clauses ..................................................................................

1. Subordination ...........................................................................................

2. Coordination ............................................................................................

CHAPTER III CLOSING ....................................................................................

A. Conclusion ....................................................................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. BACKGROUND
Learning English is a must for every human being, who want to lead the
development, because without it he will lose direction in achieving the goal.
Therefore, the speaker’s present a brief description that will be discussed in this
paper. In mastering English conversation, first we must understand the grammar.
Thus the authors discuss in this paper, which is part of the syntax, titled
clause. On clause is an important thing to be learned as early control of sentences, as
well as English gramartical. In this paper, the author describes a wide variety clause,
along with examples, to help better understand.

B. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM


1. What sense of the clause ?
2. There is what type of clause ?
3. How to connect the clause ?

C. PURPOSE
1. To know the clause
2. To know How many types of clause
3. To know the connect the clause
CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

A. The Defenition Of Clauses


According to Cook (1969:65) the clause levels that level is bellow the
sentance level and above the phrase level. The clause is a group of words that contains
a subject and a verb. We use the term ‘clause’ to refer to sentence which are
constituents of other sentences or of phrases. A constituent sentences (or clause) may
be coordinated with one or more other constituent sentences to form a compound
sentence, or it may be embedded in another sentence or in phrase to form a complex
sentence.
In simple santence the boundaries of sentence and clause coincide: a simple
sentence is a one clause sentence, whereas compound and complex sentences always
contain at least two clause.
B. Types of Clause
Clauses come in two types:
1. Main or Independent Clause
An independent clause contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete
thought. Since this types of clause is Independent, it can stand on its as a complete
Sentence
.
Pattern: Subject + Verb = complete

thought
Example: Dan extinguised the fire
In this example, Dan is the subject, extinguished is the verb, and a complete
thought is expressed. Therefore, this is both a complete sentence and an
independent clause.
2. Subordinate or Dependent Clause
A dependent clause also has a subject and a verb, but it does not express a
complete thought. Since it is dependent, it cannot be a sentence on its own.

Pattern: Subordinate conjuction + subject + verb = incomplete thought

Example: Because Dan extinguished the fire


In this example, Dan is once again the subject and extinguished the verb.
However, it does not express a complete thought. Therefore, this is a dependent
clause.
A) Part of Dependent Clauses
There are three parts of dependent clause:
1) Noun Clause
A noun clause is a dependent clause that acts as a noun. Noun clauses begin
with words such as how, that, what, whatever, when, where, whether, which,
whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, and why. Noun clauses can act
as subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives, or objects of
a preposition.
Example: That today is my birthday is not right.
2) Relative Clause
Relative clause are called adjective clauses is reflecting the fact that adjectives
also modify nouns. In English they do not occur in the same position as
adjectives, since adjectives typically precede the noun in a noun phrase while
relative clauses follow it.
Example: The cottage which Mrs Dasbwood accepted was rather small
In the exanple, relative clause which Mrs Dasbwood accepted modifies the
noun cottage
3) Adverbial Clause
The name ‘adverbial’ suggests that adverbial clauses modify verbs; but they
modify whole clauses. Their orthers key property is that they are adjuncts,
since they are typically optional constituents in sentences. They are
traditionally classified according to their meaning, are they adverbial clause of
reason, time, concession, manner or condition.
C. How to connect clauses
Clauses can be connected through subordination and coordination.
1. Subordination
Since a dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a sentence, it must be
connected to an independent clause to make a complete sentence. With a
mother/child relationship, the child relies on his or her mother for completeness.
The same is true of a dependent clause. The dependent clause relies on and is
subordinate to the independent clause. This is called a subordinate relationship.
The dependent clause can came either before or after the independent clause in a
sentence.
Example A: when the polar bear crossed the road, it was hit by a transport truck.
DC IC
Example B: The polar bear was hit by a transport truck when it crossed the road.
IC DC
Note: When the dependent clause come first, place a comma between the two
clauses, as in Example A. DC,IC
2. Coordination
A coordinate relationship is the second way to connect clauses. Two independent
clauses can be connected by using either coordinate conjuctions, also known as
FANBOYS, or conjuctive adverbs.
Coordinate Conjuction (FANBOYS): For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yes, So
Conjuction Adverbs: Moreover, However, Therefore, Consequently, Then
(semi-colon followed by conjuctive adverb followed by comma)

Example A: He loves to compete, so he joins every sports team at his school.


He loves to compete:therefore, he joins every sports team at his
school.
Example B: The blanket shielded the baby from the harsh winter wind, yet the
baby got the flu anyway
The blanket shielded the baby from the harsh winter wind; hovewer
yet the baby got the flu anyway
Note: Conjuctive adverbs don’t have to be at the beginning of a sentence. They
can sometimes be placed in the middle or end of an independent clause, although
this form is less common. When the adverb is in the middle of the sentence,
commas must be used around the adverb. At the end of the sentence, the adverb
must be preceded by a comma.
CHAPTER III
CLOSING

Conclusion

The traditional distinction between clause and sentence is important. A main


clause combines with one or more subordinate clauses to form a sentence. Where
different clauses occur in sentences can be described, as can where phrases occur
inside clauses. Where sentences occur in texts cannot be described except very
loosely. Sentences can be regarded as a low-level unit of discourse. Main clauses
allow a very wide range of syntactic constructions and all the distinctions of aspect,
tense and mood.

In contrast, subordinate clauses allow a smaller range of syntactic


constructions and fewer distinctions of aspect, tense and mood. There is a hierarchy
of subordinate clauses. Complement clauses are least subordinate, relative and
adverbial clauses are most subordinate. What were traditionally regarded as
infinitive and gerund phrases are now treated as clauses on the ground that they
express propositions and, like finite clauses, consist of a verb plus complements and
adjuncts.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jim Miller. 2002. An Introduction to English Syntax:Edinburgh University Press


Herman Wekker & Liliane Haegman. A Modern Course In English Syntax
Cook, Walter C. 1969. Introduction to Tagnemic Analysis.