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Industry Internship Report

1. Introduction 1
Mini NNOC is situated in the south Addis Ababa called Old Airport special name SARBAIT
99.9 km from Adama.ZTE acquires some percent of the ownership of Ethio telecom and also
Mini NNOC operation facilities in 2011by takeover of National Network Operations . The
facility included all telecom materials used for every network and network related purpose in all.
This is final report for Electrical engineering in communication stream semester internship .the
internship was undertaken to finalize this semester industry internship for engineering students.
This specific internship was undertaken at Ethio telecom Mini NNOC branch, where duties were
assigned providing the experience as a product specialist .Over the course of internship a variety
of activities were experienced, both technical and process related .This provide a range of
valuable job skills which would be able to applied in future position both with Ethio telecom and
Mini NNOC in general.
Initially a period of training for everybody was needed to train in the use of software and telecom
equipment in an entity world including its related component and work experience.
Once Ethio telecom was satisfied that sufficient amount of training had been given for every
workers or internship students the works was permitted on active work. So Mini NNOC do so
and involved interesting with customers on network using targeting toward solutions using the
software of ZTE.

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

2. Background of Ethio telecom 2

2.1 Company mission and value
As a continuation of the last five-year plan and after concentrating its efforts on education, health
and agriculture, the Ethiopian government has decided to focus on the improvement of
telecommunication services, considering them as a key lever in the development of Ethiopia

Ethio telecom is born from this ambition of supporting the steady growth of our country. Ethio
Telecom wishes to implement state-of-the-art processes, to develop reliable network
infrastructures and to provide the best quality of services to Customers. This is the mission of
Ethio telecom; that drives all Ethio telecoms actions.

To ensure that Ethio Telecom runs parallel with top telecom operators, the Ethiopian government
has reached an agreement with France Telecom, one of the world’s leader telecommunication
companies. This agreement will help ETHIO telecom to improve its management capability
through the transfer of world-renowned know-how and skills.

While meeting international standards, Ethio Telecom remains faithful to his values:

 Ethio Telecom commit to understand, meet and exceed the telecommunications needs
and expectations of our country at large and of customers in particular
 Ethio Telecom respect customers and recognize that their revenues allow to operate
 Ethio Telecom recognize that the company employees are the most valuable asset and
want to create an efficient corporate management environment that allows them to
develop and grow
 Ethio Telecom will commit to high-level job performance, customer service quality,
organizational excellence and continuous improvement in all areas
 Ethio Telecom will stay motivated and encouraged to meet all the challenges that will
 Ethio Telecom will make every effort to achieve a superior financial return
 Ethio Telecom uphold ethical standards, being honest in all assignments
 Ethio Telecom will hold employees accountable to all their stakeholders

Ethio telecom will achieve its goal of both providing a reliable network and of improving
Customer Services through a range of different levers that are part of its development strategy.
Ethio telecom will develop and enhance the information system. This will help to decrease the
Delay for provision, sales and activation as well as to provide more reliable information to
Customers. Ethio telecom will develop a world-class human resources management. This will
help to improve employees’ ability to meet the needs and expectations of Customers. Ethio
telecom will implement control standard processes. This will help to increase reactivity and to
faster Customer access to services.

Ethio telecom has developed a better sourcing & facilities processes faster delivery and repair,
and also offer more transparency to Customers.

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

2.2 Company Objectives, Services and products

In line with its ambitious mission, Ethio Telecom has ambitious goals:

 being a customer centric company

 offering the best quality of services
 meeting world-class standards
 building a financially sound company

To reach these goals, all Ethio telecom divisions will focus on:

 developing and enhancing network and information system

 ensuring easy access and coverage to the whole population
 creating a strong brand
 developing human resources management
 implementing control standard processes
 improving financial, sourcing and facilities processes

Ethio telecom offers a wide range of products and services tailored made for Enterprise
customers and non enterprise customers. Ethio telecom offer Fixed wire line and wireless
services, mobile services, Internet and Data services as well as 3G services like WCDMA and
CDMA through the newly deployed Next Generation Networks(NGN).

Owing to nationwide huge capacity Ethio telecom provide Enterprise customers a reliable and
affordable Internet and data services which facilitate their business and increase their
productivity by connecting them to local and international partners.

Ethio telecom intends to dramatically improve all services in 2011as data from telecom shows.
Ethio Telecom gives different services to the customers Enterprises and non enterprise.
Furthermore Mini NNOC is the branch of Ethio telecom that is delivered for us to train the
internship training opportunity; really it is great opportunities that are a place where exactly
electrical communication field concerns, especially INSA (information network security

Mini NNOC has its own functions as any Ethio telecom branches. From those
functions we will show you the main of them as follows:

 Configuration of the GW,BR,CR,ER,CS,GER,RR,BRAS,MSAG,DSLAM,.........

Assign the equipment of the telecom for hard ware installation. And also programming
every material for data receiving and transmitting, but voice concerning configuration
is not included in Mini NNOC works. Here mini NNOC is neither on the back bone,
edge, core or other switches, on the topological place ,but it can enter on every
telecom materials to configure and other functions concerning like opening and
shutdown data transfers, assign materials and managing from different vendors with

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Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

large number of network elements scattered all over the country.

 Network management.(SMS0
 Resource management (RMS)
 Unified network management system (UNMS)
 Configure the customer to the ETC IP NGN I.e.
 CDMA 20001x data only
 EV DO data
 Broad band wired internet (ADSL)
 WCDMA/3G Mobile
 Mobile Data / EVDO
 IP Services email
 Domain name
 Web hosting
 International roaming
 Interconnection
 LAN or WAN connections of banks 
Assign the customer to check in checkout (connect the customer to billing center to
billing the customer by the given period).

3. Management, Training and Employee Information

ETHIO Telecom has many workers that worked in different places in different department
sector. We assigned to work in Ethio telecom Brach called mini NNOC (mini National network
operation center) that comprised by INSA and the main of NNOC. In mini NNOC many network
based operations are performed that are basic for ETC IP NGN. The whole office and working
place of Mini NNOC, NNOC and INSA are in Addis Ababa, Old Airport special name
SARBEIT. NNOC and INSA are compounded together and Mini NNOC is outside of them
separated by asphalt from both. At the day we introduced to the Mini NNOC the work area does
not given directly, but we introduced to our advisers and then the advisers are assigned as to
work with their worker how to work while they are working.

We introduced to the advisor and the worker of the mini NOC for more weeks first. The overall
Ethiopian ETC IP NGN implementation pdf of the ZTE is given for as to read more what
Ethiopian telecom comprises in all. After the dead line of the Pdf reading we evaluated by the
normal exam that prepared by the advisor from the pdf given us to evaluate how much we
understand that. Then after the PUTTY soft ware account is created for us to enter to the Ethio
telecom network system and see some equipment of interfaces and how they are configured at
every Backbone router, Core router, Edge router, switches and RR place ,GER and BRAS and
the like.. To enter into the telecom system putty software requires USER NAME and
PASSWORD as obvious as other software. But it is more protected, not allowed to enter more
for the sake of security and some failure creates by us unknowingly.

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Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

By using the putty account we can see every materials and every configuration at every place
into ETC NGN the current manner and past also by using the IP number of the equipment. But 5
the only protected is to configuration of any equipment of ETC NGN by the intern students. The
protection is automatically by the software not to move to the configuration page.

Accept this there is no work more rather than accepting telephone call from the customer who
needs service from ETC NGN. While accepting the call from the customer there is code of

Order of Backbone Configuration number

IP of the DSLAM those are number of interface in hardware


Number of MSAG which are used for broad band service that are found every customer area

MSAG number
Customer name
Contact person
Order type
Product name……..etc

MSAG is a box that has letter MSAG and number of MSAG and also ZTE at the top of box. It
replace oldest server TCC that are hoisted on the pole and wired to the customer house that need
the service.

To do with every challenge about configuration for regular worker there are ZTE pdfs available
as a reference.

The works that worked with this branch is like Backbone configuration ,Core configuration
,Edge configuration, BRAS,GER ,CS, RR, also Gate way connection and all materials that can
used for network to connect the customers to the NG Network. All networks of the country are a
place here to make whatever it about for more access i.e. Internet, broadband, Data transfer,
fixed line, mobile, Etc

Every organization and institute or enterprise and non enterprise whatever if the
telecommunication services are needed as a customer the first place to contact for that is Mini
NNOC. Because every configuration is from Mini NNOC.As it is obvious INSA is the head of
Ethiopian network, but it is the head only if Mini NNOC is configuring the network unless no
head and also NNOC is fault identifier ,so if the network is not configured no fault that can
identified. Every Ethio telecom equipment are assigned to use by Mini NNOC for all Mini
NNOC is the main or the back bone of Ethio telecom.

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

In general name functions of this organization in the language of telecommunication are as

follow: 6

 backbone configuration
 RMS (resource management service
 SMS (service management system)

After we encountered about a month and two weeks one personal desktop is given for each of us
from the office. There are free internet access about 1GBps we can use for Ethio telecom
knowledge purpose and other interesting purpose like check our account and soon. Our advisors
follows us through the putty software what we are doing at every time where ever if we open the
account and to check whether we attending the office or not they take the attendance morning
and afternoon to follow us whether we present or not. We ask the workers around us if there is
unclear thing while we are working. The workers they assigned with are a group like one row of
a class student, so they can saw us every time to follow us physically and what we just doing as
we explained through the account

Ethio Telecom has many workers that worked in different places in different department sector.
It is impossible to list down all departments of the Mini NNOC and NNOC in this report,
because it become very wide, but we will cite here only the main of our host’s place department
means mini NNOC as follow

 RMS (Resource management system) department

 SMS (Service management system) department
 Configuration of Network topology department.

RMS (Resource Management system department):

The RMS is the central repository of all physical and logical network assets of ETC. RMS enables
ETC’s operation and maintenance engineers to manage a wide variety of network and service
resources on an integrated resource management interface. By associating network resources
with service resources, the department helps to look after critical services on the network. The
resource management department provides real-time monitoring and assigning the telecom
equipment and register on the database for any service performed on. In addition, this
management can offer graphic and data performance reports, making it easier for operators as
well as the management of ETC to stay up-to-date on networking and services

SMS (Service Management System department):

In order to meet the basic requirements of ETC’s Mini NNOC, the SMS is designed to enable
ETC’s sales force and customers to directly order services. The proposed product offers rapid
service modeling and flexible order captures by different channels. Its order entry and order
management are enabled with scalable web based technologies. This system can also be
integrated with electronic work flow-based service management subsystem and a separate
trouble ticketing system. The process framework of service provisioning and activation
subsystem includes: order management; service design; resource configuration; service

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Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

configuration; and service activation. The service management solution also includes the service
quality monitoring, service impact analysis, and service performance management capabilities. 7

Configuration of Network topology department:

Assign the equipment of the telecom for hard ware installation. And also programming every
material for data receiving and transmitting, but voice concerning configuration is not included
in Mini NNOC works. Here mini NNOC is neither on the back bone, edge, core or other
switches, on the topological place ,but it can enter on every telecom materials to configure and
other functions concerning like opening and shutdown data transfers, assign materials and
managing from different vendors with large number of network elements scattered all over the

From this work we develop many working skills like: Punctuality, Reliability, and Independence
in Work Communication Skills, Professionalism, Speed of Work, Accuracy, Engagement, and
Cooperation with colleagues, Technical skills, Organizational skills, responsibility in the task-

4. Specific Job Information

After more delay of intern period of time we called by ETHIO telecom for industry internship
trainee on the date of 17/04/2012 and then, for about three days Ethio telecom favorable the
condition to visit Ethio telecom and other basic part of communication towers used for the
country .from this we will show you in brief and short words what we visited respectively here:

4.1. Sululta Satellite station

In this main Telecom station we have seen different types of Satellite dishes, servers that store
data and control room of the station. There are different types of large dishes in sululta plain field

1. 18m diameter satellite dish

2. 32m diameter satellite dish
3. 2.4m diameter and other many mini satellite dishes are
present for many purpose

There are many types of satellite dishes depending on their functions as their size is different at
sululta satellite stations

1. International satellite dish

It is the biggest dish 32 m in diameter set in the direction of Intelsat 904,345 degree West
Atlantic ocean .It has Transmitting and receiving process.

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

a. Transmission process; before transmitting there are device that adjust the signals for
favorable format. These devices are: 8

I. Multiplexing devices
II. Modulation devices
III. NEC up converter devices: convert IF to RF
IV. IDB System and high power amplifiers devices

From this by using wave guide line the signal go to the antenna feeder (circular shape).Next the
signal go to the Reflector part of the dish then signal send by the dish reflector (wire shape)found
at the center of the satellite dish to the satellite Intelsat 904 by 6GHZ uplink frequency.

b. Receiving process: The satellite Intelsat 904 down link the signal by 4GHZ.To receives
this signal again the following devices needed for signal adjustment to the favorable format.

I. LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) devices

II. Down converter devices
III. Demodulator devices
IV. Demultiplexer devices

2. Local satellite dish

It is the 18M diameter satellite dish assigned in the direction of Intelsat 901, 342degree East
Atlantic Ocean satellites which found on the Atlantic Ocean normally. It used for: Educational
plasma transmission for schools, military (defense), hospitals, banking, agriculture center,
Wereda net, video conference etc. It has its own transmitting and receiving process.

a. Receiving and transmitting process

The transmitting and receiving devices are the same as in the international satellite dish. The
only difference is to which satellite it sends and uses. From the satellite Intelsat 901 downlink
by4GHZ to the 18M diameter dish wave guide RF. Next go to the combiner (the combiner have
high power amplifier) that are different devices with control switches and alarms. And go to IP
based servers that have data base, serial numbers, traffic, HVP E1 (HAB voice processer), HPP
(HAB protocol processor). Next go to the customer receivers or the users that receive the signal
by using the same dish from the satellite.

3. Other repeater dish antennas

They found in that area that are different in sizes used to transmit the Information that
demodulated in the HAB station to Addis Ababa or to other Microwave link of the country. And
also receive Information from different Microwave link of the country and pass to the HAB
station and from the HAB station the signal transmit by the Satellites. The smallest dish is 1.8m
diameter consumes 2W power and the biggest one is 32m in diameter.

4. Satellite station control room

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Industry Internship Report

There are two computers in the control room.

Computer 1: FAR-AWAY used to control voice services and other applications. Have their own
FTDM, own codes, names .example RSCID NAME, OCC SLOT, CDM NAME, ICC

Computer 2: DIAL-AWAY used to control the networks of the company’s, private sectors,
Internets, Banks, hospitals etc.

4.2. NNOC (National network operation center)

In the NNOC SARBEIT we have seen the server rooms and how to see the problems using the
Z_SMART Software and process of solving problems.

1. Server Room: there are different devices in this room. From those fire extinguisher
gas (C2O), humidity sensor, smoke sensor, for power regulators, fans and different
servers. The servers are UNMS and IBM storage devices. Inside the servers there are
many DISC arrays to store data. Single DISC is smaller than that of a flash disk, but it
has 300 GB Memory space.

2. Monitoring Tools and tasks: Inside this class there are different work departments
that worked by different workers. From those Network services and IT management
(SMC, TMC, customer compliant etc), Network alarm etc. The Z_SMART software is
a wide software used today by every NNOC and Mini NNOC for every purpose that
created by ZTE, we have seen the alarms of faults here by clicking the fault
management. And also we have seen how to solve the problems if the problem is
software based it solved there and if it is technical it solved by the technicians assigned
for the area where the fault is occurred.

4.3. Telecom data center

1. Data Storage Room

This is also another Ethio telecom branch we visited that found around Laghar. It contains server
room with different devices like ventilator fans, smoke sensors, fire extinguisher, backup power
system (AC and DC power supply), IBM system storage devices, security cameras, power
storage systems and cooling systems. The servers are automatic used to store data of the
customers and to connect the customers to another for whom he need. Every customer’s data are
automatically saved by the system while we call or text or others and stay for few times as
assigned and deleted. The other devices are used to stabilize the temperature of the room .The
Backup power system is used to give power to the servers and to the power storage system used
to give power to the systems when power is off.

2. Call Center (customer services)

This is also part of telecom data centers that contains 4 team workers. They are:

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1. Residential (1st level) teams: Receive calls from different customers that call residentially
example for shutting and opening SIM card and other complains. 10

2. Enterprise teams: Receive calls from enterprises to maintain their system or send the sectors
and to install to get the telecom services.

3. Broad band (2nd level) teams: Receive complain call like used time and pay miss much, higher
problems like cable damage from customers and solve it by communicating with technicians

4. Out bond teams: They selects from the customers that consume much telecom service and
appreciating them by making calls and they make calls toward customers if they decline by
using from before and the problem is concerning they solved by communicating and make as
before with users.

Here is every type of server equipment and its structures that looks like in general for all without

Figure: server image

we understand or develop the knowledge of Ethio telecom network topology, what it comprise
as a system and how it interconnected each city and province, village and wereda and also
wereda net. Those and others are all interconnected to Ethio telecom network topology to be
served by. To show the whole it needs report writing by Elli’s format. From those let’s show you
over all ETC IP NGN (Ethiopian telecommunication corporation internet protocol next
generation) topology that is easily understandable we used as follows

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: Figure: Over all ETC IP NGN network Topology

ETC IP NGN network is established to carry GSM/CDMA/FL-NGN and Broadband services
etc, Considering the transmission construction progress, IP NGN project is divided into two
phases: Part A and Part B.
Backbone Layer: totally 10 sets of BR (T1200), distributed to five cities, with each city
deploys two sets of BR, full-meshed connection.
Core Layer: totally 32 sets of CR (T1200) deployed in 14 cities. In Addis (Capital city), there
are three convergence equipment room; for other 13 cities, one convergence equipment room for
each city, with each equipment room configured a pair of CR (T1200). Each pair of CR
equipment uplinked to two pairs of BR equipment of two different sites in a ring Access nodes
ER equipment of this network are connected to local CR equipment directly and CR equipment
of each convergence nodes are connected to two pairs of BR equipment of two sites. The
correspondence of convergence nodes and backbone nodes is as follows:
Here is again the topology to make brief more what we study every day by using our account and
entering on this every switch, site router or routers whenever we need by using only their IP
number from Ethio telecom database
It is a brief figure of the ETC IP NGN topology that contains gateway, back bone and core router
to understand Bearer Network Topology.
Edge Layer: totally 62 sets of ER (T1200), accessed with GSM/CDMA/FL-NGN/Broadband
service respectively. For sites with GSM/CDMA/FL-NGN services, apply a single pair of ER to
access VOICE service, Broadband service apply another single pair of ER to access data service.

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

ZTE is the first choice for ETC to assume the challenging of difficult to cost-efficiently
troubleshoot network faults, launch new services quickly, and track and tune the performance of 12
services once delivered. This also results in increased operational and capital expenditures .To
improves and evolves the network and service management environment responsibility and
provides the National Network Operation Center (NNOC) solution.

Figure: Over all back bone and core router network topology
.Currently, ETC is moving toward the implementation of its Next Generation Network (NGN)
which is motivated by the need to support new market demands, as well as the need to exploit
the synergies that new technologies enable. ETC has to consider three basic elements for its

o New IP networks and IP-based multimedia services;

o Necessary changes to meet the customer demands; and

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o Operational Support System (OSS) for ordering and billing processes.

ETC needs to undertake an urgent review of its current network management practice and look
to initiate an OSS transformation in the very near future, thus generating immediate cost savings
while positioning itself for NGN and the advent of IP Multimedia System (IMS) services

In order to cope with the fast growth in the complexity of networks, services and also their
customer base, ETC has realized the need of a centralized Mini and National Network Operation
Center (Mini NNOC & NNOC) that can improve the network performance and lower the time
needed to locate and maintain faults. Furthermore, it is able to ensure customers experience
service quality and perceive the value of delivered service, and it also improves operational
readiness for short time-to-market of new innovative services. The basis for the NNOC demand
is a centralized resource management system, which will also contribute to a comfortable and
efficient network planning.

Besides the current demand on a Mini NNOC, ETC also envisions that it has to be prepared
for competition on a feasible liberalization of the telecommunication market in the future, as well
as on certain re-organization of the Strategic Business Units (SBUs).

We were in trouble when we are on working with Ethio telecom in the case of the shortage of
knowledge related to Mini NNOC work property. The course called data communication and
Computer networking is the base for such Mini NNOC, NNOC and INSA network related work.
Therefore, we are not competing with other university students rather than individual reading at
spare time if there is any.

The other course we advanced with while we on intern are Antenna system and design .it is also
the basic in some of antenna related like MSAG ,BTS and the like configurations .The other
one is Electromagnetic wave and propagation is also the basic one for such alike work, Every
wave can move from one any type of antenna to another in the form of Radio wave ,microwaves
and fiber optics to transmissions and receiving .

In addition to this IT course like general computing knowledge is strictly obligated unless there
is no work if there is knowledge for computer, because all of the Mini NNOC work is performed
by using computer. Others are like object oriented programming in some how to make the
software run and giving a command, but it is not as such mandatory.

 We identify one relevant research project from our site of Ethio telecom mini NNOC.
The project is how to prevent the Z-SMART software from virus because the software
busy always the workers are not work their works properly.
 There is also can done a project how to solve the network complexity and to step up the
facility of Ethio telecom services.

5. Evaluation and Critique

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering
Industry Internship Report

Today all of the worlds are becoming to one neighbor district through globalization and
technology development in high speed, if you need any things from this world there is a 14
competition beside of you. Therefore to become a competent of as such you have to know in
every directions around that you are focusing for .Internship is the basic knowledge full for every
students living in this globalized world. There is knowledge at every work industry the same as
that of at school, even if there is a problem with some industries to give you a chance for more
working accessibility intern students can get more knowledge more. So we are one of that! we
got more knowledge related to our field from this company and we also know the working
behavior, in general as we already explain it so far what we got from this intern. Any like
explained above problem can be solved by the Universities or collages internship committee or
other concerning parts for his trainees benefit to get productive human from this career, unless it
is just merely losing a country resource and human mind. We extremely blame especially
electrical department Intern holder. We never ever visited whether we on working or not. Every
intern owner must have to follow and communicate to help his trainees at every time needed and
also prepare the favorable company for his students on time rather than making the students
merely wasting time without work like us before. As such is so worthy!

We experienced more than we was in the school as we thought. More of our study especially on
some courses of electrical and electrical communication that are on studying is not as such
interesting for such like work rather than time killing; it may be useful for more general
knowledge. We believe that every work requires only working experience with few educations
rather than losing time and resources with more educations.

As we explained above the course Data Communication and Computer Networking and Data
Base are the basic one in the field of telecom work.

5.1 Recommendation

Now we would like to recommend the internship to be improved as internship student from what
we face when we are on intern.

 First of all the university must have facilitate the place of internship for his student
strictly that is favorable to follow them while on work. There was a problem with our
university concerning this in fact. Most of intern students are searching company by them
self with some challenges we know.
 The internship students must have followed in related by the University advisors at least
once per month. The problem we mentioned above favorable is here useful for our
advisors to perform this actions easily.
 The internship student must be evaluated or have a report what they have been working
every months in the form of hard copy or through e-mail to university advisors. Also
there must be a neat communication between the Organization and University advisors to
do this type of evaluation.

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Industry Internship Report

 Every help and supports are throughout the duration of internship placement is strictly
required from every department internship concerning body. 15

On the work condition extremely we running to know what we have to know while we are
oriented about our career even if we are not taken any related course, because as explain above
the work behavior of this company is not required the studying course experience rather than
work experience.. But more of them was required some course as cited so far. We are not
competent with the student because of shortage of data communication and computer networking
and data base course

Adama Science and Technology University

Electrical- Communication Engineering