Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

Liquid Penelrant T~ng Methqd

Questions & An.ers Book

Second Edition
Supplement to
Recommended Practice No. SN./T-TC-1A

Book D

Levels 1, 11 and 111
Review Questions

The American Society for

Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

Copyright © 20 I O by The American Socicty for Nondcst ructive Testing.

The American Society for Nondcstruct ive Testing, Inc . (ASNT) is not respon sible for the
authenti city or accuracy of information herein. Published op ini ol1s and statcmcnts do not
necessarily reflect the ap in ion of ASNT. Products or services that are adverti sed or mcntioned do
nol ca rry the endorsement 01' recommcndation of ASNT.

No part of thi s publication may be reproduced or tran smitted in any fonn, by means e lcctronic or
mechanical including photocopying, recording 01' otherwise, without the expressed prior written
penniss ion ofThe American Society for Nondestructive Test ing, Ine.

IRR SP, NDT Handbook, rhe NDT Technician and www.asnl.org are trademarks ofThe American
Soeiety for Nondestructive Testing, lnc. ACCP, ASNT, Level fII Sludy Guide, Materials
Eva/uafion, NOlldestructive Tesling Handbook, Researcll in Nondestructive Eva/ualion and
RNDE are registered trademarks ofThe American Society fOI" Nondestru ctive Testing, Inc.

first printing 1996

scco nd printing w ith revis ions 02/03
third printing 08/06
fOUl1h printing w ith corrections 03/09

Second edition
first printing 1/11

Errata, ifa va ilable for th is printing, may be obtained from ASNT's web site, www.asnt.org.

ISBN- 13: 978- 1-57 11 7-2 14-3

Printed in th e United States of America

Publishcd by: Thc American Socicty for Nondestructivc Test ing, Inc.
17 11 Arlingate Lane
Columbus, OH 43228-0518

Edited by: Cy nthia M. Leeman , Educational Materials Supervisor

Ass isted by: Bob Conklin, Educat ion al Matcrials Editor

Tim Jon es, Senior Manage r of Publication s

ASNT Mission Statemellt:
ASNT e.'(ists lo create a saJer \Vorld by promoting lile proJessioll and tecl/J1ologies oJ
flondestructive testfJlg.


Acknowledgments iv

Recommended References v

Reference Usage vi

Level I Questions 1

Level 11 Questions 17

Level 111 Questions 27



ASNT wishes to thank those who assisted with the update 01 this edition 01 the Supplement
to Recommended to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant
Testing Method. The lollowing contributors assisted with the review 01 this book including
updating old questions, writing new questions, updating relerences:

Gina Caud ill

Karl Fogleman
William Milan
David Moore
Ron Oravec
Luis Paya no
Robert Plu mstead
Sam Robinson

Recommended References
Liquid Penetrant Testing Method
The following references were used in formulating the questions conta ined in this book.

The fol lowing references were used in formu lating the questions contained in this book.

A. * Tracy, Noel A., technical editor, Patrick O. Moore, editor, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition:
Volume 2, Liquid Penetrant Testing, COlu mbus, OH, Ameri can Society for Nondestructive Testi ng, Inc., 1999.

B. * Badger, Duane, Liquid Penetrant Testing Classroom Training Book, COlumbus, OH, American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2005.

C.* Metals Handbook, ninth ed ition, Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control, Volume 17, Metals Park, OH,
American Society for Metals. 1989.

* Avai lable from The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

Each question found in this book is fol lowed by letter(s) and page number(s) indicating the specific recommended
reference where the answer may be found. For example:

28. The term used to define the tendency of certa in liquids to penetrate into small
openings such as cracks or fissures is:

a. saturation
b. capi llary action
c. blotting
d. wetting agent

In th is example, the letter "c" refers to Reference C in the list aboye and "21" is the specific page in Reference C
where the answer to the question is located.

* Available frcm The American Society far Nondestructive Testing, Inc.


Reference Usage )
Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

Reference A: Total = 207 Reference C: Total = 1

Levell 93 Levell 1
Levelll 60 Level 11 O
Levellll 54 Levellll O

Reference B: Total = 24
Levell 15
Level 11 8
Levellll 1
Level I Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 1

Level I Questions
Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

l. Whieh one of the following eonditions 4. AII of the following parts can be tested by
will affeet the rate and the extent a liquid the liquid penetrant method exeept:
penetrant will elller cracks, fissures and
other small openings? a. an ¡ron castiog
b. ao aluminum fcrgiog
a. the harclness of the specimen being c. a part macle from a porous plastic
tested material
b. the surface condition of the specimen d. a part macle from a nonporous
being tested material
c. the color of the penetrant A.35
d. the conductivity of the specimen
being tested
A.i62 s. Whieh of the following diseontinuities
can be found by the penetrant test
2. Whieh of the following is a eommonly
used classification for penetrant? a. a surface crack
b. a subsurface crack
a. post-emulsifiable penetrant c. an internal inclusion
b. nonferrous penetrant d. none of the above
c. chem ical etch penetrant A.35
d. nonaqueous penetrant
6. Whieh of the following is generaUy the
more acceptable method for c1eaning
3. A generally aeeepted method for parts prior to penetrant testing?
removing excess nOI1water-washable
penetrant is: a. sand blasting
b. wire brushing
a. repeatedly dipping the test speeimen e. grinding
in a c1eaner d. vapor degreasing
b. soaking the test specimen in hor A.i67
detergent water
c. blowing the excess penetrant off the
surfaee of the part with eompressed 7. AII of the following methods are
aIr commonly used to c1ean parts prior to
d. wiping and eautiously cleaning the penetrant testing except:
test specimen with a c1eaner-
dampened cloth a. vapor degreasing
A.45 b. liquid solvent
c. power wire brushing
d. alka li ne cleaner

°L P9 es Op PE e('; q1
2 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

8. Cutting oils may be effectively removed 12. Subsurface discontinuities can be best
from parts before penetrant testing by: detected by:

a. preheating a. the post-emulsification penetrant

b. vapor degreasing method
c. washing with water b. the visible dye penetrant method
d. all of th e above c. the fluorescent) water-washable
A.170 penetrant method
d . none of rhe ahove
9. The mast common type of contaminant
in fluorescent penetrant fluid is:
13. Water-washable penetrants may be
a. metal filings applied by:
b. oil
c. detergents (from c1eaning) a. brushing
d. water b. spraying
A.1.03 c. dipping
d. all of the above
8 .14
lO. Ult rav iolet light. with a proper
functioning filter in place. used for
fluorescent penetrant inspection can 14. rhe first step in candlleti ng a liquid
cause permanent damage to: penetrant test on a sllrface that has been
painted is to:
a. human tissues
b. human eyes a. carefully apply th e penetrant over the
c. hum an blood cells surface
d. none of the aboye b. completely remave the paint
A.78 c. thoroughly wash the surface with a
d . wire brush the surface to roughen the
11. AII of the following basic inspection smooth surface coating of paint
princi pIes apply to the vis ible penetrant A.174
methods excepl:

a. the penetrant must enter the 15. When using a post-emulsification

discontinuity in order to form an penetrant, it is necessary to apply the
indication emulsifier:
b. indications glow wh en illuminated
with an ultraviolet light a. before applying the penetrant
c. a longer penetration time is required b. after the water-wash operation
for smaller discontinuities c. after the dwell time has e1apsed
d. if the penet rant is washed out of the d. after the development time has
discontinuitYl an indicat ion wil! not e1apsed
be formed by that discontinuity A.43

P8l qn PO, P6

Level I Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 3

16. When conducting a water-washable 20. Usually, the most desirable method of
¡iquid penetrant test, the wet developer is removing excess water-washable
applied : penetrant after the dwell time is by lising:

a. imm ediately after the penetrant has a. a low pressure coarse water spray
been applied b. water and brush
b. immediately befare th e penetrant is c. a solid stream of water
applied d. water and clean rags
c. after removal of th e penetrant A.49
d. after removal of the emulsifier
2 l. When conducting a liquid penetrant test
using a pos t-emulsifiable visible dye
17. The term used to describe the action of a penetrant, the generally accepted method
particular developer in soaki ng up the for applying the wet developer is by:
penetrant in a discontinuity, so as to
cause the maximum bleedo ut o f the a. brushi ng
liquid penetrant for increased contrast b. swabbing
and sensitiv it y, is known as: c. dipping
d. spray ing
a. blotti ng 8 .i8
b. capillaryac tion
c. conce ntration
d. attraction 22. Which of the following characterist ics
A.38 does not apply to liqui d penetrant

18. Using an ultraviolet light lamp with a a. thi s metho d ca n accurately measure
cracked filter or without the filter in place the depth of a crack or discontinuity
can cause damage to human eyes beca use b. this method can be used for on-site
the lamp emits: testing of large parts
c. this method can be used to find
a. black light shaBow surface discontinuities
b. ultraviolet light d. this metho d ca n be made mo re or less
c. infrared light sensitive by using different penetrant
d. none of the above materials
A.77 8 .24

19. The term used to define the period of 23. Which of the fo llow ing discontinuities is
ti me in which the test part is covered most likely to be missed due to improper
with penetrant is: rinse techniques?

a. waiting time a. a forging lap

b. soak t ime (drain time) b. deep pitting
c. penetration time (dwell time) c. shallow and broad discontiouities
d. bleed in time d. the riose techn ique will not affect the
A.34 detectio n of discontinuities

°r¡; e¡;¡; P ~¡; ea ¡; 06~ q8~ eH °9 ~

4 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

24. Which of the following surface

conditioos could have a detrimental
28. Excess penetrant (all penetrant except
that which is in discontinuities) is
t) jo<
effeer 011 a liquid penetrant test? removed from rhe specimen:

a. a wet surface a. after the required penetrant dwell

b. a rough weld time has elapsed
c. an oily surface b. before the application of ao emulsifier
d. all of the above if a post-emulsifier penetrant is used
A.163 c. by means of a steam cleaner
d . ooly when water-washable penetrants
are used
25. Liquid penetrant testing is capable of A.49

a. subsurface intergranular stress 29. When using a post-emulsifiable

corros ion cracking discontinuities penetrant. the emulsifier time should be:
b. di scontinuities open to the surface
c. subsurface discontinuities a. as long as the penetrant dwell time
d. lack of fllsion (subsllrface) b. half the penetrant dwell time
A.34 c. the same as the developer time
d. only as long as necessary to remove
the interfering background
26. Ultraviolet Iight equipment is required A.49
when penetrant testing by:

a. the fluorescent penetrant method J 30. When an inspector is work ing in a

b. the visible dye pe netrant method darkened area) he/she should become
c. the nonfluorescent penetrant method adjusted to the dark before inspecting
d. all of the above parts. The generally accepted minimum
A.45 time period for becoming accustomed to
the dark is:

27. The ter m used to define the tendency of a. 1 min to 5 min

certain liquids to penetrate into small b. 5 min to 10 min
openings such as cracks or fissures is: c. 10 min to 15 min
d. no waiting per iod is necessary
a. saturation A.14
b. capi llaryaction
c. blotting
d. wetting age nt 3 1. Liquid penetrant inspection cannot find:
a. surface porosity
b. surface cracks
c. an internal cavity
c1. a surface forging lap

On: eOE P6 ~ qL~ e9~ q9~ P v~

Level l Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 5

¡ 32. AII of the follo wing mater ials ean be 36. Which of the statements below best states
tested by the usualliquid penet rant tests the danger of sandblasting (without
except: subsequent chemical etchi ng) for
c1eaning sur faces to be penetrant tested?
a. unglazed porous ceramic
b. titanium a. the discontinllities may be peened
e. high alloy steel over and closed
d. cast ¡ron b. oil contaminants might be sealed in
A.34.35 the discontinuities
c. lhe sa nd used in the sa ndblasting
operatian may be foreed into the
33. Liquid penetrant testing can be used to discontinuit y
deteet: d . the sandblasting operation may
introduce discontinuities
a. diseont inuities 1.6 mm (0.06 in.) A.163
betaw the surface
b. internal discontinuities
c. discontinuities open to the surface 37. The penetrant applied 10 the surface of a
d. all disconti nuities test specimen:
a. seeps into discontinuities
b. is absorbed by discontinuities
34. Which of the following are commo nly c. is drawn into discontinuities by
accepted methods for applying capillaryaction
pe netrant? d. is drawn into discontinuities by
gravit y
a. dipping th e part in penetrant A.84
b. pouring th e penetrant ayer the test
specimen (flowing) 38. Which of the foll owing statements
c. spraying th e penetrant on th e test concerning liquid penetrant testing is
specimen (spraying) correct?
d. all of the above
B.1.4 a. fluorescent penetrants will produce
red aga inst white discontilluity
35. A solvent used to clean the surface of a b. nonfluorescent penetrants require the
test specimen must possess all of the use of ultrav iolet lights
fo ll owing characteri stics except that the: c. fluorescent indications will be seen
when exposed to ultrav iolet light
3.cleaner must be capable of dissolving d. nonfluorescent discontinuities glow in
oils and greases commonly foulld 011 the dark for easy viewing and
th e surface interpretation
G ~ b. cleaner must not be flammable A.45
c. cleaner must be free of excess ive
d. cleaner must leave a minilnal res idue
0 11 th e surface

°8E OLE e9E QSE P\7E °EE e¡;E

6 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-IA (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

39. When removing excess penetrant from 42. Which of the following is an advantage of
the surface of a test specimen: visible dye penetrants Qver fluorescent
a. the penetrant removal operation must
not remove the penetrant from a. visible dye penetrants do not require
discontinuities ultraviolet light
b. sufficient excess penetrant must be b. visible dye penetrants are more
removed to eliminate an interfering sensitive than flu orescent penetrants
backgrou nd c. visible dye penetrants are superior in
c. the use of a solvent-dampened c10th is penetrating characteristics
a common method of penetrant d. visible dye penetrants are not taxic
removal while fluorescent penetrants are taxic
d . all of the aboye 8.33

43. The terms dry. aqueous wet and

40. The most widely accepted method for nonaqueous wet are used to describe
removing excessive water-washable three different types of:
penetrant from the surface of a test
specimen is by: a. emulsifiers
b. cleaners
a. using a wet rag c. developers
b. using a water spray rinse d. penetrants
c. washing the part directly under water A.38
running from a tap
d . immersing the part in water
8.1.5 44. Which of the following is not a generally
accepted method for applying
4l. The final inspection of a test specimen
for discontinuities should take place: a. rubbing the penetrant over the surface
b. brushing the penetrant on the part
a. immediately after the developer has c. spray ing the penetrant on the part
been appl ied d. dipping the part in the penetrant
b. any time after the developer has been 8 .14
appli ed
c. after the develope r has been on the
test specirnen for the proper 45. Which of the following is th e most
development time cornmonly llsed method for rernoving
d. irnmediately after the rinse operation nonwater-washable visible dye penetrant
8.18 from the surface of a test specimen?

a. dipping in a solvent
b. spraying
c. hand wiping
d. blowing

0917 21717 Q017 P6€

Level I Questions - Liqu id Penetrant Testing Method 7

46. Which of the following is an acceptable SO. Befare conducting a liquid penetrant test,
method for applying wet developers? it is important to ensure that the surface
of the part is free of:
a. application with a soft brush
b. application with a hand powder bulb a. oil or grease
c. rubbing with a saturated doth b. acids or chromates
d. spraying or dipping c. traces of water
B.17 d. all of the aboye

47. When using salvent removable

penetrants, the excess penetrant may be SI. When performing a penetrant test usiog
removed by: a post-emulsification penetrant, which of
the following is the mQst critical with
a. dipping the part in solvent respect to proper timing?
b. spraying the part with water and a
salvent a. dwell time
c. rubbing the part with a wet rag b. developing time
d. wiping the part with a rag or doth c. emulsification time
that has been lightly moistened with d. drying time
salvent A.51-52

52. Which of the following is the most likely

48. While conducting a penetrant test, al! of result of an excessive emulsification time
th e following health precautions should when penetrant testing with post-
be applied except: emulsification penetrants?

a. washing any excess penetrant from a. a large number of nonrelevant

skin using gasoline indications could appear on the part
b. washing any penetrant from skin with b. shallow discontinuity indications
soap and water as soon as possible could be lost
c. keeping penetrant off dothes c. excess penetrant cou ld rema in after
d . keeping the work area dean the wash operation
B.9 d. the emulsifier could harden,
preventing the developer from
blotting the penetrant in
49. Which of the following surface discontinuities
contam inants cannot be removed by A.51
cleaning parts in a vapor degreaser?

a. grease 53. In penetrant testing, developers should be

b. rust able to perform all of the fo llowing
c. heavy oil functions except:
d. soluble oil
A.170 a. blotting penetrant from
b. aiding in providing an image of a
c. adding fluorescence to penetrants
d. helping control bleedout

O¡;S QlS Ol:S POS Q6v AAv PLv P9v

8 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

54. Which of the fol!owing is the primary 58. Which of the following is a type of
limitat ian of liquid penetrant testing? developer used in penetran t inspection?

a. penetrant testing cannot Iacate a. dry

subsurface discontinuities b. aqueo us particulate
b. penetrant testing callnot Iacate c. nonaqueous particulate
shallow surface discontinuities d. all of the aboye
c. penetrant testing cannot be used 011 8.16
nonmetallic surfaces
d . penetrant testing ca nn ot be used on
ferromagnetic material 59. When penetrant test ing parts, the
A.8 temperature of the parts should be near
room temperature. If the part is at a low
temperature when tested, the:
55. In penetra nt testing, the time period
fro m developer application to inspection a. penetrant may become viscous
is often referred to as the: b. penetrant may evaporate very rapidly
c. color intensity of the penetrant will
a. emulsification time decrease
b. development time d. penetrant will tend to ad here to the
c. dwel! time surface of rhe part
d. none of the aboye A.138

60. If a part to be penetrant tested is hot, the

56. Liquid penetrant testing is a penetrant:
nondestructive test that can be used for:
a. may become viscous
a. locating and eyaluat ing al! types of b. may reduce sensitivity to small defects
discontinuities in a test specimen c. may lose so me of its color brilliance
b. locating and determining the length, d. mayevaporate
width, and depth cf discontinuities in A.1.38
a test specimen
c. determining the tensile strength of a
test specimen 61. Penetrants may be classified or
d. locating discontinu ities open to the subdiyided by the method used to
surface remove excess penetrant. Which of the
A.7 following is a proper classification in
accordan ce with th is statement?

57. When conducting a penetrant test using a. nonsolvent removable

fluorescent penetrant, ultraviolet light b. vapor degreased
equipment is requ ired to: c. water-washable
d. brush remoyable
a. cause the penetrant to fluoresce A.36-37
b. aid th e normal capillary action
characteristics of a penetrant
c. neutralize excess penetra nt on the
sur face
d. decrease the surface tension of the


Level I Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 9

62. The problem with retesting a test 65. Which of lhe following statements is
specimen with fluorescent penetrants that tfue?
has been previously tested using visible
dye liquid penetrant is that: a. sandblasting is a generally accepted
method for cleaning a surface that is
a. the penetrant may forro beads 011 the to be penetrant tested
surface b. parts should be heated prior to the
b. lhe penetrant left in discontinuities application of a penetrant
may be misleading when the c. if the dryer is too high. the heat may
specimen is retested degrade the effect iveness of water-
c. lhe penetrant willlose a great deal of washable penetrants
its color brilliance d. development time should be at least
d. residue can diminish ar destroy twice the penetration time
fluorescent indication brightness A.42

66. When using a wet developer:

63. Which of the following co nditions will
decrease the life of an ultraviolet light a. a thick layer of developer is better
bulb? than a thin layer for showing very fin e
a. ¡ioe voltage fluctuatio ns b. compressed air should be used to
b. dust on the face of the bu lb remove excess developer
c. changes in room temperature c. a black developer will show better
d. all of the above co ntrast than a white developer
A.237-238 d. a thin layer of developer is better than
a thick layer for showing very fine
64. Which of the following statements does A.95
not apply to developers used during
penetrant testing?
67. Wh ich of the following statements is
a. developers are normally highly false?
b. developers often furnish a contrasting a. sandblasting is not a recommended
background during inspec tion method for prepari ng for a penetra nt
c. developers absorb or blot the test
penetrant that remains in b. it is not necessary lo remove a film of
discontinuities after lhe Tinse oil from a part prior to penetrant
operat ion has been completed testing because the penetrant is
d . developers may be either wet or dry basically an oil
A.55 c. vapor degreasing is a very good
method for removing oil from the
surface of the part to be penetrant
d. a voltage regulator should be used
with an ultraviolet light if the line
voltage fluctuates

P99 099 ep9
v' ,/
10 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

68. A red against white background 72. Which of the following is generally
discontinuity ¡mage is mast likely to be accepted as the most important
seen when: precaution when using solvent removable
a. dry developers are used
b. visible dye penetrants are used a. do not apply an excessive amount of
c. fluorescent post-emulsification emulsifier
penetrants are used b. do not apply an excessive amount of
d. wet developers are used solvent
A.36 c. do not use an insufficient rinse
d. be sure to use an ultraviolet light to
69. The purpose for using a developer on a determine if the excess penetrant has
test specimen is to: been rinsed away
a. promote penetratían of the penetrant
b. absorb emulsifier residues
c. provide a blotting action to draw 73. Insufficient rinsing of fluorescent
penetrant from discontinuities and to penetrants wi II result in:
provide a contrasting background
d. help to dry the surface for better a. subsequent corrosion of the surface
observatían b. difficulty in the application of
A.38 developer
c. excessive bleedout
d. excessive background fluorescence
70. Which one of the following statements is A.52
an incorrect use of crack panel s (blocks)?

a. to establish a standard size of crack 74. Which of the following safety precautions
that can be reproduced as needed does not apply when handling penetrant
b. to determine the relative sensitivities materials?
of tWQ different penetrants
c. to determine if a penetrant has lost or a. prolonged contact of penetrant with
has reduced brilliance on fluorescent skin should be avoided beca use the oil
penetrants because of contamination or solvent base may cause skin
d. to determine the degree or method of ¡rritation
cleaning necessary to remove b. excessive amounts of developer
penetrant on the surface without powders should not be inhaled
removing it from the cracks c. air line respirators and complete
8.67-68 protective clothing must be worn at
all times
d. beca use the solvents used with the
71. Which of the following is generally visible penetrant process are
accepted as the most important flammable, this material should be
precaution when using water-washable kept away from open flames
penetrants? A.72,73

a. be sure that the part is washed

thoroughly during the rinse operation
b. be sure that the recommended dwell
time is not exceeded
c. avoid over-rinsing the part
d. avoid over-application of emulsifier

°PL P8L q¡;L "OL 069 q89

Leve) ) Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 11

75. Which of the following factors wiJl affect 79. The failu re to completely remove acid
resolution of penetrant indications? mater ials from a part before fluorescent
penetrant is applied will result in:
a. the sensitivit y of the penet rant
materials used a. contamination of the penetrant
b. the surface condition of the part materials
c. the temperature of rhe part and/or b. a need to double the penetrating time
penetrant c. a permanent stain on the part
d. all of the above d. all of the above
A.137,13S A.1GS

76 . A serious loss of water in a wet developer 80. When drying parts during a penetrant
mix ar an excessive overconcentration of test, the parts:
developer powder can cause:
a. are normally dried at room
a. a 1055 of flu orescence during lhe temperature
inspection operation b. are normally dried by a circulating
b. nonrelevant indications hot-a ir dr yer
c. crack ing of the developer coating c. should be dried in an oven set at a
du ring the dr ying operation temperat ure of 54 oC (1 30 °F)
d. none of the above d. should be dri ed by cool forced air
A.llS,l1G A.211

5 77. What could happen if a person looks

directly ¡nta an ultraviolet light?
81. The contamination of a water-washable
penetrant with an excessive amount of
water will:
a. it wi ll cause permanent damage to the
eyes a. reduce the penetrating qualit y of the
b. it will possibly c10ud the vis ion of the penetrant
perso n looking into the light for a b. adversely affect the washability of the
short period of time penetrant
c. it will cause temporary total blindness c. both a and b are correct
d. none of the above d. neither a nor b are correct
A.77 A.l03

78. When using dry developer, th e drying 82. Which of th e following penetrant
operation is perform ed: methods is generally used fo r portable
field inspections?
a. immediately after removal o f excess
penetrant a. the water-washable fluorescent
b. before the inspec tion step penetrant method
c. thoroughly b. the post-emulsification fluorescent
d. all of th e above penetra nt method
A.42 c. the solvent removable penetrant
d. none of the above

0~8 0, 8 Q08 e6L P8L qLL 09L PSL

12 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

83. When using a fluorescent penetrant, the 87. Whieh of the following is not a property t
actual inspection must be performed: of a developer used in liquid penetrant
a. in a brightly Iighted room
b. with the part at a temperature a. the material must be absorbent
between 10 oC and 79 oC (50°F and b. the material must form a thin and
175°F) uniform coating over a surface
c. immediately afrer the developer has c. the material must be fluorescent if
been applied used with fluorescent penetrants
d. in a darkened area under an d. the material must not contain
ultraviolet Iight ingredients harmful or toxic to the
B.15 operator

84. Whieh of the following penetrants can be

used when inspection must take place 88. Developer coat ings of excessive
under ordinary lighting conditions? thickness:

a. visible dye penetrant a. may obscure indications

b. water-washable fluorescent penetrant b. may be beneficial while observing
c. post-emulsification fluorescent smaU ind icat ions for fluorescent
penetrant penetrants
d. any of the above e. may be benefieial while observing
A.90 small indicat ion s for visible
d. do not effeet the inspeetion
85. Whieh of the following is a disadvantage A.55
of using the Iiquid penetrant testing
89. Color contrast penetrants are
a. the liquid penetra nt test method is commercially available in whieh of the
adaptable to produetion inspeetion of following variations?
small parts
b. liquid penetrant testing can locate fine a. normal solvent clean type
cracks b. water wash type
c. the liquid penetrant test method is a e. post-emulsifieation type
relatively simple test method d. all of the above
d. the Iiquid penetrant test method is A.36
not effective at al! temperatures
90. Whieh of the following could be a souree
of faIse indications on a test specimen?
86. A good penetrant must do all of the
following exeept: a. residue fram previous liquid
penetrant testing
a. be able to readily penetrate very fine b. maehining oi!
openings c. scale, rust and co rrasio n
b. evaporate very rapidly d. all of the above
c. be able to remain in relatively coarse A.151
d. be easily removed from the surface
after testing

P06 P68 288 OL8 q98 PS8 PE8

Level I Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 13

91. Cleani ng of the part prior to penetrant 95. A good commercial penetrant should
inspection is: have a:

a. not required a. low flash point

b. important because if the part is 110 t b. high flash point
clean, the developer cannot be c. medium flash point
improperlyapplied d. flash point is not a fac tor to be
c. essential because surface considered
contaminants may prevent penetrant A.72-73
from gaining access to discontinuities
d. required to eliminate possibility of
showing nonrelevant indications 96. A material Ihat is applied over the film of
A.7 the penetrant 0 11 the surface of a part, I
mixes with the penetrant, and enables the
penetrant to be washed off the surface is
92. When using fluorescent water-washable called:
penetrant , adequate rinsing of the part is
assured by: a. an emulsifier
b. a penetrant
a. timing of finse cycle c. a developer
b. sc rubbing of part su rface d. an ¡somer
c. rinsing under ultraviolet light A.37
d. using high pressure air with water
97. The time allowed for the penetrant to
enler discontinuities that may be present
93. What ca n happen if a par! processed by is the:
visib le dye penetrant inspection is
reprocessed by the fluorescent penetrant a. emulsification time
method? b. application time
c. dwell time
a. developer may remai n 0 11 the surface d. drai n time
causing background A.42
b. most visible dyes dimi nish or destroy
fluo rescence
c. penetrants are not compatible 98. Which of the following penetrant systems
d. interpretation will be difficult is generally considered to be the most
A.165 se nsitive?

a. water-washable - visible dye

94. A suitable filter must be used at all times b. salvent removable - visible dye
over an ultraviolet light bu lb because: c. water-washable - fluorescent dye
d. post-emulsificat ion - fluorescent dye
a. too much white light will be present if A.36-37
the filter is not in place
b. the human eye may be damaged
without it
c. the f¡!ter filters out undesired wave
d. all of the above

P86 OL6 "96 QS6 P176 QE6 0~6 0'\:6

14 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Uquid Penetrant Testing Method

99. The best choice of a developer for use on 104. Which of the following processes would
a very smooth surface when using a be most sensitive to detecting very fine
fl uorescent penetrant would be: defects?

~a. dry - fluffy a. oil-and-whiting proeess

b. dry - regular b. water-washable process
c. wet c. post-emulsification process
d. none of the above d. water emulsifiable visible dye
A.92 penetrant process

100. The purpose of an emulsifier is to:

105. When using the post-emulsification
a. combine with the penetrant to make fluorescent process, which of the
the resultant mixture removable by a fo llowing methods cannot be lIsed?
water finse
b. assist the blotting action of the a. dipping the part in the emlllsifier
developer b. sprayi ng the part with emulsifier
c. increase the penetration of the e. pouring emulsifier over the part
penetrant ¡nto fine discontinuities d. brush ing emulsifier on the part
d. eliminate false indications 8.50

106. Which of the fo llowing would be the

101. Developer assists in the detection of most desirable center wavelength for the
visible liquid penetrant indications by: Olltput of the light sOllrce lIsed in
fluorescent proeesses?
a. providing a deao surface
b. provid ing a contrasting background a. 320nm
c. providing a dry surface b. 365 nm
d. emulsifying the penetrant c. 520 nm
A.55 d. 565 nm

102. Liquid penetrant exam ination can deteet

all of the following types of 107. Bleedout of penetrant from a cold shut is
discontinuities except: an example of:

a. a forging lap a. a true indieation

b. a seam b. a nonrelevant indication
c. a surface crack e. a false indication
d. subsurface parosity d. none of the aboye
A.S 8.23,53

103. What is the mast universally used

ultraviolet light?

a. incandescent lamps
b. metallic carbon ares
c. tubular BL fluorescent lamps
d. enclosed mercury-vapor arc lamps


Level I Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 15

108. Liquid penetrants become sluggish at 110. Which of the items listed below is a
temperatures: disadvantage of using lhe liquid
penetrant test method?
a. above 38 oC (100 °F)
b. between la oC and 38 oC (50°F and a. the method cannot find
100 °F) discontinuities that are not opened to
c. below la oC (50°F) the surface
d. below 21°C (70°F) b. the method is simple in principie and
B.60 relatively easy to understand
¡ c. !he method is essentially simple in
! 109. Why is it possible to flush a surface with a
coarse water spray to which a water-
d. there are few Iimitations on the size
and shape of the art iele lha! can be
washable penetrant was app lied, remove treated by this method.
the excessive penetrant, and not remove A.S
the penetrant that is in the defects?

a. the ¡iquid wi ll not wash the penetrant

from the defects because the
penetrant has to be drawn out by the
b. the nature of a water-washable
penetrant is such that water will not
dissolve the penetrant; it has to push
lhe penetrant off the surface. which is
whya spray is used
c. the water droplets are relatively large
and will not enter mast defect
d. a water spray should not be used; the
penetrant should be removed by a
c10th dampened wirh water

"OH °601: °801

16 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method
Level II Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 17

Level 11 Questions
Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

1. Which of the following physical 4. Which of the following types of

properties, more than any other, discontinuities cannot be detected by the
determines what makes a material a good liquid penetrant test method?
a. surface laminations
a. viscosity b. internal forging bursts
b. surface tensiol1 c. surface cracks
c. wetting ability d. surface laps
d. no one single property determines if a A.8
material will or will not be a good
A.40, 84-86 5. Which of the following types of
discontinuities couId be classified as a
primar y processing discontinuity often
2. The speed w ith which a penet rant found in cast material?
penetrates a surface Aaw is influenced to
the greatest extent by which of the a. fatigue crack
fo llow ing properties? b. stress corrosion crack
c. porosity
a. capillaryaction d. lack of penetration
b. surface tension and wettability A.i28
c. viscosity
d. density
A.84 6. Which of the following discontinuities
could be dassified as a finishing
processing discontinuity?
3. Which of th e statements below applies to
the liquid penetrant method of testing? a. fatigue crack
b. stress corrosion crack
a. the penetrant test method is less c. lamination
flexible than the eddy current test d. heat-treat crack
method A.i27
b. the penetrant test method is less
reliable than the magnetic partide
method for finding surface defec ts in 7. Which of the following discontinuities
ferromagnetic materials could be classified as a service induced
c. the penetrant test method will not discontinuity?
detect fatigue cracks
d. the penetrant test method is more a. fatigue crack
reliable than radiographic testing b. porosity
when attempting to detect minute c. machining tear
surface discontinuities d. lap
A.9 A.i27

eL P9 09 Qv PE 1! Pl
18 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

8. AII of the following methods are 13. Which of the following is a possible cause
recornmended to remove grease from the for false penetrant indications?
surface of a penetrant test specimen
except: a. excessive washing
b. inadequate application of developers
a. vapor degreasing c. penetrant or part too cold during
b. alkaline c1eaning penetratian time
c. cleaning with salvent type material d. ¡int or dirt
d. hot water rinsing 8.20

14. Developer assists in the deteetian of

9. The penetrant indication for a cold shut penetrants retained in discontinuities by
011 the surface of a casting will be a: aiding the:

a. dotted or smooth continuous Hne a. post-cleaning process

b. cluster of small indications b. emulsification process
c. rough deep indication V c. bleedout process
d. large bulbous indication d. drying process
8.23 A.55

10. The penetrant indication of a forging lap 15. Developer assists in the detection of the
will normally be a: visible dye penetrant test indications by:

a. round or nearly round indication a. providing a clean surface

b. cluster of indications b. providing a contrasting background
c. continuous line c. providing a dry surface
d. dotted line d. emulsifying the penetrant bleedout
8.23 A.55

11. When conducting a penetrant test, 16. When lising post-emulsification

spherical indications on the surface of a penetrants, difficulties incurred during
part could be indicative of: the washing operation can be overcome
a. fatigue cracks
b. porosity a. reapplying a coat ing of emulsifier
c. \Veld laps b. increasing the water pressure used
d. hot tears duriog the washing operatían
8.23 c. completely reprocessing the part from
surface preparation 011 and by using a
longer emulsifier time, if allowed
12. Penetrant developer is common ly d. dipping the part in boiling water
available in all of the following forms A.53

a. dry developer
b. nonaqueous developer
c. wet develop er
d. high viscosity developer
Levelll Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 19

17. Whieh of the following methods for 2 1. When performing a liquid penetrant test
applying nonaqueous developer is using solvent removable visible dye
normally considered the most effective? penetrant, there are several ways to
remove excess penetrant from the surface
a. sprayi ng of the parto Whieh of the methods listed
b. swabbing below is generally regarded as most
c. brushing suitable for giving accurate test results?
d. dipping
A.38 a. squirting salve nt ayer the surface w ith
no more than 276 kPa (40 psi)
18. Of th e methods listed below, the most b. wiping with a soaking wet cloth, then
effective means of precleaning a test ítem wiping with a dry cl01h
to remove organic conta minants such as c. wiping with a salvent dampened
grease prior lo a penetrant test is: cloth, then wiping with dry cloths
d . wiping with dry paper wipes, then
a. vapor degreasing wiping with a salvent dampened
b. detergent cleaning cloth, and finally wiping with dry
c. hat water rinse cloth
d. salvent wiping A.45

22. Prior to the penetrant testing of a

19. Fluorescent materials used in fluorescent prev iously machined soft metal part,
penetrants respond most actively to whi eh of the cleaning methods listed
radiant energy with a wavelcngth of below would best remove any smeared
approximately: metal that couId mask discontinuities?

a. 700 nm a. etehing
b. 250 kV b. shot peening
e. 365 nm c. alkaline cleaning
d. 1 klx (100 fe) d. water cleaning with detergents
A.95 A.35

20. Emulsifier time: 23. Why is the drying proeess used in

penetrant testing?
a. is important but not normally critical
b. is the time needed to rinse the a. th e dr ying process is used to ensure
emulsifier and excess penetrant from that al! excess penetrant will
th e surface evaporate
c. is extremely important and will b. the drying process ensures the
greatly affeet test results uniform drying of dry developer
d. sho uld be as long as eeonomieally app lied over a wet emu lsifier
practica l c. the drying process reduces
A.51,52 penetration time
d. after the applieation of a wet
developer, the drying process aids in
securing a uniform developer coating

7 ej Vi / /
OlG ~O~ 061 / 081 /

'\ 0./
20 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

24. Which of the following reasons best 28. Which of the foUowing statements )
describes why excessive drying of a part concerning contaminating materials 011
should be avoided? the surface of a penetrant test specimen is
fa lse?
a. the extra time required is wasted
b. the developer may lose its blotting a. the contam inant may be of a
abilit y composition that attacks the
c. a reduction in fluorescent brilliance penetrant and reduces the
may result fluorescence or color of the penetrant
d. the excess developer may be difficult b. the contaminant may reduce or even
to remove prevent capillar y action by the
A.56 penetrant
c. the conta minant may retain the
penetrant and thus increase the
25. Which of th e following variables must be sensitivity of the inspection
considered to use the time required for d. the conta minant may co mpletely fill
an indication to develop as a measure of the crack and thus prevent the entry
the extent of the discontinuity? of penetrant
a. the type of penetrant and sensit ivit y
of technique
b. the type of discontinuity 29. The fu nction of the emulsifier in the
c. the temperature of the material bei ng post-emulsification penetrant method is
tested to:
d. all of the above
A.135 a. more rapid ly drive the penetrant into
deep, tight cracks
b. react with the surface penetrant to
26. When using a fluorescent, post- make the penetrant water-washable
emulsifiable penet rant, the length of time c. add fluo rescent dye or pigment to the
the emulsifier is allowed to remain 011 the penetrant
part is critical when detecting shallow d. provide a coating to which dry
scratchlike discontinuities. The actual powder developer can ad here
length of time should be: A.43

a. 10 s
b. 5 s 30. Whe n penetrant testing for shallow
c. 2t03s discontinuities using a post-
d. determined by experimentation emulsification penetrant, th e
A.52 emulsification time should be long
enough to:

27. Water-washable liquid penetrants differ a. mix the emulsifier with the excess
from post-emulsification penetrants in surface penetrant only
that water-washable penetrants: b. mix the emulsifier with all the
penetrant on th e surface and in
a. can only be used on aluminum tes t discontinuities
specimens c. mix the emulsifier with penetrant in
b. do not need to be removed from the discontinuities
surfaces prior to development d. allow the emulsifier to dry out lo a
c. have a soapy base white powder
d . do not need the applicatio n of an A.51
emulsifi er before rinsing
A.43 e

Level II Questions - Liqu id Penetrant Testing Method 21

31. Which of the following practices should 35. Which of the following characteristics are
be avoided whe n perform ing a penetrant normally considered when selecting the
test? type of penetrant to be used in a
penetrant test.
a. applyi ng emulsifier by dipping th e
part in emulsifier a. removal characteristics of the
b. applying developer by spraying the penetrant
part with developer b. sensitivity level
c. removal of water-washable penetrant c. the cost of the penetrant
\Virh a water spray d. all of the above
d. applying emulsifier with a brush A.9,10

36. Which materials should be avoided in the

32. A commonly used method of checking penetrant system when testing titanium
on the overall performance of a liquid alloys?
penetrant system is by:
a. carbon or oil
a. determi ni ng rhe viscosity of the b. ha logenated solvents
penetrant c. emulsifier or oil
b. measuring the wetability of th e d. fluorescent agents
penetrant A.170
c. comparing sections of artificially
cracked specimens
d. all of the above 37. Which of the following is a discontinuity
A.259 that might be found in sand castings?

a. incomplete penetrat ion

33. An important difference between b. undercut
nonwater-washable penetrants and water- c. pIpe
washable penetrants is that: d. shrinkage
a. water-washable penetrants contain an
emulsifier wh ile nonwater-washable
penetrants do not 38. Which of the following is a discontinuity
b. the viscosity of the t\Vo penetrants is that might be found in a welded
different fabrication?
c. the color of the t\Vo penetrants is
different a. shrinkage
d. nonwater-washab le penetrants are b. center bead crack, cracks in heat-
more easily removed than water- affected zone, or crater cracks
washable penetrants c. seams
A.36 d. laps

34. Which of th e following is a discontinuity

that might be found in roUed bar stock? 39. Which of the following is a disco ntinuity
that might be found in rolled plate'
a. shrinkage
b. bleedout a. laminations
c. laps b. shrinkage
d. undercut c. lack of fusion
A.129 d. undercut

e6E ~8E II,LE 1\9E qj ~vE

eEY "J P:J
( Y 't/ '<1
22 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

40. Which of the following contaminants 44. Which of the following is an adva ntage of
could affect the sensitivity of a penetrant? visible dye penetrants Qver fluorescent
a. acid
b. water a. small indications are more easily seeo
c. salts b. they can be used on anodized and
d. all of the above chromate surfaces
A.137 c. they make less background on rough
d. no speciallighting is required
41. Which of the following is a discontinuity A.46

that might be found in a forging?

a. shrinkage cracks 45. Which of the following is an advantage of

b. laps salvent wipe methods Qver water
c. cold shuts wash ing?
d. insufficient penetration
A.129 a. no special lighting is necessary during
b. they provide a quicker penetration of
42. Which of the following is a discontinuity small openings
that might be found in rolled plate stock? c. small indications are more easily seen
d. they can easily be canied out in the
a. inclusions field and remote areas
b. shrinkage cracks A.46

c. forging laps
d. blow holes
A.129 46. The tendency of a liquid penetrant to
eoter a discontinuity is primarily related
to the:
43. Which of the following is an advantage of
fluorescent penetrants ayer visible type a. viscosity of the penetrant
penetrants? b. capillary forces
c. chemical inertness of the penetrant
a. the in spection can be carried out in a d. specific gravity of the penetrant
welllighted area A.84

b. small indications are more easily seen

c. they can be used where contact with
water is object ionable 47. The emulsifier is used:
d. they are less sensitive to
contam ination of discontinuities a. to wash the penetrant out of
A.46 discontinuities
b. to aid in washi ng off the surface of
parts when using either the water or
oi l soluble penetrants
c. to emulsify the oil sol uble penetrant,
thereby mak ing it water washable
d . to preclean parts before applying

"",. W

qEj y/I> J/ ~fv

OLj q9; PSI>
J (jJ

Level II Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 23

48. The prime purpose of the ultraviolet light 53. When improper processing causes
for fluorescent penetrant inspection is to: inspection difficulties, what should the

¡;t magnify indications

b. make the indications visible
inspector do?

3.swab parts with a salvent

c. develop indications b. use a correct bleedback procedure
d. speed up inspection ~. erase nonrelevant fluorescence
A.226 d. reprocess the part

49. Why is it adv isable to have an ultrav iolet

light installed at the wash station? 54. Which of the following is most likely to
render the post-emulsification test
a. to check the effec tiveness of the wash ineffective?
b. to speed the bleeding of penetra~'t out 3. the penetrant time is too lo ng
of defects b. the developing time is too long
c. so inspection can be done without c. the em ulsifyin g time is too long
drying parts d . none of the above
d. to determine if parts have beeo A.51
covered with penetrant
SS. Dry developer should be applied:

50-. Developer powder should always be: a. so th at a heavy coat of developer

CQvers all sur faces
a. highly Auoresce nt b. so that a light dusting covers all
b. app lied wet sur faces to be inspected
c. colorless c. with a dry paint brush
d. eve nly applied d. by dipping
A.55 A.56

51. When viewing parts, fluorescent 56. Which factor would apply in determining
background may indicate: the dwell time required for the penetrant
to be effective?
a. poor wash ing
b. insufficie nt emulsifyi ng time (post- a. type of disco ntinu ity sought
emulsification method ) b. shape of part
c. porous material and coating c. size of part
d. all of the above d. surface roughness
A.48 A.138

52. In the absence of a written acceptance 57. The part is an aluminum forging.
criteria, rejection or acceptance of parts Description - the indication is sharp,
sho uld be based on the: halfmoon shaped, not deep. It is called:

a. inspector's educat íon a. alap

b. design of the part and its intended b. center ¡ine porosity
appl ication c. a heat treat crack
c. appropriate penetrant standard d. a fa lse indication
d. selection of the penetrant A.147

e/e) Qgg
OvY~J 7 PJ 06v

24 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

58. The part is a 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick 62. Which of the following is a disco ntinuity
aluminum plate with a V fusian weld . that might be found in rolled bar stock?
Description - the indicatían appears as
a straight lineoThe indicarian is: a. blowhole
b. shrinkage lap
a. shrinkage c. crack or seam
b. nonrelevant d . lack of penetration
c. a quench crack A.129
d. lack of fusion
63. The term nonrelevant indication is used
to describe certain types of penetrant
59. The part is an aluminum cast ing. testing indications. Which of the
Description - rhe casting has a very following would be a typical nonrelevant
complex designoIn ene section, there is a indication?
fIat area having a thickness Df 32 mm
(1.3 in.). In the center of this area is a a. indications due to part geometry or
round seclion. 51 mm (2 in.) thick and part design configurations
25 mm (1 in.) in diameter. There are b. nonmagnetic indications
linear indications about one-half rhe c. multiple indications
distanee around the base where it joins d. nonlinear indications
¡nta the thin section. The indicatian is 8.21

a. dross 64. Wh ich of lhe statements below best states

b. hot tear the danger of using sandblasting for
c. microshrinkage cleaning surfaces to be penetrant tested?
d. porosity
8.63 a. the discontinuities may be closed
b. oil contam inants might be sealed in
the discontinuities
60. Shrinkage cracks are usually found in c. the sand used in the sandblasting
what areas of a casting? operation may be forced in to the
a. thín sections only d. the sandblast ing operation may
b. heavy sections only introduce discontinuities in the part
c. at abrupt changes in thickness 8.13.14
d. no longer a problem
65. A continuous linear indicatian can be
caused by wh ich of the fo llowing
61. Which of th e followi ng is a discontinuity discontinuities?
that might be found in a forging?
a. porosity
a. shrinkage crack b. slag inclusions
b. lap c. pitting
c. hot tear casting d. cracks
d. lamination A.133

pg9 "179 009

Level 11 Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 25

66. Which of the following could be a source 68. Which of the following discontinuities
o f false indications o n a test speci men? would be impossible to detect using a
¡iquid penetrant test?
a. penetrant 011 the test table
b. penetrant on the hands of the a. a forging lap
inspector b. a crater crack
c. contamination of dry or wet c. grinding cracks
developer w ith penetrant d . no nmetallic internal inclusions
d. all of the above A.7

67. A crack type discontinuity will generally

appear as:

a. a round indicatio n
b. a continuous line, either straight or
c. a straight, single sol id line
d. random round or e10ngated holes

P89 qL9 P99

26 Supplement to Recommended Practíce SNT-TC-IA (Q&A Book): Uquíd Penetrant Testíng Method

Level 111 Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 27

~ Level 111 Questions

Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

l. Chemical cleaners are often used for very 4. With all other factors the same when
dirty, greasy parts. If used: removing penetrant from the surface by
spray water wash, penetrant in a crack
a. the surface must be subsequently would be harder to remove if it has:
cleaned with a salvent cleaner
b. the surface must be thoroughly rinsed a. low viscos ity
free of any residue b. high viscosity
c. heat must be used to eosure the c. medium viscosity
removal of any detergents fram d. viscosity is not important
surface openings A.S6
d. the surfaces must be subsequently
cleaned with a volatile salvent c1eaner
A.~65 5. The mast desirable objectives governing
the cleaning operations when removing
surface penetrant are to remove:
2. Generally, vapor degreasing is considered
to be one of the best methods of a. little penetrant from defects and leave
preparing a part for liquid penetrant a minimal of residual penetrant
inspection beca use: remaining on the surface
b. litlle penetrant from a defect and leave
a. the solvent vapor removes all no residual penetrant remaining on
petroleum based materials the surface
b. it totally removes all surface c. no penetrant from defects and leave a
contaminants minimal of residual penetrant on the
c. the method is easily adapted to part surface
virtually any size of the part d. no penetrant from defects and leave
d. the solvent vapor removes all no residual penetrant on the part
inorganic soils surface
A.~69 A.4S

3. When penetrant is applied to parts by 6. The best method of removing the excess
dipping, the parts should be: water-washable penetrant is to:

a. left in the tank during the entire dwell a. imrnediately irnmerse the part in the
time water rinse tank
b. set aside untiI the dwell time is up b. use water running directly from a tap
c. placed on a rack designed to return c. boH in hot water or steam spray
any excess drainage to the dipping d. use a hose and nozzle with a coarse
station spray
d. placed in the alkaline solvent rinse A.42
tank immediately

P9 os qp oc e¡: qT
28 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

7. When removing excess post-emulsifiable 11 : Removal of residual penetrant or

penetrant in a production situation developer materials by a suitable post- )
involving relatively large irregularly cleaning technique is advantageous in
shaped parts, you may use a: which of the following cases?

a. coarse spray a. where it could interfere with

b. strong wate r blast subsequent processes or with service
c. cornmercial salvent b. where it could provide a contrasting
d. hot water immersion background
A.42 c. where ir could assist in the
emulsification of the penetrant
8. The sensitivity of wet developers can be d. where it couId assist in the lattice
seriously impaired: structure breakdown
a. when the developer temperature is
greater than the ambient temperature
b. when the thickness of the coat ing 12. Post -cleaning is particularly impo rtant
beco mes too heavy where residual penetrant or developer
c. if the corrosion inhibitors are added materials may combine with other
to the developer materials in ser vice to produce:
d. if the surface of the part is polished
A.55 a. false penetrant indications
b. a contrasting background
c. corrosive action
9. When is a nonaqueous wet developer d. proper surface tension
generally preferred? A.178
a. when the dryer oven temperatu re is
aboye 12 1 °C (250°F) 13. Post-cleaning should be performed:
b. when it is essential to use the most
sensitive developers a. as soon as possible if the material is
c. when using a fluorescent penetrant on susceptible to corrosion
an as-cast surface b. afrer several hours because the drier
d. when using a fluorescent penetrant on the materials are) the easier they can
a wire brushed weld be wiped off
A.93 c. with the part warm to enhance th e
solubility of penetrant material
d. w ith the part chilled to cause the
10. The best method of drying after the mater ials to lose their cohesion
application of a wet developer is A.H8

a. blotting the sur face gently with

absorptive paper toweling
b. all owing the part to dry slowly at or
sl ightly below the ambient
c. rapid drying with a normal room
temperature air blast
d. drying with circulating air at a
maxi mum of71 oC (160 °F)

en o~T en POT q6 q8 eL

Levellll Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 29

14. Ocular fluorescence should be considered 17. Which of the following is an advantage of
when arranging ultraviolet Iights for post-emulsifiable methods Qver water-
testing, because direct or reflected washable methods?
ultraviolet light shining ioto the
inspector's eyes: a. the excess penetrant removal is
accomplished by water spray
a. couId cause tissue clamage .; b. they usually exhibit higher sensitivity
b. is harmless and of no consequence to tight cracks
c. even though temporary, can become c. the overall test time is shortened
extremely an noying and may impair d. their sensitivity is easier to control
inspector effectiveness A.36,37
d. even though annoying. it will not
¡mpair inspector effectiveness
A.6i 18. When compared to other methods, which
of the ¡tems below are disadvantages of
water em ulsifiable visible dye methods?
15. Residual acids and chromates are
detrimental to the fluorescent processes a. degree of sensitivity to acidity and
because: alkalinity
b. portability
a. the fluorescent dyes may be 'c. test time
decomposed, resulting in weak or d. requirements of ordinary light
faint test indications A.66,67
b. acids and oxidizing agents react with
the fluorescent dyes only in the
presence of water 19. The type ofpenetrant to be used on an
c. acids and oxidizing agents react with investment casting should be:
the fluorescent dyes only in the
presence of emulsifiers which are a. water-washable visible dye for
contained in water-wash penetrants maximum sensitivity and water-
d. emulsifiers neutralize the effects of the washability
acids and chromates b. solvent removable because of size and
A.i03,i04 shape
c. post -emulsifiable fluorescent foc
maximum sensitivity and water-
16. Due to the nature of penetrant material, washability
most methods have which of the d. solvent removable for greater visibility
followi ng adverse effects on operator A.344,345

a. penetrants are a hazard due to thei r

inorganic base 20. There is a variety of equipment available
b. penetrant methods include materials for precleaning parts prior to penetrant
which can cause dermatitis if proper application. Of the following, the
precautions are not observed recommended method for removing the
c. penetrant materials contain oil phases, if practical, is:
hallucinogens that can cause a sense
of drunkenness a. sand or grit blasters
d. modern penetrants have been b. solvent or chemical tanks
improved to be virtuaUy hazard free c. vapor degreasers

'. 001: 061 ~81 l(Ll q91



water detergent washing machines

\J ~
30 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

2 l. If modular equipment has been obtained 25. A good penetrant must be:
for a penetrant inspection system using
fluorescent post-emulsifiable penetrant a. able to enter extremely fine surface
and wet developer. the dr yer sho uld be openings
placed: b. highly viscous
c. highly volati le
a. after the developer ta nk d. an inorganic base liqu id
b. before the emulsifie r tank A.40
c. before the developer tank
d. after the wash unit
A.20S 26. Wetting ab ility is measured by the:

a. specific gravity
22. In a modular equipment system using a b. density
water-washable fluorescent penetrant and c. cantact angle
dr y developer. ultraviolet light should be d. surface tensio n
available: A.84

a. al the penetrant station

b. at the wash station 27. Which of the follow ing functio ns does a
c. al the developer statio n developer perfor m?
d. after the oven cycle
A.203-204 a. blots th e penet rant by d rawi ng it o ut
of discontinuities
b. masks out nonrelevant indications
23. Filters for ult raviolet lights effectively c. dries out the surface of the part
remove: d. prov ides a noncontrasting
backg round
a. natural white light A.138
b. radiation of a wavelength above 300
c. visible light from the energy given off 28. When inspecting using fluorescent
by the mercury arc penetrant methods, an indication will
d. fluorescence from the penetrant appear as a:
a. soft white glow aga ins! a gray
backg round
24. The use of 100 W spot bulbs with a plai n b. brilliant yellow gree n glolV against a
fi !ter for color contras t penetrants wh ite background
produces: c. bright yellow green glow against a
black backgro und
a. a high intensity narrow beam ' d. brill iant yellow green glow against a
b. a large amo unt of light over a large deep violet blue backg ro und
area A.133
c. does not have a high maximum
intensity in any one area
d . is ideal for inspecting large parts

P 8~ ea °9 ~ e s~ e\7 ~ qa
Level 111 Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 31

• 29. A v isible dye indication will usually

appear as a:

a. bright red glow aga inst a wh ite

b. red color against a gray background
33. Porosity ind ications in ceramics would

a. more intense than porosity

indications in metals
b. essentially the same as porosity
c. red color aga inst a white background indications in metals
d. red color against a glowing white c. less intense than porosity indications
background in metals
A.133 d. as minute cracks

30. If a n indication rcappears after the

original deve loper has bee n rem oved and 34. When inspecti ng a hard fired ceram ic
a nother coat is applied, rhe discontinuity: that is very porous, the best inspection
m ethod wOll ld be the:
a. cont.ains a rese rvoir of pe netra nt
b. is probably shrinkage . a. filtered partide method Qp
c. is most likely porosity b. electrified partide method \VI
d. is most likely a c rack c. brinle ena mel method 1\1
A.135 d. emulsifiable color contrast method
A.327 X
31. If. upon proper reprocessing, a faint

indicatioll fails to reappear, what could be 35. A partia lly welded forging lap wOllld
the cause? probab ly: v

a. it \Vas probably a false indicatio n give no indication ';

b. the area has bee n overcleaned
b. appear as a very thin, continuous line
c. the indicat ion is probably d ue to a

c. appear as a broad, continuolls line
small fl aw d. appear as an intermittent Hne
d. reprocessing has resealed the opening A.133 ,134


~ l
36. A ragged line, of variable width and
32. A network of interconnecting jagged lines num erous branches on castings caused
appearing in hard fired, unglazed ceramic by a difference in cooling rates between
products would be an indication of: thick and thinner sections, wouJd most
likely be an indi cat ion of:
a. grinding cracks
b. fatigue cracks a. shr inkage
c. shrinkage cracks b. cold shllt
d . therm al shock c. hot tear
A.327 d. lap

• 09S P9S evS QSS P<':S e,s eOS 06<':

32 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book); Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

37. A deep crater crack will frequently appear 41. A penetrant that will spread over the
as a: surface of the test area in a smooth. even
film despite a smal! a mou nt of surface
a. small tight crack co ntamination is sa id to have:
b. rounded indicatían
c. fine linear indicatian a. low viscosity
d. faint illtermittent line b. high viscosity
A.142 c. wetting ability
d. lowevaporation
38. The forces generated by capillary
attractioll cause a ¡iquid to rise
spontaneously in a ca pi ll ary tube. These 42. The sensitivit y of two penetrants for
forces are also involved in the: crack detectio n is best compared by:

a. cntry of a ¡iquid ¡nto a crack a. using a hydro mete r to measure

b. sol ubility of a liquid specific g ravity
c. flash point of a Iiquid b. using cracked aluminum blocks
d. chemical inertness of a liquid c. measuring the contact angles in a
A.84 wetting test
d. the meniscus test
39. Viscosity has a considerable effeet on
sorne of the practical aspects of the use Df
a penet rant. It is an important factor in 43. For post-emu lsifiable penetrants. a good
the: method for establishing emulsify ing time
is by:
a. solubilit y of contam inants
b. washabil ity of a penetrant a. experimentation
c. deg ree of fluorescence emitted b. (he water drop through test
d. rate with which a penetrant will drain c. the water tolerance test
off a sITIaath surface d. using published book values
A.86 A.53

40. One of the two mast important 44. A newly mixed batch of wel developer
properties of a good pene trant is wetting shou ld:
ability. Wetting ability is:
a. be checked by a hydrometer
a. measured by contact ang le and is not b. be agitated fo r at least 30 min
related to surfacc tension c. be checked for evcnness of coat ing
b. a fun ction of viscosity and increases d. all of the aboye
as surface tension decreases A.116
c. measured by contact angle and
decreases as surface tension increases
d. measured by surface tension and
in creases as contact angle decreases

Pvv e8v P68 eS8 qL8

Level 111 Questions - Liquid Penetrant Testing Method 33

• 45. The test used to measure the sensitivity of

a penetra nt to water contamination based
011 the amou nt of wate r is th e:

water drop through test
hydrometer test
48. The ab ili ty of an indication to be see n
ca n be assigned a value called the
co ntrast ratio. This ratio is based on the
amount of:

a. white light present as opposed to the

c. photofluorometer test amount of light absorbed by the dye
d. water tolerance test b. Iight reflected by the backgro und as
A.i09 o pposed to the amo un t of li ght
absorbed by the dye
c. light absorbed by the backgrou nd as
46. A method for eva luati ng quantitative opposed to th e amount of light
va lues fo r the cmitted Iight of fluorescent refl ected by the dye
materia ls is th e use of a: d . light refl ected by the backg round as
opposed to the amount of Iight
a. fluoromcter refl ected by the dye
b. filtermeter A.59
c. refractomcter
d. spec trometer
A.iii 49. The contrast rat io of a red dye penetrant
to a white developer is normally about:

47. W hen performing an evaluation of the a. 100 to 1

flu orescent abi lity of a penetrant, the b. 33 to 1
va lue that Ís normally so ught is the:

c. IOtol - 20tol
d. 9 to 2
a. a mount of actuall ight emitted by A.Si
indication s
b. amount of ultraviolet lig ht necessary
to cause the material to fluoresce 50. The test object and standard penetrant
c. relative amount of light em itted by the materials should be \\Iithin a particular
nuorescent mater ial compared to temperature range. One of the reasons an
other penetrants excessively cold penetrant is lIn desirab le
d. relative a mo ullt of light emitted by the is that as the temperature beco mes Imver:
fluorescent material compared to th e
light emitted by the background a. the viscosity increases
A. l l l b. the viscosity decreases
c. fewer volat ile materials \-ViII be lost
d. th e dyes degrade

51. If the sll rface temperatu re of the test part

is excessively hot, the:

a. viscos ity of the penetrant may be too

b. surface tensio n of the pe netra nt
c. penetra nt may lose flllorescent

brightness as the dyes are degraded
d. contact angle increases

OlS eos P8V OLv e9v PSV
34 Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-IA (Q&A Book): Liquid Penetrant Testing Method

52. Wh ich of the foll ow ing is a cri tcr ia n for a 54. Where precleaning is necessary and a
good drye r? res idue free solvent is used , wh ich of the
foll ow ing is observed?
a. it has th e ab ility to d ry the surface
slowly a. the solvents are not suitable for
b. it has the abi lity to heat the part to an removing grease
optimum tcmperature in a mínimum b. the solvents are no t suitable for
of tim e so that the part is both dry removing oil
and wa fm as promptly as poss ible c. the solvents should never be lIsed for
c. it has lh e electrical heating elcmcnts removi ng grease and oils
so that there is a g ua rantee that no d. the solve nts a re suitable for remov ing
conta milla nts ca n be introduced ¡nto g rease a nd oils, but are gene rally not
the inspection process adequate if solids are embedded in
d. it is a warm air blast systcm void areas
A.204 A.170

53. What are two very importa nt pro perties 55 . Whe n utilizing the fluoresce nt post-
that determine whether a ¡iquid will have emul sifiable penetrant method and
high penetrating abil ity? perform ing the rinse cyele, whi ch of the
follow ing will prevent overrinsing?
a. surface tensio n and cosin e of lhe
contact angle a. rinse before the penetra nt is
b. viscosity a nd cosine of contaet angle completely emulsified
c. cosine of the contaet angle and b. rin se after the penet ran t is completely
density em ulsified
d. sur face tens ion and viscosity c. disconti nue the rinse as soo n as the
A.84 su rface penetrant is removed from th e
d. rinse only with water hotter than
43 oC (1 10°F)

ogg ppg q~g