Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 245


Second Edition


Wolfg,~ngTo:l',s,e, I!.Jlhv.Pro,f; DrA.08. Institut :rill:' lB[dm~ung

Unive:n:it.a~, H2i.flIlOVer

NientlUl',g€:1l' Strn:siSe ,6

'D- •. ,3(OJ Hanno,,"er r, Gell'lli1ll:llY

ifSBN .l.l ].J[MJtn~1 lst,lcdi,l.iof.ll W98o. 'tt'o!lIllisl!Bi~ed [rom Ulie: Ge~am Iby Ch:r'ill~,op'l;n:' JI~hli. M.Sc. T!'3.nsllloolil of d.e 2nd ooi!tion t1Z\I.iscd, by P;rot.llr.·:bl,g. Ocs]! Eu,e

® .Pri:mlted .on acid··froe 'pap!:,li wlilicll [allis wi:tbillli tbe S,IJWc'l~ne!i1' ,of tb.c ANsm illO e:nlfil~re Ipe'mliU"!!~l'IIec and dumbUit.y.

9'~-:l2]58 c~p

Tor~. Wo~{~,iiiiil. [GeodtiSil,c. German]

Geodesy lWo]fg~mg Tor~c, - 2nd ed,

p. en •.

TiiUil ,]3:[IOn of Gco<il(isic.

Includes bibli,'ogr:a[l,II,iclll ·n::re:nm.;cs and i'l\d~x. m:BN 1[I~:8992S·6:S(l.,5

I + G~d!~!lY. I,. Tille',

'Q'B,2tn :rS81:5 ~99'1

:S26'.,~ -d:e20

'Jorge. lill1omlie811e;:

Geodesy ! ~ WQI'fWI.I'I[!, 'TIlIii'l!:Ic, 'r'I::l1I'IWI. :fi'fiQIJ:l tl1Je GCIi1Il13.11 'by Ch!l"is· io,ph,er Jekell. - 2. ,00 .. - Berlhll : New York: : de G;lrl!l~fter; 199'1

Dt, AU!lg. R.d.T.: Torge. Wo'IFgimg: G~odasie 'I S.BN 3· ]1·OI24'[Jl8·4

A~II dgffi!:!O$ :rnsentCti, illliclllld:im!li!i, tlh~ of t~a:IilSila~,i(l08 ~l'!!tjJ ~orr~i:gil'll.MIr;IJa;ges. No p.!Jrit ·of 1~1m boot maJ:Y 100: lIepli'od.~~, gf lraliRiliilUed In am,y I(ann or bYiilDi)" mealll~el~:r.of.!lc 0:1' moohEliDital. ino]lldills,pt:m1iooop~. r.eoo~,d~~~ orarnry inFomn,altiO'JlIIst'Ora,ge amd re~de""al. sys'le..lIi •. widlloU'l. penmi:s&ionin writ~f!ig irrom Ute puibl.is,~e:r.

11ii.i IJSC ofregi;s;tef~ !'!~ll!l¢!!i. t:ra:de IIUI/m.es, tlia!lf.ie Di@rb"ctC'. i.n 'tb~s book, 0111;!iI willilol,!lta specific ,s(OI!tem~t! does ~ot ~mpl,y that tile&!; fJ!1J.m~ ~<re:l:iIO~, pf'O'1~w by the ~~:~Wi'i[ la;wi\l, :and regg~::liti(miil. WlIliIDc ~b.eadvi~ .d iin~orlltwUio'n in, this book is Ib!:Ji¢'\iI~ to, !be: true and a.o;;!.u',a,1C: at rlll,e: d,ine: of ils ,going: to ,press, ]]I.utller the ,iI:urt~'or 1IDO~' ULe: iP~bHslju~m' ean ~cceptall!r t~ RIlpo:msi,billi'I,)" for ,lmY amof'S O. omiisslOr:lS, maJ,t :rna, 00 1lIl!ld~. The IpUbljs~er :ma..k~, no wammity. 'cx:p~ 'Q1 i~~ied" w~tlil l:e.'ipe¢t 't(l t~E m8!~:ria] oontilined hereia,

Pdnted iD. GermmJ.,.

TYp¢lie'uiflg:: Asco lrad~ T,~U.~fclrg Ltd.; HOiO\8 iJ{.pi:'iSI Pllilmt~ililg; It;!lIilZlo,w.1Dnu::k" &ili'rll Dilltdillg: Di.e~,cr Mikolllri •. 8erU!I1, /Cover d~i;p~, R:uidloU IHllibtler. '&d~!'ii

:Sinoethefi[s~ 'edUl!l)n ,or tbh~ bQ!(}l<: wuplil!lb~is!h:edalbout!~e!.m Jearn. age, geiodesy bas: e'xperienceda. [iemarkab,ie dev,etoipme:n~. Thisis m,a~mly d,ueW the 'CO[!ltiliiltll~d pregress in s:paQe:~echno,~ogJi'lead~ng ~o 'signir:i.camt .i:mp1'lOiyem.e:n~s: 1.0 ge:odedc OOi~Ur(l,~ ~'nlrve:J'~ iOB and gr,a,vityfieldmodeHng, M:!()SI rema:rk.able is 'the fact 'that, for tb.e firs~time .bm, 'hlstOfY, ~:aur8.e!-lSCaL~e D'ilovemem,ts, of~,oow:nti!e .pia:~eshavebeen derived fmma slobal l1,etwotk" But also srnlaJil, .. sca.fe applicaHons: ,af slJ).a",e.;~ecl~D~qrlJies deserve :mellition:ing~ e.:g. for moni~oFing ~Dlt Cli'l!llsta~ move:ment:s~n areas ofllligb. geodynamic :activi~y or for es:ta:bUS:h~mg goodeUc cQlj}lr,o,~il]j 'e:n:g~De~ring projects:, Here, spilllle techniques are freql!l~n~.~y co:m'bi:ned wwth~etiined. ~errestriaI toc!h:niques a- ebaDS~8in da~a. ,acql.!lisi~:ion sys:tem:s 3Ft1d Ule sun Omloh:1!lincrea~ in oomputiHI.powe.r :ha.ve tri,gg,er-ed t.he de~vem~ op.me:n~ of more S,()ip.h.~s,dcated data reductlen and evalaatien m.e~hods and ba'l!i'eabo ,led.~(Io[eillIile:me:lllts. wn~he()lry.

As a ,consequence!, thws rseoomd editi.o.lilbas,h.een th.orougi1llyreviood amd~illpans~ has 00e11l,ex.~e:mded, Th.eb3sic su:'bdl.v~s~om. jntlO' sb::. main cbapters mas bee11l.reta:ined; however, some fe(JI.F~aIiliza;tiO[w. a:nd s'I1pp.IJem.e.nts were iapp:ropriatt: in t.be parts, reofening b) sa,~eUi~e ,ge>odesy. cO.mb~ned ,flvahm3:ti.{lIn m,.eth!od'5~ and ,~.eode:tWcoonl:rol. In oird:er to repreoomt: ~he oonh~;nt:!l of the modiri:ed matedal more cJe3!f'~YI the head~n~ or ,c!l1a.p~ers 5 and ,6 have beenrenamed ~!o "Evaluation .Metihod.s, Glebal Geode...sY'" and I'G~odet:fc Ne~V'/Orks". :res:pec~iveIJ.Fu:rthe:r updating r~fer5, totopies suchas 'the l:mt~maUonal Barthltotatto.n :Sell:'!l'ice;, free-fan gravimeters, satelllte laserl".angioigj, tfuJe :Nis.vstar GI:obal. P'GSm.(lin~ng Sys'tem,.IDem{DoV,e!-if,es:tore methods ~O[ gr.avity field dle:~er'" DJiDat~on, W!ltliilmod.els :&,od.yna:wic a.:pp.~icado.Ds. and large~scalege!o(b~ti!c networks. ~!lI'i-DiIlins,Bfe :mo'wllllsed~]lliOiugihoU!t the -book. Historicalnotes, eX3imp).es. a,ud more dJetai.l:'ed !expJ,anadon8lharY~ been. set ~n smaUe!.rtype-s. The ~er:er:e~ USi~ w,as ,e%p~:n.d~d~ SW" of whl:ch .noWCOIlsis[s of new entdes.

During tihepas.t dooade~he~rnterd.isdpn:tilary a.speds, a,f geod.0syalso recei veda reim.afka.lll~e: s~:renltbeni:ng. Th~s rr,cJi~r.s to 'the geoscf.ellioos.!particl!daF~Y ~o solid earth geop.hys,ic:s, Qioea:no,gi:.apby and g;e-(l;~.Q'gY·I' and t!c> aS~F()nomy,. mimg (lIne impQirta.n:~ root of g,eodesy. rli1~er['el:il!,~i!l)ns.to :su:rv1ey,ing engi:lilI.eering arnd. ~eF:res~rial and. spaCfJ nav.ig:a.tmo:nalso be'Came s:trl!Jomger~ wh.ichi:!l1i11a:in~y due no the !effic~eJl1c'y !of space-based methods" The main plIlrpos;e af dl~s second ed:itioJli. isaga:in to serve as, a:D~ntrodlu.c~ tory ~e:xlboo.k .. fO.Fstudents ofgeodJes:y."seop':h.ys~cs. and. surv,ey:in\g: 6!1l,glllleerillll,· However. the book s:IlH')'!il~d also be a valua.ble reference for geoscientistsi :~Ullid !engin.eer.s facJog. i,eodJe:tic pn);b:lems in theirprofess~omali tasks.

The 'C011l~el1t;s of this 'boo.k are padlyb.ased on eeaeses given at th.e UmJiveFsi~y of Ha:m:m:lOiYier .• 'The a~~hor is indebted. to ind:ivid,ual:s a:ro.d o.rga:lll~z;lJi,tio.rns lo.r pirovh:iHlI1g, ~niUstrndo!m:s" He thanks: Prof; D. Egge for '()heck~nSr:Ih'em1ew Etii.gU$b~e,x~pa5sa~,es" l'hf:l:ile.~p' ,or~he sltaff mt the Institut fur En;lI:mes8uns~ U]]ivlers~Uil Hanaovee.is gratefm~y ,acknow1,edg:ed. iFin,any.t:he lOiDig",standi.n.g ,good ,c,Qoperation. with tbe pIUlbl~s:he.1i' connnued d'Urin,g~he prePl8.ra.tiom. o[ tb~s book.

Wolfgang "forge

Preface to ,tile First Ed'ition

This book. is oriented intlhe fi:rs,t pJaiiOe toward ,grad:uaCe stl!lden~s ,ihose are-as of snJidy locluilll!: geodesy' and] :sun"eying (aliso 'P'h:O'~ogFammeUJaDd cart,Q;gf~:phY)I. T,Q, fl.llll:pp]emem.'( thevari,ous s,pe:.ci:a1i:md '~ec~u'res:. it 'is, mea:lIll,t to pro/vide: at sys,temia:Uc overview of reference systems;, aDd oftbe oonect~oD :and p,~o«s8~ng ofd,ala in, both. global geodesy 8'lld geodettc surv,eying; in additiollt it. ca:n serve as atest for .refel1cnce.. To t:.he la_nd surve:yorwho'in hisprofessio!D is, often oo:ncernoo,Q'llly marginaD)' willa, tile problems that are t[lea,tedherle~ this. text ol'ers a. ll':e'W.~ew of'tbe, rapid de,ve:~op'ment W'.b:~chg,eodesy bas, experienced in the last IWO decades. For t'bis 'reaso!l1l!,lhe:morerecen~ results and new :p'flomi:si:ng dle;ve~o'Pment:s 'have ,also beea p,rese:tll,ted.,

Particular impo:rla1iilcc 'has, been attaehedto the :Rpre.sentation of te,mporal vali~a,~.i}()DS, in the reference: sys:te-ms~, U~e 'ear~b;;,s sud'8!Oe~ and. ~he:gra.vilt.J field. In the fu.'nule, ,eor(le-'Syw~U be e;ngag;ed roue'b, mOfe: ,strongly in ;oonsiideriogBnd mv~sdgadI!lg this area, of geodynamics. Througblmll, il has boon attemp,ted t.o view geodesy as a. disci-, :plh16 or tbe geosc.iences wh.C:h. pafvcu~adY'in :oooent Urnes hall:i {:ound themselves .n closer ,associatio,DI". The presentation cati.th~rerore, Ipro,vide the glro5lc1e:ntists in neoi.,t1hboringfje~ds, w~th imj:g~usto 't:lIl~p:roblemsaDd. methods, ,ofg,eodesy.

The present: text Is thc,English It:r,anslaotion .of thebook uGe(l{Uisien• which. i:n t:be Germaln Wa,ngu8le appeared in 'm 97'SI,as, pubiishedby Wal~e:r de O:rli1yteli.~ Berlin- N ew York,

A thorough revision was, undertaken onttle: oecaslen ()if 'tbe traIillJdadon~ The 'latest liheofelti'cm and teclhno~o:gic.al de'Ve~(i:pmen:ts 'coldd ~'he~eby be 'taken. 'juliO! eonsidera .. ~i!om"w.'b·ie it also ernab~ed ~'hieWl1l.c~uiS~om, of :ne'w g'lobal amid. re;g;ional result's"lEx:~eD.sions and slJ,pp'~enu~nt:!l were imcorpo',raled pertaining to such areas as mari:ne ,g,eodesy." !UlcleUUe geodesy. as wen as lunar andp.[anelary geodesy. The bibUogr,aphy b,as been bmught up to dat'e and expanded coHsmdet.abJy by ,add,ins to the German lj,~er,ature an iaereased number of refc[ic..nces,iDl the; EogHs.bia:n,gllla:g,e..


- - - _"--

I ~.~

1. .. 2 1.3 Lj.~ 1.3.2 1.3,.3 l3.4 1.4 ~.A\om, ~.4 . .2 ~ ... 4.3

2; 2J .2.1.1 ,2,1.2 2.1..3 2.14- 2.,1.5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2,,,2.3 2.2.4- .2.2.5 ,2.31 ,2.3.1. 2.3,.2, 2.3.3 2.3,4 2.4 .2.4.1 2.4,.2. 2,43

J 3.1 )1.2


D~:n:idon and C'lass:~6cadon, ,of Geodesy 'The P'rob_em ,or Geodec.sy

Hish:nica] De'Ve,iopment or- Geodesy The: Spherical EamIJl ,Model

Tbe Ellipsoidal, Barth Model An:M!eaSill],(eaH:::nts

T.he Geoid and ~,he Ellipsoid

Organizati,(m Oir Oeodiesy. Literature National Orgautimti'OiJ1S In:tenmtional CoUaboration L~t:erature

The Gral'ity Field Dr ,the Ear~h Components o.f the 'Gr.a vi ly Field Gr,a.vita,d()I~1 Gra,v~tatioDal P'o~eIillt~aJI

Oravitat~olila1 Po,tential of a Spherically Symmetric Earth Prope'di,!!s of 'the' IG:[,;B,vita tioila:~ P'(>~elltia,~

CID1trifuga~ AooeJ.emt~om, Ce:ntri.rillgaIPotent:i al

Gravit:y AcceUera~ion. Gr,3'Vity Potential

Leve.l S~lulflll!ces a.nd Phnnb Lines;

Del1lli,t ion and Pmpe:rlies (if Level Surfaces A:Da~y·tjcai l.elPresent,a~:ion of Level S'u:r:faces Curvatu re or the Level Suur[aces,

Curvat LU',e .of Pium.b .Li:QCS

G.li'avi~y Gradient

Spberwca~ Ha:rmoutc :Expans.iOD ,or the Gr~\I:t'ta~j:oDalPot.eDtial Expans~o'D ol ~he Reci.plOcW Distance

Ex,pans:ioDl or the' Gravitaticnal Potenli;d

The Geome~~lcal Meap1n\g oftbe Surface Harmonics

PhYs1Cid M,e'3:[I.illg of the Lower Degree Harmonic Coe:ficie .. n~s:

Temporal Vadation,s ,of tb~ 'Gr,avjty FieM Twdal Aooolera tien, Tidal Potential Earth Tides.

OUlIcr Tempond Yariatlons or the Gravity Field

IGe0dedcR,e:Jer'en:ee Systems

Global Spatial Cartesian 8yst.e:m, :Po:tar .M'OtlIO,Il, <CoolI"di.nate SY's~eli1ll!s is the Earth:5 Gra vUy :F~eld

11 11 .~ 1 B t5 n 18 1.'9 19 20 .21 22 .23 24 24 25: 27 .28 29 .30 33 34

'Viii, Contents

3.2.1: 3.2.2

3.2.J 3.3 33.1 3.3.2 .3..3.3 3 .. 4 ].4.]

3.4.2 .l4..3 3,,5 1.5.,11 3.5 .. 2 15>..3 1.5.4 3.5.5 3.SJi


4.1. 4.JJ 4 ... ~,.2 4.1~ .3 4 .. 1A, 4.tS 4.2

4 .. 2.1 4,.2 •. 2 4.23 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.3, 4.3,] 4 .. 1 . .2 4.33 4.3.4

4.3 .. 5 4.4 4.4.1

Oiorba] Astronomic Syste.m

Loeal Astronomic ,s,yst'cms. Computsrtmol!lrS in the Earth's

G "iC" '11d

'nJi.lI'ny it' le.~.

Loeal .As.tr'OD()mic and G~ob~,I! 'Ca:r~es~8:1il. Sys~e:m

Tile Geoid as Refere:nce Sur'Cace for Heights.

Deflirrui~ii(),.n. of :t.he Geoid

Geopotential Number and Olrth,oillll:etiric Hejghl Mean Sea Level

. nipfl:owdal Refenmce Systems

Geomerrlc Parameters and Coordinate :Systems: of'the RolaHmlaW EU:ilpso.id

Curvature or the R.otational E:IEipsoid Spati,aiI Emps,oidal Coerdinate Sys·('em.

Th N' ~ G ' ' 1G"" Jd .• e .'. ,orm.a.~ "ravlty .~·I.e!·,.

The Normal Figure or the Earth, Level .emp'soid The Norma] Gravity Field o.f the Level iEUipsoid Series EX,p,ansions iin the Noitm.a~ Gr,a.v:ity Field The Triaxial EUipsoid

Geodetic Referenee Sys~ems

Normal Geog.ra.lPh~c Coo:rdwnab;:s. Normal Rewghts

Astronomic :M,eas,u~emen.t:s

Coord~na:h;: Sysltems of Sp.mericaW Astl!'Onomy Varia Hen of S·tell'a:r Coord ilIllates Star CatahJgues Time S J':s~e..m.s

Observat iiornal I nstruments

Methods to Determine A"uon.om:ic Positions, Azimuth,. and Time

Gli'a\l.i,~J· .Measurements;.

Abso.Wute Gr.avity Meastl,rement;s Relative Ora.v~ty Measurements

Gr.avi~y Me~sure:ments on the Ocean and in (he Air 'G:r8:V~ty Ref:e:ron.oe ,s,y.slem:s

Dtermwnation.or the Gravity Gradient

The' l1r1IeasUMment of Bart h Tides

Terrestrial Geodetic Measuremersts Atmospheric Refractiop, Horizonta] Angle Measurement:

Distance .M eas:ure:me:ots

Zenith Angle :M1~aS!IJJ,e.m.emts. TrigontJilinetricaUy Determined Heights


SateUib~ Uh£elivadolf.ls

The Unperturbed Motion of ,3, Sai~emte



1.04 107 UO UO

4.4.2 4.4.3, o:t4A· -4.4.5 4.4.6 ~.4·.7 4.4.8 4,4,9


5.:~ 5.l.1 5,t:2 5J.j,

S.l4 5",'~ .. 5: 5.1.,6

5.1.7 5.2 .5.2.:~,

5.2.2 5 .. 2.3

5:.2.4 S.2.S,

S.2.!6 5.2.7 5 .. 2 .. 8

5.3 5.3J 5.3 .. 2 5.3.3 5 .. 3...4 5 .. 3 .. ,5 5;,4 5.4.1 5,4.2 5.4.3 5.4 .. 4 5.:4.5 5.4 .. 6

The ,Pelitl!!.liood Mo:tian of ths Sate.ffite

A Fltili'cia.~ Earth Satemtes, Time: Meas.lli.ring Sys,tems Direction Mea.s,\IIIreme.nts; Ba.rWy Distance Measurements Laser .Distance Meas;urements

Dopp~erFret],Uiency Shifl 'Measu:reme.nts

Gh:ibail, P'o~h:~onjng S~te<lin.

V,ery Long Baseline Interfercmetry Sat,ellic,e Altimetry

A:st rogeodetic Me~bod

DeJle:c~iom. of the Vl:r~ica~. Geoid Und'Ulation~ Height A:rul,:m,aly Tb[!eel-Dimensi.o:n,a~ c.omputati,ons" Geedetie Datum Geomctric-asrtoacmic Leveling

Posi~ional Systems

He~g,_h:t ;S"soo;ms

Ast:lioge·od.edcDeterm.ina:I:~on or the Geoid. and Qua8~geo.~dJ Ofi~ll.~a.t~o·.n of Ast.rogeod-etic Systems. Best FjUing ]E;1Jipsoids

Gravimemc Metbods

G~ode:twc Bou:t.'II.dIary-'Value P'lI'ob1em. D~stu:rbiDg 'Pa~eDdal GlI'a.¥i~Jl' Anom.a~j"

Liaearizatioa of the Geodetic .Bou:ndaJ'y-Vu.lue Problem Solution of the Geodet:i,c Bound.ary~Vallile Problem for the Geoid

Gfa,v~ty RedliJd:i,onri, Cogeoiid

So~utmom or the Geodetic Boundary- ValuePlI'Oblem£or tile Surfa'ce .o.r the Earth

Physical Surface of t.he Earth and External GrD,vwty Field :Pr'ed.ictio:m .of (J:ra,v~ty .A:rnom;al~es

Potearial, Mass and Position (lif theGra vimetric Referenee BW1wpso.d

Me~llHld.s of S,a~eUite Geod.es.y Ob.se:rva tion Equati cas Geometric Me'tt.uJid

D,yoamwcMetbod, Harmonic Coelflcients

Orbital M.,etbod, Absolut.!r: and ReWat:iye :Positio:ning, ,Analysis, of Sat:elUte AI.tilnd[),

Combiaed Ml,e'l:tulds. ·o.f E\i'a~uaUon Astfo,gfavime~ric Leveling

Remove ~ Restore Mee:bods tn G:ra.vity . ield Determination Least Sq uares CoUoca:t~()Il'l

Earth Models ~G:F,ayity Field and Geocentric 'Coor.dinates)1 Centering an.d. Stll!ength:ening. As:t:r.og,ecdetic Systems. Qplimal Ead'h P,a!l'3m.etC[S

112 1.[4 H7 H9 t2J 124 127 BO

133· 133, ]36 13!9 140 142 144 1418 150

150 I! 52

153 15:9

163 '16.5 :~.66

'~6,8 '170 1'70 172 175 178 180 183 183 H~4 '~86;

rss ~92 W'94

.55 5.5.1 5.5 .. 2 5.53

~i,SA 5.5 5 ,5Jj,

5.,6.,1 5.6.,2

6.J 16.1.1 '6.1..2 (it],

6.1.4 !6:.1.5 6,..1.,6

6.1.1 16.2. 6.2.m (i2.2 ,6.2.3 !6.2A 6.3 6.3.1 '6.3.2:


S:tru.cn;ure and Dyoamics, of the Ea:lT~b's Blady The R,adJja~ Structure ,of the Earth

The' Earth as a Bod.:)' :iJn Bquilibrium

Interpn:tattiom, of the: Oravity'Ficld, the Crust ".rtbe Earth, aud Ute U ppeil"MaDth.~


Geode-sy and Geodynamics Lunar and PtanebJ,ry Geodesy Lunar Geodesy (Se1enocles.y} P~Sio'etary Geodesy

19S 19S ~,91'

198 200 .202: :2,11)18

209 21J

Ge4HIetie: Ne.tworiks

- - - - _. - .. -


Hnrmm:EiI.'tal Conrrol Netwodk,s .Desi.gll!;,M()inu.mel1ta:~ioD'I' Observ.ati,o.ns Computations

Oeodesics 0[1 ~.he R.}OUII,[:~O.IU.d En~pslo'idl Solutiol1lo:f EllipsoidaJ Tria:ngjes DIrect and .hlV1eI'&e {i,eod!etic .Prob~ems Naeioaal Ne'tw'(}.E'iks~ .iExamp;,tes,

Netwo,rik Unification, and Large .. Scale ConU,ol

Veutcal Cootv'li Ne:tw.()[\lu,

Design" :Monumentation.. Observations eo:mpu.tat:iol1!i

N ationai Netw()iriks:Exa:llp,les,

Netwm'Jk Umficauon and Large-Seale Cont:li'o~ Gravity Netw(li,rb

Design" M.(m:u:menlatiou" Observations, and, Com:putl,tioIEls Nati.Oim,a~. "Netw,oll::ks: EJ:ampie.s

2:13 2:[3 215 2U:i, 218 219 221 224 227 227 227' 228 230 zn 2]1 23.3


T~e: m['Ci:J1I;:{I1.QeS, c..it:ed in tbe ~e'nt d:uu: ar-;em3iI'ked with A a[t'l: r(lund ~n 8ec~:Lomil Aof the bib~.~ .. ography I PI :2:U: 0'. - mlext. books.MIUHUJiJS" al1d symposwa, prooeedim!!g~ RJe:r'ef-en~ without specla~ OiIlilltrikiIDH l~~ollg to U;U~ :5Jccond se:c~io:fll B {I'. 238 'tT.)1 - ind:i'!ll'~d'l!!al ;publli!C3;l:iI0l0is - or ~he bi,b~iQgrapby.

Aocord:~nltotbe: rC~as:sicaJ defiujtiom of F. R. HELMml.T I(Al:880~ geodesy (Ttl = ,ea.r~h, aaiw= I divhile)1 is the ~'s1Cien~,e of the meQ.Bur,gm·en,t and map"ing ,ottilie ,(!trr,th's' sur/ace." Tbi:s defm:itioo bas to Uris, d,a), fetai:n.ed irs va.lidity;, it Includes the dctcrmmnadon o.F the 'eard:n"s, ex~e;n:ud. gr,avi~y field. as well ,as, the slnr~ of 'the Clean :nOOf. With t:h~s, i,ellnitio,m" 'wbi,cb has to be extellld.edtio inciud,e temporal varia:ri.o:ns of the ea.rtb and its gravity fie:1d~s~desy may be inc~.uded in~he geoscienoes, .aod ,lilWso in the engineer .. ing scrue:noes~ e.g. NA.T,. ACAD'. SCIlENCESi I{ 1978).

Triggered, by the de¥el,op:m.ent of space exp~(i:fatio:n2 ,geodesy turD,ed-in oo:~I.a])om:tjom with ether sci,eDc@s~owa:Ji'd, '~be de'temlb\la~io:n ,o,r the SI:,u:Ia.oos, of 'o~her celestial bod:&cs: (m:OOD.~ oCher planet's.). The corresPQodio,S d.isc~plines arce caUed sf.denodesY,Bnd ,pIDn," tar:r geode's)' (D.u.s, and g,YNNOf m 9i1),.

Geode.sy maybe divided mto Ute ,areas of globaW. ,geodes-y. national geodetic ;su:rveys, andpia,ne 8wveyifl,g, Global ,geodes}! is respoms~ble for fh,e dde't1!II,im;a~i!on oftht fi.llIlr;e '0'1 the eerth and ,of fh.e ext~malg[a:"~t.y fieWd. A geocieric sUr'ue)' 'flstabl'isliles the rundalll,enlbds for ~.be de~er:m;na.tion ef'the surface 1.11d gr,avity field' of at cOl!il,ntry,Tbi:s is n~a.ized by ,coo,rdi:l!!lales: and. ,gr8l.vityv,aJues o.f a, s;lJIfficien~ly ~a'r,le number of control ,poiillIUi, .aa.ang,ed, in podedc and, pa "ime:tric. ne'tw>(jI[l'ks,.:ln th:i:!;, fii.l:ndame.lltal 'Work. CUfV,atU:fe, ,and gravity lield of the earth. mus:~ be considered. In pl'one surveying (topogr,aphi'c sD,nr.eymgt cadastral slIfVleying, ,engineering sU:l"veyin,g~ the details of the t.errain are obtained. As a reference' .S,lU::!tJ'Cf for ,#iIDriz:o~,t6l1 pos'itioningtne ellipsQid is 'Used i:nleodeH~ :surveyinB:" ']0 piam.e 'sU:n'ley:i.ng, the hori:zol1lt:;d plane :ls, geo,er.all,y suRicie..1iiIt.

n,e:rc~ ~s elese llllteractlQ'[I be't,wooilil ,dQbal ,geodesy, ,~e4IxJ..e'lic s:uf'Ve.ying and plane :sufveying.. The ,geodetic sUn'ey' adoptsth.e par,ameJlefS d.et,ermi:ned by me~uremetl:l!i ·of e-a.rth" ,lllldi Lts,()w'O. MSJIi!lts ,l1e :a:vailabWe to' tMmose who ~t:U'lU''C the 'e.awth. 'The pliUle B,U:t"VeJiS. J'n. turn. ;a."gcl)];e'r~lI.y tied '~o ~hc cont.rol :poio'ts ,ohhe geodetie su.rvey& a,nd sene 'then PI:rtjcul~dy in the d~v>e~opmeDr of' !fuuional ms:p ;series, and li:plbe: ('Ormation of real, estate 'cadllls,tl!le-s. Measu:r,em.eo.t ,and eV.3irnU:a:troD meil:hods, a;re~Mgei~)' id~DtiM~ in. global geodesy a:ndnatioliilllil I~etic ~U;IfVii!)ls., Partjcula.T~Y Sp.lal me&bods (sl,telliw geoo.esY)1 enter :more ,s..Bd 'mOf~ int,o :te,s,ional aud e!illeD Ioeal surveys. This jilltSio ilmpUes, mere det3!ifed graviIty field, de'ferf:Iti:lll!i.tion ,on, regional ~Dd~ocaW sCide.

Wit.h, 'tile (lorrespomding ,c~assifi.e-ati,ons, in the realms of the EngJi;sb ,and Fr,enctil. languages" the oo!n.cept ,of ~geodesy'· [la geodes~ie:., O':ho,:befe Goo(bisi.c·' after ,H:elmert) is to be referred 'ODl.ylO global geod,~sy ,and geodetic :slllneyins, The ,concept of ~'sul'"ey,E"g" Oa to:pome~rie~ Vermess,u:m:gsku.nde or "niedef,e~ Geodasieu aft,lerHe~mert) shal.eilil,o()mpa'!~s, p'~I:llle sl!lfveying..

~n 'this volume,.geOOes.y is, tr.eat~d only '~o themo':11'6 rest:dcved sease as ex pf:i:lined 3ibolve. AD imtl'loou'ction.1to :plaAe slll,[v,eyin,s,is ,given '~y KAHMBN and f', .. IO (AU)88),

The problem or geodesy. generaoodl :from ml(~p.artialm:y soppWe;m.,entil'llg Helmert's definition~ may be described cormpr-ehenswvely as fono'Ws {DkA.HE[M '1971" FISC'HlHR 19'7'5 !

··TII£~prQ,ble.rn: ,0/ g€:odesy is to' tle:l',ennine' t'lu! figure {md the e;x~e''''",g' fJ,-at)i,t}" /ieldo/ tlfl! oo',rtiJ: tlHd of mller ,ce,"esda:l' bo,dies as jU'll'cti,ons ,01 Ume;' ,as weli ,as. t,o de~ermine dIe QT,etl'N' ,e'ol'thellips'O',id 170m: luu'am'eters' (Jbserved on: (mel tX'E:e'rfo', to tlte e,ilil',th's' surjac:e.,"·'

Tihtis geoil:ei:i:c bO:IlIn:d'a'il" Y'-iI'JalU'€ "ob,l:em incol'])oll:ltes, a. "comeLlia (figure of~be: eartlb) aad a :physical (gravit.y field) :fomlula;mioD of 'th,e :problem;bO'Ch ,are ,el'Oisely :rela.'~ed.

By the figure 0/ tlt!e earlhwe mean the physical and 'tbe mathemaUcal suilfaoo ,of the learth"

The: physica.l sudace of' the earthis the border between the !io~id. 0.[ fluid, masses ,Bod the atmospb~re. Recently" the ocean floor hasatsobeen inciuded in the iO',fmulation of the geedetieproblem, being the bCJilllOdimg surface~be:tw,eemth.e' sO;.Uid, ~erries:~rial body and the oceanic w,atefrmasses. Theestension of t:lb~ :p.l!'oble;_m 'to 'tbe 'OoOOaJ'iS is designated n'lar,jne g,eDde:sY' (M'QURA.O '~9711 SiEmB!H1i!: '1,9'7'5), The kl1egu]a:r SU1iface o.f'the s,olid ellrdl: (col1ldne~l'~s and oeeaa Ooo:r) is iBca'pab~e: o.f being repre:sellted by a simple mathemamicaJ re~ation; .it isthere.fore described. point 'Wise by the use of coordinates ofthe co,ntrol p.oinJS .. On the other liI,and. Ithe o'ce,an sur/aces (70% .altho earth':s surface) possess a simplerrpr~.D.cjp~,e of fonna tien, U ndereertain assumptions, 'they form apart of a level (eqmpotenti.aO surface (s,l.daoc' oOt constant: gravi~,y potent.ial)! of't.he eartb"s gra vity lleht W'e may Ulint, of this slllrface as, beio,l, extend~d under the c\)Id:i1\i,ents and ~hef!l. ide,'(lI.dfy i.~ as th.e mQ[/!:emati:caJ' flour,e' of' the eanh (HElMERT A18,80,fn884),., J .. B; :Ll:!!i,TING ,( 181.3) desjgna~es Uds level s~rface as ,fto,i,d'.

C .. F. IGD~3S b.3!.d already if'elferred 'to, I[hissudace: "Wha~ we call the $u.daoe ()If' 'the earth in 'l!be geometrical senSIC is nothing more 'Iban that surface wh:icb inref.se~t:s e\l'eryw:h,ex'~ the: direction or gf'a\litY~l :rigb,t aJngles,. andpa.'f11 of which eQin~id!e:s: with the suna,oo o·f the oceans." I C. F. Gauss: '''Be~Umm'lmg d~~ Bremumuluerscbiedes .zwmsehen den $wmw,arten. von. Gotl.tngen Il!lIIid Altana," 06U~llIgen ]SZS), S~ 111]80 MiOR11fZ I( m 911).

The majority onlle obse!Tv,edpaii:ameteH used in, g,codes), re[-errs ~o the eartbi's e'x·terl:!:al gr'(~;I),i~y fl:eld; whose s:[ud.y tbereby becomes a concern of geiJdes,y. The: upper .1:lDilit..oF space that. ,~Si, .of j:n.~eres't is go've.rned by Uu,,: g,e(lde~:ic usa,g;e of a.:r~ifi.c.~als~~eUi'~es: ;and space probes" as wC:1 as rhe earth's :mOO:D,. The phy8Wca~ .a.spect of the ,problem of geodesy :fo]Jows from the cOI!ls~de[,attOI!l of ~he eanh's sudace a:nd 'the geoid as boun.d:iIDg surfaces in the earth's gr,!1vity lie~d, The ,ex.'fernal ,gra1'vjty field may be described by the ~nfinUe :Ium'be't or level .smfaces extendrnng 'com.pletely or pa:rli.lllly exterior ~o the ea,li.th.'s,s'Ur.face..

Rejereru:e: s:ys!:em:s 3i.[e introdueedjn order to describe; the motion ohl1lee'arth im. space (ce~&stial sys,t,emJ~ and slLlda,ceg,EluIlDe:try and g:F,avU, fIle~d of fhe earth (ter.rest:rial s1s~eml. FOil' .g~,obal geodesy~the! use .n,r thirefHiim.e.ns:iona[ Cartesian ooordh.uu.es in ElUcUdiian space is ,adeqlul:Le. In g:eodede s:llu'v,e:ying, ,I r:eje,r:e'1l'Ctl8ur/ac'(! is. :introduood in order to, (lUs,tiDgu~s,h ,curvllineiu" su.riaJc~ coordinates and bei,gbts. Because of 'its

.simple ;equ3.ti.,on" a rotational! ,emps;o~d Oaue;nedat the poles is better sllliood. as, SUtcib a mfe.nmce surface than dIe geoid, wru.ch is, determilDed by 'tbe uneven distribution of dlle earth's masSIes. Pl~u:t~cula,r significamce isgiven to tbe mea," earth ell(p'soiti. which is the: .optima1 emp9Jol~d ,appfo!x:~nrm,~iD;g tbe geoid .. BeCI(USie (lfi~s; pb.,$ic;d :mea'm:in:& '(be g'toidiswe~l, s1J!i~e:d as. referenee smdace forI' bei,sht's.Fig" Ll shows, 'ihe:mutua] arra:o.,§cmeot of the surifaee8 to' be detenninedED g~odes)'.

The body of 'tbeeadllil. and Us gra'lily field are :!u!I.bject to tem;p,oral' varialion8 of secular, pedodi~ aDd. abrupt nature, wbich caD, OCC!J.~' .~obaUY~~l!liiQ!na:~I:yjl and liocaUy. 'The geodetic measuremeet and evaluation techniques, today haveadvanced to file extent tbat t:h_ey can detect: a part ,00:[ this, cbaDgc'" Should 3,Ver3ige ,condltio:ns be ascertained" obse:rV8J'tjo'Ds m.ust. be corrected for these changes., With the detection of ,8 part or tbe vanalhJiJlS!1 geooesy also ,co:n'tri'in!l'tes; to 'tbeinv~ti.g,ation o:f ~be dynamh;;,s 'of U'nIe terrestrlal body. T.hreli'i,S,ure oftne'ea.rth and the external ,gravity field are aocordingly ceneeived as time depeDdeDt"ariab~es. This leads to. tb.eideas of n~our-dimens~onal g,eodesy'" (ANGUB"LEpPAN 1'97:3, M,AlHER 1913)\

The' fot"mu,la'tioilllof the problem O't g~C::(Ddes)! e.XP:fle:8S00 iw [L2]] ir:s.t dC'licl:ojped iA ~~e CQu:rS'e (If

- -

dl;~ nineteenth century. H:o,wew'l" the qu,estil1n ortbenglull of the eartb 'had allroaJdylireelli rajRd

~n ~mtmquily. After the: sphere 6rst served all, ai, mode1 for tile earth .. ~he ,ob~a:t '''OlationClil el:iips.o'id ~,figu![\e 'OrdlC ,~arth as5e~rtoo. mlsemrin. 'the first half,ofthe ejgb~eellth century; '0'1 F~SCHER (19;5), Ru.u,s (A1'982)~ U:YALL0151(A1988),.

1..J.:t The S,h.eric:al Earth Mode1

V::lrlOUS op:inions on 'the lonlll of the earth p:revail.cd io the past e.g, tbe notion o:F :8D! e,ar,a~ dis,k; encircled by O,oe8nuiS (Homer's Illlad; -:800 B.C., TItJQ~e's ,of MUe,r" -600llB.:C.). Py",hao'~,'a3 (-.:581U-SOOB.C.) and hjs .SC)(lO]~ as weU asAri's,t.o~',~'e 084- 322 B, C.l!, among otbers, e,xpreSiSled llnem,sc'lves ~Q[, the s:pberi,adsba.pe.

The founder of scien.tificgeodesy :is Eral',o,s.t'he'lu'!,s (276-19'$ B,.C.) of Al,ex_andria, ,w'ho uader tbe uS;lJ-mpHolil. ar a,spberica] ea:rth dedu~, [00:(1:1, :RUl'Mure.me:I1'tsa .radius, riO,:r the lea:rt.h I{SCHW'AR'L l 97 51). TbepriDe~plle of tile ,arc meQStmeme~i method devehJ:peO, by him was s,d!] applied-in m.odem 3:ges::: From I~eodetic 'measummen,t~ the .leJlJld'll AG of a :me.fwdian arc is determ:ml1ed; astro.D.omical observationsfu:rmsib. the asseclated

central a.mgle l' (,!Fig. i .2,). Tber.adius of n~e' eartb is 'then ,given by .dG



,E,,~:ro81hJ~'n>i?:S found tbartaJt ~he l~me Q!f 'Ute sumQD;U :sio<l:s:ticei, thera:ys of 'fucsun dlesccnded! verticaJly iirnltQ a 'weill ill S,enEl (AssiUla:n.; toda,yD; 'Whereas tilill A:le~:alil:dlria.. r,oli!gbJ:y on th-c ,same MC(ridia,[l),rhey ro,trmcd an amgle with l[~t di['iect~o,n of ~h~ lP~umb line. F:rom. t.he ]e~gth oil' llJt,~ shadow of a 'Vler:[mca:~ ~t!df f'gEllolm~l'n:")1 .pfioduood ~n a 'bemis!p!hericai :5:h~U €;''sta:p:h~''); he de" i~enn:iood 'lih:is rulgIDe: as l/:m of 31, com!p']e~e eir-,o]c; i.e. )I' = '1 D:t 2'. He le8dmated the d,rs1anoe fmm:

S,ege to Alexa~dri~ ilia 'be 50001 stadia. astaken from Egyptian c-ad,8!stre maps which an:: based on ~he inf:Om1il,t!io'n lof ·"be.lds~'" I(SlI.ep counters). With the ~engtih of ,an .Egyptjall stadlium as 151.5 nl, we obtaii~ an eanh I!"adius or 6261 km, This: value depart~, from the fi'lidiU8, af a m~IIiJl SpheliGalleQrth 1(63l7W km)' by ~. 2%" A sub~queD~ de~emdnationi in an:tiq,uity i:s; ,attributed ~o .P'()si.dlJ~iu$ (13:S-51D.C.J; using; the: meridEau !lit'.:: .from Alexandria (.I, :Rhodes~ be ,i'lirri:y,en, ,at a radl~us of the <earth de:v,l,!1[mg by ~ I :~ %.

Durilllg 'the m:idd~e ages In :ElIlIiflOpe" theqjUe51ion or 'the figure Qr the e-~db w,a;s Dot pursued further. An. ,a" me:3iSIIlIr:emem~ handed down, by the A_rabs was, Mrried out (- 8:21' A.D.l by' the lcalilph of (if:-Mam:QJ'~~ no,nhw,e;st orBaJgd~d. (,* ~OO" d.eviali:on)'. JU ~heoogi.t1Il!i:l!I!g of the .modern ages, the French physJciall ,Ferne'.n 1525 lobscr\!',ed on them,eddhm ~:hr;ou,gh.PaJris the ge1(l,g,a:p;h:ic~1 ~a.tit;udies of 'P,ans: and Amiens using a ,quadrant; be oomput,ed th,e -disc,!llDoo (rom, ~!bJi!\l Iilumbelr ,of ir1om:!lJdoDS, of a W:3I,o:m whe:e~ (' + 0.1 % de'l(iat~on),

The re:mai:ning are m1eas.ureme-.nts,b,a:sed 0:1 the netien of 3. splher[cal earth are cbara.c~eFized by flllndam.en~wl adv3rnoesin. imsh'QIl:mem.ta.tion t.echJ!tl!olOIY (Un t •. K,ep,f,er It.elescope) and mett.od!O,~ogy," ,Af~6F' tbe: jrnitlal a.pJdicatio'o lof z7',i'angrdation by ,y,emmd' Prisills 1~1508-1 S55) in the NetherlB,nds~ aud by 1)cho' Br,aJu~' 0!,546- IliOn im, Denmark. the Durb::hman IWiIlebr,ord, Sn-ellius UStUl-I.,u26) c:oudl!llctoo. 'the .first triangLl'la,~ dom to de'~le:mlLi,Qe the "sun= of 'the earth HA.A.SBROEK (l'968),

In 161 S. wi~h th'e: tli"iaQguJllldoll IlP:pUed, by SnenhJ's 1.0 th~ are :measu:remeJlJ~ betW'eCf:I, IBe.lP~Opl ,Zoom and AWkmaar (Ho~Wandl). the: hidu~rto' in,aceur,ate estiJn:lJlte 'or d.itfect R!ep!sgremeQi~ of 'I he ,length ,of are was :re:pll~~d by III .pflooedur-e o:f higl! p([-ecisiiolilJ.Tbils :m¢il:lhod served into the

IwcJl:tietb O~Il:tUI!Y .for arc .,eUiu:llte.eu:~. and rOF tb~ fQnnatiolli. @If priJ:!icipali 'oontwl ~etwo:rb, Fo·t S,n,e,~lms the deyiia:tioliliwi.th,lU~ct to the mean earthradnss 81m{liIJ!lts to, -<),,4%.

1JtrOu,gh. tbe :iJ:IJrtta.ti:ve of the .Academy 'of Sc~eD'oes:. founded In lP'a:ris~.i666.,Ff,3i,n.ce: in the sel!le!1llteelll.t~iJi.[ld e~g:ht.ee;n.th cen:t:uriie:li,aJSSl:IJmOO, thel.eadililg [ot~ inR,Codes.y. The F'r'e'.ru;:!kill.bbe J. P'i-card m 1669110 ,earned out an ,ar,cmeru;nreme:ot ·on t.be merid:i.aotmough .P,aris be:t:ween M;ilII~v,o.isln¢ and AmieOii with the ,aid of a. triaolsuladon oetwork:. Ibe was the irsl 'to 'use a tCileseo'pe' wlt:h eross h;amr,s. Th.e value o·'biai'n-ed by himr(l!(' ~he :radiiliS; o,r the ea:rtJh (d.evia'tiolili ,of + 0.0. %) ,aided N,£Wltm in the 'v,erificadon of' the~aw of' graviti"iim:moB w:J:liGh be had, ronnul~ted ~~ (,665/66.

A..other solution ,of ~he d.e.,~ermina:tio!il! ,of the cen,tfal angje, diifllelle,nt in prin.ci.pt~ namely by 'Usin.g, t,f.'dl1"'O'c:ol zenith ,Qn.gl~,; '[ol!!!nd app~wcadon in 1645 b:y the Italians (;,rim(J"diilind Ric.cioU (Fig.t3)" De alilJgJe m.ay be il;om:puwd fr'CiI'M t,h;~ zenith ug'les t~ i:lnJd;!:i! observed at: ,p~ lind PI aooordin,llo


This, plI'ooed~re do~, no~ yic.ld $1ii~iS!fact~ry [,e:fj!t:!lh, due to, dme ~liIsl1!Wliici:eDtJy accurate dctcliJll1:ni)J,t·OIll ,or du~ cu:rvatw-e of lilill If,ays. (rcefracUon anom.aJiies.)L

In ~.hc s:mxtoon,tb and 5eivte:ntecmth oonturies. o~ 'obs~rWlldon:!i and ideas f[,om :ast:ro':n'o:my .and. p~r.!ljcs decismvcd" ~d:uem1!~d 'the pe:rc:ep:[io:Jl, oU~e fig,~r;e: 0' the~ea.[U!Ii aWlld .~m:s po;Slitjcl/fi in spa.oe" .N. Copel"~ic!l!s (1.41.73-1. S4l)13il::mer;:ved the tm~UionrroDll tlhe f}wcerUtic unl:'ierse' of Pt.o'iemy to a h~lioce~~ric s:ysb:m, (1543~ '~De :revo]utionibus olfibiuHl. coelestium"'), which Aris,ttn'c~ 01 S.~'O;s:f-320-250 B.C.)I had, alr·~ady pCl'Stulated., J .. l{epJ,g (lS'i'I-~'fi·3o:.) d.i;s.oo'\lcredl ~~e ~a,ws ,or p~am:etary motion (1609,: ":As~ronomia, IiiOV,a •••• ', 1619: '''H!I!fmonice.s DlJ:lII!ndi"1 ad G~'ileo Gal.ilel (1564- '~.Ml:) dleveloped.Dimdern mecaanies ,(~aw of [alliolg bodi:es. 1,!Jjw of :pe;ndulu:m mo:tioll)1,

In 1,666. [be astronomer ,J. D. C,Qssi'ni observed tbe .I),a:ttcnin"g of thepo~e:s of Jupiter'. The as:tro1Ilo:me,[ J .. ,Richer inn,671 discovered on the occasion oJ an expedition t)o CaY'fooc to dele.miiinemalt,ian palialia,1;,es, 'tba:t he mus" shortena one .... sectl·m'O, pend:Ill,:~um which . had been regulated in. Paris~io Older to regain osdUadons of one second. Fr'Omthis !oDSC(FVatioo ,and ,on the basis ,crf d\l.e :Iaw ofpeod:ulum mo:~ioo1' one 'can imfer anineresse iDg:ravi~y IFlom the equator Ito the poles. B,u:Uding 00 these and OD ,:heir own works:,; .Isaac New,~,o,n (l64,3-11.2'1),Bnd C.hrlstian ,HuygensO'o29-I69S) deveJoped 1000000~ DlI.od.el.s: jl'a:ue;ned ,at dle poles and, foro.oded, .o!n. priuciples: Qf'phys;ics ..

N ewl,al'l! «1687': ., Pil1i~o80ph:i;ae natu!r,!dis pri~cipiill, m:alh~malt:ilCa")1 o:br:ai~ed a i!",ot!1 t~onal: e~Upsoid as 21n equilibril,l.m figu.re fOf a hiOmo;g~~neous" :Huiid" :rota:li:n.g' ea:uh based QIQ the~ vllilidity of the :la.W' ef ~niversa~ gra:w~tatHolO .. The ilau'eiD~.D;g


/=-_. - U.3)


1(1 ro'r "flattening", ,tJ = senij~ajor axis, b = ser.ni:rninor ,a:x.l.$,) in this easeameueesto 1/230. At the same timt;N,ew~om!l poshlw~li!.t~d ~n. inerease ~n gra~jj~y a:Ctel~ati:O'n from the' 'e-q~llIto:r eo di:e porne.'S, pr,opm:dQna~ to' sm':! tp'l(rp ~ goog',iJlph:i.!!)allatitude)., ,H,UJ!fi""S (W 6,9Q('·'D.isQQIIllIl'S de 1,31 Caese de L~ Pe81'1ln[ellllrj"~ ,sb.rflt:ll, ~Iile $Olillr-oe of ltia.e ,~!tiil'th"s 3ufl'l(l:liv'e fof'oo.s, "tiD the 'OOl!iml~r ,of the ,earth and devdops a Ji'\o!iIi,t:ion:ld~y symmetric equil:ibdum surface whicb :PO,SSCS$e5 ,I} me'ridia:n. curve ,of FCHJrth. ,ordflr wi,th f= 1/576.

For a geom,etric 'veri:tica~iolll, of the ellipsoidal earth model, one has empioyed. ,arc ,.etlJu.reme,f.tU a~ VtU',i'ou,s ,"atl~udes. Namely~ tbe~ lelllBtb of ,I o'lilie-de,gree are (merid:ian arc .[Of a dilere:o,oo of :W.O ·~o latilude)I'ED the case or Ilattened pojes m:ocr;eases, polewa.rd [oom the eqaater. The eUipsoid,al. lPa'r.a,metef',s ,a" b or Q" -"caD 'be OiJ.Il[p'Ul'ted fr'O:m two arc 'measurements (.~. 3,,3].

A~ evalua!tkii'i or the ex:ist~~g o~dle~ arc measU'r~!l1~D't8 (Sne,lli'us, .Pkar:ti. among others) ~ed. '[0' an. cal'l:h model eWoogaled. <l,t 'the po~e-.i., The SiiJliDC result 'W~8 obtai:ned by La Hir.r~~, J .. fJ', and J. CtYs"ir~ni (1683 -17~. 8) who ex'H::od'oo. the ,MlC of .'icard :IiIQrth ~o Dunk:i:rik and south eo Co[li,OUR (huh,ude d.i:ffeJle'!lce~ oif :8"'10"). The ,C\omplll:tat~ons fr,om two arc seg,ment:s, ),teldedl a, "'negat.i:vef' frlIau'efli~DS of f ~. - ~,/95. whicih CiliP be aUri.b~~ied Piidi:iQPlarl, Ito meaSWTi~!l!eililt Illrr'OtsoF the Q·t!l",onomic b"~tudes .. Tile wlu,e;ruic dispui.e between lhe sb~pport:en of Newt.on ,and I[ho:se of Cassini O'Y!.U· the fii.gu:re 'of th;e cOidbi Wilis fesolv~d by two fun:hcll' arc measarements sPQgsor,ed by t:hef'~ilch Academy ,O:f Scienoos.

,Malu:pet'i'uis aBd c'l'airiaN~i ,amoiD,.g o~hers,.lP·artidpated. :in. the e..x[pediEion. to Lapland' (:~ 7 36/.3 7)~ the results of 'this, aec measurement (average J,atitude 66,!l2l(Jf.! laUtude int,erV3!,~ 51',5,) c'()nfirmoo, the polar. tDa:t,b~;I!l~ng. In comb:inattoIil winb the arc measurement 00 ~be meridian through, Paris, r,e'V:ised D:Y Cassi.ni de 'Thtlty,and La Caille, 1739/40~ the resulr was, f = In 83, .on a second e:x:poedidol,m. (].13.~;-t1'414)1 to Peru i(.lie,gi!ons or tod,IllY',s Bcuador), an are o.r average :laHtud,1;i 103l' S and ,]'ilQI7' amplitude was detenni:nedby God'itl, B'()ugfl(Jr~ ,and La Condam:ine. Com.Dma:tio,m with the la]lialld arc led to J = 1,/:2Hl The OaUemn\g or ttl.,e ,ea'Ftb at the poles wastbereby demons;tra~ed by f}8(Jilet,fc: meaaurementa

A.. ,synthesis between the p,hysieall and geodetic ,s:u"bstam,thuiioills of the !empsoida .• shape of the earltllw'as fi.:nally' ,achieved by .A.,-C C,~'(l,ir'aut (111.3-.1765')1 with the theorem (I '743,) named, fO'F him which. pe,rmits the co:mpu1:at.ion !of tbe flattening from two Ir:a'Vi~y m.eaSI!l.fe1JJen~S art d.if:rerell,t la~ihlldes [3.5 a- 2]. The p'r,~cticillil applica,t~om. of ~hjs ·~,g":(l,fj,imetric method'!> s·uffered until the twentieth 'cen'tury £Il'omthe .~aCl:: or accurate and. w,eU dis~dbuood, ,8:ra:'ritYlllea:su.r-e.me.q~s; and ffOiJD ~he ,problem of reducLRg these data 'to the earth. eUlp,soid ..

1.3.3 Me :M,easure,meUils,

After the ro;nat~ol'ila.lleUi.,.soid had asserted :ilseU as at model Io:rlhe earth, nUimierO'IJ~ am meas:u:reme..nts 'wer,e conducted until. the m.iddie of dl.e .njne~eeo,th oon:tu:ry to

determiae the dimensio.lIl. of this earth. elJipsicdd., The arc .~eJlg~b was, inv',adably obrained by tria.n,guia·tion. We distinG,uish between arc measurements along an ,elWipsoi~ dal :merri,d'~a'lilI (laUmde are :me38UR!'w!C!Dt). ,ah:m,g. a. paralie:~ (Ioogiuu:le are measurement)!, and arc measurements obliqruetQlhe m.eridiam.

FOf fire ooimpu.tatioD:S ~iIil a la!iUrae a,rc me(;l.~~r,emenE (Flg. :1.4)\, the angles: 1J.(p= (P.l! -"Ph AlP' = rp.~ - i'P;~l\e 'formed from the' observ,ed. !,eogra,pbic 'Ia~.ity;d!e;s, '~:t, (fJi' (p~ .tp~;. The corres'pondi~g me:ddiao arcs 6G and IJ.G' are obtained fromt,rial!R'uJation ne\w,ofds,. For short arcs one call :r.'!ep,lace flu: meridian 'eiIlip.se by the ,o8C'u1.a~~ngcircle :I:tavi~g the medd~an. radius ,of cunf8tureM'= M(rp) evalueted at ~~eMean 'la,tibu:We ,~~, ~('I'p'1 + '~l).,where M is, also a, ~1i.!Il!ction ofl!:he ,e:IUp~oidll!i:1 paJf8l.me'tiers tl, f [3..4·.2]. From AG ",. M,Il'''I'andi AG" = (\tl' 8(1) '.il' and f rna:), 'be d:e:wr~wncd. The :1.iiilr,Ff the ~a.titu& :ig~'eTval ,," - "P. the more accurate is: Uiie computed :naUef.IJi~g: 'W~erea:8.lhe; a:cc~raJc, ·o.f (J,diepe'(:ld.s,i:EIJ pani:ClIlar 00]] ~he b:J1g~hs of ~he me:rid,ianares,

P,artici!.dar significance was attained by the measurement comrnmssio:ned by the F.rench Na,~ilonal Assembly and carried ou~. !by .Dl8laMm,re and Me4.d',llit1: on, U:'Ie m,erid,ia:m, through. Paris between Ba-Sicelona and .DuIIIki.r':k (i 1'92~ l7'98t it was su pposed to serve for the definitio:n of ~be meter as ,ll !Datural unit. 'oJ ~eng~b .. In. ,ccombination wirh ,the Peruvian arc 'mtmSurement~ 'this yie1dled an eUi:psoid,aW :fbtoonhlg of f =l/134.

Of the numerous alfIC PleaSiUfefJf:le-n~'Si ,carried out in the .1lIi~De'teen:t:h and t'W'!!!:lltie~h eCirlt.'ll'rie:s. wMch were Wa.rp:WJ the fou:udllioll!S of:g.ood.,~tic :S,U:Neys. we mention here only the older. hist"oric:aUy ~Mportant:!Ii:t'cs of Gajlj'ss '(3;I'C measurcmillcnt betw,een. Gontng-en and Alton!li~ 18,2t -1825 •. adjustment aoootding t,o the le3liiL sq~ares method) and. of .8es~el and ,BtMytr (a,rc measu:!',ement ~)<b~ique to diile Meridian in crust .Pimss:ia, ~B3.1.-:l,83g). !R.,d'eRIIoos to :1lI,Of-(i roc~nt and to Sll)rmC exterrt still !C'1l rI,ently sjgni:fica.rU wOiUk:s: are fWaJde in the treatment .or astTogeode1ti.,e metheds [5 .i, ,4].

1.3.4 The Geoid. slid, lihe EJ~lipsoid

,A,s P .-S .. Lap.l'ace U ;802~ C. F .. 'Ga;us.8 (.~. 82:8)~ F.. Q!:, BesSie' (18 3 7~ and ,othe~s had ab·,eady recognized, the: as:suDl:ptiQio of an e:U.i.ps(lid.al earth model is notteaable lmder slllffi .. cieotly high observa.tional ,accuracy. Nam.ely", one can no longer ~gno.re the deviatdo,n ~defl,ecdon ,of the ve'r,tical) ormhe :p'hysica~ piLumb line, to' w.hwch. ~he me;asu:re.me·fllts, ferer. From, the em~ojdat normar1.Byan adjustment (}'f several arcmeaslIIremen:ts, .for the det,cnni:natioQ of the ellipsoidal parameters: IQ .and " oo:nlradictiio:ns arise which. ,exoeed by :fa:r the o,bien,at:iClna13cc~rac:-y.

,Ani n ili,am ,adjustm~li1i~ of ,3JK measurements 'Was carried out ln U~1)6 ])!)' AI. M. Lege~fdr,e i~ his t:roo~,i~' "S:tl:r la ~ethade des Mo~:ndres, ,c.altrees",. C. ". Gauss was fhe firstt tOI IlIdj ust a t1riaJ,D,!~~a,tjQn lIiIIelwi:;Jlfk (,;:n,iilnd. a,fo~tid B.rll!lnswict. 1803-IS0?) by 1he: _et,hod ofleas,t squares ,(GERAlRD'f ~'9'1'n

De pite U:ilese discrepancies, numerous adjustments were undertaken I!),ntj] the midnineteearh century to de~er:mine the diim.ensions, o.F the ,ellJipsoid", w:he!lleby tbe deflections or the vertscal, be~Iilg pb.ysicaUy caused" and. hence, ha 'ling sys~e:liiIl!at~c eharac~'e.ris~'~cs were treated as, f,3ndom. oOO'el"V,at.ional errors; 'Will!!, 'the: defin~tiQfi lof geodesy [1.'1] and the i:rntmdililclioilil,of file ,g\eo:id [1.2]"F. R .. Helmert made a, ~r,ansi~io.n. 1)0 ~'hie Cil.ll:flre:n:t C'(l'll!cep~ 'of the n~ure 'of the earth, He:fel 'the: d,eO,ectmoilrlls or the y·e:r~ical are taken into account i:n, the co:m,putation of the ,eUip:soid,a~ paremeters, The threedi.mensioiD,al concept of geodesy was, also ~DtrodU!ood, in, that time (BRUNS, 1878).

Frfed" "I Roberl Hdnlei',~ (1S4J-1911). (UliC:Or the most d.sl:ingui.:shedgrodesis~s of modern ~.imes, was pror~sor of geodes;y at the 'technical, l!lI:njllefsity ar A.ach~n ,and. director ,oflhe P:msslan Good,etjcln:stm~.te in Potsdam and oBhe central office efthe "'lnt,e;r'tIlationale E'm:messung", Th:roughh.is wort, g.eodcsy has ~xperieooed deciswve ~mplJlses.. whi'c:h un~~~ today have ~hei:!i' l~rrect. ]0 his :Fundamental, mo:nQgJ,aJ·P'h ,(A1880/1884), H,dmert e.st3i:b:lishod. I,eodesy as a p!ro:rJ.elr science (Wm.f !'!iI'10)..

The: determ.inatioifl. or~he: geoidwas for about 10 years (I 88(11~ l 950) a majorl~a.l (lif geodes,y. Its importance diminished after 1945 with tbe developm.ent or methodsfor the: direct deriv~tio;n ofthe physical surface of the earth; however, its determination still remeins an ,cssendalprolble:m orS~{)des,y.. In ,fact. the .significance of the geoid bas again. increased with ~he lesta'bUsh:me.nt or three .. dime;ll1swomd lcontine:_ntal and ,gMobal sys:t!ems [5.1,,2]. as. w,eU as 'witb the requ.immenb of mariae geod,esy [3..3 3].

I . .4 ... I.,adons,1 OqaniizadodS

The problems of global (Jfml'es :may be solved on.y whh internanona] '00 ope:ratjOD ·Qr in~UtUi~s which w,ork at a nat~o:nal 1evel. tOI!,e:lher w:i'th a (c,"' "r:l'tern,adonai servllcc'S [1.4.2]. In some coulllltries,gove,l'ifIment.31 o:r acadltmy teseareh insritutes (f~.e:r.a1R~p!lbli.c:or German,: Deu't~ sches Geod!a'ti:sch~ F,orscbl!inpins'[rutlii!~ in Munic'b and f:rarikfurt. ,Ze!l1ltf,iillliillS~i~ut :r;"llysik der :BrtllelGeodii~is.ches, hilS~i~u~ W~ PQw,h:1!'rI; U$.S.:I .. :. Centra] Soiew~~fiJc ReseiliIDch IU!5,Ii'tute oli Geodes,y, Aerial S'!iI:ney.aud. Ca;-l,ograp,hy in M,oscow), a:S1 wellil as: ~~ii':geode:t:ic i:!l~J.'titu:t~s of univels:it~~fi, 3lre :act:i'!l1lt;ly purswing rese-arld1'. The fJ(!t).dertc surve}lJ are cl'!JnjedilCilll~ atl:comi~g ~o the stnu;::tu~-e of the omcia~ . urve:yi,ll;g sys®~:m b, decent:nJl,1j~d institutes (Fed. Rep. of Ge:nm2luy: ge:()de,tic !j:t.llfVey offices o:f ~he individual stiItes) er b:y central a:genciies, (Australia: Dhdsio;j], of Nad:onal M,aJ:pping; CaQ8Jda: Survey::!, and Mliiplpi:n,g 8nmch; France: Jns:titut Geogr:apihique:

iuional; O!reatBritmn:: Orei:luun:e SU'fvey; India: S:u:rve}' of India; ,Japan;. GeogralPh~ca:~ Survey ~n!n.W~I!lI'[Ie;; U.S.A.: Nadonal Geedene S·llrvey" Na:tilolflJal Ooean~c and Atmosplriieric .Admini:stra~iOill~NOAA) - ror:merly CO!liS~ <lind Geode/lic S'i.:i:r'\iey~

lflll3idditiJoll1 ~o ~WID~e, a number of rili!)l'ig'e:'Ot~et,~c :itist~'[ut~o.;os e:d8~ whtchilll Uu~ ccurse of their :s:pecrullil 'projects ,!J):r,e also OOr.lCeT~ed, w~th geode1:~cprcblem.s;, Indeed, the:y deal 'with the ~h:wry, a~d in particllda!'r'" w.ith ~be ooUect·iion and eva~ua~,ioD ·af dah. We: Mention bere: t:he: ~nstil~IJI{;es of spa,ceC::IIOplloratJicl'[1. Hiilldl oF8isu',olitomy (Goddard Spac.'C Hight: CenlCiI' (ilf 'NASA" G:[\eenbcIC~

Md,.; Cemru~ire N ation3iJ d'rEtudes Sp3ilIiale~, 1B:re~.lgn:Y~l![-Orge;. S:mitmo:n:i.an Ast:mphysllicall Ob~ serva,UOi.!'Y ~"SA01, C~lm;b:l'i!d\S.e., Mi:liss.)j g.Elolc·gIDc3!.nd h~dr,ogll'aJ.p;b:ic s~n,:i~ ~~eo~olie~] Silmil'''!!Ie:y or Ca,]1la,>r1{lJ; :1!h.!Ade;sa~sta[~ f'lir Gieowi:sse;f!scba!ftemru I,IndjR()h:s~ol"e. HaGino·"!G[;(h.~ndes:aM~ .fur Se~ch~lah:rl ~~dl Hydoo'graphie. Hamburg; Bureau deRlecrnrue:rdltes Geo:I,o.gmq'ucos, et Minieres. Ode~l1:!i;,I.nsd~~~e of Geological ScIDe:n~ and ll1!S:litutc of Oam:ll:ogr,aphj,c Sc.iewoosj l.l.K.; U.S. Geo]ogi:caJ: Survey).. umrurn .... err'El:ity depaetments fLl.1Imo~'[-Doh(!rtr G~otogiGa!.1 OhservSitcn}i. Co~ h]rtlbl!<1I. Un.iv., N'ew YOf'~)I.~fid mjruitary a:g.e:Il.d~s; {U.s.A.; De[ens:e Mapp~ng A\pEI:ey, Tepegr:aphi.c Cenlelf DM.A T-C ~nd Aeil:.ospa:oo Cen'h~ii DMAAC;, U.S. N3i'l,':a~ Oooa~ogrn;.plti:c .office:


1.4i.llo[c;JnatioDII:I. (iona&o..T.aJ~:ionl

At ~h~ begi fili1!~~g of the a~ :me:a;sllre~e:l'!ls~mruth:e kinS.doiITI. of Hancl'ver (,1821 ),,. c. F. Gaus.~ had i~b,eady e.xpr~sed hls intensiQwrus . .!\QQ{I!rdiing ·to him,. tlbjs .ne:t w,ourudl 00 oODn.eetoo to neigb.bor1ll:S triamgl1l;3iI~Oill netw:c:rks. aiming.towa.rd all eveiml:l'!,!!al n:!:e:rger om drue6uroptanobscn:a~o.ries. Or.ganiz:eld i.li1J~efililatiJO!~al ool:I:~:OOifa:Holl or:igilm:ates with tibeint5,tigP!!tmon. by th.e~ Pnl:ssian se:nera:li J .. J, Bae.J'i'r I( 1794-1 S.S.5): ",Obe,. dre GrfJ:lJt: UQd Fi,ur dill" ,Br,de. ~ff;!eD.;bd1:"iftz!II" .Begrlind:IlIIIY ,~;iilJle,.. AI it~·,elel~rl)'Ij.ijische,l~ Gr:adJ'1~!!1'~SffJ\lil" ( 18,6 O.[nI862,. th.e!·M~Ue1ewf:op'a:ii!lcile: G.radmll8f>u:rlig" Wa:B. f:o~flded in EJie:rh :asda:e fin~ ~nterQaHonalmiellll~i;fic: as!Sodil:it~Qn. ,o:f'siiglli€icaililce;BMyer was i~ .firs.t pres~de:f!t. AAie:r ell!pamd!ru~8 ~;Q the ·~Europiii~ch.e G.r.ad:me8su~g"'-.J(U!lti1!J ,!I!ficilto ~~e "I~Uernti!liQ.~!(de Erdn!e$s:UJ'~fi" l" ASflioc:ia;ti!olill Geodlesd.que liuen:Mliltwon:a,liG"'), !. 88,6., the ass.ooi~tjQn d~v.~loped ·ai fiiui.tfui: 3JC'tivit,Y, whi.e~ WI.1IS ~peci)3!~ly ~nspi!",ed rD.)\' ttHl! 'l/.!,l'Q:r!ks of flelme:n a:s:dlirecLof

of ~he cem~lra~ bur;,eaill (Llll:v.ALL{lms :l9!SiO~ -

AJteil'th.~ di!!lscdut!on. ·of ~lh!e"h~~e:rn3ti!@,I:'!!!I]e Erdmessu~~f' diIJl .. i.~g the fill'st W,ofld War. tlil:e: ·'.l~u","n,£:!~io~td V 1':1 ion ,qffie:odesy arid (j(f!OphJfSic:r ~TU.G.O .• ), whilC~ today '(11987) hasa n1:e'robet,. :shill' of ''1 .cQuDtriies. w~s founded inm9 ~9.h. consists of one geQd:eiti.c (lind :!l)ix·8.e.o:physi.~I. ass:ociado[ls. Tllirue "JJ~~,e7l1~ti1o~i~' Associcni.Qu of G~1J'dCS]'" {J .. A.,G.)I ~s directed !by Oil preSiident who ls eillecled ,e:v,e:ry f:Oil.lliD' ),lllaJ'[S, and who ba:si lilruce pres,i.dent:!!. and a.g.el:U:e!fl'!l1s€lcr(l'tar:y at his s~dh~. [U.(];(J.a~dLA.(J. meet ;~t !Je:neln'.a~: assembli:e:s .3i~ :~oulli';")ile'3.fru~:Ie;rv.a~~; in :l!Idd.i.Uon,!l!l!!~ero!,ls .sym:pli.}iS<iaand sde!i!!Ufi~ cQ.~feren:oos wh~ch U'·e:1u. :special: lbem~s are: or.ga!n:i~d.'b~ the lU.G~G" f:t~ aSSiClC'iati!o~s!Jj:!.'Id commissions,

The: tA..G.. cOf'lsmslS (lif ~lv.e; s'€C~'f,O'iS'; PosruHo~jng, Ad'I,!'a:~cedi SpaDe Tec:l:i:llology. De'~elffili;[lillitwofil ·or:~:~e Grav~ty lFieJd,.Oetl:e:rlll] Ull~ory ,and .MeJthodo1ogy. Geody.namic~. Comm~$$io.~s:a~ ;es~:3iblished r:o~ c(l(n:tinu~~g p~~bruem.. wh.erea:s.~fi!!Uirusit,l:nt p~Qb~el1Il;Si[e trea~ed by $ped~" stady g ... a~pS'. In .addition,. ~he:I.A..G.p~:rdy in ,oollaboira.rioin with other .scWc:n:dflc! Oil'ga~ti:l)!:}s ITI!!!wntaio!S perm;a!l1!e~~i.!:1js:tit!JHol!Ils: htterna.tional . .lEarthRo!UUioli'll Se:rvl~ 1(1 ERS~ w.ith the Ce~~~.:d B'I.I:re~.u at Ulle Obsell'wal.Giire:. de Paeis, roeplacing <,!jnc~W 98.8: theEa:r~h Rotation Se"~ce 'of fhe::I,lUre<1U If:UiCifil1la:1 ~ornal de .1'l:Ieure (BIH)'a:nd ,[,h~lfW~!i.!:ta.tiolJ:\!I!mpoh~r· MI[i!t:i!O.~1 Servioe ,([PMS); lure<1u '(!:l~e:r~ati!o!l]jal d~~ P,oi'ds eil: Mesmes,(B1PM) Sevll"C-S;. :B~r~a.u Gra.'il'~m~tdqu,e Int~r!itaJtmo'.DaW (lEI.G[JI. 'Toi!!ilWQiI,J:s:e;~nl:ernatillJlna~ CeDite:r olf I:ecea:rt Crustal MO!!f,elrU:l~~s.P'm;g~~ Ilflt~rn.amiom1laJ Oenter of Earth Tides. B,ru:!isels;. :Pell'.m:ilnelii!i~ Seli'~i)oo [o:r M~!lJn SeaL~"!IIel. :B~dst·o~ 'o.~M:e;r~e;ysid.e. U.K.

FOlll'cooperative IPlrQgmnl~~ ·of rQC:ke~ and sa:reU~te r~'{larch"a':rn lllt.eii·-Unwon Co:rn.m~~ooe on Spa()eR·ese~r·{:.h (COSPAR) was .I}sta.blishedby the IllIIterlllati.oll:l!!rn CO~:I!!cH 'Oif S.c;:ien~i:fI:c Unions {lCSUJ.

'1.4.3 L~lef;IUillfe!

A ~t!liiV'eJy .o:[ thereeeat l:e:X.f; books and h:h:lnllfal.s ().:f geodesy ~s giv~n.in the bjb:1iolil!'·a:phy ,on pa:g~ 235. Tlti1iere .ah;o..re:ri;rt,u:ices are U8:ted~o :intmduic:tory :nfl:l1I~UleMa!HcaJ~ works l[pQ~enU:al~ ~helQiry~. dirrlel'e[J;tia~ geomeu'y,. p1a~~ <llild sph~ri()il!] tdgo.nome~:ry.~ adjIUlst:fI'I!e!nt co;m],Ju.tal!;tumu) a:nd to

10 1 [ntroou;cfton

~~tJe;ratu~ pertrunmr1ilS eo thei mi~jghb~)iring diisciplines oif su.rve)'iri.8~ as w'elill as. to I.listj[j:n~oml and geOpbySlGS. A ticst 'of .g.c·odeti.c pu'bJ:icat,ioft series is sive-n in BuUet~1iiI Geod!hi:ique 61. no. 3., 3,8~ -393 •. 1.'988.

AmOD8 ~lhe: fe'CilfJ,ic(.l" jourrlals.the' "D,u.U,c.'t.i.n Geod(lsiqll!!e;;' ;issued byth~ lA~G. (Spri:nl~r,.1BedilnHe~dJeloorg-New y,Oil,'k) eoncems :itse:lf exdusive~y 'With ,gcoo·e:tic p:ro·bleMs, Aler each gej:tef,a~ assembrny Oif the lItO .• the :rauit:SaJ'fle; compiled. in a ,gellter:al~port wtile:r'tas, ~a:t:iolilJal :r,e:porUi, eontaia info,rm~tio,[I, on the'geodelie ,activities, of the [A.G. mem,Oersh.i.p eoount:ries (p,.'OCeed~ bZ,gs ,oJ the .1 • .4.,(1, - "ltO!itliUX ,cIt rA.J .. 'G.) . .s~noe :~.990, ~h,e prooeedjngs of IAG-sy.~a w:il] be pu.bli:shed. ~n. 'S,epall"a~e \I''OJ,u:m~s by SpTiinge:r. All, in:tilir!l~tiolfl;~d ,geodlCitie bi,b~~o:graJltbiy is piIlb· lished. by the Technical, Univ,ersity or Dresden .. Prompt publicatioJilii .of' research results is pOS$ib[!e: in the "'M:anuscript81 Geodaetica", Heide:l'oorg~New Vor-t. Queries if!! g·oode:s,y are funner ~~at:f,ld in the '1:ec'hi'IIiool jo,urQals,of sul'uitpr.,.g. The '~oU!(]w.i:flg ,llle meli'li~~oned :i.111 'particular! i'AJ:lgememe: V'~nn.ess:UlI!gsnaJ,ehri,cbtell:". KM]s:r~.he; "The .AuslraWma:!l, ;Sun',eyor'" S~dI.ney;, "Belh::!l:ino' di Geodesia e Scienze Affini"'. F1'orenoe:;: "The C,an.adi.!J;.Jll S.un,C!y'or·', Ottaw,a;, ~'Geodes,y" Ma:pp.jf;ll and Piboto,graMmetry'''. Wuhin.gton (tf'3;I:}Illla:ti,om of~be Russriil,njoiIJ:l:'f:I,a~s ~'G~ode.zijya j, ,Aero-fotosyemkai" a:ndl"Geodiezjya i K.artiogra:fi.ya,");"O PS"':Wodd"" EUlgene. Oregon.; '~Marine Oeodesy", New Yo:rk;, "'Osrerreichi;s¢he ,Zeitchrrft fijI' Verm,esS'u.liilpw,~e'1l. und Pho:t,o,gramltl.'eltrie", 'Vieuna; "'¥e:rmessullg, .Pil1lo''to,gr,amm.etr~e) KiIlWrn~1IJII1Jechf:ljk"', Daden~Dittwi]; '''Surve;yi.~g lII'Ild Map,pii:ng'~. Falls Ch~.rlch; uSum'v,eyR~vmew", Tolwortb. Surr~y; "V'erm~sungs~eclmik."'. Berlin;. ··,Ze.itSICbnil't m:r Ve:lliRe~siW!ngs,w.esenj,,~ S~UUgaft. Geodetic ,R!.rrti.,cles also i,l,ppear in ~hc f}'t1,ophysicai ~ecb~ic~~ ~rn®crntllre: ''''8oUe~~~o di: '(jel1lfis,icfI, teor.ica ed ,lI:lPplica1ta:"'" Tr[es~e;; "·IEOS. '1i'mJi1Jsacdons .Am,erieanGoophys.iical Ul'lillln"'"W'ashington,; "Oeopb.ysical, ]o:uma:rn", Ox:~ol!'d. '(,oom,bmning .A.TtI.naLes Goo:phystcae .. The Goophy:. J. ,of the Royat Astr,onom. Society. and J(Io"'m3!.~ of Ge'0,Iili~sjcs{Ze:i,lls(lhlrift: fur Oeop1bys;ik): ··Geophy8~caillRii!lse;an:::blLeue,rs"·. W,aslil· jn8~(nJi. D.C: "S\lirV'Cysi.n: Geo1physks"', Do~:drecbi~;, "Gerl,a:nds, .Beit:rage zur Geopobysi'k,"'. Le~p~ :D,g !OJ()unull of Geopbys:icl.d RJese:arch'~, Wasningtoifi' ·'bview;s. of 'Goophys~cs, aJ:nd Space Phy;siics'''·. 'WMh'i:ng~oD;, "Smdw~, G~opby;s;iQa, e~, G-eod:E!ied~!!!.··"Pra,glJc, ''Te-t'to!D.'Qphyslcs''', Ams~erdIDt'l:.

IRe,parts are isseed hy geodetic Ui1i.versiU~ and resea:rch ins:titutes !Jlld by v,3.ri.,ous scientific 3icadeDil~es. ali: well as: by ~O'm,e: !o'l~tmme:n,iall Sile'JlC~~. We meutiQ1n httJ'iec: ~'A,cla (kod.ae~t:ic:a. GOOi,ph)'~ica et Mo:ntan.is1tk·.a"; Budapes:l; "Acta Geedaetlea et Geophys.jciJ .... ! Beiji.ll!g;, "'Austta:ii3ifi J,ournal of Geodesy. P!itotogra:m.lJietry aad Sunrey.ing'·. Ke:nsingtolilJ N.SI.W+; '''Bull. (I."1nfOil"ll1i. Bu:re:a:~ Or:av~m~Uiq,ll(l hlitern!!Jt .. :I". To:uh')~se; ·'DuU •. d'IO!fo:ttlilJ. M;;I.f,OOs Tefres~.re5!·" :Bmssems; ''':I811J1. of the EaJ:I."ltJiquake R,eseaKlhl'nsd~ute'''. Unlv. of T'oky,o', "Bull.af th~ Geogmphk:al Survey blI8:titute"'. To'kyo~ "'Defe;nse Mapp~!ng A.gency" Technical R~p .. ~·"W;ashtogtO'n D,C1 ;'M.:it.t" dj" G~odji:t brus:t T.U. Gfaz.'·'. '~Mlu~ lnst :f. Tbeoir. GCiodl. 'liJniv. BiI)lllI'II"; ;"'NllIdiruriichte~ au dem Karteo= und Venn.e9Su~gsweSlen··" .Fr,ank:fuf.t/Mai!i1!; "'N'AM Goddard Space Fljght Cen,t~r Rep.", Gr~enbelt. Md. i '''NOAA-NOS-Nailiorl:1.d Geodet~c :SUflle'Y T~tuli.~cd Itep'" .... Rockville, Md.; "PlJ!lbHc!!!tj.Qus, ,of '[he .FinMsh 'O=odet~c :1:fIIst,i:t,u~", H~~si~lk:i; '4RepOH;g, of the Dep'ilrtm.elllt ,of' O~od.etiiC Science and Suneyi:n:l!t. The Ol:1io State Univ .• Co]um:bus.. Obioj, ··Sc'hrift.em,eihe d,e:r Hocbooln:de derBundes-webr"'. MUnchen;, '''SmirtI'lSiOIilJE<liI1 Asnophy.sica:1 ObSle:rl!'a~,oll'y: Spe:dal Re:pii)rt$l,"~ "U ml~SUI!'~ G- Utmliv.o~ N~w SOIJi~h 'Wales Rep. ... K!ens:iu!~on. NSW; "V'erolif. def Baye1'~, Kamin .. rd:r die Ip:t.emli!l,tio.n,a~e .EII"d.me.ljlSUliiifl; de:r Bayer, Alad. der Wi:sscns.thafteo"'" M umch; ··Verofr. dar Deutschen Geoditisc:hen KomnmsioD bei del' BayerruSlChelil1 Abd. der Wis~:ns~h!IJh!en",. MtUli~C'h 3.llid :IFFa~kflu1 ,a.M..; ··Ve~i)'If. d~s .ZeQllliaru~:[I:!i'tmuns Pibysik del Erde"' •. Potsdam; ··Wiss. Arb. d. Fachr, Verme.ssuliligsw,esen d. Univ, Hanlillov~r.'·.

1 Tlte G:ra,vity FieI. of '11Ie Earth

The: significance of the' ,extema:tgra:vity fi:eld ,of the earthim Ic-od.e;sy m.ay be d.esc,ribed: oomprebens.ively as foUows:

1. The external ,g[-a,v~ty Held is the r,ejer,ence system fo:r the ov'enllr:he.~m~ng 'part of the measured, q uaatifies in geodesy" T,bis, field mu:s;t 'be known i:n, (nder to reduce th.e q u:lint ities into ,geomenicaWly defi:ned s,ystems [5 .. 1] .

. 2.. 'I:f the distr.jbu:~i!on, or gravi~J ',,ahm.csaD the 8ur:!ac,(! of ,the e,ar:dt '~s,kn(!''W:D;" then. in. oo:mb.iina.tion with other ,ieodietic measurements, the sha,pe of this, surface maybe de~erm:ined [:5.2].

3,. Themos~ impcO':rta:l1lt .ref-eteJlllOiS surrfacefClif hei,Bht measw:u:ement:s" the ge.Qid [3..3]t a:s an idealized oooa11, su.rfa,ce is a level su:rfa.ce o.f(ihe:gr1l:vity fie4d.

,4. The ,aoalysis of the exteraal g[,llvi.ty n,el.d yields infQrl1lat~on on fhe structure and eharacteristks of the: iJJ:~erto'r of'tbe earth. 1'[[ :m,a'king: 'tbectlrres,p'om.d:im,g gra.-vity .fidd parameters a v3i:ila,ble~ geodes,y' becomes, an au.xilia'ry science of geop'h)'llIics 15.5],

A body rotating with the earth experiences th.egrafJitat.i:on(J,' forces of the earth. and of Odlill:F ,eeles.tjal bodies" as wem as ~he ce.ntrrtf,(J~1 rO·:rlce d'ue to the ,ea:rth"s rtltat~oJil .. The resultant force is title for,;,e ,oj gfa:",.i~]/. 'his a flnu::Hon or pcsition, bu,t also undergoestemporal variations.

For ~he g,oodetic. use o.f ,etilrth sate'U,jtes" one Sl,fri:OiUWd 1Il,(}te:~hat a. satemte does Dot: partake in the flotatk,u:m. ·or the earth, Hence, (rllWy ara.vi:taHon acts in this case ..

The ;~""l:ir ,(Jj a~e,ie'l",(,It~on in. th'e Sl .... g,yste. (8:ysb!i!TI_f! l:nt.enlii!i:tlio,nam d."Unit.es). MA.RKOWl1fZ (] 973). ws; ms,-~. Theacceleratioe ofgra.vit.y can 'be' measured wi:th an aoeliJ:ll'acy Oifm-1 ~o lO-8 m~-l; the dcviatlorliliS ef'the 1'cr:[\cstlfild ,gr3.wity n.eM [[rom. a "normal ,e:ar'th ..... :n. g.e.ficra~, reMain IIe8S than '2 X 10-3 milHS-l., Tllf:mfolie~ the sciences of ge:odlesy i~ulldlleo:pbysitCS lhiave unt~~ r,ooerntly ado,1ed Ihe: more sl!i~talb~e UD~~S:

tl'ilgal= 1O-~ ms-,2. IlfIuJ = WO-B, ~S-l= lOilffiS-1•

T~ey ar~ derived !from the ll!lIii~ "gal'" I(after GaUlei,) = C.5-2, used ~11l tbe cgs,.syslem" :10 'the sequel we s,ha~m mainly 'Use th,e units

,~~.S-2=; 10-6 ms-,:i!i, nmlls-:! = ~O~'!I' m,-I.

2.l.,:~ Gra vitado:n" Gf;I'~tatiDnaIP,ot~ntial

Aocord.itn,g to Newton:'g la:w ,(~f gra:vitat'io'H (Jtl587)" twopoiwt masses ,Qt~ and, '"2 attract ,each otber with the gfavita.tio!na,~ force (aU:r,acdve [o:r,oe)

K= _G'nlm~~

. 11 ,.


Fi:fJ. 2.1. Gr'a.!II"~~a!.lion:b

(G ;;;, _gr'a!vita.tiollll,rd constant, I = distance between po:int masses), where If and , pO'~ntin opposing directions. The U!:Di.~. mass situated at the attracted pOi'n,t P(Fig. 2.1), in fh~ !rralll'ita:~lo,roa:~ Jije~d. 'e~perience-s ,8 gm:l'Ji'l'a~,i:()frI{J" ,acceleration l[be:J).oofor~h, also termed "gra vi£a.tmo:D'~)

due ~Q' ~'he; mass. etement at the; ,au:ra.e~:inl, point P' .. b~:ije!i on the line j.CJI~nj:li'lg P and pi and is directedtoward pi: I may be represensed by the pooi.tioIl. vectors ,r and

r--J .. 0' in 'th- e-' Cart ~i<']'an '" 11' ,,. svste m- -. - '~'~e""'~.' ~ ~j;J",".' ~,~"~-~iill.,. ,II

I = 11,11 =J(x - x')2. + (] - y')2 + {z - ,2:')~.

The vahse of the gra v,ita t:~onael cOE1;st;a,nt,is I~C'om_m:i.nee on. Da.ta. ~o-r Science and Tec'hnology ~ CO'DATA - s,ys~e:m .o,r phys~i-cal conSfan~s, 19c86)

G = (6.,67259' :",0,00085,)1 x lO-~ ~ m,~' k,g(l 8-2.

The nrs~ experimental, deu.im1I~na'li.oID. of G was car.ried out wn 1198 by Cat'lll'ndi$,h, whio used the ~iOnjon. bah~:!l~:' The goal of curRlit 'W(u"k is ~o '~mcreaSie: ~h~ 'r,ela:'live ,aCC,liJlr:.ley of G 'hi)' be~~e,r tIDliln 1 x 10-4• This: ~lItcl'Udes l'Dvesdptions into a de:pemllcncy o,r G ODIDa:teriall, externaID ~nnl!le~~s:, as weill as distance and ,dmrecEioD. Until :toda", ~hese iuv,C'stm.pltions 'have not rendered significant results I(OauES .~ 98,1).

A body such. as tbe earth, composed or an im:fini.t.e Dum.ber' of mass ie~e:me:d'ts, ioduQes, a ,gra,vjta'tion Oil 'the 'ulil:i:~ mass at ,P wtdcb is 'C:ODllplIJled by '!ium.mi_og the i:lil.d~·v:i:d.ual

(X). (. X/)

. , t _ , ,_.,

I = r - ,r 't ,r".= Y. I, • ~I Y, .

z. ' z


a.coe~eFat~(H'lS (J..:n vecbodaUy. The comp,utaHons aresi mp,:lifiie-d'j.~r of'ille ebanges from the vec~or I]e~d toa sealar (je~d.

Beeausethe gravi~Htiiona,~ .. fiel.d is ir.rtJihll:ional.

b'm.aybe: [ep!re:!ie:Ii1~edl as the grad:~emt o.r .8 potel1ltiil.~ (see 'ei;.g. Km:"LOGG .A1929~ SJGL, Al'98.5)i:

I), =gr.adV.

W'iit~ l~m,V= 0, 'We :i.ntrodw.ce ~hegr-a.vi[al.fo,u:d'pot,enHal


as .11 ptO'Sitive quan~ity (as i~ is, (lust!omary in geodesy~ The value of the pOItt;odal at rhe poInt I? bl tbeg;r.avi.tado:rna]! .fie~d i:l'lId:iica.t~s 'th.e W;I)iFktha.t :mus;t 00 done !by Uile grav itatien wn ordertemcve tlbe uniit. mass fllormum11lit.y >(JI "'" 0) to P'.

The aeceleratien j';iQu!\IticrJ has ~h~ d~mens:iolli of wOjj:k~rluli:t.Mll!sS amili:t h~ the unir~: m 2 s -.2. from the mass e.~e:ment "'., we~un:l. to~h:e€'(rrth with ,co:!t~:n.uou:dy distliwbu~ed ,elements

whie.ii1e p ::=. p(,.I) is the del1!s~t:yailld: ,a;pis thev:oiume ,elemerlt. Accordl:ing. to ~he superposition princi:ph!;o tb.egl'.avitatilonal potential of the eart~ is:givtCn accor.ding ~(I' (2.,6) by

In the ,com.pil1ta~i.(iion of V~ one the'fi~.rore has, kI'3.SiSume: that the dlen5i~y :flUrnct~on P = ,0(".')1 .is com:p,tete:~'y ·limow.lJl;.~n fact bow'ever~it .is beuer knowD only tor pa:Il'~.8 of the upiper erust or ~b.eea,lI'th ..

2.1..2 Gra'Vi~:atiiionaIP,ot-ell1lti!al,o[a Sphe,ricaUy S'JRlmelricEarthl

To a flrstapproximatice, the earth ca:n be viewed! as a :spne:rt witha cent.raUy s.rl1l1·me~r~c derudty structtu',e. For the oomputat~on of the ,graJ."'~t3.tiona]pote11ltwal~ w,e iateod uee the: spherical e(J()r'diniate~ r. Jji:, A. (.Fig. 2:.2~lwb~.c;h8n:: abo r'e'ilu.ired.lEl!.~er.,Wltb the usual or~eronat~{IIrn of this :syst;em with re.8~c;t to a. global x!.'y~z..,sy:s~e.m (t:lhif: lJ· = 0 axis (lo~ftddes WI th~:he s-axis wbilcb lie~ along~b.e 8P~1iI axis, the A.= () ax~s coincides w~th the x-a.xis whicihHcs ~m the ·me'ddian.p~afJe of O[I'l~e,-fJwLcl'li)! we have the folhlrwing. relationship

,. =(: )1= .r(· .. ::: .... :.:. :~) •.

z . ICOS a

8 is then ~be s.pheri,cal polar d;s~ancel A Is the gelOgfaph~ca.W :loDgi,tude.


Fig. 2.2. Spberical coo.rd:jn;a;mes r'l a" ).

hl ~h,e S,lJ:booC!iuem:t de:li~ya:Uon., the :sophe:rica]lcooird~:laul: sys:tem 'bi, ,oriented, such ~ha,l the 3 = 0 a:x.is ceineides w-~t h nile Jine~ jO!loing 0 and P (Fig, :l.3).

The: potenti:ai ora. hcmegenecus s.p.nQri,eal shell of'imhlitesimal thickness dr' and d.ensityp and having aradius r is given in anai.ogy to (2.,8. by


Y' = (i{uLri .Irl


wbere tl!u: int,e,g[a~io:n is (Jr''er the surface of '[be shen f and where

dl' = rlz sin. 3/ d3,r dl ,.

is the surface el.eme:n:t. A distinction is made in, the integrwtionas, to 'wllether t.b~ attracted point is extermor or interior ito the spherical s:hel.1.

For an, attracted poinllymg wn the ext€f',ior.lbe potential is giv·en by

d'm I' = 471prll: d,t

represents themass of' the: spherical s,neU. The potential . of the spherica~' earln: ,composed ,of coneeanie 'ho!mog;e:neous, :sbeJ[s is

'Vi!' = a f.·.-'J.··I-J- dm~ = aM ..

. ," r ,"



H·,eliJlce." itls ,equaJ to the potential of [he re:n:tifie' mass, M' ofthe ,e'a:r~hoom.c;ent.liated .an. the: center of mass.

W~t:h GM = :3:98.6, x tO~2 mJ S-l .a~d ~he [,adiius oUWi!:e: e~n~ :R = 637'1 kM, ~:lae v:a~ue ,o:f the pol:en:tial, a~ 'lhe s:urfilicc 'of '[he e~rt~ tl'~ .1.) amQlllInlsto V'~, 6.16, X 107 1:W1J2 S-,2!, and the gravjta:~iom WS b = 9'.82 P1:s;-!.

FOii' 01, PQjn~, h~ ~he i,~t.er.ilQ'r.~, 'We obtaIn, ~Q!F: thepQt~~Ual of Ul!C $ph;erkal ~heU: - 1- ,_"",,'.' (1 duf

V. =4:l1l:Gpr ,dr = --J' --"

- , r

II' here Is constant; ~he\rerO',~e!, the ,g!ra'VwtaHonis 2jC,f'll' .• The potential ~1iJisi:de an eill:rdl ,c,onSlr'UClea oJ !j'hells is ,c£l:m,posed. of dteco:l1iI1:riblll tion (2.10) due to tbe masses i[l,~e!.r~or re rhe sphere r-= COll:st.~as wellas Ule oontributi,on (2,],2) fromths ~ph(l:rica~ ~h~i~

ba,vin,gtihicik.ness ,R:= r:: I' R

'" ~ 4:G j p," dr' + '*'<6 f (Jr' dr'. (2.(3)

D r


l.t3Pliopefd~ or't1hc' ,Gra:¥i:tanonaIIPolitnli:a:1

Wi':,: inve~Ugate the prroi,perttes;of theP'Oternda.1 fl[1[l;cdotTh V ~nd its first and seeond derivatives,

If the attracted poin.~P~ies esteriorte the aUracHI!IS :regi,o!n,. tha~ is, the "pbys~ca'~ bodly of the ear~hu~ then ,r, ;;::t 0 alway,s..He:!I1c we neglect U~e mass, of 'thea~mospheF,e


as well. as, the second derivatives


are sing)e~'i\I':ahruedj, fjnh.e~ and c(H:ld:ruj.(Hl$~IJ(),c~i(t:ns hili tbe entire ex,~',t!r,tor ,~pace., They all VillliS:h atinfl.nWty.

The lUDiW~; of ~:~e: .secQrI'{J (/errvuril.le' ,of the po~~:n;tial is :s,-1. [n "Jew of the Mftg;rlitud!e Qf~he5eoond! de:riiv:adve and! II.hie Meas.llring aecuraey r~l~rH to .~O-!I .8-:2:)" ~he units comJ1u)n~y used are lO-!Jo 8-2= ,~: ,En3:0iVC!S,}I= l ~~Ms-l~m ;; 0.1 mg~]lkm.

~2 ~2 ~2

Ar-'i'r-'I~yin(!' the Laf'llacrnan oeerator 4 = ' . .>'l.lr" ¥ : .. - .. +. ~ .. II·.,. {here: im. Caetesian coo.rdi ..

t~.1C -.~ r l;"- iV'X'" ,cY" (I~""

nab'l-s)1 toll' yie~d8; rtli:l6 partial !d.~ffen'in~ialequa,~ion of seeond {)1F.derw:rrlich describes the gra vI~adomd .fle~d.WJtb (2.1 ,6) we obtain .. Lapla1..--e 'sd,U1er'e'''I,~ik;d' e,q~uu:iol!l'


CODl't~nUOU:5 functio'Jll;5 baving'conliou,o!Jsflrs~ and second der~va:U'l!les andwhi!cb ill,linn f2.17~ are caU~ harnflonie fttnCli(JiI1~ oF.poi~e'.rn.t~a,1 :rl!lll1Ct~OIilS.

If the anraeted :P'O,in~.~iesh'ls~de the body of the earth" then.~he 'case 1= 0 is possible., ThisllleQuires s:pec~al a.tteo.doro because or the d1isc:o.[!I.till.uhy of l/t

To ~hrus e~d. we t'OII:li9;i.de~ P enclosed by ,aJs'p~e:r~ K (oent~f :;u Po ,r,adhi!s p')~, p is !(;b~e~ S;Um(1~eilltly soall,so 't'na~:p= eonstJnslde 'Ibis sph.~m (Fig. 2.4), 'The p{)t~~tial ~!l, oom.posf::d 'of the oO.IDiI~,iiib~t~ons due ~Q ~he masses lyi~g int:ew.ior!l!ud (l:}!;tel!:'iorto the spm-ruer:e.

f'!r~~ .(:2-.8)1 and 1(2.14) a~d llIsrung

,0' ~- .j.(- ,~.).:l! + (~ to ~l --'--(- -~:i:

fl, :=: p" r = q = '.. x - X'O ..Y - .. '1lI1' T I Z - Z."" '.


g.~ o~~l

we fi.nod

In th~1 imr~ ,P' -. rO, 'r!] -to O~ agroomenl is ,obtained! wh:b 'lheexpressioiil rO']; the ,exwrto!l' .PQ~tmt.ial 1(2.8)1. Diffe:fte:ntia~~OD of V yieWdis

Jf' f' x - Xi 4 .'

V;I1 = -G I I ----p-dm: - j:nGp(x - '"o} e~c"


As q -. O. h.euooabo x - .:c,o = jl - Yo = z - zo' -to 0, so' t,hat we aga,in obtawn agreemen~ with the ,e;x.hi:.rio:r ease ,(2.15). The second deri vatives are ghrcn by

The g[a,'f:i~,a~ional pot.e.n~ial,a,nd its firsl d.e:riy,auiv.es are tbus siRg~e-va),lUed."fi.nite.; and eontinaous in the inter~or as well. Toe second derivatives 3ccord.ing; 'to (2 '18~ ,e:x.~dbi.t disc'Om.ti:mu~Hes [or s:udd~n c,oau\g:es in den.s;lt.y.Fo.:r the in~edor of the earth Poisson's ,diffe're,ntfcd eql!.tal'iO'J]: is


wh:ich .foUows from. (2.18)..

2 ... 1.4 CentriJuiealr A~ce!leliatie.n, Cenui.fug,a,pvleuli:al

The, ,ooliltrifuga] force arises as a, res,ult of the rotation or ~.be earth about ~:ts ,a,xis. We assume helle a. rota,t~o:n, ofconstant ,angular veloc41Y (0, abou.t the rot,alional ,acx'is, which ~s' fu:rt'her'llss.u:med ~o be' fixed 'wiU'W. rr.,e;s_pect to the e,arth. Ttl,€: centrifugal aceeleratioa

acdng on. a unit: mass is directed outward :perpe:ndic~uJar.lytothe ,spin ax:is, (Fi,g. 25) The ,angrdQr' v6'iod,ty

ru == l~: ,8,6 l 64. 10 s = 7.29'21 J 5 x 10-5 rad s-]

is known with hmgn accuracy from as:lnmomy [4.1.3].

U the s-axis of' a.n earth-fixed x;y,z--sys:tem coincides with the axws: of T,otat:iom, then we have


" ~ ~"

: = gr,ad:. we~DtrodliJ,ce thece.ntr,ffl~ya~ ,po',tenlicd


Cl' = <I>(p)' = ~ 1'2.



DiBe,[cnlwaJ.ting twice and a;.pp.~ying. tihe LaiP'~!cja;n Qpe;rato,1j y~elds

,64). = 2oj'~.

The amdytk~ fu:nc'tloD. ~! as. opposed to V (2J '1),.w;s, theeefore not harmonic .

. forpoints on the 'e>q.uatof (lHhe ea:r1:h. thece:llt'li~uga~ p'oitellli~W3i] hUilll{.a~l~e ,of II "'" tl x U)i5 M2 8-2 a~d [he C~!l.trirt!~l'!!la;coe:l~ra~.ioli1! i!i Z= Itl1 = O;03ms-:!! 1(~~l3:% elf gu:vh,altwo'll~. At the po]~: tl' .:;;; O~ .;::' ;;;: 0\


.2J . .5 Gr.allil3' Aece1Jeralion, Gravily PeteRtwa~1

Thegravi'[.Y'tlcceler,tuion. or ,gra:vity II (Latin; gr.avitas) is. the resllJ~taot of .g;r.avrntatio:o ,#}' and centifGga~ .. acceleration % I( Fig, 2..5);

g.;_;; h +:2l ..

The d:irec~io.n ofg .is k.llJowo. as the dire,Cl.io'l of d~e ,l:lflNO lfne;ch6magn~tude g """ II! ms,caUed. t.h.e gr.a:vityi,nt~nsjny (ofl!cn just g[.av:i.~J'). Usi.ng (2.8) and (2.22), the gr-avi.ty

- - - -

pOI~en,tiaJW of the e,a.rth becomes

f-J-'f-' .. 2-

_ .! _ ,M -

w·~ Hll') .~. V' + '(J) --:: .a, .1. I tdV +T p7.,



The gr.a vi.~yacce.~e~.Fati.o!l1 ts,gJveo.by

., = grad. HI-

HI and its Iil:st cieriva,li",es are .:s.~ngle-v.ah!led • .finwtJe.and eeatinueusas a oOIl:seque,nce of~he ch,afac~eif~s;tlcs 'fl.Ft! and '., with the eJ.':!(lepit:~on. of the 1l:n~l]Jt;eres~in,g cases r-i!>' 00 (~h.enB]s;o (I, -f. 00)1 a:n:d. y = 0 (d][if:ctmom. or~he lpll:.unib nne i,sn:o~ uniq!Je)~ The second deil:i.vaUve.s posses di:scondnlJii~ies ,81,~ abrupt density variatiens,

[n geodesy" th~m;QSl ~Mpor~aJ,n[ su:rface: Qlf d~sooln.Hrn~~tyis. the phys;ic~] :!!ur.f~~! Qf ~he eadh w~th :a.j~mp' :in de:ns~t)i' !rrom p = 0.'0013 .g"c;m.-J ,(defills~~y of:a,mr') ~Q p = 2.7 g ·CJl.l~l (:me~f.l ,d~:nsit.y 'Clf (h,e upper ,c;r~st of ~~tl ea:riUh),

Fmm 1(2.19} and (2.23~we obtain the ge1:i1eraliz,ed .Po~sson ,dWe.rel.I~·iaJ e!qNQ,~i(.m:


In t.lbe extel!'i(l'~' space to = O.megIDe-cnimg tli:l,e density oil the ,a:~r)" it tams :intll' I'he g,entralized Ltlp:',tlce ,dif1e,r~miial 6,qNalioJt

It. W = 2m,2,. (2 .. 28)

.B!:caU8e .of ~bef:l!iII,t'lel:l!~ng ,~t 'lhe po]~ ,and the ,oontrifugaW aoreWemtjon, 9 'Yanes ,on the .surfacl!: ef aJII earth e~I,ipsowdbe~;wee:Il'9.'78 ms-2 (eQI!!.Iia:[Or)1 a,ndl-9.U ms3: '(pole).

2.2J DeliniilioD a:nd Plloperoes ,of Lel'eil Swfaees The s!IJ,r'lacC's of OO:Dst,aD~. ,grmv.ity :pot,cndaI

W =w(,.) = 'COP_st

are de~dgll,a.~ed as ,eqzdpo'l,entiaJj, fe:LJe~~ or g,e,opou?lJr"StJ,1 sur/aces t(geops) or gravUy. As, ,3 result ,Qir an ,elemental d .• sp.~ammWlt as" 'the potential. ,WffeJrenoe or fhe dUfere:a.tjaJjly ~epa:lI',a ted :Ie:vel surfaces ~f ig .. 2.'6)~s, ,gl'fGn" ~:m view' or (2 .. li6)~by


T.Ile'lie~Ore, tile deri vSli'll'e ,o:f the ,~ra,vity potemui:a~ in a ,ce:daio d:~recd()iD is, equal to tlll.e proj:ecti'an of the gr,avily along this direction. If ,ds is taken along the [e\i'e~ sudac:e 'W = ~,;the,El it fo]J,ows from ,d'W= 0 that fllilegra.vity IIms perpendi,cula.r· to W' =. ~" The~evel surfaoes are i.m~e.~Siectedperpe.Bd~clJL\lady b,' the ,ptrIJt:i'l)i ."i¥<!'es; tbe~a:lilgeDt to the plumb l:ine has already been defined in [2.1 .5] as the ,d'iINu:lfon o{ the p,tumb line. If ds 'E!'!, d,~rected .aloll1l' the ou,teJi' cSurface ,f'!!o'rm.a~ ". then becaase QiOs{g, If) =- 1. rhe (onow~ng impo/r~a:I!iI.1 (l'tfEerential [1eladonship e.xis~;s:

dW = -g'd.n.

f2 . .3I)

H J;H'ovidies die link betweenthe poti!ntiai d:ifference: (a phys~ca:~ quafii.tity) and th,e djf[er~n~e,m_ heigbt, (8, ,s,oometric quantity) or neighboring ~evel surfaces,

S~Qce'only the p.rojectiICf.n of ds .:tWong ~he plum.b lin;;eot'ef,s in. 1~2, 3'0)., d W ~s independ,m't. of the palh .. Hence, no w,ot'k. ws dO!n~ for,!: a di!ip~a.oem.efit ,alang. Ii!. ~eY'ld ~uda<ce W = caRiU.: 'the level surfaoos i.rr:efNjuiltbrium surltJ'Ce:;.

~+- ....... ......1.i. ~EQU I'POT,ElrN:TI A l $UltR,~A(ES

W .;;;. !(!O'riJsJ.

If g varies '(N)] a level. stlW"€aoo~ then. ~ccon1~Iilg 1,0 (2 .. 3,~.) the distance d~t to a nei:g'bborin,g ~e:!/Ie~ surface m ust also ebauge, T.he.m~ore1 ~lwe: level slJlffaces are ,mo~ pantne~ and d:u::l phunb ,Uli,esare sp~ce~ C'UI:(,V,l,':ijl" A~ a eenseq Ulence .of an irn.cr,e~s:e of OJ),S filS: -s, ~ng,rav~ty frOilitl1 the equatoe to ~'he po.ies.~h.e~eve~ surfaces of'theearth ,co~ll~er:ge ~owa:rdU\le poles (F.ig. 2.7)1 .•

The millati v!~ decrease of ~~~ di.shu'n;~ be'lwee~ two ~e1,!ie.l ~u:rfiilQe-5 !m1Iea:r the: eart:h f[n(]lrR ~:be eQIIlli1!i.lito.r [jail Urue pole ~s: 0'11 ~heOl!d.er' !~f 5 xm-1!.T':wo :Ie.vel, SW:rf~£l~ w!tIJ~ch areWOO"O m ap.art 51t the equ:a~Olrh~;!i',e: a dil~~;afiiloe of OInl.y 99 . .5 ttl. ootW,OOifii theM at the poles,

The ~ev,eil s,u[fMe;s inswdc: the eaeth :a~din it~ ff)!Ore i:N~e(Uai'le exterior space .i[[1Eld.,rued,. ,spherorid.aW l(res~mblit1!g a :!IiphereJ, surfaces .. As aa outer 1imil. in ~hie[iearum of the defl~ddo.i'J of gra:v~~Y.Omle may co:rns~de:r that. level. Sqjjll':Face :fOil wlti~h ~itegir3J.v.j,~:a,tkmaJnd ,c:emw~r.ifugal aeeeteradons ~ill tifule equ;a~olri:a~ p~ane Ci!:lIlIce~1 ,each otbe.r.TiirI,e; equa~ori,;}~ :r;}dit!:8; of this surface hm· a value of42200km.

The concept of a i}eveill s~:rfaJce WaJS introduGed by J\4,II(IC' LaI~'~iI'l: (1142)~ whellea:s .. O.a~r.(,JiIl[ (1743) thom~gtdJ discussed "'!Level Sudaces; a~dPW~mb Line-s" as awho.l!!:. nR.U!'\!s (I. :8,7S.) p!,d fo:nb ~he dcete~tni:~a[il@'f1 otl'the exterior level. SIU,!Ff:a·ccs rnn theirendre~y as dlLe r~lIilidla;IT;lil!:[ltal prob]~1:D of Ecodc;sy.

2.2.2: A.nalydca~R'fip:liesentati'o:n of l.e¥e~ iSllJrra.ces

From. thiep.Fope'rt:i.es of the potential ~!.i!ncdol1J W' ."""WI(I)I [2J .. :5~],,~t~OU'OiWS t.h,a~n~e I.evlel. surfaces e:x,~e:mding oomp,let:e'~y~n the ,extlerJ:or :space are a[!l~dyt:iica18I!Jdllll(le:s;. that

.".~~·''''-!c.-b. ~- -: '--, ... ~ "I"e ,- ~ ,ei - ,,:',c -. tlar -"'''!i[i'~'"', Level .. U .. r"' Si e'l!'tend~'fiIl'J nartiallv or

.IS. uwey nave no ",adn,~ a.r "Jug,u .ar .p ..... I •• ,~". __ ' I ,, __ , •. 1< _ - .... ---~-.- !li> r--·--.---- ..... c

c:omiPl,e~ely fnsf,d'e the earth exhib~t~ di:8coIilti:IUJ'~t,ie!!i, in tbe second derivatives ,I~ density irre,gu~a:rmHes" These surfaces can thus be ,constructoo. ml~Y from pieces .of dil~['~nt Olnabtic.a~su:rf3Cles.Fo:r a 'C011lt:bruuous passage fimm. !()Ine surface segm,iCiIlt to a,nQ~he~\ tllilJe c!arvature [2 . .2.3-] cnilul\g:eS d~sconti.nuous~.Y'wU.tiJ. the second derivatives. The analytical p!3i,r~s or t:he level ~.UJ;:races· cantle expan.ded, in TI,y~or series.

Weint:roduc:e: a tocal Car,£,es,j:an s,s~em at the; attracted plJ.~nl: P (F.~@~ 2.8)L T~.e 'z .. axis coincides wHh the direction ·oJ ~he :plumb nne and poin~s '~owa:rdl~bl,'j .2l~nilh;n~e

.x{no:rth) and 'y(eaJs~) ,3X'e8 'spa:n the (honZiO'lll~al) plane tangent iio 'the Level surface a'[ P .. 1'l:ds, ,as.t:ro(no.milCany ,oriented r,~fer'e'Doo s,ys~em (~d'1:.~halilded. s'1s~em) ws also k:m.own asthe local aslj",OrJOiI'J:l~~C 8yste,'I1I-, d. [30,l.2.].

In. the: D,ei.ghborlilood of .P', W(x. J.', .:z) is developed mto a series: (

l.lil w." W' II'AlI '1'.11" iUI :2 W·'· 2 U/' 2.) ~'ll/

,,. =, '-'P + _.'- ~x + 1'1'71 +, HZ': +- 2~t-!':uiX +~1J1Y- +!'II'~~Z "'" i'~;O:fXj'

+ 'Wx:xz -I- W"i!;Y'z + ...

Here, '~" W~i "be'. represe:m~ the pa.rHam dler~'I',a~iv,es. at P. If t:t:lle calculation poiu~ is OD the level surface, then neglecting n~nns 01 third and higher order and because

'W ::;; ~- W~ =~, = 0, w~ = -(J

~t foUo'Ws that t.he e:.q,I,Ul~iGi.n of 'this sLu'face is

, + 1: EJ'I' -.·2 - Ull" -~) + w.· -,-- _l_ , ••• - 0

-gz , - I"rc .... X .... "11',,-,' ' ;iIt"XY'lF-'

2..... • ~


2~23 CunllNr,e or Ih Level. Surfsees

1111. order to derivethe curvauire ('I(the level, surface at 't.bepo,mnt P we lntroduee the vertical plane deI1j_n.,~dI by the suefaoe normal (direction of "the phl'wihli_ne) at P and a secomd po,iintns, inb.~{Fsecth)ln 'wilh the ~eve~ sarfaee ronns, Iprna:ne 'curve" ~he' J'1,orma! secdoH,. The direction of t'hc[ll!O:nnal section is given bythe angle .m.easUiredill 'the harWZJ()'Dlal plane between the .x~axis and the normal section .. This angle is ,caned the astrmilomJ;c ,(.I_Zi:W-Ili~h' A (F:~g. :2.8). The curvature ,of the normal section. (no'1',nil{;d cu,r-Qa~ ,t~r,ell c:a:o, lle determined for :SiDlaU d~8,~aIIICf!S s frem tbe geome~trJcal r,e]'ations of f'~g. 2.8:

~ 2z

RA, = ~ Sl'

1(2 • .13)

Here~RA is the radius of carvature. ]ntrodu.cing fh.e p'lanepo~ar. coordinates X= sC!QS AJ Y = s sin. A

and 8ubsti.hl1t~rng (2.32) .~.ead,sto

;f:) .••. ~,.= ,_! fW~;.; ,eos2 Ai +2~Jj Sill A1 CQS A +. Wv~ 81m2 ..4).

ftA' - -


The mannal curvahaJro 3~SUnleliiIS, extreme vwues i:n. 'the mutually pe:rpeD!dicu~al!' direct,!;Of':; zy.f ,pr,i~C'tpal c:~t~au:tre.f'l:'om a.consirle:[atiom. of e::x.b:emas!, we find Uud rO'.1I:

_ -, .. - ;II ':It'

theirazn'nutbs A·~ anu A. 2 ~. A·l± 2'


~a n 2.4 I.:.l = 2, .. ~Ji .

Wu _ W;)l

The curvatures :in the x- aud y..,d:h,"ecdoD:!l, (A, ""'" 0 and A =1.801") ar1e ,~~ven by

'~, W~~ 1 W

- "'" '--", -:= -~ ~2.36-)

,R~ g' By g

when~ Rx;~ .Rbl are-the ooi.F.r.espo.ndmg radi.i cun,atulle. (2.34) to' (2.36) [c~veal the conneetten between the CUFvatU[,e of U1ll.;::~evel surrac-es· andth.eseoond de:.nva,Uves of llll.e gra vity pote:Wl~iat


l.2.4 Cun,a~iure of PI.IIDlIb :Lines

W'G s~aF~ w~th 'the cl1tr:!.l~[·urJ€ :!J8l'tow of tiile p~'umb Hne

( .Xli .). (COS A.)

," = ," .. 1= It ' .• m 14.1.

1/' -0


whi.cllilm.es a:long the :pif~:ncipal, llo,rmal, to ~he .p~umb Hne .. Here " denotes tl':!,e second derwvaHV:6wilh respect ~.o~he:ar'C~e:rng~h oW t.he :plllJ,m.b Hne~ ,II( is the total l(lurvatu:re and A ~s the ~ziP'.i q;}:~h()fthc;l :pd~dp~ln(l'rm,a~ bill. ~he: h()dzo.f!I.tal plane. We obtain. the ecmpcnents of ,,.iI' by d.i:lIeli,f:nt:iiat~rDIg~he gra vi~y veeter

(w )

. '~!b

] .

1/ ......

r =~, W' ..• ~.-t: .'.1' o .

'r,II:~ rl~t

If'~= rlf.\'.;


gicos A 9 sin .Al"

and the ,a.zim:uth' or i tspri:ncip,a,~ normal



w..Ai = arc ta:n I~:=:;




-- ~=.


"".l: - 'I


fiespective.~y, where l( = K; +":. (238) to (2 .. 40~ silo/ow t.bat t:becurv31ture of the ph.al'mb lines, also dependson the; ,seoo:md derivlltives, offhe gl',avit)' po~enHa~ .

.. :2 ~ G . - G-\ d' t ,,~.;;;I, ',ravity . '. ra' I.en

The gravity vecaor expressed in the local astronommc system, c,f: [3.:2: .. 2]~ is given by

:gT = ,(gr,ad Wl~· "". (W", Wy,. - '~}, (2.4ta'),


-w~ ...

=W: ..

, .,


Since tbe gr;a.vity fie.ld is i:rro't.aUo.na)~ we have:

~y = WYX'i ~:: = ~.z'. H!:.ll: =W~)'," (2.4h::;)

Tailtinl.!:, P,Qlj,ssorn,'s; dJllerentiat equation (2.2'1) intoaeecum we recognize that (2,41b) only oonta~:liIs fi.ve mUluaHy independent e:~em.ents. They are c,IQse~y relared mo 'the curvature olthe ~ecve~Slurfaces and the :phJmb lines.

The gradi,e'Hl' of Ol'!(lvi.t,ll

dgj ax).. W~~)"

grad (J' = ,a. 9IfJY., I = -We .·.t~

. {jn/iJ2' HI.,,,

~, -_


descr~bes th.ev,ariation of gra.vit.y :in theb.or:izonta~p~ane aad in Ibev,ertical The nu¥i2:,wU'al ff~dieut (Fig . .2.9i), formed bytbe oomponelilts fJgl,o.x a.DJd ag/o', poin~s, i:n ~he d.rection or the ma~limum increase in gravilyin the bori..zontal plane.

The il7er,,'rctd compone-'l:" o'g/Ol. = - W~;! descrIbes, the; varia tion of gra'lity with respect ~o h,eigbt. If we combine file ge'neraI'Lzed Poissen differential equation (2,'21) whb the mean c~rv;l3I,turre

H'· = :-21. ( •... 'Rl +.~. ) .. = - 21 (W~x + WYJ!)~

'·,xA r {J


-=- -=---~ --;- I

cemputed (rom (2 . ..36)" then we obta'in 'the f1elation f;ound by n.RUNS (,187:8)"betwee:n the vertical compcnent of the gliavity gr,l!Idmell~ and the curoature of,teve' surfaces:

o'Q'_ 2-' ·n= ="', + 4· ~ 'up 2",. ~ t"t,il ,:i 'Ii

;l- -. - .g -- ,:If c_, ~.' """ • ~-'_"'.JI


Because til~ d,eDSi~y func:t.mo:rn fJ = p(,,.')iIS, 'm.'o~ knowp weU enough. thee gr.3vitat:jonail potential ,of the earth II" = VI(r) ,canno,' becomputed using (2,.8). However, as a soil:il'tl!on oJ La,pilace's, d:i!l'eren,M,a~ 'equ3,nifcMl 1{,2, 11)1, aseries expa.msion of TV is 'possilb~e w'b~cb is convergenl in the space exterior to the eartb (e.g. HOBSON AJ931, S.UL A,W9:85~.

2.3. t ExpansioR.f the Reciprocal D:istanee AppmyioS, the ~a,w of cosines E,Q Fig. 2.1. we obtam,f)

f ,.,. 1 m (. (,J)"2. .r' )' -2

1 = (r::!+ ,/! - 21"1'" cos ~)-~ = r I_I, +,r ~ .2 I' 0015 ,"'I

~O[ the reciprocait distance, a.ppearring, in (2.8~ between th,e:aUifac~edpOih:n: ,P' and the aUF,acting iPoin~ .P'. Here, '" is 't,be cennal ang'te between .1" :and. ,P~.



Tbe PHcos ,I/!) m:e:preseol pO~,!f'nomiai8 -or r:1I degree ~n oos~. They are known as Legemlr.tJ' pofYHmnials (z,onal h:a:r-mon,i:c jiutClioil1.1i),and th~,.. are compu~ed Jor 'the, argo,··, ment l = cos I/J by means, ,oF

11 _"i

~('~' .~. U (-z ,t

~1~:1 = , I , - x d-', .~- - 1.).

2 X ,1~Jrf!

If we interpre~ rIt· to bethe s:,.becica~. d'lsta11lGe 0',(1. a.unjt sphere:between.~:he auracted. :poin.~andl~he ,aUracU~1 lloin'tj 'then aocom:~ng to Fig .. 2 .. 1.0 a:nd using ~be :sphericaJ coordhiJ;!l~eS introduoed .. im [2.:1 .. ,2]~ the fo,Uow'ing rela.Hons:l\dp e.x:is:ts,:

00,s: I/! = oos9 C08 ,9,1+ S~]]I J) 8~n [P 'cos(1.' ~. ,A:)~ 'Tbe l(:orr,espondwng deco'mp()8~Hon ,o.f11(005 IjI) leads to

,P!'(CQS ")= ~fcos 6tJP~(c,{lS ,9/)1

~ (f -_)'~

+·2 _r (~- ~\; (~'~I~COS J;:) cos rnA '~i~1 'cos a~) cos mA'

!!Il'''.~ "+ ,Jt~, •

+- ·Pirn.(,eos 8) sin. 01:)1 ·~m.(lcos 61') sin mil

Here, the Pj(!)a[e again. ttiJet.e,gendre po"IY11U.lmi,a~s with .argnme,t)t t. 1= cos 3 or l= 00'$ t)', Tile a,'j\sodah~dLflg€'Jdr'e' fun,ction~ of ~he fl'rt!.l kind Prat!(t'l (I = degree" m: = order) are obtablled. by dift"etreodadng Pr(t) m dmes with ,fespect to l:

W,e, complete the expa:n:si(liJ} o~~jE ~y sllIostit,l1ltifl.8, (2 .. 47) :i.n~o :(:2.,4.5). The :fU!:n.ctio.ns

d.e:pe-n:di:llg on lJ and )~ are known as (Laplace"s) !lrJrface ll:!!lt'moni:cs .. They char,~ctell'ize ·th~oobavil)f' ,o.£.a f~ncdofion. a. Ufij~ sphere.

Aner subs~,i.t!J'ti:ng the8pibe~ictd ha:rmo11lic expansion (2.4.5)1' (2.47) of :1/1,. we ob~a:ln for

_ -

the gr,ay:i.~\1,tjl!()I.m,a~. pot:en~.i,al. (1.8)

For i = 0, the i:nteg[ationy~elds Ute pot.en~iaJ or t.be eartb's mass lid concentrated ,at

- '_ - .

rhe cen~er or mass 1(2.1 J).We ex,t:~iliic:t this term, introducerhe sem.im,ajQfax'is of't.he

earth eUipsoid ,3,8, CIi, OO':IUi~afjt~ ;a.m.d denote the~ntegra.~s ,of the mass b:y c.lf.Il·' S/m (harmonic.ooemctents). Tbegrav·itat,lo''IIli.d pot,ent~al expanded in spberica~ harmonics rus then wriUen as



{C,lm"}·,.. _ 2,'. ' 1(/.' - ,~;:I:)~ I-SI. - (r.i)l c i,,-" ".' {OOIS Tn. A.,}, JI

_ . = ~ x , 1 - I ftllH,(COS 'Lill" I • I . £I'm

'['I I M' (f + ---11.. - .'. "'In- 'w,~·

"',IIiI" ,.' ~ rn,." _ "", '."'._' on!'l.

- - ~.i"'1i

Particularlyin sa,t',elli,f,e g'oode:sy",the ,coeffi:cjen~s ,J, = _. e", ·Jrm = - elm'

K,·--. = -5.--

Iml I,m

are g:ener,aUy used.

The J!i:tl.l_v nO'H,lal'i,2'ea lJarmonics P!m.(cos 8) are :i,dS(]i em.'pll,oyed frequently, These m.ay be' computed from. ~he cOJl'ven~i!()f.lla~ harmo:f].lcs, 1(2.46), (2.48) ,ac-cording to'

~ ". ,,' ' ,_ ..,1 _ "n:)'!. . . {' -m 'for m = 0

Pl"..(cos ISI)I = "k(21 + HO I P!",,(,cos, 51}, ,k = 12 r._,. . n.

, + m). ~or Nil ¢ '1,1.

1n .addidoD 'to ~he Of'U:il.ogon.a~i~y :reia:ti,o,n.s ro,t· the s:ulfracelh.arm.oDics~ 'YI'e now aW:so have

1 f' 'f (-...... .{. cos ,t1I:A.}. ):2,~ - 'jl

-,I . ·~ftI' ._ __,' ,~O' - w,

~:lt ,_ " - I sm R:I'A.. '.'


OVe..1 tbe twi'!li~ sphere ,(1. eo,:rf,espondiIIIg~y, the ha:rmom:i,c cooilliic:i:ents ,C~PII.S;m or the expansion analogous ~() f2-~S l) of tbe gra:v~t,i:l t.ion~l po:t,en.tia.], are ,given by

,{Cs-_·._ .•. ~.:},.·'.I.:;: _,.(I' +~).'!, .{: C.mJ",j,k = {' .• ~,. ~Clrm =.0 (2 . .5Za)1

.: ,~. k{21 -I- 1)(,1- ".n),! I Slm 2: Jorm: ~ O.

The ,e;xpa:!1!S:ioll1l (2.5-0~1 ,oonv,C!l'ges oIUM,id.e a sphere of radius :r =a wb~Gh jlust eoclJoses the ~'e-tlN:s~ri3i~ body . .As ;an'~:P'J}:[o,x,im.8!tion. silach :!I,. re!llfiesentat~on may also be: PI,p-plied! Oil the surfa,ce o:f dll~ 'e<an'h. 'It sb.Q,uld 'be :Dated 'tha~ the harmonic e.xpans;i,on is in no, ,~sevand. fo.r the Ln~erior ,of U'U~: :lIlii:Sse8. sin!:iC ~he j1l'teri,ar is Gove-rned by Po~ssllJ!n's dii'ercl:lith!!!i elq,ul.tiQ!f!, (2.~9)"

13.3 The 'Geome8iea.IMeaDing ,of iIle Sttrrat!eHa:rmonies

We oo!usider bete fhebeh,avi,or 101' the sur;lac.e harn~Qn,ics (2.49) which ,~ppea:r in 'the: ha:m:DJo:m:ic cx:pa:FJ:5i.on o.r tbe gravitational p{Jlte:rnliat

'The cQBdiUon In = 0. yields, ~he; special case; ,()f dDJeLegend.[e:PQmynomi,a~s P1(cos, ,9)". Because of ~l:1Ie~r jndepe:n,d,enoe: ofthe g;eogra,:p~:dc:a,~ 1oghud,e 1, 'Illey divide the g!Lufaoe of the: ~phere~l1!to zOlles;~m 'Which~hey have :a~~er.rHUeJ,y :p>!)i~wUve and me~E!tiv,e si~,t~s; zO!l']l,d llilrmot1:iC's. These: h.ar.monics possses I real zeros in Ute :i n,~,e:rva1 0 .s;; /J, :s;; :l'l:~ so fh:3~ ~olr,evec~l,I" the sphere is divwde,d. :symm.etr~cany w~th feSprl~tto the equator.~' """ 900; 3:DJd, rhe case For odd I rcesults inan asym.e~,dc d~vision (Fig. 2.11). 'The P~{cos ,9:) up' ~o i = 3 and, cemputed a.ccording to (2.,46) are gilven as .foUows:

3 1:- .~ '. ,:5.. J .. c .3 0

P .. = - cos s- --:-P,~' :=. ';:;.' ..... cos 3 - ;:;"', 'cos 0'.

""2 ,::r" L ...

The .P/rJ!(co~8)(,m: #- 0), have ~I - m)~ws in ~he~n:tl'Jl'!Va.~ ()!< .t}J< 'il. Because o.r the ftllddpUcadQiD, by !COStl'i:;~ or sia m~ the surface harmonics are longimd!e dependenr, fU:r.nish~.m.g 'l,n zeros in t.bei.lIl~e.liyal. 0. s: )l -e 2n:ressert:l!~ h:[l'rmO:l'!i:cS! (Fig. 2. 12). Fo.~i' Ptm'(cos .9)1 up to I = '1~ = 3. (,2.4f8:)1 'y~elds

~~~,_. ~;j;;; 1:800

l~ .' ~ !~":~'5:tri), ~'12 tc05.&) co~ ill

INg. 2.1 2. T~~~r<ill! h<1I:TtHHII~CS

28 :2 The Gravity FieLd of tlhe Earth

p~. ~ ;;; sin l}i~, P:u =' :3 a,in fj cos {},~ pl.2 = 3 :sin:ll ,fJ ..

P'.I -.in Il(~ eo,' II -~). p ... - 15 .i,,'.9 eo • .9,

iii '~IC" r : 3 (I c3.3 = ~.J tun ;1".,

Fi:ru;dly" fOIi m ;;; ,~ th...e dependence on ,g d,is.appesrs and the sp'here ls divided iero sectors of alternating s~gns: sect'orr-at ha:l"manJics (Fig. 2.,~, 3).


Tillie a.mp~hrl!i!des of the terms gi.'YIC:r.! by the sudace h!J!fMonics in '[he: grav:ita~'i,ona] po:tcn~iw cltpansioliii are determ,ined by the haffi1:o~ic ooclT:icte:nts, (2.52]~ :f'or example, the se'Ii~, has, ,c;nilly zonal hiilrrmoDJics, for an :earth ro:t.a~ionan.:y ,sYHlJmeUic WI't'h respect to theY = 0' axis; th,e: C'Iii' 8ij;ji ('nil, '# 10)1 must all 'Vanish. For a mass; d:istr~bil!l'llio[l which i~ symme~ric wi~h res~~ ~o t:he equatcr; 'the :w!Oiliilr harmonic 'ooefliiG'ients wi't'h ,odd If must be 3i.bsent.

Summarizing, we sta:Le that the spheric'S;I; ha'rmomic expansiou of' the gravitatioDl8Jl potential represents ,8 spcectrtd de'com:pos.it.ioH of the gr,avUadona~ field. The :ReWd is separa.ted~nto strLllctu:res ofwav~-[eDe:,t.h 36Ul:l/t. corresponding, ~oa :spa:tia1 feso~ut~on of :t80Pll. Contrary to the ~:n~egr,a~ over aU masses of the: earth (2.8)" the potential is liIJOW [describoo. 'by ~bc demen~s, ofthe series. wi~h the harmcmic ooelicients as s~ific mas int'egr.als. From w,eU distributed observations, of the pot.end,a~. or .functioIDI.ds of' the potential, Ulle,S!ecoe,fEi;c~e'Jats, 0' -c 00) 'ou:n 'be determined [5 . .2.3]. [53.3.], [5.4·.,4].,

2.3;,4Physiml Meaning: ,or ~bie Lower' Degr,ee: Ha'rm,ooie C'oefti'cieftts

80mit': of the mass 'illl1te,grals or lower d.el:ree na,ve I. simpWe pb.ys:i!cal, ~Dterpre~a,ti.o:D .. To see this, we substitute the harmonic (ilmcHorns~. ~m[ fOI£' I =: 1." 2 ~nd. ,ii'.i = 0" J., 2 from. (2.54) and (2.,5.5) ~:nto (2.5.2),00.(1, s,l!I.bseq'IJently tra:nsrOFm tbe s,pherical.cCtlordinates ~nt,o Cartesian coordinates using (2.'9). This yields

C I, fff ,I d' .' ~ fff'·'.J·

I :I. =-, -,' I Z ,m~ C1 .• t =,M x urn,

aM ,_ ,_. _ ,R . , ' .' > "

~D'l."" l"iI.II1J!i1

Ii.:' m fff· 'd~' .

"'1.1 = a/vI' _ ,~ .~ }' [ m.

The inlegra]:s divided by M are the eoordinates of'tbe center or mass, of the earth. If

, -

we: p~a,oo the oIigJIIl, of the coo:rd,~IIIa'~e sy:Uem ar [he center ,ar mass, as itis Icom:lIl1only

(2 . .57)

For I = 2, we obtain

co - .~ f"'f' 'f', \'l~'ZI . .11"", e .~ f·"f·,-fll,,",,.:t n"i~ .~ ...

,"'2 .. 1, = a2M ' .. ,'~ U.... '.:!;.1 = 4~2M ..... ~... - ,J/' ,~Ui'~"

~,,#! ruu'!1i

S, .• ~ :u.! MIff x'y' dm.


These expressions. contain the mo'men'u ,qf ttle.rt.ia

A = f f f (y'2 + ,l'2),dm. ,8' = Jf f I(X'2 + z'l)d,Dl', C= f J J (X!2 + y':l!)dm and. the "r'od'Mc't.~ 0/ fHe,U'~

D' =: $ $ J y'z' d'm~ E == ,f f f x'z' dt1J. F = f J J x'y" dm

with respect to the coordinate axes, The s-axis contains the: mean axis o:frota,tion which, jf pol,3r motion [3,.1] is negleered, coincides w.th one of the p[incipa,~ axes of inertia, (maximum moment of~:nedia). 'Wbenoe •. D = E = 0 and C becomes a, principal momeD~ of inertia, :Ir we let the x"a:xw:s Icoincide w~th orne of the two p'Iincipal axes of 1:Dertia.in file plane orfhe equ;a~o.r, ~he:n. A at~d B 'becomep:rw11!cjpal rn():m~f!l!t:s or:~pe;di,a with respect to ~hese eqt],a:tori~d axes; .fu:r~bermo:re F' = ,0. SiuJCe the tocadons of tIle prirncipal axes or inertiajn the eqnator are u:nk!llown~ the' u,!lua]lr,eciko(n:iog of It'he geogra:phk 1!(Hl,gjtude~ A from, the 'Greenw~db mericiUam. is re~a.ine&

Using the moments of inertia A1J ,B, Cand the p[I"'(u:lluct ofinertia FI the harmonic 1C'.oeffic:lents may be eapressed as follows:

1 (A + B ) B~ A F

C, = "' .... '" ' .. ~i"f '.' 2 - C .. "",I. C:2.1 .~. S2.t = O~ C2 1 = S,. 1 = ~ (2.5'~)

,. ~f.""j'l'J '.' i. 4a:l:M· "',- 2Q~.M·

.J2 -=- C,:I,is, also known as the dynt.l'n1,j;c form facto"".

The naUen~ng oflhe earth at the poles, represents tbe: ,gr,e:a~es~ d:evii~.t:iou from. s:phe:ricall s)'mmet.ry .. This, ~s €::li':ident fwftIJ the aumertcat 'vl\~!!IIerO!r Cz which is three oirders, of ma81il~til!ld,ei larger Itirlanthe valuesottbe successive coeffici!c'!ltS. C2!.~3i.nd S2~.2 characienze dill: devianen ,of '[he '[,errustdal, mass dil'rr:ibuHon frQ!1l1 1fO~:atlional, symmetry .(empti.city or the ~quat~or) [35.41. [:5.3.3] ..

%.4 TeDlpor;alVuriatiollS of 'Ihe Gr.avi"ly Field,

G[av~ty clilla.ng,es, with, Umem.ay be, divided ~ntogJa:vwJfl:etric ea,rtlil tides: and. CnarD.8eS, of earth mtalion" on one band" and tellllpo,raJvariatiol1ls caused by terrestrial mass dispJacemcmts. all! the other ..

.30 2 Th~ Gr'av:ity :Fi.e~dl of the EaJr~1h!

Time dependent tidal aceelerations are caused by the IUllUlf mud solar gr.a:virational f4J.foes acting OIl difFelJleIU pans or tbe I\ota:tm.g ea[th,~n ,com,b~IillaU(lin with the effects of tbe revoluuons of the 'moon about. the e'H.rth and the earth about the SUD.. The acce~entt~on:sp.l!'oduce variations in the te[l'est:Fwa~tg;ra.vit:y field on the [()i.rdeI' of UIi-' fl. A co';mprehensi ve description '~S, gj ven by M:E'LCHlOR fA 1.9'83). Othervariations of Ule !Il"o'vity fieM in time geJ'leraUy a.!\e at ].eas,t O1il.e order' of magni~UI.de smaller ~ ham. the t~dal elTect s

2.4.1. Tid:9.1 Acceleration, Tida~ :P:o:t\lntia'i

For a ,r;fg~:{l earth. the lid,al potenda.l 'maybe determined from. the law of grav:i~a,tion and the orbital elements of'the n:WOOII13,U.d the sun ( .. theoretical tides"], see 'e.g.8,ARULS (A 1. 9[:57). The computa,ions are [carried out separa,~e:Iy jo,r the ,ea.rth-'moQ,:m. and earrbsun systems.; ~he results are swbseqUiemnyadded~ The meoaand the: sllln.in thisease may be regarded as point masses.

We introduce a, coordinate system whose ori.li.n. is at the' eanh's center Oif mass, moving with ~h~ 'earth in. s:pacei.bu.~. no~ rotating, (,..eooli!/~iQ.H witho,l~t rot[tll,ioH). AU points, of the 'eadll describe the samerotational motioa wn this system. wi~hmonth~Y' (mooIll) or yearly (sUin) periods, Henee, thecen.'trifUiga~ a.ocderat~o:D. ,BJcts :equaUy at ,:dl pointa At Ule earth's cen~Cl.of mass S. it is compensated by rhegravitaticn "0 of the moon and S,UI}, feS!pectivtdy (,eq umbrhun i:n.the :respecdve sy~~ems.). At the other :poi,lIlt8 of ~'be earth. Udal QC,ce/,eral'~'o~l:S Ii, arise betog the di.lerence bet ween t:h.e g:r.a vita UOl1!al a,oce!,eraCi,oins ," and. b'G' fF(g •. 2.14):

W'[f!, make the tran.1iit~o'rn.froml the' aeceleraticatothe ti'd'ai pOlen:tit.d' ~: '[1'= grad ~, =:: grad I( V ~ YO)I,

l' i . ob~a'ined from (2.16) as the ,g[a'y:i~a.ti:onal potential of a point mass, in which, for the case ,oF the: moon m is ro be re:p1aced, b,~he mass of the mO~Jll:l Al,U' .. Forthe d,eteml~Da.tio!n. o.r Vo; we introduce a rec~a:ngula.r coordW:D3.te syst,em with its. origin at S~ andw],1I:ose: z-axis eeiaeides wi~:tiI the ~ine jo'~nin\g Sand M. The 'p()~en;tia.~ of the homogeneous J'(I-field is, (h~n l,lJol x z.

- GMM -, _ "

1'''01 = --z- and z = I' cos tPM'


and incorpor.;.lI,tiillG the oonstant GM'M/ru (locn, the tidal lPo~C(n:~ia~~as S becomes, V, = 0 • one obtains

, ' , ",' ' (' ~, m r 'cos' ~'M.)','

V,,= GI.W~ ----, , I"

-,I ' '-.fl'tf 'oK rj~ ':

S~1iIOO for points, on ~he earth'ssurface (r = 1t)1 we have th,e, ratic r/rM' = 1/60 (:for tbe sun the ooinesponding ratio 'is 1/2316(0),the reciprocal distance


may be expanded, oouespondil1,g to (2.45), into spherlcal harmonics~'W.itb on~y degrees l' ;;,a: 2be~Elg effecti'iflei.For l' = 2 and wid) D()(j{J.~Ol~·s~idld ,constant

3_ _ _ ,.2 G,v{r) = ~, G MM. ~3

'1' rM'

(toM =1Di:atO distance ~o the moon) and cosl !/1M = loos '2,l/1u -+ l], Wle get

~: -- Gu{r)'("fM,');)l. (',',OOIS '}.I/Iu + ~)'.".,

'M'" , 3,

A corresPQJildlin; Iormula ho;lds for the tidal pote1l'tja.~ due to the, sun. For r = R Hlle tidal,' Iconsta:nlts fO'f themoen and the sun are


~ (DJ :2 6- "'1'8 - l-2 G' ~ D~, I '''iAO ,,2 --2 U,M ,n I ;;_ , ," '" 'm s -" ',:ll~A,~~, ,,,,,"-lIO. :m, 'S, ".

Hence the solar 'rides amount to' 46% .of the ~unar tide,s ..

for. sta~~Qnalijl' eanh-meoa and earth-sen S)i5,1Je:m..s, ~he: [e'Y'eil s~lrfacesof ~~e. earrtth would 'experience ,iii. deformado:n fha' is constant with [,e-sped ~o tiJne, Free'ly n'i,GVWiilig m8lSSICS ,of w,ater oOllell"ing the entlre earth w,o!!!!i~dI ,il·s:snme the !rO,rm. or one of these levem surfaces: equiU,brhu.P1 lillie. '[heY,a'fliill:tio[i;sili height ofth,e le'\l'e~ SIi!i:rf3J,ces du.e, te the 'tidlli~po~:etil1al. :may be: ,oompu~if::d II!rusil~g (2.31), For the mooa (sun), this, gives an inlC:rease of 0.36, ~ilHi,)' m a,1 if,t = OD. 18100 on the earth's surface; a'l :I/t .~ 90°. 270", there is III decrease l(!if 0.1. 8 (0.08) in.

The t,tl"lg'entiatcompo,neH~' ('po:sitilii'e in the direction toward the :m,ooUi) j~ "'If. 2

b. = ~, ::iII,,1~. = -:-:Gu(.o.') sill'll .2!j1,." r,lIY' r


Tbe .i:lnC depe:nd~n't ,clg!(llige ill gil'i€UJj:[JI - b~ {t deviates onWy sl.ightrn), .rf'O. 'the dire,edol[l, of d'D.C phlmb Hn.e}lthlllis 'varies: 'in It;be case, ,of the moon ($11111.) betwee'l'i, - :~.11(=1115) p:I'lU'-~aDd

ooftl'i, etlii'!,1iili~ ~te'


Fig .• 2.15. Astronomic triangle

+0.5,(+0.3)1 ~m:!!-:Z. 'The d.ttt'.CUOJ~ ,0/ tl'nl' ,p,turnh ll~l~ :fl""ct.ua~es on the order of ,b~/g, henee :about ± 0..,"0 17( ± O:'OO8~.

Formula, (2.,62) establishes the dependence ,of the tidal potential on thepoiSitiom oJ the moon (rjU'. 'if!.M). Th.e V:3J.IliIDa,tJjOlll of'ttilis; fi,e1d. in Urme is mere e'a.:smly .recognized. if 'we change ~o aIilleal'th~rlXiedi c(lo:rdjoat'e s,yst:em, dla~ ia, one 11'h:iU roeases with ~he earth .. According, to Ftg~. 2.15, we have

'cos I/J,!f,f = sin fji sin 8M + 'cos iP cos d;W 'cos' l M

(,p """" geocentric .Wa,(i.tu(je or ~he attracted po]n~ P, '~M = decUnadon and '~M = e - (Iu =, hour a.nlSe of the moen, (t.M (r~g:lll iIlscens.iion) and '~lII are obtained .[or the sidereal time 8' from. astronomle almanacs [4.1.2]). Su,bs'tit.u.till.g this, wOI:O 1(2,64)1 yields,

(~ ')3 ( ... ( .... '~ ). ("1 .)

.~= GAi(,)1 ~M, I. 3 •. ~ - sinl " I . ~ - sin.2 d,M •. 1

r1\:f ' ... 3 .,.] .

+ sin 2iji sin 2J" co. I" + c",' II """'Ii,,, "".21" )

~O'f the tidal poteaeial of the moon (a. corres:pnndi:mg equationmay be obtained fo'r ~hesum)"

11'1 [2.67)\, [he quawuw~~es rM", ~~M' f',g liI'liI:ry wit.b variJi,}us ~riod~. The iu:t lenti, whi~c.h isindependen~ of'the ;ea:nb'sooult1oll, exhibits long period[co.scjl~ations 04 diays: and 0.5 yeats :foll' the sun)l.hs non-per.iodi:c part. causes a ~rm,~Ju~nt defolffiunWot:l ,of the h:vd surf.a,ces (thc)' aee lowered at, Ute pole by abo!!lt O.20m and rais~d at the equator by aboUit 0.10 m)\ The sftcond term oscillates wUh dh.JiTmiial periods; the t:ld:rdl with silimid~l!im:rna] periodis .. I'tnru the plf1~e:nt. (1990) s~ilIteQ~ the artet' trudal o'bsi:irvations, the s:ph'l\::dcat harm·ollilllic expallsion ~2 .. 67]1 :mp,st ~~c'lude terms up, to I = 4 for dle mOOD, and 1'= 3 fo,r the sun .

. or a comparison ortbe ,ob,se:£V'ed andtheoretice! (rigid eart.h), tides. Dl)()D50N (m 921) decomposed tbe tidalpote:nt;a.11 of the moon a:nd sun .rnto·.a s,lI.!!m of harmenie oscmadons(p.ar,Ha'~ .tides ,(H~ waves)". wbich. are determined [by the~r .rreque'llci1es, .ampU~ tudes. and pbases .• The eX.pa:nsioD of CARTWRIGHT and TAYLBR/EDDEN U97U1.973) contains 50S waves. The-most i,mpol!'ta:nt. ones aee tbe semid~lI!nud waves M2: (moon)"

S2 (8Un}~ N2 {Gcc~.Ill{rilcity of the lunar oirblt) and U:1JC dhull,aiw3v,cS, o.~ (moont ,PI (g;i:l!In)~, K 1 ij.u.ruS!ol~al' dec1h~atl.(lil)1)., M.ore recent d,eve:lopm.elll~s inelade :more~ba:n,N)(!() ti:chd waves and enable the gravLtJ Hdes tobe ,computoo~o ±O.l nms=:'! and better (e.g;. TAMU~A .m9:87j.

l.4.2 Ea:rttih Tides

The paIlitiaHy elastic body oftbe earth is de~O.rm.ed by the ddles; lfdesof ,r:he .SCI~'id ear't'll '(earth tid:e~); ~e e.g, T,OiMASCIIEK (A.:~1951J~ME!LCHIOIlt U9"74), ZUR:N a:ndWn:';RELM I~ ~ 984),. Fora sphericaUy sym.l1Il,et[ic, :lU::Hil,-rO'La'l"~:mg e~l:sdo bod.y.! ~he earth's t~des are described by the theory o.r ,[.o:ue.

Under U\ie hdl.ueDlce (If the tidal poten.Ha] Tt;(2.641 th'e e!al'U~ is, defo:r.med.~n a, radia'E d[re:edon (F~g.2. 16) bya fr'a,c~i!on of dl,eva,ria,b,on A"jin U1i6 h~v!e~ slurla.(:es,

'. ... t~ ~

AJ"i!J = hAr~ =R-,

.. . 9

As a. conSleq,ue(['loo ofUttim;:w dj:su\~brlJt~('iif! of m~~s~ the lelMl ~urfa(!es. of the ~u~Ubrlum tide HI + ~= 'canst are tl,e!arnil(ul'; fhe add:iUolDJaJl po~eil1da.~ is,pmpoFciiouaJ ~o 'I";:

Tile dle~o.rmat:i,ons or~he earth In tlbe /J:o,r'iz,otu',ai di.lllectkHlIarepmpO[~lio.nam, tiCl! ttiil,e 11l0dzo:.Iil~a.l Uda,~ acceleratieas (x = north, }I' = e:asL)~

1[1 (2.68) to (.2.70~ the (dimcn:sio:n'l!css), Love' par,amelers h, ki i U is also ealled Shida ll'Um.b~!r)Ie'FI~e:ra;8 p:['Io'PlJ.rt~onality ~:adiQirs. Tbley depend 00. the density andrigidlity in the solid earth. For a ,ltomog'B~ao~s s,lulr,iccd e:afth~ k = 0.6h= 2E.

Fora. poinlt on. 'theea,li"~h's: surfaee, U\le ,gf'a,v~ty po'Eeodalisahe.ood by thie;amoullts ~~ 'Vd due to the ~h:h~':St and a:~ :at ffiSUU of tbe cbange in potential dllle~oAri!1\I':


By ~1,l'er-en~laUmg with respect eo r~ we obtah'ru the radial' (lompo:neifl~ of the t:~dal a<ooele!!:~H(lIn, Under the: assll!lm.ptio!.n. th,a:~~d' can be ,te'piMse'ntedi by at s::piJer:ical har-

'r::!e ..... _, - , -., ~.-~._ {.I

_ ...• """, ", 1 i5I;,!,'<..1!~ ...

monic of second de.srec., ~t is Jound, us.~n! (2.65}. tha.t

b"I'I)/D= a~l = (1 - ~k: +~)br.

The la,M:gil!tuial oompo:n.en~ is !j'l!i'~n by

"..av~.r, ... ." .. ,

"il't"dl =- . :=.' .• ,l... = (, ~ + k ~. h )b~.

., • rvy.. ..


rh~refQr~~ d~~ to Unli .nexjbiH~y of U~~ eanb's ~urfacl}~ the o(J,bsiilrv~d d,fl'via~iQr~ 1)/ d~e iV€'rtioalb't/l(eJ)/ f)'is smaUe'!:' fhall thetheoeetlcal oae,

The ,a.mpi,itil)lae Jactor~ of tbe 'llr.incilPal waves :may be ob~ainedl by (2.,12)


;)= 1- .; k + Il ~ ~ 2···'



Illsing a dUme~eF, FiIITlIUY." erteusometers de~]'\Il;,:r Uneal' c(lmbilIl,atlo!llS. of i1 and. t. TO,~ether ,\\vit:h.mheseamplitudefaiC,t:o,rs, one ca:n, de~e'.f'min,e tlileaccom.panyiillg: p:,ha:se shiGt between the obse~n(led and the ~he()~edca~tjdes [4,,2.'15],

2.4.3 Ocher Te'::Q)po:ra~VariadoDs or 'the Gn'fityField

Bes~des tbe ~iides. the t;errestf~alg:r;lvityfie]id. [51, a:rre'C~ed. b;y anumbes of addi~iQna~ dme depemde;Ill.~ pmoosse..s:. Changes in grav~ta.li:ioDlar:e caused by fhe s.~~lfr.i".g ·af .r.l'u:r;s's in, 1t.l:\Jeatmos;pi1ere~ i 0. ~he oeeans, on the selid SIJIII'.raoe of nile earth.~and. in itsin.t:er,i.o.r. These changes IC8ri11 occur im'l!i',ilI,r.io!!ls fo'rms (aibrlllpt.peri,od~c 0.[' q·l!!.atd~pe:ri(ldi.c,. secular), Their e:tJec~ atthe earth's ;SUIf~ace' can II:>e local, l'e,gloQlnaW~ ofgmoba(~ wiitlil .ampl.itlildes, seldom exceeding 10-a: g (e.g~ TORG:I:l A:1989'). c,Qlrlsequently" research alTIld m.odeU:ng in this .ne~d isstill atits beginning, This refe;rs also tJ{'D· a,poss:~ble: secular cbaDg~ of the :gravi~al~o'.Ela~ oonst.an~. The eauses of these !p:roceSSe:5. their vanatwo:nmn Hr:ne~ a.nd how they are recorded win be taken llP~l1I the n,eatme;nt o.f,gcodyn:ami!cs [55 . .5]. Tbe v3.rws.tioflS of the ,Ct'l"!.£f,ifugal acc€~'Il'l'r,al:iO'I:I~ caused. bonllbypoia~ motio:[J, [3 .. 1] and by t~.e changes in the earth·':sr,oi~aHilDn.a~ ve.l.oci~y [4J .. 3] ,coul.d only be recognized. im 1om,g-~er:m gra.V'it:y rocordiin,gs or tlrngh IOCUiFi3iCY,

From observed 'qUj~mUHes and th.rough, subsequent geodetic co,mpu:tatioos. one attempts to ,detern:dn,e the paF:ame~ers of the physk:aW c'arUl's sur€i}Jce 3l11d th:eex~e:rl1lal gravi.~y fleld1 as WI;lU asthe me am earth en~pSiOi~d,. To, this end.rere~renoe ,sys:tem.s have to be introduced. They eonsist ora coordinate sys:t,e:lllw'iUUi deuned, metrie and curvature. ,and its realization ~~hrol!lgh :Ell, 'Sei~ 'Gf ,coo:rd~na~es:'o~ re:fer-eD!oe pOi~nl:S. of:

GAP'06c~nUN and KOL-ACZ!EK I(,A, 1. 9'8.~ ~.

Because ,o:f t Ih.~ s:pa:tia~ f(iJomr[Jlat~oln (Iif tt:le prob:I,em." tl'''lIu]""dimeHsiooH-a1 rrz/er,6Hce sy:ste'm.s aee used in geode-s;y. The t'errestr.i:al sY8len,l: used for de~e!rmi:n~ngpos~t~ons, a,m:d~he e3J,rtb's g[",avi~y ,fie~~l, ~s, fllXed.wwUlrespeet to ~he e~F~h's, body. It js de-scribed~n ,Iglobal'l spaUa.[ Co1ute;slan ooordilill,ahl; sys:~em., The tii:mJevaria,tions, o.h~:is ,sy8~emwUb respect Loa quaS~';~De:r~l,a~ system are contblJ!UOililsJ., mOf)it.O'.md [3.,IJ. Te;F.restrial. obOO"~tiQDS ,orien~atJed~n.the e.arth~'sgnnf~ty .fie~dl have 'to' be t:r,ans£orm.ed lute Ulis g~obals1stem [3 .. 2] .. F o.rappiUlcatiions IngeodeUic and plane s:ulI'v,e:.Yin~~ ,as 'W!eU as ~F:I fnG!!!t ,ap'pU~tion$~ heJgh~~; ,~U'I-e deJiim~ In the g.ra:vi~y :fidd.andreferr·ed. to the .~'}',e.oid as zere eeferenee 1[3.3].Fof describi:ngposltiorn.s Oil tlbecurved surface o~ the earth, ~wo~d:[m.ensional ooordinate s,:s~e.m.s. a,lI',e iftlt'["ocl.u:cedL The:y :refer W tbe ro~a'tio.Jl!ai ,ellr.p's1Jidas [ef~['en{)e su![~a!Oe. andi.may eas;Uybe extended to thretHiirneiF:Ision~d e:n:ip-' ,sowdla~ sys.uem:s [14c]. By i:nchmd:ing phys~ca:~.pa,mmel)ersja filo,rlnaigmfJUyfie.t.'d' is, estab .. WislllIfd ,rO! 'ti!J1,S ellipsoid which Ben~s as a reFere:m!oeWo['~he actual extemal :fiJeld [3 . .5]"

.As a,fU!nd,a:m.en:~al tell:-rest.riall oooIFidin,l~es, sys~eim,. one~flltrod!Ulce:s: a:n ea:rth t!'lixed spatwal Cartesian sys~e:rnl. (X~ Y,Z) whose o'rffigin is '~he earth's ce.fl~e:r of mass ,s '(:geoce'lilter. center o.f massinduding ~be<ma:ss, oir~he .a~mos:phere)~, Fig. 3J .. The Z-axIs ;Qohl!t,;~des with the ,me,RN ,rot,adolllal' axis o.f tlile ,e:adrn.

Themean eqiU.a.'~o[da~.p~anepe.rpe:lild:i:cuJar~o~his axis .Forms, the X f~pja1i!e;. The X'.Z'-pJane isgenerated by tbe mean medeJ!i,an p~ane o[Oree;n:wlch. Tbe:~8ue'[" ~_s. die.fined !il:ytne' mean rotadol1l!a~ axis a,[ld the 2'erv ."~er,l:dian oftbeBIH (1,I:l.realJ. In'temat~oI!la.~ de ~~Heure:l'ldop~ed . .liongiittl.des ("ilMe(m'" ,ob£e:ril.l{;uoryo! Gr,ee'l1I.w.jich). T.h.e Y-a:xis is dire(:~oo 50' as ~.o obt:a~:[II.aF.i8ht ... til3,nded sys;~em. The lnt:mdu:cdoIll of a mea:n rotational 3,X~S ms :necess.ary '~au~h'ci the course o:f t~:[ne~ the rotation of the earth chang,es w~th il'espec~ to t.he e:a,rtlfs,ibGdy. Th~s applies te the: po,sitioll ,of the earth's retation axis I(pol:armodo:m.) andte ~be a:ngl!:l.~a;rvelocity of the .m~at~(Ii,I!l, d. [4.1.,3], MOIU'JZ and MUEl.1J1R (A~.98'''1)1.

£loia,,., mQfio,n consists of several oompo:rnenms (E"AMIEC1<. A 1'980):

A ~o.ewhJ!l~ CiFClIlIma['RlJot~ofl. of I~~e inssantaneeus pole ~n 31. couw~ercloQk.w~se se'flse I(as viewedi ft·o. ~:lrue m1Iof~h) 'W.i:th ,31 period of about 430 dalys l!ind ~:n. .3!mpli.tud~ ,af o:.~ ~o 0:'2 (Cha'Ml.er ,eri,od~i,s, d~e~o the fact t:ba~ tlhi~ pril!];c:jpall a:K.rus of ine,ril:~a, ·of the eil!lf~;h does tM)l ,coincide with

')( . ,Fig. ,1.1. Geocentric eal1b~fili.ed X, Y,Z~Sys~!e'm

t he s~~n axis, Fer a ri:g~d earth, wh~s leads to ,it gYIrr.at~on of the li'O~;3t~oitl,ai, ,~)!.i~, abo~t ~he p.r:i:l1oipal axis of mncrtia w:it:h ·31 period of A/(C- A) = 3105 days Ii,tiler pe'l"lod')laod calculat-ed rrom the prindpild mo.en~; of :iIW'rrl:ii;JJ, A. =8 a~d c.. Th.e differe:m;,e'beltweefi~:hi:i; C.ba[1d~e:r and :E~~er perids is the ,oonseque!flroo of ~lh:e e~ast~c yielding of the rearth. A seasoaal shifting. ,of ma:sses d!ue to m~teofo~o'gi.,ca,l,oce~:nlc aiIidbydroJogicl!!l poo~sses ~s ~~e cause or an ,addit.i.Q!ilIBil mo:~.iiolfl, in 'lihe same dirlecdon 'IN "th an a;;m.tICili pt!f'ioo and ,an ampllitiilde of (r05 eo O~l. :FinaWI!y.s:ecular mouons arise which; over geo;lorgic~d epochs, aUa.~D large arnounts: po,tar W:(l'nder. 'fbe:perio-d Irom 1900 ~o J'970 witnes:soo, a motion of abou't ~'IOO.3 per year pr,oc-eed:i:ng approximuely in thedill0cli,olill (lEthe 80"W' meridiarr,

'With the superposition of these motions, ~he instanilao.eous pole describes a s,pwral curve with. a stowWy a,dV8I111Cl!ll! m.wdpoint The deviations, of the ~:mstaDtane.(lUs poslrion of ~hepolle froenthe midpoint[\ern,a~.m -c O~l over ollie year (.Fig. :t2)1.

The Con;lI€"irrol'ilal Ter,re's[r,i:(J1 5yst'lern I(CTS) hnrodl!lced abeve is based on, a number of globaUy distributed observatories. They cont.inuously monitor the earth'smtation in, order to pr,o'vide the: neeessarj' IicducHo.ns to ~:be'lllean .FOUJ.tiOIll, axis, As a space-






'~~~~_='~~~.~~'--~_~·::~~~~_~.~~I~~'--~Ia y-p~~ (i:t"'~OliU}

.Fig. 3.2. P'ol,<IJ:r meuon :HI:SIO! to .M)/~'9:S16., sollut~O',1l EI:P (DGFI ]) 811iJ1}1, from SCHNRIDH. (ed.) I ~J90

fixed reFerence. a Coru;e,qt,i:ona:l.lnertiaE System (CUi) as 'Q@fined in astronomy. is used, cI [4.1.2]. By innemat.moDa~ eonveatien themean rotational axis, or CTS is defined by 'the mean pole positioe as d.e~eFmined between 1.900.0 and 1'906..0~ CO,Qvemio,t;t.cd InteruiQtiantll O,.i;g;in (CIO:). The position oflbeinsta:o.taneou:s (north) pole is de .. ~erm~ned. by ,3,·D interna.Homal serviee (see below), It is gjven b,· the recta:D;gula,f' pole coordiinates, xp~ Yp whh respect 'to CIO, defined in 'the :p~aI!le hrfig,el'!!t:ia:l to. e10. The :Cp-a,xis is 'in the dir,e;etion of the Oreenwicb mean meridIan a:m.d the Yp"ilxisis, directed aloIllf; tbe 90UW meridiaa (HI- ,3,,2,).

Until the end Q'f tbe~'9!80~s;, astr(lino.m~c obsG'1''r,Ia~o:r~es, pe.no:rR:Iinl b~gh :p:lIeciision hltitude iUld tim.e determinetions, served for materializing the leTS. Polarmouen has, been, de~~rmined s:iuce 18.99 by the f1.ve: la~w~lIl3Jde (I bserv,3i,tories, of tbe: Inte'rM~iona',r i.at:jnnil,e S,erv,ic.e (lLS,). AR:e:r extension 'to' 'l;be Int,ernQ.tfi(JlltnlPlJ#ar M'olao,,,, Service ,(.JPMS) •. and thwugh partmcipadon (Ill abe Bf4f"e:au ,bJ~er;~,n~OJiJ.:d de rBe.ur,t (lJ,lH)" about SO ~bs.'e:rva~iOIlii:ls filn~l1y ,oontribuil.ed 'to ~be detenDinadoiiil (I·f poJarmotioQ, ,and earth rota~ion (time). Tberesults: were given as Sid' ave~a.geSi w~~h, ill, precisjon ,of abollll~ ± O. "02, fer 'the pole 'e:\) ~iidi~~!.'tes. and ± ,~t'IiliS for earth rc'ta:t:i:oll. S,ince 1967 e , po~ar m!)ti,on was: a~oo dder:minedlfrom DO'PlPmer o,bservado1ns" wrnlbiu dlC U.S. NN:SS (ANDmtl.· Hn6>~ of. [~..4.6].

The: ~~l.t;!t1:rl! me,'idian olIGree'~Widf. 'has, been defined tbwuglil, the geo:gm:p:bic; ~:oingj:tudes ofthe observa.~o:ries, w'hicb :p3.rtic1,pated.:in the H,]M 'time service (8tH. zero meridian] see' [4 .. ·~. 3] for UU'lrelanions,bet.wooli. longitude and t ~m.e.

Sim.ce: 1.9188, 'ttu::, 1'~.~',er"ia~,ioHa:l' Earl'lIi Rm,a~ion Se'rvice (U3R.S) ,es~a.blisib,ed, by lAU and ].UGG 'has replaced the IPMS, and the crl.rtb-:rutation sed~on ofB,]H. Participadng ~undam.entaW stat:ionSDOW' ,empio,Y advanced space metbods,. S!ll.'cb as Ve;ry long Baseline lnted'eromet!I'Y. :Luna:r Laser Ranging, aad Sa:t,eHit,e Laser R,llugi'o.g!, ,cr. [4 . .4.5]- [4 .. 4.:8]. The estimated precision 'ms about ±O."D02 ~ot' polar motion, and ± 0.2 ms lor ,ea.F~:h ro~a:ti.'o.n" fOf :Id average values:. Geocentric pOisitio:ns 0[' the ~und,ameD~al stations, are gi\r'cn w~th a precision of ±O.l m,

C'ODse:q uendy., rhe 'CTS is represented DOW b,Y agio bal set of spaee stations throu,gh tbei.finsta[l~a1iileiOill.ll;, spaUaW oooirdilll,iUes (JI1I:krna.t:~ona·~ Terresrrial Refereaee Frame rnlF)~ The re.[efence to the !ooftventiiQ'[I,;d 'syste:m or ,any oUler epoch w:iU be made us,ing time dependem models" as, Ja as it is; :poss,i,ble (M:A.THER 1 ~n4a:; HElTZ 1.'978) .. These would iftClude cbanges in ~he eart h's :rotation (polar motion and DluctuadoIIIs in cbe rotation [4., I. 3])J a. di.5p:l.a,ce,ment ,o,ftbe ,earth's eenter of mass, r,elativ,c' move .. menta of the control points (mod:el of plate tec~CliIl~CS 1[5.5.5]1)" and earth tides [2.4:.2.], [5.$ .. 1].

3!.lJ GI~oba~ Astronomic ,s,yste~m

A sys:€'em. of "natura)" ,coo:rdmnal,esame.m:ulbie ~o observations may be' (I.elined i:n the 'ear~h~sgra,v~ty fie~d. (Fig. 3.3).

Tnt rutronomic IJdt.il:~t.de 1t (no~ ~o be confused w~'th the po~enda~ of the cent.mup.1; ac.celeration.mntmducedin [2. i .4] )ms U\le a:n!~e measured in the plane otthe meridian

'z: 1~1~!lM


between tile equatorial p~aneandlthe direction or the plumb lineat the point P'; it is. p()si~ive from the ,equat~or Nodhwa.Fd~ neg.a~ive to the south. The: angle measured, ~n the equatorial p~aDe between the Grree.nw~ch. merrndian plane and the plane o:f the me.r.~dlian. fhn)u,,~h ,p is de.sign,ated. the QS,f'f01Wmic l,ong,iutae A: it is positi.ve ~owa:rd the east Tbegr,avJ~r pote',lt;iQ,[ 'W [2.'1.5] local'esP in the: system. of te:\I''e~ sllIrfaces,. The :plane ,of the astronomic merldfaii here Is, spanned by dle di:recti:on of the p:~um.b~iD!e at P and a Hoe parallel Ito 'the eotational axis, I Ill, Ge.rmaull. literature 4' and A are often denoted 'by (1)- A.

De:term.illiill:UOW: 1011' as:t:ronom[c po-siitmon~. p\rovi.d~thc:ladtudle c]J' and the' ~o·n,giltl!lildie A 1[4. U. there:by estab~isbjng In~e: d'ire'Cfj:on oj the V€'l'fr,cal all P with respecJ\ 'to· the ro:tatJo n ail axis. W cannot be measured directly; on the: (I~:~er har:ld,.pOllt'nti.d dliffcwences c~n lbe de~nmllmed,. whbou~ anJi f~.!U"ther hypotbeses; using s:p(irit l.e.ve~h;18 ~:Il ,~ollIihi:matijOn with gravity meM~I,emeats [.:t3.5].. He~ce. f is usually :fiipecifh:~d by ~he :po:U:l~n~a.1 or height dI:iJl'fer-e]1lce~w:it:b :r,~pe(;l '1.'0 .a ,chosenleve~ s~rf.ace !(the g;,eoid); 1[3.3].

The point P in the curved space of the gravity field. is determined by the iin'lcrse£don of the n.ono:rthogona] ,c()ord'lnlfJu' -!'Urfaces (. = COIlilSt.. A ;: const-,. W ;;;: 'OOt'l!!u.). The ct}ordinare' lines (<pi-Wine == ash'OiIl:omic meridiwa:n, A~I.i:n:e:"'" a:strou,omic par.aliel W~~inlli =iso·zenithliill line] are space eurves hlivifllg double; Cti'i'V3lu.re.

The reJatlonsldpbe:tween the globalX. r~z-·sys,tenl,and the "'JA~ W~s;ys.temis obtaieed :Fro:rn (2 . .26) and :F~g. 3·.1:

cos ~, cos A) s= grad W = ~ gn = - {J I OOS .. (I, S.i.n. A.' , sin.' .

where III is the outer surface normal to the level surface. From

W = W(X. Y,Z)'


4), = aee tarn

~~f' '[I.',' 'J'._

-·Irlr.,. 1'''"

WI +'"' 'Wl' A = arc tan ~.


TilrIere:fore!~I:iI.e clii.[,ecti.!(},n. of the plumb Wine d.epe'nd:s on the firs~,d:eri,v:a.tives o.F the g;ra v it)' :p()o~enti.al

3.l.2lrHal ,Astoo.no.ie ,s,yste;lhs", Co.pu~a,ti)(lnsim ithe: Eal'11'h's IG'rarity F'ield Tbeserrestrial geodetic measaremenss, wh:h,~be eXOOPtion of spa:tla~. dJstanoes'lare 'tied to the d~rectiol1i or thepiu.mb Uoea;l thepohn or ob!Slerva:dofl" a:n.d t1lerelby', to ~he 'e;,l[~b's gm,v~ty .111.eld. They are parti.cldady w'enreprese:fl~ed in theJoca~ x, y, ! Cal"~eiS~an.

system, introduced. in [2..2.2]. Fig;. 3.4. .

The ob'se,r',!led quanti:tli~s are the ,as:tr(l,n():mjcazhnU'th~ the ~ni!t.h angle, and ~he s~adal d.i.s~Mce. The al!1g~e whichws measured in~helil,olrizontal p,tane: between the ,as:t:roIlloimic merwdian or~l andtllte ver.ti,calp~a:mle spa!ODled by~I1e venica!: at 'P:l and. byp(liint ":2 is tbe~ as~'.rDno~nk azif~n~di: A. n .is pos:ut:i,v1e asmeasured fr!(rml, the x,-a.:!i:.~s I{noli'd\i) .in III c~ockwise direCli.o.n. Observed hltlrii:zolllt,al di.r~c;tio,n:s:arld rJllIg~'es may beregarded as az.i:muthsl:addn.a: orientation to the nor~h~and as .azim.u~h. dliler:e:n.ces~ resp, The .zlO?t,i:rd~ angle (zel'lidJ distance') s is ~he ,angle measu~ed. :in dle:v'eftica~.p.~amebetwee.n the local vedica~. {di.[,ectiofl o.f th.e pJ.umh'~ine)1 and the line jo~:n:i,lIlg,P~and P~;, O~i5Iulg)e is pos:lUveas, memm!l)ed. foom~he o,u.~e;r surface Dorr.m:lt The .szuu,r,(ll €lis£'ante sis the length. Oil U!lc:stra.i.ght line jOiinin,g 'P'land. 1'2'

Forthe vectorial 9fiC element d~i ~t ~iJ~I:ows flrom. f!i\g;. 1.4 ~hl:~,

dR = ~:).'.I = dsl ::: ;.~ :: :).... . (H)

dz cos Z

'WiU'DI a dlispl,acemeillJl:t Ids·i. tll1e orientation of' the locel system is a:Jter·ed hecluSie the pllilmb lines ::uena.t par,aUet Cormputatio.n!ii~n ,one loca]j sys:tem. alii!! ~helidore admisswble ,o~~1 i~ veFyli~j~edareas,

The t1'"u'J'slel!'[ence [oJ oooFdfntl,",es in ~he curved ,g~obaW tl.A. W-s:J:st:em us;~ng the observed po~ar coordinates (3 .. 4) presu.pposes th'fl :ku,ow,redige or the second deriva.'tiv,es, or tbe ,gra.vh.y potential "We have ([e.g. G.RAFA.REND~972! 1975~,

( ~: ... ) = ._ ~ (w,~,:,., w,,~. ~

dW . 101 0

~: OOS ~ gl



A.s seem. in [2.2.5]], the matrix of second dedvaUv,e,s. ~n (l.S) contains ·on:~y fivein.dependent unknowns. TIl:ey repli[ese:nt iUile cuna.t'Ute ofleve] surface and pl.l1mb ~iue • as well a'S the to.fsi,(l1ft Q,r the astronemic mcri(Han -Wx~lg" ,cr. [2.2 • .3] [2.2.4]. From

2 .. 31) and. (4.:61) we recognize tha:t with d.n = c/z the results of geometrie ~erveWjng. are easj~y iaeorperated :i,nbJ [(l.5).

lm a.pp~)':ing (3.5)[, n umereaa de'tcrtninati.o,I1s of the S1eoo~d. dervia:[~v'es wcul.d ha,vc:, te exist, 'because Qf ~~e ~!ire:,gu:lar OOItaV;iOf of ~be cunature near the eaJnb. Howeyer, only timeOOllDisu.m 'os: g;ra:vity gradiometer (Uk:!tl: 'to.rsiiion baIDai''liiJe) measurements would 00· able 'to' diC1iver ~Iill~e data [4·. 2.5,],. w~th results which are ,e:.x,'lreme~Y' sefilsi.~i;\I'e ~iO ~oc3J1 m.ass~nCim !lJmw~ •. :Bu~ e'l!en if t~e ICUfv,atilt:·e ,[)If dlJe .gr:a,v.tty field wer,e: better known,. the 'I:ra:o£lfe~noe ~,:r co oro:iI:H.lI,1lll>S, 'Wo[lild h~rdl)y be made jn 'the ""A, W=sys~oCm" since the st:ri;iI::~U(1e or the ha:n:sferelnUice rorm~~ilIs Hi complex,

A rep(f[esent<lit~on in. d:i'fferential geometry of the earth's 8rav~ty field and or the' observadons earriedoet therein bas: bee~ dev~doped by M""IRUSSJ 1(194.9" AJi98 S'). b~ th~s ··'Oe:adesilll, ~iliIu·i.~~ca·'\ ollll.,Y quantities 3i1TI.enable to Q~.rvadoll"lls are used: rod'Ue~:ioos to otheli [I"!elfe:remoo slIlr(aces are u.nnooe.ssllt'}'. soo alse Am::rr-m {A.l9[6,9[,

The ~n!l!flSf'erence of 00 o![dilndes in space is S~m'fj;~ifjed by the tF,ansitkm to the ,globafl geocentric X ,Y,Z-system [3.1]. For the pOS~t'iOD vector ,o.r P'2. In the local x.y.z~sy,!ltem of point Pl j we have fmDilI(3A]:'

(X) ('COS AI sfin Z)

.Y = s S:till .. A.. sin z .

l' . COSZ ..

The local sys:te:m .may be transformed i.n~o the .81,oba~. XI' rl.z"'sys,~ern by changln,g, U) a,righ~-handed :s,s~em and with r,o:tatlQns of 9W .- ,!) and 180~ - A (Hg. 3.5~. An inversion. yi[cld:s

I( :)1 = C-'(· ~).L

z, AZ

where the inverse rotation mstrix is

_ ( .... =. :8. i.II::I' <1> ...• :. 0 .• O.C ..•.... 8/.\

C-1 = -smA


: CoOS[ ,cD cos A

cos ).



- sin '. 1;,~n h cos A





and where

IJJ(=X2~X~. AY=Y:z-'YJ AZ=Za-Zl"

1(3.6)1 .and 0,;7) relate the observed quaatities, that is. distance, mmu:tn, and :zenilb Ingle to the global sys~em. These: .formulas. serve in the oonstru('!;tWon of observ,ation eq lJIIaJt~onsin three-d ~mensional geodes, [!t 1 .. 2],.

33 The Geoid 3:S Reference Surfa.ee :for' Heights

3.3,,1 DefiloitioD ,of ~lhe' Geoid

We' consider the 'wat'ers: or the ocean as free~y mo~ing .bomogeneous, maUe.r. wh:ich is subject Oldy 10 the force of gravity of the eart b. Upon aUaEoill,g a sta te of eq.I.~~ibrium. die suda:oe of s;l!iIch ideaUzed oeeeas assumes ,3 leveil :fm:r.ra~ of the gmv:~t~ field,;, we may regard it as bemug extended under drue eontinents fe.g. by a system of commueieaiimg tu.bes,). 'Thmslev,eJ. s,l!lldace :is mer.rued tbeg'e!oid. cr. [t2]. :Us ,equado,:n 'is giy.e~ by


Frem [[2.2], we see that the geoid is a c.osed a:md eentineeus level surface' w:h:wch elll.teods; partia:fly inside ~he ~o~id body ofthe~ ea.rth .. T.he carvature oftheg:eofd displays, diswntill.uities,at abrupt dens:ity varjations. Consequem:dy." the poid is lIl!O'taD analyttC surfa.e.e, .. and it is: tbe.r'e~by eHminate.d as a :rerer·e:EiI£e slIlrface .rOir pos~tiom d·eterm~Dla ... Ilion8" However, it is weU suited: as 9. r;efer~llee suda.Qe for !heights: defined ·iD. the gra:vEty rme~dj and.e~~~I.Y s;~.:()!p.~ied, 'byspj(i~ (g\eomehic) lcve;lin.g in combination 'With gra.vh:y measun=me1lll'ts [4.3·.5,].

TI;" es~abHs:h the geoid; one util'i~es fhe meili!EI sea ~e:I;'1e:1. which may d)C'vial,te by .± i 1[0' :± 2m frcnll ale '0] surface [3. 3.3].I.n the IC~ tbat onestrives [or ± 10.1 m accuraeies, the CJassicam thifil1'i£,iQJ.! (j1.~,i1e f}e(Ji:d :gi.v!e:n. .!liib()ve is. lIJlo1l'I)mllgew .suffu:::~enl~: flAP']" 198.3~RJUJMMln ... :uld TEUN~sm:NI ~.'98 8). This :kind ,of 3Gc,uracy ~s: .!lU~in:albme through the possibiUties of:sa~eUi(¢ ~odesy in the' dele:rm~nat:iog

lOr he~gh:t' , !of srurfaoe'pohil'ls and Olr tlil.e' oeeansurface (sat:e~m~te I!d:timetrY)I.s:ee [4,4]. The geoid as a,gl()bat '/',eJereIJ'Ce Mlrj_acf! for .hefgll',!&, w!hich is 'thus used [or the r~,resenlarlion of ~a:!J,d and sea surl'a,oe ,opogmp!hycam the~ be ddn~d as. nhat le:veill suriace w'h.i~h bes~ fits the mean sea. Wev,el In thws respect" the pot.ential ,!lind the e~e\!a:t:ion [3.1.2] !of 'tl:iegeoid are obtaieed fbI)' ilJppLying !ao :(1i11i:IliW~n:!'!l1 cond'il::ion far the dev,i:a~~ons between the !eoid ,and the mean sea ~ewl'l (M.AnmR~91g).

3,3,.2 Goopill'ten:lial.N umlJer andl Or.homelrit: .Height

A su:rfa.ce paint P can be de:~e:r.m.ililed in ~he sys:~em of level surfaces 'byi~s (.negati.v,e) poten'Ual dmffereDce 'to tbel~oid.[r Po :i:s aD arbitf,a,ry po·int on the geQid. then (rom (2,.3:1)1 we o:btain the :lDtegra]

, _, 7 . .1'" ,_ _ .P,

c·' - U'" f.JlF - I d' W - J ,/J .I: ..

. ~ Yl"o, - fir" - - _ .'. _. ~ 0: .. ·•

P'1jo PI,]


whicb ,is,i:mdependle:Jiu O'f p.ad1i. ,C .is known as ~he llr(!,Q,pO't,ent.ia:I' IU/mber.

To achieve good ,lIIg:roe:ItI.(!nl with ~be rnlI'u:meri)cal. y,a1ue ,~f the height in me~:r,s:_, the um't ,of the goopo~en,t:iam number h: chosen ~o be ]{10 mOl s-:l (= kga:W m}" f1e'OPQ.~e1.,d(J1 unit :gp~. :Bec-a,use {I ~ '9.8 m~-;!., the va~~es of il:he geo:poten'lial :l\Um'bef1S are ,I!tioout :2% slllatle!f than ~.he v,~lue8 of ~:!m:e oo,r,resp<i'.t1din.! hei:gh~:s,"

For ,g.eodi.etic .and plme surveying. It.he ggopot:enHal Dumber C is~ess, s,uitalb:~e Ithan tillll' orr.hoRl'dric he.igh'~ H. w.lhic.h. is (he Iinear distaece reekoned ,aJo.mg the (cUf\lled!) pblmb nllle from the: geoidl tn the surface point. If we ,expand. t.he risht-band s.ide or U.9') in, Ii and in~egra~e along the plumb I'~ne .from P",(H ::: 0) to .PCH) •. iH'lIen rcn the o.lfitbo.metric, .beigh~ we o:btain


1 rl· .J'H

if = ,U' J gQ;:"


.For the com.putation of Ulemeaugta.vity 9 along tbe: p:lumb~i:ne,j, the act\l!al values of gravity are .lfeq'u.ir,edl 'between the geoid and the I,}lrth"s surface, SiD.,ce a direct meaS,l!!ren:il,en~ .of gli,llI,vity iills:idle tbe ,e"ll'th ,~5, .motposs,ibl.e." ,Ill, .bypo:thesis, .m',cprdiing the mass, d~s,tributiolD ~deos.j,lyma:w) must be fonned. with li th..en computed OiD this basis. Therefore, .H can not 00 det,ennined wi'thout: an hypo:thes,is., Because the lev,el surfaces, are :not p~r,;dlel. ,po~Dts '0:£ equal ordlometnc neigh I are not :~d'tua.'lied on the same b::ve~ surface.

_ C

H """..:.. w~tb

- :g


:If the F-opot:ential. number ls d1i.vid.ed by a. Cian,stant gra vj,ty value I( Mua]Jy the normal I:favity r:5: ,al sea ~e,\lG~ and ~O[ the' geogra:p.hic laUtudJe '1" = 4SQ (3,.5 . .1])~ then W.it.iJolll,li: any hypo:tbes~8 one ,obta.ins the dyn:ljmic he,i;ght

Ull)rul = C

,1..1: _ 4".


P01illlts On II ie:vei surface have the same d,},lDamic ·height. l.arg,e corrections are necessarywhen conv:e:rdng: ~e\lll.ded .. li1e~ght diffemfiloos into, dytuun:ic beigh~s [s .. m.$]. Because oj' this, 'the dyna.m.ic heis:bts havenet asserted themselves in geodesy.

F~nall.y.,. U1C HiO.rma:~ h'e~gJdS defined in. [3 .. :5 .. 6,] yieM. a:no,the{[ 'he,~ght systiern wwth.cmt any hypotillesis:, which has. a.u3:ined. c(l'msidlelrable s:i!gnij'kaucci,n!eode:~:ilcsurV(lyin,g.'fhe;

r, .. r~""!""""",, '''.'''1'11''''''_ r"'r· ... ,"" .. .."a·~h ... 1· niL ~ .... ']', .. ,t,L, .... q"~" ~·lOt"'·O· ,"ld~-' """1,.I·, ... h.is .e jl .... ,"' .... '~'O , •. 1,."" 060. ~ . .,. 1!;,;i~~:t"-'.IJ",I!i.I~ ;j]!'YL .1,U'!i.i."", U,. 1iJ.lU',~"I.IIJ_JJ· II .. I~. ~~llti) '.&) ._~.I,~ '"""7 "!,IIIQ!;!I'~I~'~'~'- ,_ . ..:_l ',",-,n,--,~'-..!. ,I!~ ~~Iy~~ I!.\ _. ~n;.~, I~~"~Y-l!

3.3.3, Mean. Sea LeVel~

In, on:iJer' to eatablishthe geoi.daccoOn:U11IgEO [3 . .3..1] as arcfeoonoo slrfaoe rO,f nel,gnts, the oeean's walier :le'Ve~ is reg~s;tered .. snell s.ve,raged Oi'ili'er lon8fJ!~ ~:n,ben,3Ws (~~ .. :reaurJI lIIs~mg tidega.l:iIgeSi (,ma,i[,eQ'Sii.ap.bis.)" The metJll: sea l'evel (MSL) thus obt:am.edI.lI'eJ.I'1'esen:ts !Ul app.roxi.m,aUon to the:g,col.d.

SinQf: the doe .g.al!!gesta~ions usually do .no~ have an undi:sil,!.1:Il'bed link to d:1.e wa~er.s .of tbe oceans, the .[,eooFdiliilgs ~r.erwGl.uendy .£ab,;U'l,edby s),slemat!icrnjluem:,es.1ie MriaJiQn$ of Uij~ ~a level with: ~in:l.e! as~ofiig-asthey are pt:i.nod1c Of ql:lasi:pe.ri,od~c, are ~aFgely e.Hmi:nated by averaging ~:h.e water. h,w·e]1 :reej)stiations,. Sa:tefHHl ,&~dme~fY [4A.'9]lfllrni:shes (j,ata !!I)iltl the open seas widc.l1I refe'.rto' UlielDis.tantaneous waber s'l!Ilr.€aoo.

The be~gh~ o.f the ocean surfaceabove ~ file geoId .fcpr-eseiul:s tlTIle S.(l',jJ :sur/a'C€ topogr,aph:y CSST). Here, one d.is~illlg;U!ishes.OO~w,eef:! the ~~S~;(l~~a:ijleo~~'s ~ea $,lu:.fa!re ~(lpoigm;a!phy a:i1d the; q.!itas~",st,at,i.o"atJl sea. .sllu·.Fa.ce ~op()ogra:p':hy whj:C:hrlesu~ts,af~e:r .flJccoUint:irilgror~be time ,(IiependeDt 'Yaria.~iofis fM.A.1'IfmIR~.'97S).

T~~sevwa:t;jioIl1lS include OOIUl,,j l:ide~ w~ch Cain. dC\I'jall:e,oooside:r.ably f~'GDtbe ·tbeow:el~cal, values due to Uirwe>q.~a:I. "Nilteil' d~'p1h:Si Ilnd bocl1li:tlseU\e: cowtwfUllwtsl:Mpod!e the mO'~me~~ ,of w.!Ji~'e:r,. The tid!ilI] ampilitude; on Uu;c O.IJle'll seaisless than ru.; however. ~t ean aMount t:!!l, severaJI meters in QOas:t:a~3ife:llJS (lay of Fundy. 'Nova Sootla: 11.llF1u.ctil.l3;~i:omruswhi.a!iJi u:suaUy ha.Voe y'l\a~1y periDd:saf:ld a;Uam~.~.all.les up to 1 m.include ~ho~e; or .1Ii rn~too,rQ',ogf,c~l aature (atm()sp~el"iic pirc3SSI.U:-!1l, Willd~·), ~h.oi:ie: of an QCe~Ji'()JJrtjph~clili~'h:!r!e ~oce~n 1~!'u·l.'en~~ d~rerelm;~-s: il!!l 'W~n~!I" d!~!l:sHy ~~. ~. ~\!!.ncHoI!l '!Jf t~m~raJ:Ulre,!l:a~~~~ty.al!!ld press~Jle:),! ,iJiif.!d tho~ dilU!le t'O thewa~iI!'!" fnldg'tu; (rih:a~~ing: wa;~er i~Wu)!. :r'e£ulting room mdhva,te'f" ~oln:S~!IJ~ r.a~~s,. 'e'h;;,). In ;addilioll,. a :seculu sea!. :Ievel ri:se Q~ al)Qiqlt .~. rnm pel!" Y1e'ar h;!I;sbee~ Qb~e{r.yed duW'.ing: the P!il$~ lc:ernru~iIllI:ry.

;\I.tbll)~gb, theili1l~;e;rillal. accur.acy (If the .aver.agc allili~'U.dvll!l.t!!Cs 'elf tbe wa~e:[' l~ve]obse:r'YaHQ~s am.O!UliiO ~o± 1 em" o~l,jjsklfl.a~ d.ev.ia~iollilis .or ± 10 em awd.lhiighe:r rnay OC'CIl'!!: :amo:ng the ~ar1y a ve:!".a:ges 1~1i1Il!!li~;eolJ'O]ogjc-aW~fJ~~U!i)\

Even after .r:ed.'Uciog. aU dynamIlic loOmpOlOO!l1ts ·of SST by time a.veragmg 'Of mod.eliml,S, the .r,esulit:i,ng me~n S'€d level does nG~' forma liil!Vets.u.rfaee of t.h.e earth's gr.3vi!y 'fieJd. OVt'if larger areas.the devladol]js; CaJH am,l)un~ ~(),lma.1'l!dlmQre,

These de·'\I'ia.doDS arc caused by then!lln .. pe:riod:ic~eFm ot! tiltetid;;t~ series IC;''(]Ji1IIllUlio'n [2;A I] andlb:y~h.e (liveran,. appiro.xi:mate~y oon;S:t:ant m.e~e:o.rol,Qgical and oceanographic effects, which .8l~ne:rate oce;an ctJ;rrc:_nts.

11nlepoi!ijtic~l!'!i of seOi l!c"vern w~th re£i]?e.;;t eo a ~eferemuJoo srodsGe ~~1 be MGeldaJi'f!~d. by the use of ,oceamruograph:i.c: atld~rodJe:ticm;et.bods:. AIIisobari.c slilIlI'faoevieNil\cd as a Le'Ve~ SiUHl'faoo at grea.t depths (1.000 [0 4COJ1Jia1) s~:rvesas rdereliloo for·Glc~~IlI"·c (:si.eri:c'J ,tevel'ri\!g .. nyn:amic ~eti8hits: [3, . .3.:2] ,oF USE. w~,th respec~ t:o· n~e:S!lDiil'r:ace ,~f a :!ltatIldailJd eeean are then loom:plill~m. usimilS the funld.a,. ml'llltal hydros:taUc eqlla,t~Ofi3illd m.!!:31S!lu;,ed W3iIl!Cir de:n:s:ities: (bS~'FZIN A.19114. Snm,GJlls~914) . .A global :i'I:pproachi:!!poss:ib~e by th!1l h,drcdynt1mf,ceqi.:i'Cli~·"I)I\I11 of nlodotl I!s~~g m~3!s'!m~d wa~er' vel,@ci:He-s. Trerue:se cQmpu~;a:,tiQm!. re~~a!J~ aNQ~g others, aglQb!l!W drop (1..0 lo,LS m) of MSL from the equ:a~or to thepQ~a.r zones _- the maximllltl l!',[ljtr~ilIt~O'Jl bei.ng!IJbollt. 2m. Tying, a spir'it

$et1e,U.l\lg n~lt [4.3,.:5] to the t~d!e gJug()sY~!?iIJds tbe: l:fldw~<lt'iiO,n ,arMS,1.. w:ithrespect to~liuie re[elre:l'lOe ~e~e:l su:r!";;u:;r;:: oHb.enls:pec~~velit~ight :sy'S;t~n1i I( -g~o~d~ Tb~ resUl~~ (MAHlER, ~'914b)' ag"epjlril:~y with 'th,oo,e of oceanography {~,g,~P ~mcrei!i!S~ h.MSL fronl the Atla!!1!~ic ~Q lhe: Pacrufic 'ooasts; of ~Im;e U~l,A. ofO.,ll Ito ~17 ID;i.litl, illitcreas;e (rCiln the Medite.rranean Sea, ,!lJt Ge'l1QlanortbwaJd to the:

Gu:lr oifBofhl:1JhlJ by !1l!6 -)i: howe!!l'e.r. thetesults d:i:sa,g[ie:epa,F1;icu~ady amcl !iiom.e~~.es, co~,~ :si&i(,3j,bJy:in north-south ciUr,ooil:h')~s. The~e: djscrepl}nci~ ,ca:nperll1J;},p,s be '1f,aced eo the d:~lifefe[Ml:y d!e!fined, rde:renoe .surr;a;ces:.~Q the p~rUc~~ar cih:aiiaCllllri:S:lics ,{)'fMS,Li:i'l, oo.!lisil:al~ ,3Ircas.aJf:ld eo ~nkIl,own systematic if:~nects i~ t~e dilI'elleiDtme'thads (F!SOlmR 1971),

For. tbe prol::demadc: nature o:f tJIIe d,ete:rmi1TIla:tl:onpf the mean sea ~evem..see also I.OSSll'ER U961},. L~S;I'f:Z]N (A 1974~ .

.l.4EIUpsoidal Reference Systems,

Tb.e eartlil."s sl!l.r.FaDl;:may be !clo5!e~y approxima~ed. by 3. fo~aU()nal em,p51oi~d wHIh laUenedpo.tes (bewgtu dev~~dQin. from t~e geoId . -c 100 m). As a reS:ll.I.~t, ,g.e{lm,et.rmc.a~ly de:fmed e.mpslG.~da.1 sys,~ems are freque:.IIUy u:sed~n8~ead. of ~he s'patla.~ Cartesian 'CO~ o:rdwnate: :systero. [3, .. 1].

1.4.1 'Goo.me:tric 'ar,amcllW'S ami. 'CHrd'ina.le :Sys'tems, orlhelto~aljonal~ 'IUlipsoid TIm ro''tatioIllI1 eiipsoid is crea ted by .f1C)itatrumg th.e meridian emps.e a.bou~h:s minor ax:~g.The s:h,ape of the ~mpso~dI. isnbernb,y described by two geo,'ll!etriC'parum~.t,e,..s:.; 't:Iil.e s·e.m:imajo.r ~x,f~,~ ,ail1d.~be .semii'~lino\f" (l.xi.s b ('Fig .. 3..6-). Gen:e:r;:dl.y" b is re:plac.ed by ,one of 9.0JUOl.'ber of s:mmUe.r qru3:1iJ.tities whj!ch ismere suitable 'Of series ,expansions: 'the (Qeom,~tri.C:ld) fl{Ju·eni.~1'{J J.~ thelE~h3iar ecc,ent,ici!y ,Il,th:e firs.f and. sec(md e£lcetU'rici,h'eji e and. eli fespecdve~y:

l _'~ ,f! --'-.


b 1

6' = .~ - I~' .)1 ._. e:l = -J-;;=: 1 =+=. ,e====<i!l,

''W>e ipt:r()dl!JJce 3 . .spat,tal x, Yl' .~ Carfesia:n ooorrdimu.~e sy:st.em (Fig. 3.1l The origj.n of the sys:~em is situated. at thece;m~ecr 0 .or the :ngur~the s-axis oOl.~l1lIcides witb ~he mi[il.or

axis o.f Ule 'eJUpsoid .. The equaHorn of'd'lle surfaee of the, ,elllip:soid is then g~'v'Cn by

x~ +yJ Z2 . _

a~ + b2, - ], := O. 1(3 . .14)

The system. of€l,li,psO\~da~' geog.r'ap,hic coordina,tes is, dlef:i ned by the !!Je()fJ,ra"I~kla!fn,u.l'e 'f/) and n~egoe.()9,.,~phi;c '(J'n'{Ji.~ude ) .. (also ,~~odedc ladtudeand ~ong~'t.tld,e~ 'I' is the angle measured :io the: 'melimdia:h.p~a:ne between dll.e equatorial p~ane (x~,~p,lane) of the; e~rn:i,psoid l:nd~he gu.r~aDe no,nnal a~ P:" ). is t.beangfe measu~edlln.~he eq[!atoiria1pl,an.e ootween Ole zercmeridian (x~a,lds.) and t~1t mer.id~l.n,p~alil.e or .P'. Here, ,,'~spo.s:id.ve northward. and negQ,tive s:l)iu.U'ruwara,;, ;and. ). is: POSlUV6 as; reckon.ed toward the east, The e.Ui,s(}idt~~meri:dlt1n planle ls fOmled by thesurface :norma:~ and. the z-axis,.

[~ Germa~ Uterah!l~e~ lbef!;ou~!.'lio:!:l.lJ I( "'" ··:EJI~i.te"') ,~:nd 1. (= "Ui:o;!e?') haa beeifil (f\equ:ent.ly used fio:r rp' a~d ,t

.r,pa~dI 1 are d~nliled[,o hili.ve an\SiIIJi]a.['v,ah:le.s. bUi~ ~~~y may also-be oo~s~de~re:d. ~$ 'curviil:i~~r !!i!!!,daoe coo,rdi'lla~Ie;!l. The .cOO,.~',jIlI£ll~e lines or the (Iortbogo:nal :syst~. are ~~e: m,eddja~s (1 "". co,nst.) and fb~ pafil.llc']s Of ,circles ,ofhiititude (q') .""'. IOOIlS:t.),


X= P 00151, Y =.P' sin A. weiotmduce t~ radius .or Ute Icm[10rne of b!l~:itlJ1dle

p.~ JX~+y2



-.2: "',...,.

- .= ,Q - ' ....... .", CfJ'

P .j '> .. "....~' '!

' .. ' ..... cosr '," - + -.'" ",·t·, .", .. ' .... 'u, '~v~ I~ . I ~lJn "PI


Using thegeo,c€l'IIt:rJ,c iad[~ude qf and the ,g;eooolDt:rk radius r (FIg. 3.8~ the eqaation.ef the empse is ,gwven by

:Lasdy~ tlli1e reduced lat:itude h~fooquendy used. It, is obtained byp[oject.ing the e~U:pse 0[1, tbe; oonicentnccirrcle haviIIII~be ra,cUus a (Fig., J",8}. Since: the nll~i!o of the ellHpdcal o[d:i.nat;es~o '(:iflc'Ul}af(l!<~djFl.~~~ :i:si '/a (emps;e as a:mDe}~male of the e:ircl!e),we: ha.ve

pi =- a 'cos fJ', z=,b sin .11 (3.:20}

Cump!Euiflg (3.19), and (.3,.20) wltb (3.,~,7) pfov~de-s the tr.ansfor,matio.Dsbetween the quandde-s 'fJ~ .{ji~ 11:

(&)2- _ 11,

tan ij= I -, "I taIII CP'" ~ali'J. IJ = -,' ~am 'fJ.

" til" a:

(3.:2~ )

Us~ng (3J,3}J \Vie, obtairn, series e,xpaI,nsions rom: the dil'erence;s:be~wee,1I:i 'the vaJ:dQUS lilI,~:i,h!lde pi1F,ame~er,s:


f{?! - if ,= ; sin 2<j) + ... = 2(" ~,fj).


3.4,.1 CUI"""a:tw"tl of th,e Kota:ti,o.nall ElIiipso.ld.

The m:eil:idimrus and p,3mUeh,; arethelines or,curvah;ul~ oftheli"l'J!~atiom,a~ elUpsoid. The: jJrincip'{J.I.radil OiCU'ftlahl:re are ~be[·cfoIeiil!l. th'e pJ;alll:e orthe meridiaa (mer.~d'ian .radiiUS of ,C'~rV,Qltl':rl!! M)audl inthe plane of thepri:me vefdc:ad~perpendiC-!!iI1a:r to. the meridian 1P:~a.llle (radtu.~ of CU.tiOO~hil"e in dU1 p~iml€vtltical N~! Fig. 3.9' .•

Tbe CI!lA~U.wre of the me:ri:dia:n. z = z(,) is

.~, ,f1.'l.jdp'l.,

- "'" ,_ -----,------,----,;;:-==

.M U+ (d.zld,)2r~f2·


U"'·I'" 0' ,(3, '-1 3' "~'''' 'fi,A substi ~"u-,t i .... ,I!II,(~, '-l7\, '''''''1,;1 • L ... '., ...... ""1'" ~ I"'J"'r·I'j··""t··;,· .. ,,,,, ob,t-"""~"'I"'-1 '11; \I " ....... .",~d·- ... ,.Nn.il!' Ii;]!I JILI\C, ,', _. L , 'I ~,~·JIU, .., y. ,-~!Il., IIi.. . ,1J.JJ1Jo ",.1. , J g.IJJ.U, !Il..,n~ aIW"""",,I!;I,QJ U IW., lr U ;.~ ,.,'~ '_," _ .~;IIJ:!:~~y, ~,J ~.\:!,~,I]~!!:l..:.... ~,~, ~~~~

(3. l 8) into (3.2.3) y~elds the ~~eridian rad.i~sof C!I,riV~'.ture

r :2~

. a~l- {};i

M = (1 _ ,e:! .sina ,,"~!2·

{3 . .24)

- P

N=--. 'CQS If!

Because o,fFO~anOinal sY:mlm.e~ry" the ceD,~e'l1" of ,curvatu.[,(l; ~:s; 0111. t.b.e spin axis, Usins (3.18). one obta~IliS af:me;[ some .m::.miJpula:~io.ns,


N =- . .i' (I ~. e2 sin~ fl)'Fil

A oo.lnparisorl of 1(3.24)1 aUI).d (l.26)showstbat. N .~ M . .At the poles ((,p =± 900}~ d},e pohlf ra.d~us, or ,,:u:rV9UU',e becomes,

~r~ ,e =MrilG = N9,@, = ' b'

At the M;.(J,uator (q> = IO'O)~ there is


The: cUFva:l,ure; .of an arbUrary :rJ)o.rmcd sec.ti~:m at an azi:m,1lJ UiI. ,~ is computed a.JCcof(Ung to Eulet'.'l! :fofH!iUl~ by

ooiS2 0: sill),2.a

--- = M· .... _. '.' + ._~· .. · .. r .. · '"

,~: nI'


:He~e.R:~ Is tlileracliius():f CUFvatUirl;l. The {Je'Od.eliic' ,azimNlft a :h:; diefi,lIlbdas th,ea;ngle measured jn~hehorizoD.ta.1 p~a~me bet,we~lil, tm.e eUipsoidal .medd~a.I1I.p~ane of PI and Hie ver:ficClI "la.lite d!etermillloo by 'the l!I,olm1i:!ll~o p'~ ,aQcIi by the :pol,i,1tIIil:P2~; r::i:' is;~ck0m~ fmmll1!orth. im the cloekwise direetien, The mean cU'~t,uure ,H* is given by

.... 1(1 1).

H'· = 2' ...• M+N .. ·

48 3 Geodetic RereJ'i~noe: Systems

'Tbe ,arc lengths ,of l',I~e ,C'<!':.lQraiNate f:i'les of the: "",l,~sy,stem are computed using lid a:lIld N., :For the arc elements ,or the meridian and par.aUe~. "es:pectively., we obta.in (F~g.3,.9')

dG = M d",~ a'L~ N 'cos, 'P d..!!.,

From 1(3.24) the lelllg,tb or the m,er,fdlan arc l,st8'rting a.t the equator] becomes


iii' 'ill'

,G = JI M,dcp = ,a,(1! - i":!,2:) J, d~ ,~.

" <I 0 - ,el, 8m2 cp)!!

(.]..12) ,can be reduced to ,!lD eJHpdc ~n'le,gr~l of tbeecond I(.ind; and therefor,e:, tl ms not r,epr~eDtab.le, in terms, of eillc:menta,ry functions. The oompiu:ta~:iollllis m,ay be achievedlbrougilru f.!ufl1(l[i,cal ~niiegr::ui:od. A:llIother ,Blo~~mion ttHliy be fOWllnd!by imphl1nellllt~s a b~DQnliaJI (jl(paiilskjo~ or the denom,hu~to!f of (3.32) ,and subsequently 'f:i'tegf:.iti:ng re~rrn by term


The 1,ength of file Q,I'''C of ~f. cirde'o/ .lat:itudebetween the geograph.iic; ]()iDGitudes ,ll and ).1 :is given according to (3,.31), by


AL =: r Nons "d" = AI COS 4?{..l.:!!- ~ 1. ),

,.ill I

(3 .. 33)

3.4.3, Spl1~liDI·EI[lil.psoidall Cooni:inate: Syslem

For th.e spatial determination of 'po:il!nts on tbephysical s,uJl".raoe of the' earth with respect 'to the :f\otat~oDal! ellipsoid, the h:eight h above the eJlJipso:id is in~,Fod.u:ced in addiUon '[:0 rhe ,g:eogr.aphic ,coordinates 'fIJ'. 1; J:I~S, measured aloD,g the 8udace :11I,oiooa1 (Fig.3.l0).

The .s,patiaJ eIliJlso',r,tiaJ' ca'O'r,d'jf,uues ~~ l~ III are desilna,~ed ,3.S, :(J(N;d,e~,iic c.ooraina:(.(l!'s .. The point Q on Ulle e~l:ipsoid. is obta:lned byp.rojecHn~ the surface point 1" along tbe empso~dal mormal:: Helrnert's P,,(}je:cfi'()l~.

Th.e ,roDI'",d~l1\at,e sIP/aces (q,p = C\"!l[lst. l = coast, h = const),of this: syst!::!l1 are ortilogonal', The c,oQrdr.rlQ.le Irtu~s I ,,-line' = geodetic nle:r~d:ian, ..t':lioICl: -geodetic lP~rnlleill. h-lillle =elli.ps,o,.idaJ] normal~ II'CII)Jll!sf:'.nt. pla.RIlI.r curves,

If we ~ubs:titl!lte (3,25) into (3..1. S) and (3. m 7), and consider 1(.3. ].)), then for the point Q on the emps,oM ,ir follows that

( OOS 'P cos 1)'

s = I"Q + kll'. n:= cos ~fP. sin A. •

srn rp

(X) (( ~ + II). _'I'.C~~.- )'

r = .J' = (N + h) cos 'P srn A .

z t ( 1. _. el}N + h) sin rp


).: = arc Utll :!. x

DarWRJNG I 1985) bas ,gi.ven solutions for geod,etic latitude andhewgbr wh'~cl1l are part:~c,ulady stable.

3~,.'~ 'line~.' o.r:mal, :Figur,c ,or ~b;e Esrlll!, :LevelEIJipsoid

For the detclI'm:matio:D. ,of the elde.rmll ,gra,v'it,y field. 1[1. .• 2]. the #1€1rmalgra,vit·y field is ~nt:r-odLl!ced, as arefeFtfH1IQe system. The source of U:ilis fi,cld is an earth model which represents tlilel1l:orm;d flsu:re of file earth; cl,the thOl'lOi!ll.gb ~n,,,es:Ul;di:olni by LfDER: .. STEGER 0,95[6).aDd MORJT,Z (Al990).

A S'tfi!~J(l-Q,r:d' e't1,~/J model as a geode'lie- reference body S,h:iji!!l~d gu,ara:n:~ee a" .~,ood fit to the earth's surface andto the external gravityfield; but, abiO"it should po,s,sess a simple; p,cinciple of rO,rma.ti,o'O" hi 'tlbis respect, the .".otmiolilal eU,ipsoid [.3..4]., alr,ea:dy WD.tluouced: as a, ge,ometrijc referenoe,surfao'e'"ts, wen suited, In addition to the, seoomaj'iJ1iI:' axis ,a and tbe ftauenmng I as geometric parameters, we further introduce thetotal :mass M a:nd tile retational angnlar ye1oci'~y 'W as; physmca~ parameters, T.hegr,ili,vity l1:etd is then 'ollmed as a fes,ldt. of gr,l,vitation aad retatien, lr wenOW'[iequ:ire the: su:rface or dds eUipsolid tlO be a ley.el surface of its, 1~)W.n. gra.vUy fiemd. Ihe:n Q}ooo.rding ~o tbetheo:rem of S!,oke'5, the G;ra,vity field ~s, uniquely delIo,cd :io. the space ex,ler.1o:r

to, tbis. surface. This body is known as ale'vel' (or e'q,~'ip'Olfem'ia:'l e·llips(}",I~d' •. If the: em:p\5o.id~d parameters are given It:hoiSe 'v,a.hiJes which oofteSlPondto 'the :rneal·ealllth. then this yiemdsthe: 0pitimu.m approxj:m:a.t~O:Ill. no the geom.e~ry O'r the geoidand te the e'l(~e.m'iial g[,avi~y field: ;trean et1:rdi: e,".ip.soid [5, . .4.,,4]1.

T1i'eQre,P'lI: oj ~J. ,G. Sr·'Okf!fS;(~.!!l:l9-:l:OOi3); :U,a, body of total mass M J,O!l;iJi'tes, 'with ool!sta~n aJ.t1gw~iBI:r v,eJocWit)' ;w, about a fmxedJ SlltfcS. and if S is ~. ~(lllel surfa~ .of mtsgrs.viil:Y :liel!d enol,using the entire 'mUS~ then 'the g~avity pote:ntial in the ,e:x.kdo![' space of S :i:;: ~~.iqueID}i de~le;r-m~:lledi (M'., CU, S' are Stokes· elemenils).

The staadardmodel, however, shrou~d also ,comp~y wU:h (ltu'J.p'hysic.al objectives. liD particular a. eomparison of the' observed and ncrmel gravi~y fi,eJds should admit infe:tlcltoos ,coQcemil1lg ~:he~nteri,or ~:tr!Jcture onh~ earth, Tid:; requires thait tbe normal fig:ure of the eanb sheuld bea spheroidal ,eqn,mb:r,iuffl fl:guI"e. Thelevel surfaces then coincide wi~h.lhe sudaa:s, o.f.eq·ua.~ dei[!lsi'ty and ,equ~d pressuee [5,.5.2]. The hydros,tati~c cq,uilibrium of the normal figure:Es, created by a.r,edistribu.tion o.f the actual masses, of the 'ea:lith fre.l:ublriza tion). The pm bJem leadsto the !coOl.ptex. t beory of equilibrillU:n figures or rotating, n.uidJs fMoRITZUI'8:9).

:~Il Ute above ddinidoli1 of ~he: ,'e~l el.l.ip.S:Q~d:, Hath:inl! ~s .sta~ed I:e.ga.rd:ing the: i.!:Ileriofm~ss distdbudon. 'But from the theory o:f equ:i1:ibliilm!! figures, it f6UOW:5 thaa o~y the hamQyeuieoo,s: ern~ipsoids. of M'cl.l'Jur,rn ,ex:~t .tIi1'eQl.liUbll'lLllm. On fb!1l otber harnd., ~he surfa}oo or HiUiIi equi~ihrilUm :1i:guiJle ool!1·trucr.ed of shells" thus corresponding IlI!IIJQIf~ to Ute ll(;:f:erO'gen'e~!1,5 s'ruot~l\'e: of the' ~iilr~:~" is: nQ~ an ,clJi:ps(I{id. Ne\l'erthe~~Si ~ Mo~.lI'.:Z: (~9.6;Slfl!JI hIS sho.wID. ,iiI:r1l:'aNil~~enu or tile hueri.,olf mas~, or th~ l!e\,,&] en~pso~d are po.ssibJe such that they are iOI gooda:ccordan,ce wildill the o.(;u.!!ial !U:iFiI,C'[u:f.iC Qftbe ~fth. For an op;t:im_B!!i!lp'pro.XiiMiUiou. IQ' ilI.n. hydli"O:!l,ta.t.i:c equilibrium igure, the maximum {i;ellla:tioDs. be'tw,e.en thelev:ei sutiaoe.s. and the s~rraces ,O'f equal de:n:shy Me ,on the Older 'of f'l.; the diiO'ere:~ces in s:tl!e;ss for the eUipsoidal.mode'~ r:runiJJ~n (:onsidell'.a.b]y S:fl'I;ilIJh~1i' than in the real cardill .. The l~\I'e~ ~~npsoidca.n lne:o als:o serve .IS ,it bou:ndi·ng:: urlace :[,or a geo'pbiysicat [earth modle:1 [5.:5.2], MARiUSSI et al, 197'4).

3.5.2. Tim . <DImsl Grll\'ity'Fietdl or the Le~el Ell!ipgid.

AccordJing t'OI the theo'TY of dle ~e;vet ,ei .ipso.d, deseloped by P. Pizzetti (189'4)~ C. SOluf;glitll\l'a (~.929J~ and uthers, a closed :fIepresent.ation of the: norm,a,~ gra"i.~y potential m.ay be .achwevedl in the sys,Iem of 'clUpsoid,am cooedinates. To It:h:is. end, we iatrcduee an i.w:nHy· of <conroca~ ,elli.p!ul<id:s, 'W,idru oorm:sruul~ :J.~rru~a,r ,eccen~:r.~ci~y E (3. ].2). The poirrut P (Fi,g. 3J'~) is then specmed by the .eWpsoid;"t t:ool';dlmues u. [(Slemlminor I.xis\ fJ (reduced. la.~i~ude)!, and l (geo,gr~ph.ic longitude). From. (3,.20) and p,uUinG, .- u:Z + Sl rOI tbe semimajior axis, the tr.a:n:dorma:tJom to the Cartesian sys,tem is given by

1 + (eM 00 .......•.. s.' fJ [C~s ... .11 .•• ). I + (",.)' 008 II $111 A I,

sin P

For ~ = 03, t.heu;,B,l-sys.b;:m with u ;;;;;. 1"1' (J' = 90° - S degenerates into the .system. .of sipbedcal ooo.rdjn!a~,es (2.'9)[.

We~ denote ~b.ev'ector ,o:f !J~r.m"t g,ra~.ily by 11 and tbe,r;w,t6'lItial' of no"tJ~l gr,Qiv'i.t(y by U, b1, an:dosy to (.2 .. 26) we baf,e

¥= grad U.


CQ(rresponding to (2,.25)1 U ~s;c(lmpo$ed of tbe gravrut;ationalpotenUal V and Hrut po~emdal of'tbe ,OO1Jtri:fupI liOoe1emdoL'il ,~

u= IV + (p, '(J..,,38}

The n.oUtt~()n 'f';. ., j:rnroduQoo imru [1,1] for the :gra vh~.tion an:doow~!U"i.fugal.polien[iai:s ,of' ~be (1Ol1r~:h i:s reta~~cd lliruere, si:~ce ~lliruere is no risk df 'onfusion.

The gm~·~t:a~ionalpClitjent~al sa NsneiSLapJac:e's dltIereotliid 'equatj'OI!ll (2,.17) iu, the" space

'"'''~i''fl''''''' ~''''' .~~,<>. elliesoid 1(.,""m·'lm··,.m ... r- .. '""~.,'· ... oC·C:-W--·I·w-·-i'n-o- r ",,,,·i.,.I:.~1 ... ...n; ... ilia'·ln·· ~''''''I!1'~''b'''' m "",,,,. M~ .~A,tJ"""~, _,~,~, IIiJIY" tU;~~ ~-,JI.!J.~~ . U·_" ,~_. . .. _ .. ~J!1V ~,A,~a Yi~ Ll' _' L 1 ,J ,,11 .-.' J Lgii"'IiJl~ ,[), ~.IJ_",KL, ,. Ilhl~~ !Il..,. 'Iiit!. L •• JUiJ!l~ .. r ,.J

em'respondin.g te [2.3], i~ ean ~herefo~ be,el:p,a:nd~d il'llto ~pbedca1 harmonics, n,Q:[i,e imposes, ,mtaUo.l'ud sysmmeuy ellD the normal gra vi~y tfiield~ t.h.entbe nOlWmllTIl;3:~ b~liniiS

" -

in 'this ,(':x:p:1lflsio.H, d~sappea.r. [0 add~dorru.~f ~he surface o:f the eWUpsioid is ,co.nshiered

t,iJl 'be a. ~e~:e~ .su[fa.oo,and~r we add the expre8s:io,n for the cenuirlll,gal potJcntial !II l!lIsi:mg

.,' _ _' '_

(2.22)a.nd (3.3,6)~ then. for ~he: pOiteli:t'i,oi (}j'mJr,'tiitll grtltJ~l'y h:1I the exteri(H"space!,we

ebtain the closed rep1'eSentaiHclID

,if,'M.· " ... ".1 R (. ,~). . .. ,.;;!

. . U'" .. ~ ~ .. ,~, . 'I>. '~ :2; ''I' -'-:l:' W.· _'. 2: . ." ,- z

U = -.-3f!C· tan - + -.-. ,QI- - .... SUI' fJ- ~.I+ ~- eu + e~) OOS' p.

tl rJ.2 C/O' 3 2

(3 .. 39)

Here q is a:n :a,uxi1ia.try quan~:i.~y depen,dlng o.n.~y ,ijln. ~he ,geome~dc pa:rame~e.;r"Se: and .~~. 00 the ,enipsoid. (u = b) U beeomes qDl:


Henoe,~n agfee:menl.w~tll SlO,~i!S" ~heor,el:Wl [3 . .5.n]l, Ul~nOl'mal sra,'v~ty pot~n;Cj.a~i s d!ete:ml~ned. by four parametees ~a~ b, ,M~ w}. Itis indepernde:mt of'thegeJograp.ti!liic ion.gitlilde A.

The s!Ilriaof:s. orcO'[~sta.nnp(}te:ntia]!

,[I ~. U{rjl '~. censt.

are ~.eR[!ll,ed, :s,h'el'O'potel,l:tia.l s,u,rjl1Ce'S (splilerops)'" W.iUlI the! exceptien ,of the bounding su:dace E, they ~ue not empsO!ids" If one puts i. = b, and ''I = q in (3,.319), then the eq ua:tki,n of t.he le~)eJ e,'l,i,so'id,' reads

The DOormal gm'\! ity r is pe,rpendiculalf to tbeleve~ iempSJo~d.so ~lIa~" i:n lJOOordance wilh (3..3'1)-, Olily l'he o.rthog,o,:n,a~ ,component ap'p¢a,rs in ~be deri,vative of U (3.3:9). [f the geodetic l.'fllIUude q'J' is used .insne4lld of' the :red,lil~e~lla.Ht!lld.e p ~,1.2!)~ then Jor the narn:lnl g,ra.p,ity on' Uri(! en,l,ps:(),i.d we obta~n. the famnda 0'[ Somig.l'jali~ (,1,9:29)1:

''LI oo···.,.'!m+i..· S··· ... 2.(J'I , _ ,a.,.~ . . '" '¥" _' li'"P!J, ' .1 "'. 'y.

Yo - ~." ~ -.1:."" 2 '

a"" cO's tjJ' + ,f}- 8m - q>

Here, the normal gf'!jJ,vity wh:ic~h depends on lad tude is -, represented by 'the four pa.ram.etcrs. il!, b; Yd' (m;:)IIrma.1 gravity at. the eq,lllat,oll'h and 'JiI~ (Q(iirm,a~ ,grn:vity alt tbepo.]e). The e~l~ps(llidal parameters ,11, h,M'" 00'. }Ia. y,,, ap,pe:anng in (.3.39) and (3,.43) are in.teneJated acoordi.m.g to the .flieo'rem of .Pfzzeui



We see (bar; there are o.mly fourh:wdependent quan,dties., hi (3,,4S~ besides th,e second ecoerl!'triclty e' and the g,eoDlle~dcn,at:tI~nin,gf(3'.12)~ there is, alsojhe g,rai!;l,i:ry [latte.ning

tJ - Yil< -1(1

-, !i'

}' ..

Tbe abbrevbniolD. fJ is usoo :ror both the reduced Wa,titude and lhe gr,avi'ty Oauening; confusion isl not to 00 ,3intici:pa,ted.

The n:Qrmc!d' gr,av'ifJi in the exseno» sp-oc,e is cbrained by pa.fIl:ial dl:i.fferenda:Uon of (3,. 3:9). Near the CmpiQl,~d. a, Tay~o:rs~,Fies e,xpa:['Js~o(n with f-eS:pect to the empiiQi~dal.h.e~ght ,h is suffichmt [3.S .. 3].

3~·.J Series E~pansions ill Ilbe N onnal Grll.'vir), Field

A:p'p~jcadoIII of the ~ormndas, [o,r ~he nornud gr.a:vi~y field 1(J..39}1 (:0 (J .. 4,S) is: .radHta.~ed 'through the use of series expansions -with respect to ! or some other quantity which C~!ulra.cte;["ffizes 'the' po~a:r i1a.Ue.ll~ng.

We start with the sp,beFmca.~ harmolllc expansion (2.52)., (2~5.3)' of the' grav~t:uioDal pot!elll~ialV; Due to the symmetll'Y !Wi:dl respect to ther,otado·na,~ axis (tessera~

terms = (0) and. the equatorial plan,a (odd ;z:cn]a],~erms = O)~we obtai.n!, upon adding, the centrifugal po~en[,ia] ('2.22) expressed in spberica] c;o,o;rdi1llates~ the potent'tal' oJ ,~ormatgravit .v


where " is ev,en,

II .P2 is 8ubst~'tumoo fmm 1(2.54), 'the ,ex,pansio,fl: :up w 1= 2. yie:tds the flIo:rmat ,gnnrity po~e~VJrU~l

G··M· (.. ( ...... )· ... 1 (·3' 1)·2 )

, I, " "'"... ',00". • '

u = - 1 - I. - 1 J~ 1 .. _,c,",g,:Z S - 7' •. , +'1' ... _, , .. 1'3 S:U;Ii~ 3 I

r r ,", 2· ..... · 2. 26M' ..


Solvwng for r and setting U = Do give.s the ,r,adius. eecta« [0' th« level eUii,'P.fo,td'~ where

11.. . ·11" i!..' "..,,1

w~: WJ,illl.'Ye' plln ,r = a: OD t C: n,gwl,~ '81~e:,

- .

G· 'M ((··3: ~).l_l)

~ ".. ' c', __ -:-2, .w . ,w-·,a, ... 2 :

r - -- .... I - J .... ~ .. cos 11 -- .... 1 + -.'. -, .-. ... ssn ,S ... 1. . u'o', '" , .2. 2 2GM ..


The I~o'rmal gmv~:t}l'Y ,loUows from the derivative: Of,(3..47)'OW,ith respect to r:

G ~,Ai ( (' ')~ (3 'II) .. ,l )

. ~WI , a, . '. _ 2, 'I ~.ru,.1l,.. 3;

y""'" r2 I,~ - ,3, J1200IS 1) -"21 + GM)' sen 31 •

. . .

U we substira te either ,9= ~lOQ (equator) or ()" (pole) ~111 (3.,4;9') and (3" SO~1 then we obtain eitherthe sem.i:majlor ax~s, a: and the equatorial gr,avi.~y 1" or the se.mimilll,or axis b' and, the polar ,gr,avhy li'b of the e~l:ipsO!ld. Using these"t,be geome,tricj1atr'e;;J.ing f (3.12)1 and t.he' grouUy j1t;u;t'e,rling fJ (3..40) 'may be co:m:p'l!l'ted aC:Qoll:'din,g to

w2a,2b ,Ilia

m= . R::-


'is the ratio o.f ~:he wll.~riflJl.gaW acc:e£e:nl~ion 'to tl!:u:' normal. gr,avity 31 ~heeqllla,to:r. From (3.50) and (3 .. 51), we arriv,c at approxim.ations It.,O' the ,,'I~eot",em (Jf P,izze,td· (3,44)

GM = a·y.( I -I +~ .. ) (3.531


.. ,,,,,.il ~ ..... c··· 1' ... ·I~ .. n·"."'·, .. · ,;,l., ....... "", ... ~3· ·45' u.llll.Y I~U ~:UI.~' MIM;J. ~ ,1,nC;Ut~ ~rn 'Il. ' .. ,' "J.

5 f -+-- (J = 2"',..1.

Su.bslitu.ting (3.5l) and (3..52,) into (3.510) we .obtain N;ewton's ,gra.v:i'ty formula D .3.2]


"" .. = '"II (~ + .n.' Sil!ll,t;:;'l'.

,f 0 ''''-!,.. - -. 1i"",

U two ,graY'ity '!!IaW.ues: 'YQarek:nowOi 01.0 t be ei~lipso,i:d and at dilelf,eJJt geogra,pbic ~8t~'tudes. I(f).then 10:1 and. p ma,y be oomputoo :from (15,S)., Whh known valaes [or the scmim.ajo.r. ;3;xi:s ti! arnd, the angularvel:ocJly OJ. (3 a. S2) s,upp~ies ~he qua:IUUyur. Fil1la~~y~ Clarral.dl:5c!heoililem yieMs, ~he;geom.etric .naUe'.n:iog, J~ wlh~C:h nUllS cam, be deitermtnedi rrom Ira"i~y 'V,a~ues. AppHcat~o:n. o:r~.h~s 'prmndple b), tbe real C'3.lIth - ~hat ISj, ded\1ing g,coi.me:trk: fOrH1! parameters f['Om :plhysical qua:ntities ._ leads to tneg,rdvwm.et:rk:: meU~od [5.2J.

Tlbe W'e~~~io~. ,abo:Vte~ li~ear inf. fJ and! mm.aJ}' .a.lso,m:; de:riived biy ~,rili~ ell::pal1i~~o~s (lithe dos,ed forgjrulas: [[3.5<.2].. Th.ey had already been :FO~fild by A.-C. Cl~i,.~!\!!I; ~A h~ work "'IhOOr.ie de; ~a fijgllre del a T,e:me" (1743Jfof today's acc~lracy requi cements, 'lhes,(l e~paJ:n!j;wQnsare:not s:u:mc:iemllt Due 'to'[]:I.e:filipid '~(')ID'V~r.genoo ,of UA1.~ ~he ~;.'!!p!l!n~~on up 10 ,i "": .:; is, ingeneral ad.eqll;;;u:e; Itiilla:t is" Ul:e 'et.llpaMj,orn ind~des: terms QfQ:rder f2(OU::1;H~ ete, 'lbee m.oiSt~.p<lirla,nt W]a:tiOIilIS fb£:t'I beeeme (BURJA~ 910, ~, hiT. D:E Goon. 19<71):

_ 3" ,rR '9 .':2: _ I: 5 -._ _ __ 3 ,2

f - '2 JJ;+ :2 + i J:i! + 28/2 fJ~ + 5t';.'~1 (3.:S6)

_ :S 17~;5-

~' .~.- f 1" - m ~ -:--Irn + -1l\1~ (31,S7)

2 14 ,41·


m .~. (1M (.3,58)


70= "YAH + (J ~in2 'fJ 4" ~'l :sin! ll'p). p,,= 8' r~- i Jm!. (3.59)

One o~ithefiiJr"S:t. app,1kilJi[WOnS of C!'~lmu~"s ~~~oreiln was made ]b:y f./(dnJEl:rt (~SlOl). ,An adlju8~M~[U. te Ute gravity fO!lT:flul,a:, (3.519')1 or :aioo!t:u 1-4100 gm:vj:ty :V,aJrul!!~s. modlifi~d by r:f!~",a!~rredlV!(:Uo~s [S.2,411ym~Ldoo, the jpi!U'amelers !R •. ~ '9 •. 7803 ~s-.: a~d fJ .~ 0.00.5302;, wU:h ian e",sl1i~g na:Ue~~ng of I> :I! /.2'98,,].

The haarm:oli!i~c coef:fi:c:ien~:s of seoomtd ::md lrouwth. d~gJl1(.le maybe eompuied from f a~d m as fCIU,ows;

Ne:11 the earth's surface, a. Ta.yWof series expang:ion with mspect tOr the ,enipsolda~ heigh~ h is suffi.c~e:nt: fOil" the derivarion of Ute n:orma"g'r,avity i:n~he€xt,edor S'p'(,!:(,\(!;

_ (0'1:')-·' .. . I (8'1."1)- r.I

Y= 10 -l- ah~_o t,1 + :2 . _ljl~'J;>lo'1:' +' ..

!(}YI()i~ is oibulI.ined by :app~r~nl B:r1JflI.'I~· equation (2.43~ 'La' theeJde:.rior spa:ce:

,oy _ _ _.

lJ'lJ: ~- 2:,11'* ,_ 2m,j\

w.be:.re .H* is, t.bew/can eurvature of the leUipsoid (3.30~" .A series expansion whi:ch ~e;gWects terms of 0 (!::!, ~ leads 'to the Vie:r~i!cal componen.t of tllte normal gra''II!'i,t,' gmdielll.~


The ~fl!:r~~~ bQd~e:s derived f~QIE the sph.eri!cal :hann{)nic expansiOiIli .of the gra:vita:H~~d po~:entti~] f3A·') truaeated at hJW degrees ~ a;r:e des~gna:led l'el;\e$ sphero.id~ Tbe:y Mf!iy be. considered. as pby:s:i.cililly defirned a;plP:I'oxim,aUo~s to,[beL'llOI~al figure of t!be e(ljr~h [3 .. 5.0 T~e:i.r

• • • _" I

bOilil,fid,llJ~ry sil:WlI'.£aces for ~. :=. :2 ~Bn~~s's;pbJe'fo~d;i!!nd fo!r 1 = 4) fHelmer.r':'i !ip!lru~rI;)iid) are surifMc;s

,of FouF;t~nfh ,and t;w~I:l~y-~Gcond erdee, rospe(ltivel}'~ O:;lI1):seqlill!len:tly. they are mess suw~aib\le as ~oim.etr:ic mrernf1~ :fi:yrr~ce~. Th~y d.elda®e fro. rot,a~~oIl;ill~1 ,eUipso~ds ha:v~~gth.e sameax.cs by GUl) forI = 2 and O'(J~) (or I = 4.

Of p:D'ac:;t!lcal ~mI:pqr[a:fl.a:is the ~1Dll'lf:oduc~ion ,of :higher rrefereil'rucemodeil's: '~cU:r::J:ie:nll:y1 ~ 300)1 '~n oo:Il:l:lieC~hJllwith gt"avrn~,y ield oOnillputa~ioll1ls in ,g'lob3.~gSlod~s;y [:5.2] tiC) [5.4]. end in. hlt'g(,;":K:.aliG probJentcS: 'Clfg~opby.j!jcs :3i!od geodynamrcs [5.5]!.

.1.5.4, The Tr,iaxlial, EUipsohl

A. tfiax~aJJ ,eUipsloid could conooiv.3:!b,ly f:o:r:m a bet®er i'~~:o ~:he geoid t.haiffii ~~c::bi;axial rOitati!o~ail lelHpsoid,Booause ,oft his, ,oomp~u!ilhJ!1s wer,e mpea~;edJy undertaken ~o deillermblc the ge:Ci[fu:1!1"i!i:) and physiica~ pl1l.rameteiU's, of :s:ucb a bodly ..

If Ute sp~~rJC!l~ nar.molrniwc eXpaif:lSlOn (1.41) 'is writh~tli with d:~re:ren~ equa;~oria,rn !p:!:,~~G'J:pa~ ~o~ meJilh, '('if ~~~rHa A.I (.4<: .:8), th~n tenasarise wh~C:h depend 010. ~ongi:~;UJd:c" .f~:r~heir.O!r,e. ~f the radii 'CiO:fIre-spond:ing to the principal al'(~: ofilfD:e:Ni~ lillie deeoted by ,all a.~ 1(IlII :> a::!~ ~hen tbe normal gr:a.1!I'ity eql'la~[orml (l,.S9)geru::ra:l:iZl~ to

~~ ~ ;~(~ + 11 sinl qJ + IJ~ S~fIi2 2<;0 + ~ ICOS:!" cos 2P,- Ad). (3.6.5)

H,er¢, Ag is fhl!:' geo,g[!)Iphk: ~QiI1gitUide: or ~be eqtHt~oria:1 semim,a~Qr aXIs a~ aIld irJ = (a~-a~:il)ia, is t~,e 'equ.a~olii:a,~ natu~w~ng 'of a tdaK~~] el,I,~p5io~d whose axes allfea.I.,l:i:2 •• attldb.

The parameters of swchain elUpS:Qrud w.e'lIe: :re,peatediWy d!~u::!!"m~~oo. b)' a~t.rQ:geodeUe [S.L 7] and gravimeuic [5.2.:8] Me:t:hods. The reSi.lI,~;s varied d.~e UDlv,a::r}!'in:s,d~~~ribtJti!i)lits of the ·(!!b~!iv!i!tions on ~be earth"s S~i!f~OO:llIltd OOCiliUSe: d:i'lJli::r:ern me~hods we:re: app~l~ed ill the rodl;U::~iQ~ to ~hel crn~:ipso~d [5.2.4). Tlhe elli~~iPsoidal,pafi:!i,me®e'f;s may also, 'beder:ived r~o. ~li1:e h;iU'IIII:on~c coefficients, as dGte:f:1m~D6d liD :!lat,e~!j;leseode~y [5.3], sii~ce aoooli(U~g ~o (2..59) UIDe!'l1!: are re,la:ted '[o~:he prffi~diP~] mOIllile;n:t:sofj,niCifil:hll .. A~ one result. Wie, ,qwote thevalues a~ .~ !I;! ~ 69' ~.A.I. = 34:5"tS' (LUNIDQm~T amd V[!~~:966).

Since the de~i,aHonsor the: lb:ialC:wa]rotath:marn ,e]~~p'sojd [rom fhes:eoi:da:ttaitl: the saMe on:ile!i ,OIf ma,~JliUld~~ thetr.iaxialelli,psoi:d does net Pf,es~ll:t,llI, ,ooll:side;ra.bly better fii~: tOI ~~egeo!idand the gr.avity nel'd,[~oo.n~rast. the :geod~1:~C: complum:tOll1ls aee ellc~mhered by ~llIDe ,intricllJte g.eOlf:lil!l~itry., L1I:s~ly .• t~:e: ttIDb.iaID eni.p5Io.idal~o' is not suitable 3£ aphygjcl.al1 ll:orm.aWfilgure:. A.llho~g:ll u:i:a,X~3r r,Q'laJ!li:ClI:13JW eru~~p'5Q~d!'i ex:is,t as ,e;q,u~~~br~um fi.gll!lllle-s (ho.o:!~neo'lls eru~~psQjds: of Jacobi)" s:u<:iha.n e']~ii.psoid. w);)uM. nefijl',e.r:tiilel!!:.ssyield !!I c(liltlpJe~e]y ~QfI.ah]jr.~] r~rm whe!!J!Il:l!~gg ~he Vaihli;lS fQ!!:"~h:e: !,Ii~~g~l.ar \l'elochYilind mass o~ the earth" The ~riaxjal. e]~iipsoid thus, jSlrnlot .31ppr(l'p,riate as a :refer:enoo body, wU.b ~lm.e ~xoepnolill of speei!iII:I :pU:~iSes.

l.S.5: 'Good.leiik Rerenmce BYill/ems

In order to make ,geodJe:t~c I'esu~ts .mu,[uau.y eemparable and. topm'v,id:e coherent resuJ:~s: t1O' other seienees (ast.II"ODom.y..ge(JphY:SI~cs}" geode~icllrlerel!llnce sys:tem:s: are ~~~b~j:shed by :ooc:omrn,eJld!at~on. of the Imte01laUQl,nai Union for Geodes:)' a:Eld Geophysics (J.U.O,.O.) [1.4".2]1 ..

III :~924 ~rn. M.adri:d:~ ~he gener,!3il assembiy or~he lU.O.O. intmd,uaed. the empli10id determlned by J ... F. HA.Y.FORD (1909) as 'U:lie lltt:er,,,tuio,Jal ,ll:'m,soid.w:i~h t.be .pammete:rs

Thegeneral as:semb:~y ill Stockholm (19'30) ado,p~ed ~o'.r d1lis ~mHpsoid tbe $:nml'nal.ioHitd g't~~it.Y' fOll"ml~l(l establ ~shed by G. CQ.'!llsi~~,i;s

')'0 = 9..7804:91( 1+ 0.005<2884 s:inl lp - 0.000001.59 s;in~ 2cp)IWS-2, f3..66b)

oou,e8po.nd~l!lg to the '[illormaI ,grall!'By formula (3.59')~, H\u:lreb:y cre'3ting aJ,IJeveil en~.p~owdL 'T~e .8~oDet:cio paral:ml!!!:'ters a, Jwe:re ealeulated by II ay}oni from:.. <1,Strogeodieti:c ,obse:rv<lHortlal ma:teriaru ~ftI ~he U .S.,A. [:5. t, 7]. VI. A"H!El(SKANiim ( ~ 928) tun:!. dt.ll~~rmnmedl i[be equataei aillgra,v~'lji' Y .. ~n «,1,66b) foom a~ aJdjl1~tme~~ ,~risQ~t!l!ljc:l!lly reduoed gii3.1lity values [5.2 •. 4]. Here., fhJe' gravwty flfltbli:.l1!i~g fJ givc:o a,cooifdilligtiO 1(3,,:52} and «3",:54) by a, f" ~~, ;and ,a;! washeld ixed;, ,OJ 'e',)!istediwith lm!~gh.~cct!:rn!Cy ff10mDi ast r.oIlGif:tliic; ,olils:enal::iomlls, The jllt:eiHI!aJtiolrul,~ ref'elle'n(l!;': ,s:ystem ,ofW 924/19)0 i.s; thus deioed, ibry~h~ r~ur paraMeters, Gl, f, 'fa • .ru.

'The COftespODdil"i~, ellipsoid h~s;becn3iiPpH~din ImlU1l1~rQ~sgeQdeHc s~n~ys; also thenOifOl~] gr,;I:.Vi:l,y IforfiU.dlii, Ililas Iroul:I;d! bmadl ac:ce'ptaftl~'. :Ho,wev>eir" ,a;ooQ.rd~nghl' pn:se:nt kniOwl~dg~,. the values fOil: ~:he :pail"am~~iI;lr8 on.~:e ~92A/19'30 sys:teM 1I1epreSe~~i1I:I"i inlsl1lffiicieliD!~;:!ipp~odmatk'l~ to' th~ meam :eat"h empso~d. [514.4] ~for gci.e~'tirii.c P~:I'IP0i!les •

.At~be g,e;l!leral aJssembly of the lU.O.G. in Luzern fI,'96'n, the .~92Ai/l9'10 referenoe :sys:t~m was re:l:lia~ by ~he Geodedc :Rejer,ence S,ste'm .~967 (AssoclAncn>l' b>lTER.NA l'~ONAL.E DiE GitODBE 19'7 I, MOR,~.'IZ. 1 '968'0)'. It is defined by the fo~lowwng constaaes

II .~ ,6 378 :~. 60 m. G.M' = 3:98 60], x .~ 09' :m.3 ~- 2,.J]; = 108.2. '7 x mo-6• (3.67a) The all1,gll1l:~!I'\I''e~odty of the earth's rotation

W= 7 .292 ns 1467 x 1 O-~'rad 8 -1"

not mentioned in t.iIl"e resohJ!t~on. was adJopt:ed,8,S the .rourdilp.lrameb~Ir'. The il:'Clf:erence ,elljp!Soh:l 'corres:pom.d:iDg,~othis diefbi)it:tom was declared ~o be a level e{~Upsoid.

On 'tbe or:ie.~Uatiom ofthe Ge:od.e~j!c·le:fe;__oonce Sy'Stem .~ 96'7l' the foUowlngws s;Upu~a;~ed!

31) The mWfltH'axis oftherefer,ence e:m~soid :shaU. be parallel to the dJirectio'o wi~h is deirnod by t~.le o(JI~ll1\ent:ioD!alli.n.~ern3ti.o1iJ!ml o:.rigin (CIO)< for po]armotwon..

b}The pri ma . .rymeridia:1ll sbalJlbeparaIJe~~o d1e zero :m,eridian aJd,op~edl by~h.e :BI H fo!r the~o:liIgitli.liI.i!Clis. ('~. meanme:ridian of Greenw~c;l:1l.).

'The: ,c.,ak~lll.atwolll or the: iseD~na:jo:riJJxi:s I~ was based. 'O(!i! .!l!su·og~odJ~ljc m aterial G'V,~.r~lriie'e:nti re ,e\ar[hwhi.clliru was l.rrmalsFoflIl.ed hlto a,umrufofll1ll. system by gl!".avime,tric da~;aJ, Obsenatiofllls ,of .~p3!OO probes yi.eJded theg.eocentlf.i!c @ravilati:onal 'oonS:larn~ IG.I\4, ni.n.~hlldes tlhie mMiS .o:f the aJt:m.(l~phe'.!".~ M'I!~m''''' 1~1851 ::< 10-6 .M. The dlYfil<1mi.c form: 'fa:el!cJf 1", W<l~ denv@d fi:"om 'Qfbi:t

pert~lll'baU(lns Cirfli,TiI:~fi:C'al :::la,I:e~iiteiS. TIle a~gu1a!! v<:JI!X:ity w is, kno"w'n f~o,1:1iiJJ ,a:!i~,Wnllmy wit;b meeh h:igilte.r aocuracy lh~n the otrnmer q U~Uli~;~~:i:es. The a,cCie:pttoo lI'alue: r0f~:r$i to ~be second in, mean 80h.U time, The Geodeli~ :lh:fercli1icc System ,~96'7 ,represents ,a good appr,cl:!dmati,oll (as ,of 19:64)1 '[0' ~liI:e' meaa ea:rthelliproid. U bas round :ltppl~cat~on ,espedally in. ~h~ forl1'u~j~adoo:n o~ scien:Ulic pr,obl,~ms and in the pll:a:nni,ng of 'new g~Cide:tic s~FVeys.

At its general asembWy in Canberra (.97'9)1. the I.U .0.0 .. ['eoognized that tbe 'Geodetic lteferenoe Syst.em -96," ;!]jo~oDg.el!:" represented the' size. shapeand grav~ty [i;eld, of the earth. to an adequateaccuracy.It was replaced. by tile Geodetic',~efe!#'enc;eSystem: 1'9801, also based on the theory oftbe geocentric eqlililpotent~al eUipsoid. [3..5 .. 2],. [3.5.3], w~th Lhe convent ~ona.~ constants:

,a =631:8137 m, ,GM = 398:1600.5 xU)g, 00.3 s-~. J,! = 1 082;,63)( :~O-6"

. . (3.,68)

ru = 7..2921 U xW-s rad s-~~ . .

'wllere OM includes 'the atmosphere, and J'1 excludes the perm31:n.ent,tidaW deformation [i.4.W]I. Thole is no change in the: orientation of therelerence s,y.stem (see above]. The relative aCf;u,ra,cy of these values amounts to ±3 x ~O-7Ca)t ± 1 x IO-1(GM)~ and +5 x lO-~Vz)~ [5.4,.4]..1'~'H~ new system is, consistent with the: un6 :LA.n. $;,y,s,tlem of As.tmnom:i!cal Censtanes,

Using, the formulas g~'ven with respect t,OI a.~evel. ,eUipsoid, ~'he ~o.[I.o'Wing ,q,uan1~tiie~h am.ong others, may 'be deteneiuedfrom the parameter,s (,3.6:8) of mIle Geodetic :Rereren,ce System E9',SO-rouoded values-Moarrz (1984):

geometric eUi,p.soiaal' p'(lf'(Jmeters [3.4..1]:

f = Ij2918:.2:572.b =: ,6356,75.2.3 m, e,l = 0.006,6943.80,;,

F' := (,: .~99 594 m- M = 6335 43fi m

... !Y' oJ , - • . 0 _ _ , _:7 )

6(; Alp = 1°) =1.11229 m, A.G (Acp= ~ ';) = 30.90 m, ALt."'l ~ 1·') _' I ~O"I n.' m

~ ,l..IA, ,= ': _. '_ ~ :;i!!'1if, .. ;I

,/iG.Il({J = I'] = 1853.8m. ALf61 =:: 1 "} = 7116'96, m, .AL(A~ = 1"')1 = 1,91 .. 9',2 m;

p,hjiskcd par.a."tleUl'S [3.5 . .2]" [1.5.3]:

U· ·6· 26···3·· 6'86 . . - ,2 . :2

.'01 =".,' '1:··.11 X JO m 8,--".

J' '2- 3"7'11 .' ~'O-'6 le' ,n 00·'-6- . '10-6 . 000· 'li'49-'tio '700'6

'4 = -,_.,. ~)II; ll" =u'." x: _' -'j, ," =. I •. ,'..J-I~'g'

10 = 9.7803211 1. +- 0.0053024 sin1 cp - 0..000 0058shil.1 2ip') ms,-2, (:~). = -0,J0817(1 - O,OO14~ si n ' 'P) " 10-' .-1,

The normal gra ,i ty Yo; depend'S on [the InOrue:m.cc o.f the tQ~al mISS of the earth. .iincludi:n,g [the atmosphere, As ira,r a:s values ro:r normal ,gra:vtty are feQju:i[ed on t!be ,ellipsoid or

within dlle r,aD!g:e ofthe a.tmospbere:. ;a,comding to (2.12Jt, U~,e~nnUle:f).ce of the tnomerr~od.ve a.irmasses lying abeve tbe at:trac~ed point must 100 subtracted. The eorreetien for '"Yo amounts too-p = ~·!:t l' ,tt ms-]; for Jli= 0 and 'or = - 0.1 Il ms -';!:fOF 11 .~. 30 tm (ECKER and Mrll"-lf!.RMAl'ER 19;ij9~!.

3.5.6 'No:rmaIGeogra,lJiic 'Co<ord~naites,~ N OfmlllHeiigh~s

The "tOr'Jt1'li~' lle()'g.rapllic coo.rdfna'tes in ~he normalgra.v.wty Jield maybe iatrodueed (Fig, 3.12~ ~n ,3.naloQY~o the defi:n:iti,on ofH~.e ,lstmI1J.omwc l.3.~i~LWde and, lcmgiu.u:!Je [3.2.1.]. Tille 1iI0rll'l,a1. g6o'{Jfa,Jdc I:al'it;l\j',d:e f,N i6tne:arl!gie m~as:ui["ed~D ~hemeil,"1.d~a:1]j pJl!Ile between tbe equarorial p~aJ,lI1e oftbelleve:~ en~pflo.h:lla.n:dI rhe d~recti!on. oifFl!o.rn:ud gra,vH:y at .P'. The nQ:r,"~1 ge,()tJJ'tlphi,(: t(),JfBi~~de 4J¥~S ~q\1ivalemlltO; the 'eUipsoidal ql:l,a,n:U~y 1 [3,,4. I]. These coolr:dh'llll~eS are s~glfl;lficalil~ in t be direet delieml~lla,d<o'n of the ph:ysiclliI slllirfall,oe.of the earth [5.2.S].

Sinoe th!t'lsplilempotential surfaces U .,......, coest, a:re notpa.raU.el. the plumb l~rn,es o.f the nor.mal gra.vUy O:eld.are curved .. Here, due to rotational sym:metry~ w,ei1;a:v,g ,ijn~ya m.e,r.id.~o:m:a~ oo.mpo~.en.~fiCN .f~J'r t.he norm,al cu·,·v.alu.re 0:1' .the l'l~mb line. In .. a, blca:l: 'empsohjJa~ x~y~~..gys:~em (x ,= north, y =ea:st. oZ' ::;;;:. zenith of ~.h,e normalphm.mb l~me) d,er~lJJed, simi~a.d, as; in. [2.2.2)~ i~ foUowsj COf.FeSpOif)<.Ung to 1{2,,4()). tha~


wbere:- iU~~= (a1Iax~@! ""'" (aylM:olPo)o~ M_:me.ri~ian radius of CiI!1fV3mU:re {3.2-'\O. We: :substH'Ute ~'!!I' (.3 .. 5.5)' and lrs de4filva~ive.j, and US;lOg the ;ra,vi.ty .flatteni.n.,~ p,. we obtain ~he sll!mcien~app!r:ox~:ma tion

. N(J, ..

K.~ = .~ sin 2cp'.


From ~his. the no'rmld iho'ri;t::onlaJ gravi", gradient on. the e~Hps:o~d of the Geedetic Refc;r,ence Sys~e,m. 198iO [3,.5.5] is giive'D 'by

,(Jy!.Flx= 8.2 s~n. 2<p ms~! ..

The ru)'r,maE Ile.igh~' UN in,tmduced by,M. S. ,Molode.nsld ~:s o~ .~reat Lm.p".I'f~a.fl,oe (:o,f gm'!!,!' lme~dc~metb(}d.s a:nd. bll geod,edc su F\f,eying,. It is de:f:i[l}ed a:naWogollJ.sly to the o,n:til!Gmetficl:le~ght (3 .. rnO),by U'i.;l; ~o<p('ltential nu:moor C aIDId~he mean 1lJj(lirm~ll

N C H =-;;;,


,A, point Q is determined by HN as lywog on the normal pl.umb line, or to a good approximation om ttile eUipfioid normal. w:hi:ch passes tbliOI!lglh the su[face poiat P.lo the norm~~ gr,avlny field. Q should have the same po:~e.nHa] dlffe4"cnce C (3.9') with :respect to she 'level emps;a~dl U"",· Uo as thepoffint Plil.as w~t:h lI",~spoc,t to the ge()!~dl in the gr,3.vity :Eie:~d1 ,o,r the ,ea:r~h:

C ~.~ U UII 'UJ

,=' 'VQ ~ . Q' = l'ur.O - "'p'


]fwe n~qujl'e. as it is usual. that tbe pof'lmt~als ofthe 'cUipsoid and the geoid be eqaal

I. UD = WQ}" then we have UQ, ;;;;;; ~" R. A. Hm.VONEN (HI:60. calls the s:udace for wtilich Va =- .~ holds fot eve["y pain,1 the' tenw·,oid. Thenorma] W1,'eighn HN' of at point P .is, Icqui.vafent to the hei,gihl of the corresponding tetluroid pain t Q' above the eUipsoid. T~e ~enuroid~ntelr':eclt:s the' SphierOp;(li~emt~aJ surfaces U= Ua~ hence: it i~se:~fis; :1i1.ot a 1evd surface of t.be normal Iravwtyf]e~dl. Its s,h.ape resembles that ofthe phy:siad :5u[[s,ce of tbe earth S, cr. [5.1].

U we substitute }i From (.3.64) inte 1.1.71) a:nd :i:n.te:gil"ab~~ then we see I[h,;.d

- ('11 .~ ,,'1 ,- 2'{' . -2 )H1>l')'

y = 1'0 '. E - 4"\1 + + ,rh' ~. ,~i ,sm, 'fP - ...•


He:nce.1 may be computed. rig,orol!lsly ~i~e'r,atiViely~. Since C can, bemeasured [5_.~ .. .5]~ the normal heigh:t iis. det:erminedwi,tho'ut ,any hyp()<t:hesii,s" EJi.te:mdi.nSj, fhe normal h,eigh~s dOW]ll:wa:lI:d from: the eartb's S,IJlI"ra.ce yi:ehjls the q:utisig,eoid illS rete-fence' surface fCJ!f heigbts" U does nOlt' represent a level sl!Ida.ce. but the dev~art~.,o.ns fr'o:m, tbe geoid are snulU, cr. [S.I,.5].

For the SiO,~t.iiUOn (If the PWOb~~ID (If geode~y f01'nlU~a~iildhijj [L2]~ 'vadoulS po.me;td.c and physi:cal quantitiesare cbserved on the surface oftbe earth and in the .SPliJiCC

"".' '_

ex~e[iJ()!r to it The,;r m.ay be dividedb'U:o :fo'Ur g:roups~


1. Astr,ono,rl!ic aelerm!i-'\la:tio.i'i\s of 1;I~itude.!, :I:oro,gituae. and azimuth (Hrwe(f}~ed wHh respec;tt!() ~he di:[,~cdollJi oftbe ph~liIl,b n~~ ,and <Cj!Main:ed [hom di~,ect~o:QJfneasur,em.~nt:s to the stars [4.J];

2.mi.%u!lure:ment!!l o.f g'r'(u!iry and t.he oompolil!ents ,of fh.e {lrQv~lY 1I.f'aai'efu' as 'WeU as eQra~ tide '~~(i'~sUreme¥l'f:s [4 •. 2];

3. g€o.d'e,r:ic: ~"U!iIl'S~ltf€Tne.n~s of horiznntal :!lIngJes. distances, z:e.Il~t~ a!llg~es. and he:(ght: differeD"s [4.3]~

4,.,meaSll[,enlents irnde:pen(hl:n:t: ofthe direc~ion .of Uliep!umb l~me to ,arUnclal eart[h, s<iueUI~esj, the moen, a1]!d e~t~agalactic r,adi(l s~)laJ:r<Qes.a.:!iw~~l as; :he~ght Jl'l!eas:uremeats from satellites to the ea,r11li1'~s surface, Due te thei.mpor~a:nre .of earth satel~i.~esj' these measurements wm be ,as:!H'){:iat,ed with Ui:le conce:pit ,,~f "8{jileElil'e ob~erMl,j;oI'il3'" [4.4iJ.

T~e _~tI:tQd5 oQif meaSIJill:f\flm~nt ~d<IJh3ioC!nedlo~) de~illd st~omllgly {Din! 'lhel'ecihualo:gical [posBibilid~s. Sl.lhsli'l:nt:i,a~ p[l\ogJie~s has been .. i:licliIDruecv.edlh:roru.gitru ehe d)l';l!I1e1opme:rl:l of ~rne'!Ct_fOi!]j~CS· ,a::nd tibie: ~S~~~Wf!g cWniang.e;in. measurement and ~"'O'!I,l~atio~ ~e.'Ch~~que~ ~b~OQntii!l1Jou:5. es:tabruiishm;e:r:U of sa't~Uil:e :systeMs ,a~so foil' geod~t:ic; I!!.~,.~'!ld the !!rj?,pli.cllI.tiof!, cf1aser [OO'ltflQ,I.o!lY. The: les:~ij.a,lifin of accur(l'(:1 aJfltll th!l'l inceease ~n a.QCu.rn.cy run these metttl.ods de~ne pal:'tlclIIl!;ruf at,'t~ftltwon .. Depel:lid~ngorDI thle ~:nsi'D:lnnDe:nt.~;he, McurilCY obt:awftled wftlthe ~a,bOr,ai]:ory is lI:sroaUy nIOt eemple~it;]y attainable whe:nll1l:aking geod~tic' :meIllSl'lrements; this is d~e:tioelt~~:r!F!al d~sm!ibing inlffilll!lle;noos ,(m~Clro:seismffici~y, '[empell"a:tur,~:a:l!ilid pr:e:!iiSUfll vari~,tio!il!s" Malgnetic ~I[~~" rerr'3cti(ln~ 'c::tc,J

4.1 AstronomJ.l': .Mea:Slln~e:lIlents

Geodelic a~l,.,orUJ:I'I':l.y i,s OOill.<lef.l:iled. widru the de~erm.in:adon of the as~ro!n(~!mi!c ia~itude II· and I,ongitude A [3..2. .• ~.]I, as well as, t.he as'lrcllO.omic az.imuth. A [3 . .2.2] :from. observatmo:n:s of .rii.ledstam; the basis for such work is. sphe'r.fcaJ astror1muy (SM.AJtl' AJ.960" MUF.ELLER A 1.9,69. EJ'CHHDB.N A~974. SWGL A.·~9?S) ..

4.1.1 C06Jldi:naf:e Systems ,~r ,spliJeri.eal A:s1Too.om.y

When i(}bsen(~ng :flix.ed stars, the distance :from lhepoinl of obseevatlon Uopoce:Ii1~e;r) to the center oil" mass of the eartlil {g.eoceDiter) can. be :ne;gh~ct,ed ~:riI com.par.i.!ioIai to lill!e djstafllO~ ~o the star, IF w,ecir,c'Ulm:scribe the .ce',',es:liaJ spiJere (Lun.it sphere) about dJle earth E, considered as a.poilll~. (F~g, 4,m~ ~trueFl [be pOS~dOlil8 of the :ffix.ed. stars I.f\e determined on the sphere by two direeaions, Ort.hevaf~(lu!s c(}owdiin,ate ~ystefl1s in .s.pber~ca~ aS~Folllomy .•. the ·equltori.al. and bodwfll. sys.temsare of pad:i.cu~a'r j[\l't)eres~ In geQd.eti.c ~:stronom.y.

'J!he star -e, fixed ·'eijuaU.lr,j:aZ s ls,ilfmi" is: formed by project~ns dl:eglobal~et~es:tria] sys;~em. [3.1]Gn~othe oeJ.estial sphcm. The ,ext:en:dedJrotatio]]Ja~ 2lxrus of~be ,earUw. meets Ole ,ae1es;~ial spbef'e at ~he; celestial po~e~P'!I and p~ (lFjg, 4. :~)~ nl~ line of~:n,'berSlecUon. ,of tbe e3!:rth~seqllat:odal. rd,anc w~th the celestial sphere ls tbe c,eles!taJ equcu:or" The greet c~l,c~es, pe:r'pend~cu~a:r to the eelestial ,equator and c,(Hl.ta:in~:mg the oelesHal po.les :anr:..e called h:our ,circi,e:s; the sma'U drc~e:s pa.raUel to 'the celestial equatoll' are termed

oe'fesJtia~ pa:r~r_l,e~s\. "'

The 00 oifidb:1la~eg: o:f a. s~all S i[Jthws s:ystem are the dediwuUion iii andthe rlgllr tlSCe"S,tolii Gl:. ~: is the a:li1g~e: measured in theplane of tbefloUf ,clrdebe~ween tih.,e equatodal. p,lant! and. the Hne j,oi11JingE and S :(po:s~.tWVe:frolill the eqnaror to :P1i~ negative to P~)'.a: is, the .angte mea:sured in ~hep~a:ne C!lr~lle' eq uatorbetween the plane of ~he hour Idrc~e of the vernal ,eqU!:i.noxY (mnteroocdon of'the eclipdc and the e..q,ua~JO'r where the sl!Inpas!Ses r~o:rnI.~he southern ~~) tl:ile :l'1Ior~henl, .he:misphe'.reJ' an.d. the plaee of the hour ,cir,c:ie of P (<<~s reekened F:llomT and positi.v,e:rul:'ll.~he: d:i[,ec:ti'O!~l i()Ipposi~eh) the :apiParefl~ dai~, m.otion 'Of the ,ce;\estlai sphere)

By moving itbe loealastrenamic system that was, mntroduced in [3,:~t2] Ito t1!Je e'a.fth."S center of mass land, fben I)f\O$ecting it onto the ,cele$:tia~ sphere." we Clbta~m. ~he:'l(lri'zO'.!1: system~. The :pO:~11JJts ofiint.cncction of the extended directW(,I'.D, of' the :plumb line: w~t~ ~he celesUaW sphere areknown as t.be zenith Zand the l\Iad~r . .2". flcs,pecHvely (Fig,. 4J)~ T.hei,n~e:Fsec:t~on of ~ hepWa.ne of tbe horl.zon. wUh the cetesUa~. sphere is: ~he ,cei,e'"da:' hOrrZli!u .. The great eircles p-erpe:m<iliC'Ulla:r~:o thehorizon ,1l11dinciuding the zenith and nadir are ealled verfic.al,circles; whereas, the sm,aH circles parallel to the :holFiOOim aee klllowu. as ,almUCanl'Qfs. Thevecticel 'ei.IDCm.e Ullrolll,gn the ce.~es:Hal.po~esi;s the ,ceJes.tiaJ 1~IC'r'id'hln;il~ in~elrsec~:s rhe bo,riZlon ,a~ the north and south! poin~s,The:lI\'erti,cal circle ,~rpeLl1lIdiclll,~ar h) the oeJeatj:aJ.~ mer.i:d.ia:m. isthe pr.ime :!;terlicaJ and ,it icont;awns d'lc east and w,es:[:poi on.

1:0. ahe h.or~on sys~em.tbe star is de~eif.mined by the ooordinates de:tioedin [3.2,'3): the zeniur~ ,w~g,'e z (rarely by t.lle aUihmde 900 -z] and tiheastmnomic a:zfm~lh A. On

3:st:ronom,,Y nl~S a:Dg~e WS' nsuaU, r-cc.ik,one.d (rom ~he so.ythp()!,~IiI,t a:nd posb;v,e' westw1'ud t,IO the north; [however" here :lll geodesy Wt Is as usual" posidve rrom the north and in the clockwise direction], The ,coor'diJDa,~es: of t.heborizofi system depend ,O'n the observ3,ti'on station, :3J:IilO also 0:0, the time' because ,()f~he' eareh'srotsrion,

U W~ rota'te 'tihe «;.d-equa,toria.system aboulu the polar axis by the: angle of sidereal ~ime: @ [4,.1...3], then W1C' obtain, ~he t:~m.e d~pelldcn[ (because t.he earth :FOuues) equatorial or ,h~our angle .system w'itb. 'the hour D'ngle and de-c:llinadofi as ccerdinetes, Here" the IUJur angle E' is theangle measured in - ~~e equatorial pmane betwee~,lll the oo.fes~ial :li1Iler:hii,an a:ldI ~he hour c~rcJje or S. reeik,oued ,lTto:m ~.he :uppe:rmer:idiaJ'D. P;PlIZP~ ,t'o'wltrd W. For the determi:natio!D of time there i 'the Iundamental relation


The ,Q.sl,ronOlilic 1£.riQ,'lgl,e P"ZS relates tbe hour ,an.giIe system to the horizoll syseem; i,Q addition, lt contains the astrcnomic latitude 'Il> (Fig, 4.1). :FOi.F ~'he calc!lda:t:~o'll ef 'the ~a~imudle,,~he ~ime'l and 'the ,uimuth" we have ~he important transformation

( :: ; :: ; )'1= I( - s~~ ~)I(_ ~ CO~ e :: ; : :)1. (4,2)

eosa ' 'cos' II· 0 sin, 4> san d'

DilIereifl~ial.fo:rm'Ulas 'ma.y 'be den'y,edfr-o,m 'the a,stmnomic triangIDe I(q =paraUactic angle, A is, reckoned in lhe pesitive sense rrom.oo:£il:b) for the' estimation ,or errors;

.u"cos ,q d·:I\': dz " ""', " ;J

,aC", - - _:_ .' tJ ~ -- - cos .... tan. A uf

,CD5, A cos A

• .'0::

" !lim. q. c CQ,S q ecs ,(I'. " ," . _. ._

cIA = -.- &6 + . dt + cot z sm. A ,d~.

sm Z SUl Z


_, _ 005 q ,H ,tiz 'cot A d. do

u( - - - "(1 ~ - -_ ~'

sin: A cos • sin A cos CI' cos .'

410 :1.2 Va:riatioD o:f $,leUar Coord:ioa:ies. Star 'Ca,lal,og,lle5

The st'eUa.F eoordinates a: fJ wh.~c~h u,n.tU newhave been ,co1ils~deJied as independent. of ~hne and t:be p.~a.ce or observatiolll ,i!u:::,tu·aUy ehange due 10 movements of the eerth's axis (precession, nutat:iolll). small motlons of the stars on the ceh:stial sphere 'pc,opec motion), aswe~1 as a,ppare:n:t d~s,piaceme,~us ,olf th,e star's dilJ'li:lcti<HiJ, (paraUaxe:rs:" aberradon. l'!dractio:n).

In :star c{J'w'.log'Ues~ theposhioD tx. ~: of at s.ta,ri!s, ,gj v,eoin a "mean" s,)l:stem rO'F the epoch 1O~ from which ~bese 'va:riatioms have been lor the mos~ paF~. remeved: meanpositicn (To). The: tr.aos:ition (mom ~he obser,pe,d' positi(J'n~ at epoch T tothe mean position (To) is pc:u1ornlled in several steps:

W, Fir,st. the p08j~won (11 g[' the star. observed at the 'lopooen~e:r! is 'tmns:fo.n:ned to tbe app(JJ'em pa.si! I'(U~: T); ~hiscoue.s,pond8 ~!O ~, ~bin Q,r the observer tJothe geooe.n:ter. I,ed ucdons arm required dueto a:tm:ospl!i.erliicrefr:aJclion and the c3iuh's fO~,3Jtmoln.

A.:s:tr.iJ'fi!D~'I1lk; 1.<ejr(1ctio.rJ Aza;. ~u1ie.s 1.!!!:n3!]ilpareilllt Increase in ~ffi!;es:ta.f·:s;arutrn~wde ,(FiB, 4.:2:). The true z.enllth ar.1J~le .:;;·is obtahwed from ~h~ ebserved qUlJifl:tityz"u


HIld!er the aSi£ump~:io[l [lEla! the atmosphere eenslsts of slPher:i.ca]1ysYID~et:rmc layers, AI"" mill,)' be eompu.t~cl fol:' .l'! I -c 70° fWI.m. U~e: ah~'!iosph$rjc p'r,~s~[,e p(h.Pa} and I[he ~emper:3i11lil[ie T(K)I a;t the pJaiCe ,of o~\Serv.a;l:~on:

H~G:ro 420 whic.hcl!ep.cnds. o~ .z' ~s the ~Ja:nda!'rd .ref:r::!!cHof!! foIr 1) == U}~ 3.2:5 iIlLPa .!l:iIlId T = 273. 15K:

[n 'l~~ intf:fvllli.1 00 '"' z' <:; ?O~. the 1!lIlloe:r1l:(lJinty ,or4:;:~is a.ppro:idmaleWy± 0:'03 to ± 1~1~2. ..

An appBll)e:tu di~pJa~!:Re.ru. ill diree:tmon. (di'lIIr.'\hl~ aberri'l!tiou) res~ruts from. the finite v~loc;ity or .Iight 31la,d ~herebui'~ .... eWocUy of the ,obse:l'vf:r wwth respect tn the :5I:9Jm'S: dUf: to the !ea:rtb·.s rot Ol'liom1I .. Tiis d~sp~!:ii.oe:!'!l~!lt is also taken into account by app~}'ingiil, GorreclrnoiJ'l ..

The' d:ifrere~ce be~weei[J the topooomlrri,c and ~Qcenlf1ic: dbecfi,oIlcS (geaee.Q~ri.c ''''rI1Uux) can. be !1e.IilIDeoc~~din star obsena.ti,ol]]Js.

2. Thie' <'rp,pa:rent pl)sit:io~ en dicptl:lliding 0[1, i~~e tTtot~o:l"Ia;nd pOiSruUO:n ,oft:he e<l.lfm.h ~n the ~clipHc: is 11!;!llmJsf:ei':ITtedii.lMiO the l.lI'"ue po:'l'i(jo.li! {T}co.rre.!ip>Of!:d~iI1g te an ebserver at tb~ ,origi.n ,of Mill hcil:i~~tii~ s,Si'e •. Uate, .ifed!ticrio~s-a;re I~i~ed3:S a.usl!IJ~u'a~.r:ei.t(.,f.ifectrortah:rl1;i'Mrtg~· (a'11Jl:U:!l!i,(:;Iber.rafi:Ou) aris~iI1!g from t:!ile orbital. fiI!oti:oD:1Jof tl:te:e:auhaJo~nd the :Sl1n.i'IJ~d due t,o UlI.e diiffcl1e.r!oe:OehY'een th~ ~ece'l1[lic .awdl hC!l.keliil~[ic d:ir.~'[io:n:!l (a~~;u{J~ pall'"~llili:X),

3. The orien1atiOiQ of the a,;f·'SJ51c:m.i a~d thus, ~:im,~ ~ rue posiUOrnli ('1')1 ,af a, st:ilIi:r dl,'3iDge$ duete 1hegra vlta:tjotl,of ~heltl:oon. the Slllln" and Itbe pl.!:!LIUl~S.

The :aUr3icUl!!ie; rO.I!OO8 ,of t he uoon arrudi!;>ul'II IOn the ,eqlJl!itQrial!b~~g~ of u~;~ ef!!nh 'cre:a,~:e torqtu;:s ~ie~.ding ~o ~~rn ilh~ equa:[!o.ri.a~ p]a:n.e bUG thep~aI[J.e' of the ec]~pitic: ~Fi,~~ 4.3~

The combwWlJoo. el'tct or [hi:sand~hemc!\Me:!"n Qf[he e!~d~';s If'O~:~:lition produees :agyra.Holfli of the ~rtb':Si}Jxi'l which d!esc[ibes; a. CCH1C wi~ha g,ener~Hng .3!~glt.1iof.~ "'" 23~S I[.iil= obl:iquii~:y of the 0'C~:i~IP:l:ic)la:boul. ~i!DJepo!e ofth,e; ediptic E~,. The vert.utW eq'!i!in~.x: T tflil.weJs ,o~t.be 6cUpHc:

li'fte~r,:!isr, , ,InK,'

nY'l.atioo, I - i

~I __ -"

; 15J811' . .'.

IU a, .Fa~e' of 5Il~4~T' yeillJ" maldlliJlg a Clo.p.le~!e rell'oluti.OIlI ~JJ:I abOilll 25800 ye!lilf~: b.i"i,isol~i'Jl' pr,i?(',eS's£oll .. The gravitation ,of lhe :pLallltMS causes a. di:slocartion of the earth's ,o!l'bit, and tM'[,cby •. 3!n 3iddilimliili] m~gratio,", of T a~ong the equator, as weU as a char!:lle in e: ,'la'J'u:tury pr~ot!'s~i(,lfi~ T~e SU!m oil' ~,Iit'C: I,um~so~ar ~m(ld lP~an~lary pf;'~~S~O:llS is, ~:eflliJllcd, ge'nel',td ,r,?C,C':!!SI:(lt!:,. It ~s :supe:rim:~ed by a .periodic mo~ion known ~ 'Ju~ation (,!IInl:p:titude = 9~2, period = ~ 8.6 y,~,) which. is pdncipaWWy due to' die indina:aon of the orbit of ~he ma,on w:i't'h respect to t he oc~jptjic ( _ SO),

8,y ,acc(lunti!:l~, 'for ll'Uta,ti,ml, tne ~rlJJe: positio:n is uansformed into the meaJ~ ,po,d!i(m I( 11 (refc:rf\ed. to the:' mea:~ oo~esdl.1] eql~l=Uor and 'lher.ne31rni vern~] cql~mnox,;_u epoch 'i'lL,

,4. In, ~:fue: t i:'a1i1l!f>iti'lJIilll fll"OM the .Ga~po!!lrnt~o'[l I( T) ~o the mtaw' ,'(}!sitrio~1 (To)' Oof ~h~ stail' cU;J108:~e!l. pr~oos:sion. and :pmpe:r HlIotion bet!il.;'een T and ~, must be cons:idered. Ji.e;rc, pro,per ntod.on denotes the oolrnpouc;nt ofthe spatial modo" o,f the starwhica is talllge~t to the Iceliesda:~ sphere h~~ilill,e:.ndLy< .~ ~ per Y'e\u~.

In. addwdon 'to, CE~ fl. the slQ,r ct:u,a'ogues !eneraUy eontaln informa.tion on the proper Olo~ion and ,appare:~lt magmtudes of the stars. The astrenomic s.ystem is defined. by ~be ·coord~nabes of ,9 number of very ,alccl!l,ra'le~y cbserved jlmaamem:al ,,)'l,ars I(full'idame'ntal s.y.st.~m),fR,ECJ{I:l (19'.85,)"

The fL!ndBm~ntal catal0,gue .F K4 (Astm:n. Recbenin..stitut H~id,elberg m 96,3) conta.ins 'the m.ean. pesltions and pmpc:;r 'motions of 153,5 stars for the epochs 19sn.Oand ~.9'75.0+ The, cerresponding entries ror an add~t:~oI1a~ 1:'987 star,s (epcch .11.95())O) are ~b!!lnd. ina sup':p.l,ement te tWl·~s. analogue. f.K4 SU,p. 'l'he new fundamental cata.ilo,E;ue ,FK.5 00:0- tains mean 'positions (± 0701 ... O~102) and proper mOitimu; (* O:;05lcy) for the FK4 :s~a,rs, and {in a supplement} ad.ditio,na~ star'S up to the apparent lIIul,gn.i.hl:de 9'.5~ for tbe epoch J2000.0 (FRmCK!E et al, mg8S). ~n ,addition!, the coordiaates of a few extraga.~actmc radlo sourcesare gkve:Dlin. order to eonneet the stellar wiU~ 'the radio source system (a.cc1.Wf,a,c1 or ,commec~ion± O;',~). see b(do:w.

The 11O'sili6\t:i',ld c,alal'ogllte.s ~i'S~ themean places of a,g:real :w,l.I:mbe't' of stars in the Euudame1l1tal :sys:tem. These catalogues have beens~ven considerable signi.fiica:nioo in geodetic as.:lt\oDomy willen determining pos'itions, but mainly 'in dffirectioomea:sure,., meats or ,sateIH'ee ,geodesy w:he~e a, dense and eWD!ly dis:tr:i.DI!1~ed fi,eld of known flxed stars was, :reql1li:red.

The S'AlD (Smithsoiidan As:tro:physl~{!.l ObSle.rvat;oIiY) sia:r' c:at'Q"ogl~e 1(1966) upresents: 3, eolleclion of some 200',000 star positi,ons at ~:h,e: ~poch •. '9'.:50.0 covering the entit'e ,oolestia" sphere (i1iV'Clra,ge u.nccrt3li!tny ±: O~'5). It was pr,eparedfoli use in ,ol::niiCal, sat~~\~tie .geodesy .. The ti,GKl ca,taJ:o,gruml1; of'tih!~ "'As'~ro~o~jscbe Ges.enK;bafP' (Hnl~ 'W'hic:h.·iIs bll!sed, Q:1l e.(Xle1:ls~ve old. and new obseT"'aJdonal m:aJtelCi~d 'ooiOt<iliii.os O\lCif210010001 star pos~tiODS, (epoch 19'0.0" ave .... a,p IJ,WlcelTtlI!~nty +i:r'l to ±:O:'2, northemhemi.s:phere o,n.l.y).

1m o'r-dlef to 'make comparisens wit.h. the observaUons.~ one: requires Ute ap,pa"e",t: pos'i.[r,ORS of' s~ar.s" They 'can. be ei~be!i. ,com,u~ed frOim tbe mean posiHons or~he: :s~ar catalogUe! or taken rrOIll13.llIi ,a.str-oI'Jon'li:c a"'nanac (oui:y rlJJ.ndam.enta:~ stars);

Tb.:(l almanac cntiUed AppDII',filnP'laces ,o! Fur.ldame~ual St,ar:s (Aslro:n. RechenillSdtut H.iei.ditll'berg) (ontain:!! the ;aiPp!are~t p,lalCts, of FK4 stars fOif a, p3lrticl!.LaJr year. 'The: ;aiPpaFen~: posjtkmii of t~lll sun are round i,~ ~be aillma,file 'I!:,nowlill es l~e AS/!'IO~fO"',IiIr.car Eph~mlii'rij'"

With the ,fK 5 .. system1in conneetion whh,the' IAU U:ntemati:onall As:tron.omicali Union) 1'976,0'982 system of A t[\QD,omh;~a~ Constants, an approximation to, a:n.inertial sys.tem is provi:ded which is! 'based 0:0 fixed stars: S,teUa., .. CIS', see [11]. Tbe ,alccu:r,acy of this: system cou~d har,dly behnpro:oved beyollld ±O."Ol. w~'tb ,eartb"liJased (I"p~ical astronomy, From ,llstIWIlOf.ruC space missions like the HIP'PARCOS sate:Jiiite and ~he space-'telescopemission a p(ll~ci:sion of± O:~OOI :may be ,expected. On t:he other hand, the direc~,kl'n to exl:nl~,al3.ct~c radio sources can be determined to ±. O:'(l() 1 from tart l'ii~based, V'cry Long lase; linehl~er.fefometfy.!, see [4 .. ~.,8.J. Tb~s, ,olen, the possiM~ity to d~n.llle a Rc;di:o .sofJrc,e-ClS',a1thougm the' nU.mber of sources hlil::hwded win remain miemarkable less than the number o:rruorlamenta~ stars (M:ORlTZ, and Ml.1JELLBR A198.7)1

4.~.J Time Systems

Dete:r:mina.tions or time are :reQuired rnn geodetie i:'!.!urono:my and. In sa.n:Ui'tle ,geodes)' because of tihe!i.,ebl~h!,e merion or ~'he i[Srget wj~h respect 'to the place of ob~rrva,tiOim.. A highrelatlveaccueaey is needed in. many applicatioI1ls,',fiJen s.ignal travel time of electrOllllulgnetic waves tis used for distance measurements.

Theuni~ of time, 'lbe secmul (s)~. was. dlefiru:d 3!. ruhe thirteenlhgelltera'i confefenoo af the )lJ:lerlJa~.i,o,"aJl 'Committee of We~gb:t.8 ,and Mea:!J.u[e~~ ~.'967 by the !O\SCili,13I:tion;s; or ~:Ii1,e ces~~m atom!

"One seeondts 9:1926,31710 ~:iRl:es the period of emitted radiati.O<t~ oorrcs.pondimng to' th~ tr,a:llsit"km betw~n two hypedline i,eil/ie]S or the fundanu~ntal state of the atom or~iu.- I J.:r'.

This d,ellll,ilio![i ,ctlil'fesponds, to, ~:he inl.eil'Di!llicmarn a[om~c Un.l€ seale, Its [point of orilgj,n was ,established !looh I[hat tUO,n;c ~'ime T/U O:',emps A.~omiqu<e: l:ntemattoBal)a::gIi"eed with uni."c:rsa.l riOilc at midn.igih'l ,on Jan. 1. W9S8. The de;riniti·on ,of th,e 'time second groven ,~bOVie has !been ~1'l~II~d'ed into the SI-!!,ystem. 'The WeQ.,~th ·of the SI-S'eGond ha:s beenfi~wd.t'Q the second of the

~phem.e"is rime (En which wa~; d.el.llned by the Motion ,of 'tb~ earth abouttbe su~., Rmilld defe',f'Qlillcd Ithrough long-'ti:Il'm. a:s:tro:n.o.~c observali,ong. TAl i: '[;e'a.I:iImd !hi)' thea;tomic ,CiQCks t{oosi~Ri time and rroqllJen~y s[l,odards) Qrse:~\~ml. ~~:a:ndlli!rdl hlbo:ra;t;Qliies., a~d by the average ·of thC!i r ,oorres:ponding times, (l:~dcllla,tedl at. thelu:rel.liu hlite.:roati.o.lll3il des Pojdset Mesu.r:es, fBI PM)\, S6'vlres (UiU:il 1985a:tIUH) in .P,n]'s., Due 'to' ~hc bigh, shorts and ~ong~lerm ;[>IJlam,i:ve fJleque:llcy :Slah~li~~y t( ~ O-! ~ to ur I, a ~ of 'the ,a:~oRlic dloob" th0Y ptrovide a: good appmx:i:m,amion to a. u~ifofM 'time seale,

In ,ord.er to, describe the motions: or Qclesda] lbod:ies and a.rtj:fic~~.I&amieilli'te.s~ a str.ic'Uy unif:o.rm ~~.e t(~nertial dme) seale is needed. Th:is is pr.ovJided by the dy:namicaW 'time. If rderr,~d to the geooenM~4: .it is d.emJited ,as: Te.rresttil'il'$ DJiI'Iltlrnitul Tr~11!1l!"(TDT). D.ynami:ca.1 tbne is l1S00 as the Hllif!lilillmlliliiliil. for the astronnmieal ephe:rnl!:criidies" With res,pe-cttc' a~,omic ume TAl,. we' have TO'T= TAl + 3i!184.

In order to relate earth based observatiom to a space-faed !iys;tem~ time systems are used ow.Elich are derived rr·om~he ro:tadolw of,t'1e ,eart.h: Sidere.al and Un~ver-sal (solar) 'time. Observatiens ·o.r t.he s~alis. yield ~OCilW or apparent s,i:tJ'e'r,e,1l1 time @ t(LAST) reFerr.ing to :t'ile observer's m.eridian; this time is equal 'to the hour angle o:hhe vemal !:llqujnox T (Fig. 4.:~)l The uwforml" varying mean sidterea,~ time (LMST) is obtained a~\Ii~Ir' ,3)Ccollu1.t:img for the iIllllt3,~ion [4.·~ .2]1 or y, LMST ~s used as t~me scale, w,idll the mean sidereal day as fundamental unit

Foil' practi,caI reasons" solar ,~'ime' is used in 'CvfH·yday ~:i.re. n Is Ji1ebJlled to rhe ,alPpa:ren~ diurmd motion of 'the sun about theeartb. S'ince this: r·e''Vo;tutio:n is nm:!lUinifo;rm. a "mean' sun is introduced which 'FD()"Ve5 'wj~h oo,nst.a.nm ve[odty along the equator; W'lil.ere~by l.llle mean a:o.d true sum b()~~b pass t.hrorug:b ~he ver,md. equincx at the same time, M.ean solar time is then equal to the hour a.Il,gle of the mean sun pI us 1..2 hours, M.,ea.Jn solar ti,me referring to ,the mean Oroonwich. meridien is te.rmed Uniuef'sal Time UT. The cOillve~rsi'llin or- on~versa] ti:l:JI.e· ~o sidereal Ume is: riigorously possible, e.g .• MORITZ and MUE LD. (A.m.98?). Since tbe earth's orbital motion is abou~ :~o per day, we have ,appro,.xmm,ately ~ mean sidereal day == 1. mean soWali dlay - 3m 55~!:)~,

SwnC'e 1'988 Universal Time WS obtained by about .50 observatoeies 'Which partmcipat.e in the I'Ji,ermJt',onai Ear,rh RQ.tatio'l· Se,vJ,ce (U!RS). cr. [3.1].. These UTO times rder [I(Ii tbeins:talllt.aQj~Qus. rota~ion.al axis. 8 ad :i n order ~o 'compare t h,em wit.h ,one alllo~be:r! a correetlen to theastrenomic ]on.gj~U1de AA,. (4.12) dlue to polar' D'Hltj,o.n [3.,m.] hal' .te be appUed. Co:nskl!edng 'the PQgtaphi.c h:mgitudes: ortheobserv.a.t!ories. we tllum to,btain um:~ye:r-sal t~me UT t :

. I . _ ,_

4.Af, = - t5 (Xl' srn A +}',. cos A 'tan. Cl'.,

V'~i[J(!rs.at TiJ"f!' UT J hence r:eF~if'S to the CO.DveoUonal. Terresrriel Sys~em (mean pole:

C)O),. ,cr~ [3.1], thus P1l'iOvwd]illg the time seale for ~~Jod.etJ,c astrollomyand 5ate,IIU~e g,eodlesy. The 'P'cccis:ion of UTI ""as a,bout + 1 :nIS t(S,d' valu.es) from a.stronom:ilc met:h,ods. and is ± Few O.:~msl (IJ vah:Iii;~:S) wi."ch Lunar Laser Ra:l1Iging and Very Loeg Baseline I nnerfero.me~,ry. The ]~o.D!gi.~lJdes of the stations wb~chpart.~c.ipat)e in tbe tiime' service were .Ea~t es~abli~bedl in, 19'7'9: BJ H·Esystem: .~ 97~.t They i:no:irecHy dJe'fine the direetion of the Green wi,eih 'Mean Mi.il\rid:ia:n~ 'c[ [3.1]. UTI sHU conta:~ns the variations of e'3.lith {',ota.liom. ~t does not rep.f<'Csent a uniform lime scale,

UTl = U'TO+ AAp-

(4 . .7)

These' var.iaHows are seeulae per,ioo,~c~. or :i,ru.l:g:uilla,[' ilIW :n:a~um (LAMD'IlC:K ,AJ980)., It oocu]ar deo:re~se in the ~n1;(l;lllarlj!\c:Loojty ,of ~h~ ea.:rth"Sl rQt:at~on ls eaused maifil!~Y by tidai, [rictiQiIl., ~:ength.elIlli~n1Ig the da;y bY3ihou:t 2ms O'll'\@r.ruoo y,e,ilU'S, FlUJGl!la~in~s over de:Q3!desba:.ve ooe;!l ~dSlo oooerverl.lI'eac~~~g f~w ttlS ,cI];a~ges ~1I:l th:e:1ensth. of day (LOl)), Changes: e:x:hib.itin;g aninillll.Wa.l "nd seasoni1l:~ per~od!'l" iiI]'1drel,at~w LOD onane,es of Ofl.O-~)~ "lain!:)' a!Jise as alles~Wtor charng;ing atmosphe'ricmass dI~str,ibuUofJi. :re.riodic ~wdla] vari:i.1i:tkil.i]\i (afilIiua~~,y~lo r(jlIf1Ii~gh.tly)p.rGdUJoe rdaJ:l~ve ,~ba_~ges of the ,saMe o:rd!erof m:a,gni:t.ude' .. FiilIlallly ~~: isp.resruwed. ·that 'ler:r:esirilllrnm<lSS displacemeses pn:lIjuoe i.r.reg!l!!iar va:rma:do:o!s:wlriciililiHliveooeol o'bse;rY'edi over centuttes or OV~f just a. fewye3i:rs (cili1!ang~ in the ~e:nl~h of ~h~ dillY by se:v,e'f.3i] ms)\. as wellas ,over W,~b~fid morntlls: (chan~e$ by fracHQll:!! (If a .ms:),

Dueto Uwe seeutar decreese o:t eart:lh. lioi~anO.njj UTl allidTAJ cooil"lll1uously devj;l;ue :Fro·m ea,clh ether, Thfi s led, ro tbe mtrodh,mctiO'1i1 I~if thJe COO[l:'dltt!Q.~e'd U ~~lil'ui!'rs.al Time U rc. 1'.be time i.IJ1~erl{alcorlJ',es.po.nds to atomic t~me TA.l, In order tok:ee~pl ~he (Ufference UTC~VT1= l)UTI -c 0.78. "teap seool.n.(i):s"are inu'o!il,!!].oedi to [JTC if necessary, thus .flttilng the (li()oceh ag:lodn to [TTL DU'Tl~spro'vkled. by dwellERS5~he thne s~gm,d st,atiolll8 generaJ:ly broadeasr U'TC.

AmolillJJg ~.ihile: 'OOrUi,Iilil!IDOt1:S]Y brolilidlCiilSit:ing time signal stal:i!!l)ifl!!'l, ~n 'cem~~a~ Europe: are ncr l'i/Mainninlgen p7,.!) kHz). Y3S/Nauen (452SkHz). U:OGJPlII'angins ('75 kHz). OMA/Ub1ioo (50 kH:z:),. For Nonh Al"I'teri:Jl::a. ~~e .s:latlaf:liS WWVfFt GoUin:s. Co]cH:adD 1(:2 500-2!CIOJ)OIkJ!Iz~ and! WWVHJK3iuai, Hawaii (2500-15000 kHz) :are~h~ m08~: iNpoil:~aJnt cnes,

4.~A Olm:na'tionallnstruments

O~rocUOl]J and Ume measaeements ate [eqlJtred for tbe de~e:rmin.ation ,a.r l,admdJe" :~o[l,git:ud!e~ and azimu.t:h.. Thei,nstru:me!ll~s areeisber per,m.ane:.ndy instatled (ohs.erva.[vries,) or set up, in Ule f:i!e1:d.

Obsc:rvil!Uons of Ute: higil1i~:l p[lcdsi:on with. stluiotJary ~olbse:n:a.~o[yJ i ns:lnrmem,ts b.!Jjll'i;:: lbeem IIIltimru:l'"oo by the ifolrmer Illternlnional l'i:m,e S'efVWOO 1[4. LJ]I SlndlD'tenl,atwoflalPol,!!iil" M,otion ~[1;':ice [3..1], Am:@<ng otheiiinstr~me~ts. th~phQ',~Q,gil'(lp.llic zenit.~1 tuhe has: beeil3ippli~dI WfiiI 'Ibis respect hl this caS'e'~ s~:aJrs near dn;e, .ze:r:litb a,rephoto'gEa!ph.edsy_etrjcaill~y w~~b respect to the merndiruan. The :zelrn!~th a:!lgilles and ~k~ ho~:1II' a~gles: ca,1iI1 roe de:telltminedfoom the tracks l~ftbL\'l: stars:, The: d~re~lioill. o:rtheve:rtica~ ~s est:aro']~shed by ,apocd oifm.lllllc:ury. C;O(m;'pa!r3!blepreds~(I.1l (±O:O:SJ nlaybe aJch~eY1ed by the :impe:roS6.iiiJi.!i~ Dan}G\I'i~ IN'f5mtll'it astMr,!lb.e, n is dj!;~~ngui:shed [tom the aJs:tJiOI,ilbe-fl drul:1l,t are des:igJlllledfol ~se in, the fidd. 1(5Ieeool:ow) i;,y a, .se~f~registe~ri:l1l!mlc:r{Hllcre:f (MORITZ and Mtre[.L~. A.~981).

For 'e.~d m.easlll.r\emem~s 'of firs~~I)~de1fp~~c;isi()n I(± or 1 b) ± 1[)~3) UlJeunive.r's(';d l.h(JodQ~ U~,eJ in p[(lj:r~i(:I!1~~,[~iis brn:nJght :iiu;o servi:ce. it couslsts of a ,p~ecise theocmolWte [41.:3.2] of v,e.lI'y stal~,[e d.esigml.!.wilic:nwitl1a rli::waUachm~liIts can be used. ~olr as~riQinomjc observatiens (Fi!I,~t4).

A broken t.e~e$Q~pe w~~!hJ a h{)lri:zo:rital, eyepiece :poeNilitsolbsenra~.i~ows near the :z~enith.To e~iimi.l'!:ate personal errors, the tnova,bLe thread ("fthe re;,gms~e:rillllg gCOOIJTlde:ris dr.ivcJD ~C! fo:.llc!IIlW the stacf, !'illll:ch Ihilit !i:l1lpu~lses .. uegen~:rill.'tcd a:nd reoordedait u:n:i:Form ~mII~!!:irv,aJls. T~es;u:s:pelilsio.n ors:l:r~d:itl,g: h,w,c:l:l serves to Meilis~re the ~:i:U: ,ofthe: hQ~iil:ontal, pis;where;]s,.th,~ HO:l"ubowi!c:vd ili!'i1o;untooi]JtdgiH, a;n;gjie.s,t:o the hori:i!!ontal ,aJxi:sre,g!st,ers any ,changes In ~:~e lWW~ .@if ~~e '~el~sco.pe. ~!'!s~.rl!lme:!llsohhis, kJnd :inC~lUd.e t.hc~ asrroaomic DKM,3·aA 'Il:nive:rs3J~ M1:eooooW~~e (Kern., .Aara~, Sw~t2ie;rm(iln.d.) and ~heW.~ld! T4 ul:li,ve:rs~] ~bei!')djo~i:~e I(Wi~d" He(lrbrugg;. Swf~:z:crl~u'J;d). D~e: ~o a

68 4 Methods orMe;]js'~retnenl ~n Geodesy

bl,llj]t-im aJutomat'ic stabillaaticn, the :Iell'eis rnentioned abeve are mol required un the geodetieastrenomie Thee 002 universal Lheodol.h!fi: (Zeiss .JeM~. 8m!:.. and BAUCU J ~I'976),

M ea suring accu racies 01 ± (1:' 5 to ±. I "rna 11' bereached VII' hen usi ng the pr ism assro ra/Je. Here. one: measures the transit times o~ these stars which cross 1 he: same almucantar pl. L t], The coestant zenith distance {usuaHy .... 30oQ) is established by a prism placed ,in r.ronl~ Qr the telescope, and ~he dirccrion of U1C vertical is defined by the surfaee of a pool or mercury or bya compensator pendulum.

,.1\ s trol a be attach ments are pa rt leu I arl y com m on, These ase eit her :11:101.1 n ted om a theodcllte (e .. g, the Wild T3 astrolabe wruth a mercury pool] or en an Si.IlI.~omalic level (Zeiss Ni2 astrolabe), DBCflt (1975},. Fig, 4.5.

F~()'. 4.5,. ZEISS Nil level wida, prism astrolab, courtes.y orCari Zeiss. Oberkechen, fedL Rep. Genn:Jiny

Recent]y. ltall.~p{1r1(Jb.'e .ze,~irl: cameras (fig. 4,,6), have alse been used [0 rapidly determine astronomic latitude and longitude. Such an instrument oonsists 'of a

4J A.$LrOflOmi,c MeasuremllmlS 69

Fig. 4.6. Transportable zenith camera, HE Hannevcr

camera oriented in the direction of the plumb Line (Iocal length = 300 to 1000 mm, rclauve aperture of - I : 5) and whlc:!ti can be turned around this axis in an} azimuth. In addition [0 a timing device, the instrument is also fumished with two Icve1s (hat am arranged ,a~, 'right anglers to each other (ODRAkDI 1,9'76, S,[EB,]!R and TmtGE 1985), cr. [4.1,5].

In order to meaSl/re time at stations in the field, it is necessary 'to be equipped with a time signa] receiver, a clock, and H recording dev~cc (chronograph).

The lime signal:s [4J.3] can be ~m:pplil.lid by a tj'I1',g sifJntJI recelcer lllal is tuned to a special frcqucnc,'. Of sometimes also b.y oJ radio receiver. The accuracj o:flhe received ::lignal depends nn t'he Iluctuatiens 111 the time or propagatlen and in the quality or the reception (± ~ to ± 2 ms], Clcc:.k.s arc required 'in order to interpolare the time between tha: received time signals. QUlllf"l: ,ervsl(.l osdUfJlOYS wuh rreq,uemq slabdiL}, or [0-"1 .. 10-Q'i over f~w hours are used which are synchronized by time Sig$ll:lII.5. In this way, the [ ms accuracy 'I"\c.cdcd rn geodetic ustroncmj is pr,ovide:d..

Fi~. 4.7, Po:n"ble quartz crysulil chronometer, HE Hannover

Tillie: runc~ton of chro~IO{}r,(Jpk~ is to :r,ooor.dtnimG:. These i:Dstll'l1ilIme:~®s print thiEll:1iliiiWilute~, secoads, ,and hu ndredth:s of a ~ec'()nd (printi.ng ,chr,onograph, I!.Iinee:r~3i:inty ± 0.001 s). 8m.,. I I 'portab~c d~vi~ combining: t~lRe: receiiver. ,qualFtz !fi\eq,uiCUCl' :!itau:dard and priWllter are aVillii1abl~e {Fig. 4.7.1• Ti:me: MayiJI~so be taken frQm tbe ~ilililal.i!l' t.ra,tismiUed by the w'Or:ld·;w~de .r'ad~o navig!J!uio~ ~Ji's,tem OM EGA (Ul., .. 14 KHz), ,e.,g,LAUlULA, (A 1976). In ast.ronol'llilie pesi ('ioui:ns:, tile trl!i:n:si~ times of a star ~h:u cresses the hQrizo:n:t3!W or vertic3im '[h:re:JIds, of the: telesco1ptl arerecu:r"ded w~~1iI. the aid. (lif ,!II band ~,lJIp'pe:~: 0111' by' using' I1!l:I "im:persoillJiliil" l:11lJiicrome*~r (±0.0(2 :;JI,

4.1 .• 5: Methods liD Determine' Asu,onnmi:c PositioDS11 Aziimuth,. ,and, 'Time'

Or: the namerous me~hodSl" we m.entioDi here .1 few' of UlI:oiSe, most froqu.lendy appmed in. geodesy .. In d,eten1l'ini.n.g the Q'franomie l,a~;it,ud,e ,(]) :mt :ms required, according to (4.2)" to ascertain the zenith angle t a,nd the' hOUT a~ste t: It is seea from (4·J,)~ that ·aoy ern}r in z has a minimal effect rOIl" ~r,(I'ls,i'~~ on the me;riar'an'; here an error ~n .t has no effect OD the Ea:titude.. For an 'upper ,culminatio.n (tbe s:malJe'f zenith. 3.[n.gle) or a D()r~he.1iD star (A = 0)1 'OF a s,ou.U.ern, s~a!.li" (A ~ 180'~)" the latitude is given, according t,o' Fig. 4.1 'by


:respect~\I'e~J.M~.asudng tile meridian ~e:n:ith a:ngh~ (fl.,g. '~O Polaris] is tlherefore most suita.Me for tbe determinaeion of the [atitude.

m:r one 100b!l:en~. ,a paii.r of stars ~Q~srnsti,~g of bOit,h 3, ~or~:~ern ,iii.tld. a southera star ~13rvi,f:i\g a,ppro::tifna~dy the Sjjm~ ~enith ,angl.,e. the," ~"r,era,ging (4.8) s:ubs,'Uinlially eliminates, 'the iIlmilceFtain:ties,iu ~ dlue '0 ~fr3J.c~ion ,(Slerneck nI'e-dJod). 10 the HOff.ebu, ..... -Tal.cou me.fhod, thesmam dml~rence bet:WlXt:i Itlhie m,oe,ri\d~(i!n 7iellil~h ,alngIDe: o(f the lilIoJ1~,crn and southern, stars, in. a 8tltr Pi:li~ll' ~s meessred by a, :[\es~srerilllg miCfO!lHrter., Tb"e optical ax~s i'o leach. ~se is ,adju:ned. tlO the slme zenith !Jllgile: tlsiJllg 'tbe H,orrebow I!evlcltbat is mounted 00 [he horizo.I1it.a.m axiis. Since accurate ci:J:Ic:Jciil:nd tlimereadinl:S are nro~: required, [his method 'pr()ivrudl~, very pr,ecmse: results I( ±@('l w&en. about 20 star pa~fs, are Qlbse:r'\fedJ.

The ,~stn')'n'Qmi'c' I'ong'it.ude A is. given by ~he dif[e'r~Dce: between the local sidereal time (311 [4.n.3] and! "'G~roeDw~ch S~dle~~eat Time" S'(jI' wbwcb refers to nb.e O[leellllwichmeridia:l1I (with I .=.:W 5;'):

Acooirding ~o (4·J.~, E) is related to ~be hour a:DgWe l wh~ch can be IcomplLl~ed. ~rom ~he

- -

zenith angle usmng 1(4 .• 2) if the' Jatitude 4> is .known:

cos Z - rBiFl'~ :s~n ,~ oO's ~ = ~------cos'~ cos~'

Co:mp!lui:ng a ic~ock wh:h [be time ,s\i,,~n~:d [4 .. ].3] yrne:lds, universal time UT. wbh::h. is then converted :in.to 'Oreenw'ic._h sidereal ti,me 8g.

A:s, seen from (4.3JI. 'the dfe(l~ du~ to' en"0n, .~~ 2' is: m.i~~.I:.l when obssrv3il~oiJ]s are !Miilide on [he: p~imt! W!I"I rcul. while the el'ec~b0n~ is :ztlfiO for- cno:rs: :i:n CD. 'The inil1ue~ce of r-e[r,ilicti:om is la,g~ly e~imi nated \llb.en ,obsen'iill1lig eMf iimd west Sil.a:f::S ,0£ the ,~D'u: altitude and s.ym,mtllric with respect to the me'lidj~ul. ObKning the lilne oj tr~n8;!: ,across dIe meridil'M!; 0- O~ yiellds IE) := a:. A:~ aJeCiilIIf,;lCY of ± 000 ~ .,. ± 111..Q.2 bs: ,oh~ained, from ,8Jppr'()xilmate~)' 30 trrilir!s~~s.

The: aoouflll.cy om the: determ~l1IatioElI ,oBongitude depend.s primarily onthe systematic e:rtiQiS, of the obseever, the :i.llstrument, a:nd. the time COM:PIEU·.iso(ll. If il:he WOll'ilgit.u.de dliHetm,iHliiit~OI[J:S ·are

IT!a!dc: by the sameebserver, who, uses the same lnstrument I!Ind '~he same d,m:e si,glia] t:ri![lsmitti:ITh~, :slaJt~o~" (!IS we~~,~ dID~ S;.l!me St!J:f5~ the~ JO~Jgf[ude' tllf/e:!'Irffloc(Js ~r~ GS&eW1!t~aJI)'rme: from. these Cf]l[]ilS" .Longitude ~e~:er.~nati!orns: Qr high accura>ey are thus ~a!l'mied out as m,eaS:~ime:mel!rlS: o~ diff:erello~ i:1l longitude wi:~h :re.::;pecl~o a ~ferel'l!Qe $l;;!!"li<@'QI of the ,IEI,IM IQfilgitl;ldG s,ystem: [4),l,l]:,

A 1IlI, eOllIllO!m:~c~lt~ method to dle:~e'rmli,Fle s~m,I!l~[a[llJl}o:u'Si~y the la:ri,1 ude tJ:nld lO<ll{#uJ.de: is ko:ow.m, as ~he~1,i:e~h,o.d' oj ,po'.dtion lines.

The ~e:n:it:~ amIJg1es t,l, "Ol:',~ of ~:wo SlIUS $:.1, I[J:!::I '. iS~ l~ S:z (al" .0:2, ) <l:l:\e obse:Nled ,31,'[ sidereal ~~DlIe;g '@.,. C3l: and at a:zj:muths AI ~ " AI:I:' :~f S ~ • SlaTe proji~c(,ed onlhe: earth 'il, s~li"fa~. lbe:nlnh:c: inters~tto~S ,of lifle: circles ceg~e:J!edi,jJ1 the pmject:io',rus: ,Si] • ,~z amid ha.vmg radi z ~ • ,Z2,' .res:pec'lh~~y. ll:epir'~SCilll~ two geome~rio pO.1iit110tllSP a~d (f), for the po!int ,~f,obs.e:r'\i'atl,o~ I(.f;~g. 418), The cireille;s, CflI!Il be rep]a~ed in Uu;~viCiinit~!ofP by their taug,Cliflit M~~ (po.siti'lJln lines); the in:teli1liecUof:l ,or 'lhC:.iiie ~in~s 1je~ds p~ as an a,pp~o:dmatioi!iiJ to P'., CompU~3i.t~oil:l.al.I,y. o.ne «)~M:ains, the oorf'OC't~O:rlS A(J) "'" (J) - ,I't!:l a:nd AI'. '''''' A - AI) UpOi.rJ in:trod.(u::wng an. app:l"o.xjma~)!l:pos~~~on. ,'Ill 1(1Ibn), Ito). WhenobsenalioniS ~re :[l1Ililde w~~h the prism <lstro,:labe [4.l.4J, :the .zenith ,iI!,[lsl:e;, prede-terH:l:i:nedi by ~llI:elP:ris,m. is tre.ail.ed. $ an a:ddi~i.O!i1!~] U:rI~~OWW. From about 20 stars, e'v(;nly d~s~["ibu~:ed :aibo'Ve ~rnrue bon2.on, oae Qbtai.f!1!iJ a.V\e:r~ge accuracies fr,t)m ± 0(':5 ilo ±I: ~O.

n i'Si also possible !~O nUlb .Si.lMlIlW~tameous de~G:{rmiltatkn]s of lil'l,~i~lide ,3i!l!ld t011l1ln~de u$ing a PlJ.r.rabr,e:!.f;e,~{lillc~m~,,.a [41.. 1.4]. W~~~e: IIIlsotlJilJ.ea:s:urln,g[,h:e t~.e., the i[le~di ·of stars.near i~he: zenirh is p,boto,glr,a;:phed for ~wo posit~oWl~ of 'th~ eamera d.EIJ~:ringby 180D i;n3JziM~tihl (expo~u:re lime: :Is). Af:ter the ,botogw,a;.p,hi.cprnates: are de'Vernoped,. 'the :s;tar tra:cb ~d thei~~~:r~(;tLCI,~ of n!i~ lines COttlirnect~mg thefi.d~ciallmi.lirb are .~sured .on i.Ii. cOMpara;iiOli., The[rafl;)F@;rmati'omof d!;~ p]3i'leoo~::m,iina~es ,~fthe i:nl:e:r.section :intiOi dme C(,,!5~sys~e\m, [4.1 .. ~]I proy~des ~h:t ,oonroina:1ie$. ,IX~, ii~ of the Z~l:ruilha'fier 3~era\g.es, are ~,:llike~3i;nd. corlfectk)llI!s3ill\e made 1[4lJr the rt:llId:ing ,of Uilel!l:lve~. fl''OnJ! Fi,g, ,4.1,. ~I:~S :;:00:[1, IbM: ,It) = 8;:, ®= Q!;::: iJind (4.9) gives It = ~.~. - @,o.Tlliae: ObiSen3it~ont:l. (for se~\I'elial! phdes)r£lq,llIi~re app[!"ol!1jmat{l~yo~~ ha:Wfh,) eae hO~f O!i1!c.I!Jdi~g :in;s:tr~m~nt ~t~p aWllid disas~mb1y); drue ,Uttl!jnab~e:aoofJjill:f.aJcy ~S .±m'5.

U t.he lad~UJde is, kIl.(,P~Yl!:lj t ben ~he iazimud'~ A ,caJ1. be Ob:[;ai:li1oo,j. 3lcoor-dlng to ,(4.2)" fr-om I~he hour angller; tha~ is;,fro'm (4.!) anda dete.[mi]]!at~OiI!il orsid~:rea,~ti.me:


(4.3) sh.o.ws tbat 3'D error WDJ ,[ has mimmal dliect ror 0 ~ 90G I(.:sta.rsnear the pole), For seme ~ [0 ,obse'['y.a~io.ns. 'tbe s~3'n.d,ard de'Vwado,fj. is ± (KfJ, .••. + ors: .. Tbe azimuth of a ~erre8trial t;argeE .is. obta~DJed by measu.rillg the' 811I]e between. the dii.li',ec:tions to the :Star and the ta:r·get.

The obse.rv8t~Ons, onadtlllde:~ lo.ngi~ud.e" and az[mllllh w·tdc-b fefer to the instantaneous poaition of the .rotational axis are to be "E:ra:nsJ()·nnedinto the CIO~"i'ysr.em [3.1] 'UsJng, the polar motion coordlnates x,.'. yp:

~cw .= • - (Xl' cos A - p,sin All }' Ac.ln = A - (xp ;sin. A -+ Pi' [cos A) tan 'lI) ."

A,C:lO .... A - (Xl' SW:D A + y" cos .1\) S~ ti'.


In these sect~o:n$> we tfe~<t the meaS'Ufement:S or.gra,·vi·~y i.nlensity fgra:v.ityJI g (2.l:S:]. the gra.vity ,~radle,rnt [2 .. 2 . .5], ,and body tides. of the earth [204.2.] .. As a s~:a'tld,ard .rere~eJ]jee roll' ,Br:av~metry we mention. TOItGE I(Al.989). NEITLETON r(A1976) describes tb~ ,applica:ti.{H!1 (If gravime~ric techniqu~s in ,applied :g~O"phys(cs\, a:nd ~fEl.CH]:OR (A1'983) discusses the medl0ds of earth tide raeasueemenrs,

4.2 .. 1 AbsOJute Grauty Measuremenls.

B,yan "absolute" gravity measuremem, we' mean the dete:nni.l1lat:ion of 9 from the flllndlme:ntai acce~e;r,atio.n quantiUes. :I.[eogth and time .. The fr>ee .. raU and the rise-andfan met.h'OOSt as well as lillie pellll.dl!.d'Ulm. methods .ar.esi,gninicant irn. ~his respecr I{':S.A.KUMA J 9.84 FAiL:t:ER. a:nd MARSON 19'8,81• see a~so TORGE 1990a).

Thil'OUgb the mt[egr.a.lion aU - g for a.free ... fall e.x,:pe:riiment, one obtains the relation

_ • (1 'J.

Z. """ Z,g + xo' + :2 f

be,t.wee.n ~he' plath z aad the fan time l .. The oO.nstants o.r i.nt.egr.at~om. Zi;h Zo ife!p.li1ese~t the position. and velocil), or the body art t = 101. If .:he body faUs th.ro'ugb ,at least three pJ,ane-s (F~I~ 4,,9~)~ z ,Ind i',o,ca:n be eUmina.'lied.We have

g ~2(z'J - z~J(l~ ~ ~d-r(z~ - z;d("J'~ ~d. ftj ~ ,[d(l:2 - tdft3 ~ 1'2)


"For a s;ymmctdc rbe and fall (FEg. .: 4_9b~,.~t ~s sufficie'o't to measure the cross~ng times ~.~. r:·.l~ r;~h ,r'_ .a~ on~y two pWa:nes '(seJ}m.ra.ted by the ,di:shlil.tCC 4z)'. [(4. 1..31) then yieMs



z(ml e


Fig; 4. 9. Distl9!:noe;.tlme diagram a] free-raU metbed b s:ymmetrica] r:iseand. f!l!U method. 'froM JORQ\E (A 1 Si',S;9),

l[ the relati ve error of ai, ff'iee~ra't~ ,experim~Dt. is not to exceed ± lO- 9 (COff,es,pOl!ld:ing to' ± Ix IO-8ms-~).!a fallUng d,istance of O.5m and a, correspo:ndinl, faUi:I!l,B time or 0.3" yield aCCI'tYOl!y I',equir-emen'ts of ±O.S nm. and ±O.2 fis.This can he achieved b:y

;"i"l"r,ji''''''r,nim-c etric measuremeets '~.'~'[i!.. ·lla ..... r ]-';1I0:1;r'i\ rH' '1Iio_'·N·' e-_:I,,",,"'C' r'" and ... ·I' .. C·~ro:""'.;," tim ...

IUtIj),l! It. W"'"'" U, • ,. ..... II!., ,!W! ,/Ii.!!lQniiJl. ,~, ~._ _ _ ".Ij"_Qj 'n ~ .1.1. I ~, ,~ti~UJ. ~._. PI!!f . .lulL!! _ ' , . > '_ 'l!!r.1"",. Ii. , ... HUf ... · . II,U.IJII..!I

meaSUleme'lllt. A1J. instrumenes in use toda,J employ the s.imlldtaneous: l.engUl, and time measurement, with ,a M,ichei'son in,(,erjerome,ter .. Two corner cube refleclors are the rlllld!unen~31 parts, of 'the :ilD'tedemmeter (.Fil~ 4.1,0)", One of t.h.e :reOec'ton, ~s fixed and serves as a, r,eference" the other can be movedin the veJ,ti:oal. Byspl~Ui:n.gnhe,' laser lighlwnto a measurement and ,8 rele:r!ellJcc beam, and supen:mposing ~he:m again aFter pamUel :re:[J,ecltion~ l~g'h'ttnteifrer,et1lres occut. Tille zero C:Fos~:ilDgs 0'( 'nne .fringe signalhavea distance' ofM2 (w,ave_:te:ngth .A == 632.:8 nm).1f ,n piulses '(ze.n)' crossillgs,)

r .-! _ - I -!I'. A . "'. - ·IE.·-

are Ca'L!!1il:l1Od5, d:us corresponds to a. fa.llhn.m d:~s,tal1l~ of ,6.z ~' t1"2 ' T~roeul, measured. Wl:tllJ

all at,omic fr-equ,ency standard I(r!illb~dium Il,ormal) after a ~ar,I~' preset number of €ringes: Iluts OC9Q!UTOd {e.g. after HDOOO fringes, w·h~cl1. leads 'to ,appro!. ,60 time measarements, durinl()~e drop' over 0 . .5 m], CODseqUe:Ut~Yi,(4J 3) has 'to be evaluated by a least squares adjus:lment (on-Wine precessing] ..



Fig- 4J,(i'. :P'riinci.pl,le of Mi,C:h.e~son :illted~erometJe:rt1sed iii. ~he ff.e:e-:rarn~ me~hod, from roRGMl 'CA ~9S9<)

74 4 Methods or Measuremcnl in Geodesy

In order to diminish ~ir pFe.~$U"e resistance. the experiment has to 00 performed in vacuum n O-J ... .10-.;, Pal. The effect or m,icroseisrnic nJl.u.'t'ml'IUS is partly absorbed by alonG~period compensation device Ie.g, spring with T ~ lOs). Randomization by performing rnany (e.g. !OOO) experiments. 0111 one statlon leads to H further significanL redaction or microseismics, In the symmetric rise and fall experrrnent, systematic errors which are prepcruonal LOI lite flIning body's velocity. cancel (air drag. timing errors],

Since the first devcloprnem ([9:'5111 of~tn.e free-lall method by '~'OI{"r at the Bureau truernaucnal de~PIl.id$ ICL Mcsu:re!'\ (BIPM) in SevrH. · v arieus absolute d~term[nHlions .l1a\!e been made !lit several inslimle-s. Al the N.t;onul Pb)'su::aJ Laboratory in Teddington, Cook uchieved the first successful rise-and-fall experiment in 1965. Since m965 Saf;mil!a rlUPMI has performed .iI number of absolute determinations ale the reference station in Bl PM, Sevres, 8}' conl'inuously ~mpfn1.'ing the rIDse-a.nd-raU method, he h~~ nQW approa~hed [he ± W Q prl!Ci1Ji~)<~, A first transporta ble 21 bsol u te gra vimete r wru; de ve loped by falter I (I l 96 8, and su ceessfully em ployed dUring the measurements Ior the world network rGSN 7l [4.2.4]. HAMMUND andFAU.E1l (1971)_

Since ill bout l~nO. more than ten t"amiPQrtable rlree._fa~J or rise-and-fall in:s~ruments have been constructed and brought mt'" operation. We mention the rise-fall device of the lsriuuo di Melrologia "'G. Colonnetri", 'lorino, and the GABL absolute gravimeter of the Institute or Automation and Eleetrometry, Siberian Branch, U.S.S.R.. Acade my of Sciences.

A recently developed system (fAt. ILlER er at 1983) at Juint Ins,ritrlte for Laiwratnry AsII'Oph}lsit's (JTLA). Boulder, was produced :in a smallseries and is now operated by differem ~nstitutioDS (Fig. 4.11). This insuumem is characterized by a short !aDHng distance (0.2 m], 3D 3dd:itiona1 chamber-in-chanrber-rechmque in order to, reduce residual air pressure elTects. A special "super-spring" is installed LO absorb microseismic acceleration, wuh an electronically generated os'c:iUalio.n period or about 305. \V~th 1000 to 2000 drops distributed io runs of 300 over one to two days (according to local mieroseisrnies], a standard deviatinn of ±O.02 .. ,110.3 ~m.s-:! is obsained for the mean value. DUI! to s.yst,emalic errors (laser frequency :!lrability.

F,iq. ;I.ll. lilA. abselute gravimeter, HE Hannover

4.2 Grlll'"i"'}, Measu.rel:)1.ents '75

'liming errol'S;' f!lO,O'1I' recoil)l~he ,aICC'ur~icy (;If the fi:iud r'iibs:ohJl,~e value is esHma~ed to be ± 01.1 pms,-~ and better I(e .. g, TORGIE et al, :~'987).


The pe,HdNil~m' melh'od is based on the measuremen! of the period and the length ,/ of ,I rfee~:y s;wi.n,g~r:lig penduhlm .. For' a n'lia&h,eu,ll€JttcC],r ,pe,~dulu'''J (po~:rnt mass s,uspended on a we:i,ghUi.}8s wIr,e), we ·ha.V\t'l the d~fferenUa~ lequad,or'D

Up +g sin ~ = O. (4. US)

where 'I' is t be pha se I[ Fig. ,4., ~ 2a1'). lotegm.tiolll leads, ito the pe:rmod of o5cina,~icm

T = 211 A (1 + ti + .. -). 14.1 7)

The amp,lrntude tp,'~ generaU,. remains: tess than .3'I.Y .e



The ma:[hemat~c~d [pend: ulum can not be strictly reali·z,ed. H owever, (4.16) and (4. '17) ho.ld as Wren 'Of the piwsical pendulum. if J is replaced by the redueed .~e:n;gth of the pelilollmum

Here, J is the moment or inertia with respect [,0 the axis of retation O. and. ais the distance between tb~s allis and the center of mass S. For a. reuer.s.ibie pe,~du:"um ,(Fig ... 4J2b)., l,. :m,ay be: dete:r:mirned as tile distance between i~:he points or su.spe:n;siorn OL and 0:2 wh'ch give the same period ofosciUatiloD T.

Sinoe m.Sl7. when the;, -'liJJgHsb phys~ci:st Kmer bli10ught the reversible pe:ndul,U:mJ into operation, a, limit.ed n umber of Oooel''Vatioil1s was :pedor:rned ~1rnI t he 19~h oeR~,ury" with tranl,Spor.tabl.,e devices. de\lelJoped W~ thelS.60s (c'.g. Re,'soid il!i~rCrsible' ,1lIppa!l"atus), Afte:r the albs,o[rum~ie dew:l"m~na.dolir in Petsdam, see [4.2!4] on'ly I.I! i[cw further expeti,niI"ents, were perfon:ned ~n th'is ,oef.l'[llry.

Mre,ud Of 'CljJI!lI~.rU: pe:ndulllmiS w"i:tblengths, between 0,2.5 m and 1 m ha:ve been used. When mC'as~rillg; Itbe ti IT!'e:. the: :i D.t.lli,grn,t ilOA w,uper€or_ed o vet' a Ilarg'e number clfo:s:cii~~a;tioIllIS illrnl c!rdie!1' to i~a,ea.se '[~e a~curacy r'!l.f!!d ~o rud~oomiJc:ro8e;ismic disturbaaces, Geometric and eh!ls~i)c "n~~dge 'e:llfe~ts as w.ell.as: deformllj't~ons of rhe penduium dllllri.ng the olScilhn~Ol1.; were partieularly critical. The co .. o~~rnmati'OIilI 10£ the; pendu'lum s.uPP0ir'l could be essentwally 1~]i:miThIJ;~ed by le:u.i,ng~:wo ldentical pendumu[its, s.w~mg togedt~r with 0p'.pOiiitephase3ilJild. equal amplitude. The

a.ccIJJliI!CY of the [~ve~sU)le pe[i.d~~um. m~t;hod tod3!.yaDt{NJilili~:S ec ± 3 :Pt1iliU - l:, whelili some observation se rt~, with ~veFaW pendulums: ,a:re:perfioll:flled (SeHU fit '11:1 al.W 97W) .. Dile to the dew~opm.(lllt of the fr,ee~[an method" [he absel tUle pendulum mettbou ~s no ~onSie:r <t:pplied.

4.1~2: llelaliii¥e Gra wit, MU!i!Uil'iemen:ls

The measuremeat or a diference in gr,avi~y 4g by the direct or ~ndir;ect observation of one of the two acceie:r,ation quantities time or ~,en,St.b keeping the other oae fii.x.ed, is known as, a ~':re~ati·'-.e'· gra.vi~y measurement; it ,cam. be pertorm.ed w~t.h cons,tder,ab~.y more ease than the "absolute" measueement of (1,. A distlnctioa is madebetween ,pendu.mu'm, and spring gr,avilll,eter measurements

In :ai, p~,nduium' measnremen t~ the periods, of osciUa.do:ll. T~ 'I 1'2- of the same pendlldum are measured at two points ,P'l (.g 1)' and PZ(Ui;)' A.Sis'Um~llgh:nrari3n.cCl' ortihe~e;l'1Igtih 1 of the pendulum. h. folWows from I .4.1. 7)~ after some simple m.anipuia,tJ,ons that

- _ TJ - Tl « I:2 - Tdl

li.gu = {J.'l - ,!h ,:= -2g~ - , + ~h T.~ (4.19',)'

Tz '.J

Thus t.helengtb me3iSiILII[Gm~lilit ~i5i not required here, asoppesedto the case of dille absolilLllt~ de:telfmi,DBI.tiorn, se 'that a~1 arbiil:rcRry physical pend.u.lum I[gen~:rany,. J' = 10.25 mJI can be used. A.s seen from (4.l9),. no cal~br,a tionis needed ror ~bjs dynamic methlOd.iB'ffiectg. fha~ ,3ir~ independent of '[~me i!J'nd posi~~ioQ (klljr~ eiI,ge ,!',ulon) ,!!!iI"'~ c!Juoe:l1ed. Te e~~mjna~'e the ~ar~:r effiect:s, 10'£ oo'·;QSciUstion ~n fietd measurements, tWi{) pcnduJWttSaliti iII1w.ay.s used which :s:wing widt opposit.e phase on the same SUpPOirl. Chaugc~ iin Ulil~ [len.gth of the pendulum dilLllring transporl ms,Y be 'taken. Lob) accoun~ pa:rdy !by em.p:~oyi'llg se've:r,a] pai~rs or pendulu.s and th:ro'U.gh [lepea:led IIiIl~a:su~men~s:. The il!iince:r~;ain:t.y ,ofaJJ! o'b~erved g['a.v~t)' diiIer.en.ce 'U:liing per.lduWuUls a!:l]joun:ts.~o'± 2 .Il,ms -2" The d,(l,'\I!ill~opm.e'!'!l (lia. portab.~e pelmld:u lug origina~es with R .. p. Sterneck (18:87), Wit h !Ibe i~i!i'\feliltion of the spri!JI'8 .W3i_vimeterwbicb i:s, more exaet and eoou:omjcat the pi1!'nduWum mea~UlI'emeIiU;i have: Jost lhe;i.r importance (tb,!:: t "me r~qu+ n\!d to' mak·e a measurement rune'l ud~ng setup and disassembly of dlJe ~ndu:lum apparn.tu. '. is appr'ol(jm:3:~ely orne day" :ror &:he gr:a,vi:lPJiii;tter lr ls aii;u:i'ut ~i'\le .~n'IJtes)"

The (r,ela~.i.v,~) spring,grmiimder' is based, .0.11 the pr.incwp:Le of a spring balance, The equilibrium pc sit~on of a mass I'M is observed. as it is h]OuenGCd by the acceleration of gr.avity a:nd 'by the ooun~Gr.fowe of the elas~ic ,spr.iog. U gf,avity changes the spring 1length. wm also change in ,i).rder to reaeh static equ.iil'i,brium a,g.ai,n"A.ocordine;tQ lfooktl's ~aw. the: strawn is proportional to the stress ~QiF small ,eloDg.a.tio!Jjj:S.Wifj differentia te between transiaUO!Ui:d sy,~tem:s(seldom used) ,and ,roiUl!tioln,al system,s.

In a ,ira,'l'~/,al,i:ona·t sy.!l'enl:(v,ertica~ s,:priEig ba~a:li1oe~ the co:~d'itLOiO or ,cquUillbd.um (F~g. 4 • ~ 3aJ is gill/en by


wbere f is the spring constant and 1(1~)1 is the '~elll:gth or ~liIe s,pri:rng with ,I load '(wi~hout a. ~.Qo1d) . .D~rre[\el1itiatruDg (4..2.0) furnishesa l~neafrie],adons:h:ilP oo~weelil, the Cbl9:11ge in gra yity Ag and the observed diference In lengUl .Al:

'. I.", g."

flO := ~a~ = _- - 8.1.

,',~I: , - l'®1




"t (1" +. (l ) ,......

Fig .. 4.13. Sprin~ balance grav!imcle:r pr.i!l~lip'le 91.)1 vert:icaW spring balasce b. 1 1C'III'cr torsion sprifJIg b~lallm;!I;e 'i::)I~n'~'rljdlever rs.pring blllJ~all.ce

In order to assess .gra.v·ity ,changes with a relative accuracy of + IO-II .. I,cogth ,changes of a 0.1 m long spring have: b), be determiaed to ± :I. '111m.

RO~'ational SYSfems fieveF slPri'ng balanee] consist of a. ~e;ver whtch supports a :maJS<S NIl, and rotates about an axis 0.. Equmbrium. is, p,:roduced through a horiz!Onta.I [orsion sprin,S or through a vedicaUy or obliq uely actmmg restoring Spiring:. For the "ev'er ,~'Or:SiOil:l: sp'I'ifJg baJ{mce (Fig. 4,13b)'~ file eql;f~lfbdum. of the torques yields

'"'go. cos 0: ~ "tb' + 't!) = 0 1(4,.12)

wll1cre a= leng'lh of the ~ever. ex. = angle between. the borizontal and the lever, t = torsion constant, y = IPr:eteDs,iolll angie of the spring ... For a = 0 •. a Ih1e-ar relationsb:irnJ' exista between lig and theantd,e of de.tlet:t:ioll .A,a:

t_ fJ _

Ag = -AI,;t: = -60:.

,I'lW' Y


At: the gl!'1.I.(!,rtJllev,e.r sprin{} baJiar~ce' the spring ,couuterforceR'" - 1,0') can aet underan 3i:rb~tt.a.ry angle on the lever ,carrying n,te mass, ,Ql~ (Fig. 4.13!c)I .. The line oonnect~ng tbe rotation axis ,0 with tbe poin.t whe.rc tbe sprins, is 'mounted deviates by an angle /j from the ..... ertical .. The: lequihbri Iilm ()onditio'(il for the torques readS!

. . ~~). j 1-10.. 0"

mlla'sulta: .+- u . ~ '114--' 81'0 O!= I .. 1 •.•

. ,.. - - \ - __ 1

4 .. 23b)

The sensivity oUbis non.-Ilnea,r system maybe signUicanUy :imp'fo¥ed by approximatiog the torques o.F I~avity and of the elu:tk: spring (a·sta"t:nti:on). Wi~·1tJa zel'O-le.DgHIJ (to. == lOll sprim,g" ~hjs is l.chievedwit.l1 a sma:li .angb: .fJ~ and ,et ~. 900.,. In order '[:0. obtain. ~be +m-a; re~at~veacc!Jrac.Y1 wenow need (at 6: .~ 0.1 m. IX + 6~ 90'" a =: H~YJ'~ the d.is,plaJCe.me:mt lobe measured with. ±.2 ,u.:m., Compared. to the lInear syste:m ~he scnUivity is increased by tbe' factor 2000 ..

The m1equ'r-ement on :g:r.avimeters to have accuracies orn'~ ~m:S-l p],8ioesbign demands 0111 their 1Jit:k~Qff and re'aai'lg sy.~t:e·m" as, well as on the cO'~'SiQ'fl,C)' 0/ ,[he' sp.ring's

18 4 Methods of Me.asurc:mcilit Uri Geodesy

e{u.sridty. Today the zer,o-ntl.'lIwd is used exclusively, Hereby the deflection hi compensated by controllieg the proof mass such that it remains in a defined zero position [corresponding to the orientaticn with respect to the vertical), The eempensarion is, performed mechanicaHy or electronically. The medu:mical compenSQC,im1 iis effected by a measurement screw, attached to the lever-spring-system by a weak spring (measuriug spliing) or \11a It transmisslen system. Optical and/or electrical pu:k-o.U s),s,J,ems are used to observe the beam position. The capacitive pick~olT offers various advanrages, These are the adapuon OraD external di,gital readout, and the co-mbimlltion with an ,electronic feedback system. Since the measurement screw is not moved, this, is 3. purely elecuonie method and screw errors do not enter into the results (R'ODFR et al. 1988),

The elasticity of [he spring should ~xhIbit a constancy of lO-lI,Il(corresponding 10' 0 .I .um_s-l) over several hours [the time interval required. in the transport between lWO statlons), The materials used for the spring include Nif"l: alloys IlsmalW ~hermocblstic coefficient] and quartz (large btu linear thermoelastic coemkient. small eoefflcienr of thermal expansion], In addition. the measuring system is protected against changes in the external environment (remperature, atmospheric pressure],

OHhe man)' lypes ofw.a\'imeu::rsdc\lclopcd since 1930. the IlIiOS~ popular ones are the D.sta'lized instruments of LdlCosce-:Rombel"U. AUslli:n. lJ.S.A. Wig. 4.14; metal, spring acting at I:~ 45~ inclination on the horizontal beam. lh~nn(}S1il1t. model 0(0): dueclt measuring range of 70(l{)C) l2COO} .lJms-2• 10(1) Jfmli l! per rouu:io," of the measuremem screw] and or Wurde,,, lTcJlas TQsUUme(lls~ Houston. U.S.A. (quertz system with herizcrual beam and ve:rl~cal ~pr~ng, wi~h or wUholJ,t ternperature stabilizatiee accessery). s'lm in wide use for earth tide measuremconls is the linear .. 1skaldo gra'il'iml:ner fBDde[J_s~ewerk Geraetetcchaik, U berliflge:n) (Fig. 4.15; horizontal beam and horizontal metal torsion s-pri:ng, dir,cct measuring range of 600Cl ""ms-;! (Gs J5); Jor the lype G~16. ~L is increased in steps or 900 lo3W)O ~ms-l by ,adding mass increments; double thermosuu: calibration possibilhy using mass merements],

Despite al] precautinaary measures. temporal variations arise in the zero reading IOf the gravimeter: zero drifl and sudden WI'f!$, The drift is caused by the aging of [he

Fig. 4.1 4_ L3COSLe and Romberg g:r3vimel~r model G with battery and carrying case, courtesy or LaCO.llle ilnd Romberg (irO)l;'ity Metcm-s ]nc" Austin. Texas

Fi(J. 'US. A:skan~;l gmvimeler Gsl5, courtesy of BodeJi:llsecwerk. Oberlin,gen. Fed, Rep. 'Germany

spring (Iong;~range dritts of 0.1 to 1 ~,ms-l per day). as weU as by Lln(:(lmpen!$a:~ed temperature lluctuations, and by elastic ,aftereffects prod uced by ],ock~11Ig and unlocking the Iever, An important error source are vibraticns and shocks achmg on (be measuring system during rransponation. The resulting "transport drilt" depends on the instrument, the transportauon method and conditions (motor vehicle, aircraft, hand transport], and the shock protection used, H can be' as much as m j1ru11!li-l per hour. These drifts and tares can be determined by repear,f!d menSrff€J'11enrs, whereby one may dislrunguish between profile, star, and step' methods, Fig. 4J6. The driftfunction is then obtained graphie:aUy I Fig. 4.17)1 or numerically (J,ow order polynomial approximation with respect to time), The observations are reduced beforehand for the effects or the radial component of l he Ljd,E'I~ acceleration [2.4.2].




:2 3 4 s

iil........,III~'II,__......iIJ~1II ._._ .. _ . .....-

1 :2

."""jIO" 3-

·~·Z· .:,

. :Z:~~


F1f'. 4.M, Zero drift determmauon metnods a) profile method b) stair method cl step' method

~n order to convert the observed changes in lengths, angles or electrical units into gravity differences. one requires. according to (4.20) through ,4.23), various pararneters of the spring, Since they cannot be determined direcely w~th the desired aCCUL",!JIi'CY. the relatienshsp between tbe gravimeter reading z [reading units) and the value of gra\fity g Ims-.l} must be obtained through a ,,·u/ibrati(m. We develop the (;ullhrat ion fimc,' im,

(4. 2411

into a Taylor series, Fora second degree catibration polynom.~al,.the gr.a_vi~y diJ]'er~ ence between (WO points; L :2 is givelll by

ilgu =Y.(Z2 - zd +Y;dzj - =n (4.25~

wilh the calibratien eoetficients Yl ,. y~ .

Discrete values or dF(:nldz can be determtned by incUning the gravlrneter b}' .iIJ k~ow~ angle (l'illing: table] or by addin!! a mn~ increment which is known pJiC(;i.seiy and then measuring the defitlCdon. This la.boraloT}' calihration, generaUy conducted by the manlJf3)c(unll' fumish~san a pp:ro:r.:im.uion of lhe c~.di brat ion I U netion in. {4.25.l' The approximate val ues !H!t l hen con.verted j n lo.grav~~ y difFcn.~!1 00;, by m u]tiplying '~.hem by the "scale factor" 1',_ This factor js ebtained by n'lea5uri"ll 1:1. k mown d.~ITI:·rc'l'! ee ·of gra \I ily (rnlib:r{llin~ lln.t'~ (KA N~{HF.sER e L :;J I" 191B), or derived (rom ubsoluw gr(.lm(\' m·~b~il:'j' or ~ E~lobal o.r region<!iJ gravity network adjustment. cr [4.1.4], 1[6.3].

Tile accllr·acyim the difference ofg;raviLy as observed with gravimeters amounts to aJ.pprolCi.n;1a:te ly + .oj to ± 0.5 ,u m s -:1+

The uncertainty can 'be reduced to ± 50 nms? by u:s~ng Ll1Cast·e-.f?,omberg grcwi,"Ietersand: measuring smaller gravity difrefcnoe~ ~M ("CONNELL etal.I9'7S~.A further reduction to + 10 to 3'0 nms - lis; lPos:s.ilblc al~ local ties using d.ifferef:lt wns.tn.n:'I1.erns:, equipped with electronic feedback systems fRoDElt and WENZEl. 1986). High precision gravienecric teehrriques are discussed in GR.OThl'>l (~983) and TORGE 09'84).

4,.2.3 GraviryMell!Jl!lliemenl-s '0111. liui! Ocean a~l!I.dlin the Ail'

The app!kati on of the gravimetric method [5 .. 2J and the development of eartb models [5 . .5] presupposes the existence of the complete knowl,edge of the gnudlY field, Therefore, gT.!Bi.vhy measurements enust also be made on the oceans. (DEHlJNGIhR AI97S). Results are obtained more rnp~dly wid~ airborne gravimeter meesurements.

Ordinary gravimeters that are' used on land [4+2.2J, but which have been built into ~ pressur-e and water protected case:." andequipped withremoH': control and recording devices are known 3S ul.ld.erwat,ergrgvim.e8ers., Th.e·y are trsnsported and ascsemb~ed 0'[1 a ship and lowered to the ocean Iloor ror me.a5uremefl~S.

U ~d:erw:liler gravimeters have bccf! d eveh)~ S:~flce 1940 rOfresoe3rch in appli:ed geophysics .. They can generaUy bot! used up 1Q< dept hs of 200 m, nod !!it mOJ!1 UlOO m, L1lirge: area iii .of the

eomineneal s:hclvc.. .. , as wen as smaller water basins have bees surveyed ~n this. way (!BEYER et i11l966J.

If gravity measurementsarc made on a. ship or in. an airphu1c, then one must solve th,eproble:ms of tevelrng the instrument and separal~ilng the perlr~rb"'lg urcele"(lfi{m:.~ [rom the actual gravity.

Th~e disl !1Lfb i ng accelera l~(lllS \! ary w~dl! peak periods of:5 to [0 !'i. en a ship aad ~. to 3'00 s on anairp.l!!!ne. The c!O,r~SlPotndif1g a~pJitudes ea:" .!lillain and ezeeed 0.5 ms" ~ on [he oeeaas and 0.05 ms-l fOil" airbarne mms;uremen.t:s, While the honi.zmlltaJ mmpoll'U~lJt of the cbsturbins aceeleraticn CUI be f>educed by instrumental Oil' m~thodo'iogicarn measures, l'hie verm.,cal OOn1p.o· nem emers completely in~tlilbe cbservarien.

The gravity meter .m.ay be gin,lbal-3uspel'Mled Oil: placed on a gyro-stabW:ed platform. ln tbe 11in;,l esse, L he resulaant of g and file: horizonta] ~ishl:rbilnlg aceeleration is measured (BfOk'l\lE' cffec~), thereby requiringa correction that is often difficult to obtain, Today, the instruments ase exclusively mounted on a stabilized platform It:hc. IIlDCle.rta:iruy in leveling the instruments is ± 1'). The o1Peveli'~(J eile'Cr caused by (he remaining indinadons can generally be negJec!oo. Ct{}S~.coupUng 'effecls ma.y arise ~n .easurirng systems, which are characterized by a horizon tal lever, when 1 he h.ori zontal and vertical penurbiog accelerations have the same period. H the hOIl".izontal componcnt. is measured. the effect can be lak:efDIim~o aecoum computarionally (cros.s~ coupling compu ter],

The m.eaSl'Iring systems must be strong])' dampened due' 1'lJ the large l;.lenitl1i {J( .. tceiemIrDns., The shert-periodic perturbaticns arc filtered out by taking averages 'Over sufficiently long intervals of ~Ime (I to 5 mhuwtes), This ]ow-pa:5$ 6h,cring smoothes 'lb~ data and yields mean gravity values over the distance travelled during ihe averaging lime in terval,

[~ t923.'f. A. V~ming I\.-te~n~s::achleved the eonstrucuon off!! ~bruc-pendul~m instruruent, wbill;h could be used to measure gravily i~ a s~bmergcd submarine. Sea graflimeJers (A:s.kall,ia Gss 20. Bodefls.eew,crk Gss JO with vertical reS~Dring spring, LIlC(lSre-ROl'lllDerg) hl!ilo'f: been employed sineearound 1960.; lhey operate according [0 'lfuf prmm::ii1l1t::S described in sectien [~,2.2],f'ig. 4.US. In addition, dyna~i.c sea gravimeters whi.c:h operete on the l1ibrGi'i:i\lg suing principle tlire used iII Japan, [he U.S.S.I .• !lind in IllLe U.S.A. Here. the grnvit,y measurements tire based on the raclll'l at 'lh:e "". bra t'ora~] treq ueucy c.r .:I. Sl ri ng under re nsionis pro portlonal to .fg. (8llWI N etal, 1972).

In the case of ,airbome qrauimerers. pllrtrLt:ular dilflculues arise as ;)I, result of long-pcnodic penurberions, They have to be monaorcd by eoruinuous hdght deterrninauon 0(' high p.r,ecisio~ (barometric and radar altimeter, GPS·hdghUng,)" and by GomlP'1!lI'l:ing (he vertical cnrnpe- 1'I1l'IlIl tIS the ~e(!ond derivative with respect 10 rime, A.ilibome gml;l'~mtelry at low 3H:iludes has gJ,,,el!l~:ali!lrYlng results (B[tQlZ(N'A and .E"E"nillJl 19'88" Opc·rated m a helicopter, air-sea gravrroetcfs are 5ucoonfully employed. in geophys.ic3J] eltp1om~ion (HAMMER 1983 t

The motion of a s:h~p' or airplane (ve1oc~t.y v~ course azirmsth 01:) causes ~TJJer11aJ accelerations which affect the measurement value: f,a[l){js-EJjeci.. The velodty compon.l!n~ in the direcrien of the geodetic parallel increases (for a west-east course) the eart~'s .i!lfigu lar veloci'ty to (CorioJii; .:lIcce]era lion). Fig, 4.1'91• The meri dio nal com IPO~ neet of fl causes an additional centri[ugal. acceleration, Therefore, [he measured

1'" i(J, 4.18. G fa", I[Y sensor Gss 3U and gy:mst a bi]ized plajform K TJO, cou rtesy of eod(:~~e~werk GeClGys~'cm G m b ~~, (J bcrl i nsc 11, F!Cd, Rep. Germ any

gravity is ,;;U::lU3Jly too small. On the surface of a spherical earth (r = Rl~ the EOtV051 correcri on, gi '\I'eill b)'

Dl . .

flOc = 2m!l.1 sin « cos if) + = 4.0 II sin 0: cos, (j) + O.[K)]2 ,VZ 00-5 ms-2) (4 . .26) R

should be applied to the measured! value or GT.tJIV~[y; ,I) has the units kmjh. This. correceon can a ttain very la.rge values; its accuracy is d:c[~crm~ned chiefly by the enol'S, committed in measuring the ye]odty and ccurse.

The error sources in '!H~3 and airboene gravimetry stem from instrumental efft.:ct:i, resrd ual i nll uea ees or vert ical and honzonral di stu fbi rig aceeler a l ions, and U ncertainlies in the Eolvij5~co;rroctiom. Wi~h current sea gravimeters and good navigati,on. gravity ficJd rcsolurions of ~ to 2: km and accuracies of +5 ... 20 ~rm'lS-' CID be achieved, Airborne gravimeter systems operated in hdicopters, provide rescturlons orup to I km and an, accuracy of ± 5p:ms-1. In airbome apipl~(;~~.tiolPls. field reselutions of JO 10 2(} km and accuracies (If a rew W IJmS-2 have been obtained. Kinematic

4.2 Gravi.t.y M~suremerml 83

GPS-POsilio1nmg using [he carrier phase observable will lurther reduce ehese errors ,~ B'ROZIE N A e l a I. I, 989).

4.2:.4 GrDvi~·yR.dir~'fu:oe .sYS:EeonllS

The' values of gravity required ~r:Ji geodesy and geophysics must r,~feli' to a global relerenee system. lit gravil y reference' ~yslem is defined !by values, of'gravity at a number or accurately surveyed gravity control peints.

The' gr,nity system is established throngh a gJlobaJ gravity netwoek tbal is obtained from observations, The network must contam at least one absohnt! gravity measurement [~.1Jl Lo secure a. gravity refereacevalue, The ''':mS~~~sc3Je'' is introduced by at leas tone ca U bra l.~O n Ii ne with as ·Ia.rge a d iff~ru nee in. gravi ~ y as poss i b~e:; i l can be determined either by ~\I.'O absolute gravity measurements or (formerl'y) by relative pcndurnum measurements [4.2~2l Measurernclus obtained by a gravimeter yie1d differences ~n gra viuy between the network points with high accuracy and less effort. The gravity eontrel points should be placed, it possible, at undisturbed ~I,eo'logical Old hydrologica1 stability, little microseisrnieity] and permenent (scientific instiullions) locations.

ReduDdant.i!I,bsoJute and re~at1'!1e measurements are carried out, whenever possible .• with dUTere:nl instrumcuts, and ale tben a.dj usred Ill' eliminate systematic errors and to increase the' accuracy, The' observed di.rre:rences im gra\li~y should form a netwn.rk of closed loops; the d ri1r~ of the i [IS t rumen t is determi ned ~rom repealed meas uremeats, The IJidju~nment also provides the parameters ohhc gravimeters' drift and calsbeation rUDcl-ions, in addition to the gra.vily values [TOIt(il'!: 1'984).

The .Por sdam Grallity SySlr'1i'J ~~r ... ed as t In: .i nteraa uonal refillrence synem from 1909 to ]9 7l. IL 'NUS bilSOO ou reversible pendulum measurements that were made at the Geoderie Ins~H~le iii I Potsda m by K ~/nh~~l and .F tin Wa)~flier I ~ 898 -19(4). More recen l a hso] u te grav.ity determi nario ns showed U"uu '1he gra vi l)' vall lie of Pn tsdarml i.s .140 Jj ms -1 too large, Th.erdore. between 195(} and i,970, a rne'w global BrOllvi.{y sysremw~ constructed through inuln:'laLioll:l!1 colla Dora' ion.

Tbis l,uf!rnl1l'i·mlrJ!' Graf)!i[y SUUI'tlurdbJtiml' Net 1971 '~IGSN7n was introduced in. 197Iil1:ll·the· new :rererenc:e.5y~~t;::!l!.a.t the General Assembly of the tU.D..G. im Moscow. The network contains ~ 854 points ( .... :SOO primary stations! whose values of gr.3vlty 'Were determined frnm ten new absolute and approximately 25000 relative measurements orgravily '~i!tu:!]!,!IIding -1200 relative pendulem messurements) with an overall uncertaintyless than ± 1 Jj.ms-l (MORlIELU et a1.rn97411, Fig, 4.20. Parricularly high accuracy ~s associated wH.b poilr'Jits ef the densely observed gravi-lmeter calibeatien lines (EuJo~Afr]caJn, A.merican. West Pacific) extending in the north-south direction Uarge d~[e:rences. in gravity). R.eGj{lna~ gravity networks r·eferrod (0 other systems should be Lied to the .IGSN7 L The transformation parameters (generally shin and sCl!ile' are derived. !rom identical peints, where data are' a""aU~Ib~e in both 5ys'fems.

The LA.G. has proposed an Inlf!f'l1arional Ah.'l'olure G'ra,v,ily Bas,!?s~Qr'i'iO~i Nehv,ork (JAG BN). with 36 glob~ny distributed statkn.l~ (BOEVIE(:K£R. and FRITZER. ] 986). Main purpose of [his network [SH)' monitor temporal gfaiviLy ,changeso'n a. global scale,

Fro. 42ft Inteenational Gra"~1}o' Standardisanon Net 1971 O,G.S.N.7I).absohn~ gravt1y statieesand selected network ties, !l:fter MOREI.I...]e~at (~974). fro:m l'Cjl;t:ljl; (A ~989)

and ~o serve as a. regional gravi'l), control. Since 1987, the network is established with the' help of transportable absolute gravimeters [4.2. ~ J..

4.1.5 UQtermil!!ation or the' G'nvi,fy Grad'h~n~,

The gravity gradient [2.2.:5] eomains local gm'vi[y fje~di .in~ormaljon. which may be used hl correspoading eomputations [12.2]' Gravity gradloenetrymey be applied in stationary Of ~fDI kinematic mode.

The rorsio'n' b,allJ1l'C'f! represents as.~a.~ion,aT1 grav,ity gradiorneter. It censists of two equal massesslruared at diiilerenl heights endcoanected by a :ri,~d system ornegHgib]y small mass which is suspended b)' a torsional thread (Fig. 4,2]). Due LO' the unequal

::r; sl---I!:



l1.r',i!.vily accelerations at A and B.lhe suspended beam experiences a torsional moment and a tilt; the ~atler m.:i!IIy he neglected, We introduce the lccalastronomic system [2.2.2] (origin at the center of mass S)aud:!ssumc 3 linear 'V.!!i.rtatio.1iI in gravity around the area or the apparatus, For equilibrium of the torques, We then have


Here, IN is the mass at A and B. r is the torsional constant or the thread. and !j - ,9(1 ~s the angle of rotalio,:Il of the :suspended beam with respect to the initialpesiticn all (untwisted position), By expanding W.ro: and ~ about S in Taylor series and] intredueing a~so the azimuth tl: of the beam, the length of the beam 21. and the: difference in heights of the masses, h~ One obtains

mlO! . .. rulh

,9, - !90 = r (( W~)' - Wu) sin 2~ + 2~)l cos 2«) + r ('Wx.= stn .0'; - '~= cos cd.

(4.28) The denCCLion 3 is recoeded phmog.rapbk:aHy. and! llhe In:strWllelllta~ CtH1SUIJUS 1;11. i. hi f are provided by lib.'€: manufacturer. Hence, the fi,eMI qu.anl~ti~sWy, - ~ ... W~. Wx;" ~:. as wen a.s.9o can be determined b)' measuring lJ [or five dHTeren~ azimuths.

The developmentefa tersion balaeee suh~ble forl'idd work was achieved afouwd 1900 by the Hungarian physk:~sl .K LI_ EiHuos; it wa:s widdy r:~p]oyed. in apphoo goCtlph,SlCS between ] 92.G and 1940, A nIlCCllHiIIC)' of ± ~ to ± 5 x IO-Q S -:.! can be 3lLaimed fo r ~h e fit; ~d q uanui~iies (MUfLLBt. elal.l·96J). Du,e to 'the eonsiderable effoii~. (hal is required in mak.inls measurernents and bee a use .of I he large inn uenee 0 r nell! r:by m asses, the touion ib;!l1aiJI c:e hfi$ been .'ii upers.eded by the gral"i.melel".

SprirJg grlll~rmf!U:!.r.,~ can be used LO approximate grad 9 !by meas1I.!ring small gravity d.ifference£. Wwth sta tion separa (~O[lS of 1 0 hl' 100m. [h e tun:izon tall gr a vi t1 gradien t can be derived (HAMMER, 1'919). For the measurement ,of the vertical gr.adient. specia.~ tripods are used with heights of up to 3 m (RoDm et at 1 98.5). Ii. precision of ± ]0-85-2 can be achieved w~th sueh measurements,

AllY nc~gh,bori!!1g lopogr,aJphic masses influence these second derivatives quise strongly. T()pograpi~i,r:: ,..~d~U·li.mu must therefore be a:ppUed. Terrestrial .. gradiomelry Jails in mountainous regions.

Gfll'nit.~i grodiomel>l. ... rs Scire currently beimg developed particularly fo~ use i:naircraft and artificial earth satellircs. They employ djffemtu numbers and ccaligurations of 1000- lerometer pairs, and use either conventlonal Of su.percoflochJcting eleetroaics. The measurements are performed in. a dense sequence (e.g, 1 s) and jntegrated over 1:1 time interval (e.g .. 10 8)1 before further processing. These devkes should rlJmis.h ,aU second derivatives of the gravitational potentia] with uncertainties or a rcw~o-9s-2 li:lireT'.!lr~}. and abcut ]O-12.S-l (sau:Uim). respeenvely rWELU 19'84). The resurts ore ~arge])' free from tbi;;: effects or topegraphy sinee tlhe measueemenss are made at a greall distenee above the earth's surface. Title jntegration yield.s the detailed S[Tl!IC~Ure of the gravitational field, in the lorm o~ gra.vity anomalies and vertieal ddilecHons, Expected accuracies are + 10 ,ums-2 and +'1J.~1, for surface and airborne systems" and ± 2;0" .. 30pm-l tresclution .50 km) ~Of satelllre g;rad~ometell's (RUMMEl and COlOMBO .1985. R UMMEJ_ ~986),

Fig. 4.12. Rotatiag grnvi~.y gradiometer unit principle. Wl1h acceleratlensj' and carrier angular ve~cchr rij; <If[er JEKEL! (.19'881

We mCll'Jltion the G,,,,,,riry GradtomeH'" S~,.,t.'C'J; Sysu:m GGSS {Bell Aerospace- Texrron, Bll'ffalo, N~w Yo,rk) whi~hi!i in the test pha~ IJEK.I!';U 19&8} n consists chhr,e;egr,adiorneler tmits 'eaJ~b equipped wi~li"I ~wo aeeetercmerer pll!irs. I11fHlnled onbogona..lIy ~'" a £]ow])' rollllLing dms;k Wig, 4.22J. These untrs :.ue eernbined under' different ariem.!lUon:l; on ,a ~yro-5ll!ibiI1Z00 plaiform, Linear eombinatiens of tbe aceeleroraeter outputs provide the oomponenits oFgmd g.

Amamg I,he pl3inned 5pUCf! mis.sions {Si11lc:llitc alritude about 200 1m~ are It~c: ESA {EllblfOpe!Ul Sp3iee Agencyl' ARISTOTELES missien (GR.ADIO gr,!ld~Ome'~'liir. conv~ntiona~ electrcnles, ~ 1994/Iil'5, 8 An,'jI'UNO and 8!mNARID 1986). and the NASA Snperconducring G:p'3J\iry GradwD-" raeter Missi.o:fI" ::::: .2OCIO, IP.MIK et 31. 19S8). No,u,"!!lTiI"itational aecelerauons which ,occ~r on moving p1:at[omi.s, e~lhcr ca~ooi out in l.be dil'croflliXIs for a pair of aceelerorneters, or they are separatsd by inwD·duclflg addiLio~aJ aunude data ,~MORrrz 196kJ. Main prob]ems originmcr"iOM fltl:sffidusllll1wtude errors ~"d rrom ~he drift of the accelerometers.

4 .. 2Ji The M,eaSllfemenc of Earth Tides

Variations illl the intcn.siLy or.gm'\l~ty which are caused by udes can be measured by gravimeters; other ~H'ec'lg, such as. nhJllchJ.aliol]s ~n [he direction of the plurnb line an'; determ lned b}' L i lameters.an d erustal de form a tions are meas u red usi ng e II:. ~e'Dsomet'er5 (MELClf10R A]983).

A spring-type lliddl gravimeter [4.2.2J may beused as an earth-tide ,reco'rtJi".fJ ,gr(IJli~ 'tlerer. FOF this purpose it has to be equipped with a lew-pass nller. a recording unit" and a q uartz elo ck. fWENZEL 19 76.EDH.E el~ al, 198'). Special tEdli3I.l gra v imeters (L.aCOSl£~Romberg earth Lide gravimeter, Askania .05.2.5, Geodynamics - modUled North American Gravirneterlhave great stability and a small measuring raege,

Changes in the position of the lever are converted 'to electrical s~gIiHid:S., g,eneraUy by a capacitive detector: these are [henampUlied and recllrded along with the lime, Digital reccrding (wi~h e -. g. U) s or I. min. averagmng an.d ~o min or 1 h ampul) is generally performed today. An anD~og output offers a convenient. on-fine eoarrol ~Fig. 4.23')1. A calibration :rumlsh.cs. ~he relationslll~p between the gravimeter reading and Ute recorded d~nection; a relative aecuraey (If 1 to .2. x H)-3 can De ebtained,

oorUi: lid. 5~OO I'k!~ 1~'.7D9

... , .. , -.- ~~Q~~~? ~I.~.~~!~.:~-I~:.~~-~ .. _ _ ,

Fig. 4.23. Onlv~m¢tric earth tide reecrd, cbtamed with laCoste and Ro:moo:r,l:!. ~n{Vimeler G 298,. rnIE Hannov,er

ln the superc,amiucl'i'19 grav;",e!ler. the force or gravity acting on a proo.f mass is compensated by 3. magnetic counterforce, ,A, high ]ong-I.erm slabiii~y is achieved by the supcreneducting state oHhe system (Fwg. 4.24). Vertical dwsp~acemeDls of the mass are monitored by a eapaeitive deteetor an.d compensated th.mu(!;b a feedback system. thereby ad:miuJng coaunuous reoording . Inst rumental leng-terrn dlritr,emi3.~DS, very smaL~; theaccuracy in the short-period « 1 d) tidal band is beater {han + 1 nms;-l (GOODK[ND Hn~6,. R~cFITm 1'987).

FrfJ· J.2A. GWR superconducting gr-avimeh;:; principle, afle:r GWR-hstrum~nts" San Di,ego. (1IIiforJI:IlOl!.. iDform:alion ;lind IlKIfl'ER {t981), f~ow 1'ORCiE (A ]989)

TiI,",u?N~r.'f are designed as horizontal and vertical pendulums, and as water-tube levels, The' fluetuatiens in the dircetion of the ph.Jmb line with respect to ~he eartb's surfaee are determined from its two mUltllJaUy perpendicular com pcnen us, (NS~ EW).

The lIarito:rHal pet!dl.drJnI ~after ZoU~~r consiist,s of two nearly Vf:l1iCH~. threads which s~:ppGn an appm:-;ima[ely horizontal, beam with an anaehed mass III ff~g. 4.25J.Bec:iil1l:!ie of the sm:illl illci1'm1ation J of the ro~lIi.ti(lnaill aIds with respect to the ,difec~i,oW1l cf U:H~: vertiea], a hO'reDn~;JJ:I loree 'rHuc[U.uiorn, oh.he vertical, if!ielina~ion of the support] acHnS pe["pemiiicu~lIdy ~o the be<llim t;:f1j'1!ISeS II stmngJy 3mpt~[Jjed .ang~.gJ;ar deilecli.o:mI. A further ampl iflmtl.Oin, ispo'5< s ~lde thr()I,!,gbao

Fin. 4.25. Zollner bo·rizonHiilpendulu.m principle

illuminated pointer and .3. mirrer attacbed to the beam. The deflections are registered photogliaphicaJlD}, 01'.1 film . .By prmlucing a k.nown inctinauon and measuring the angle of deHec1.lon., one ~s iii ble ~ 0 cal ihra ~t:' the instrurnen l f ± ~ '<1'0)' VAN R I1'fMDEK~ ( 19'76).

The Askllnia [iertical peudulNW (Bodc[lseev.'erk Geosy~.lcm GmbH. Oberlin.ge:n) of .41. GrlJj {Ienglh; 600 rnml is sus~nded such that tU can swing rret:ly. The dienect.i.ons rue sensed by two capacitive detectors at right a.ngle.s to each erher, and! upen arnplificatierr, the: signals are recorded by djgilal and analog means. The instrument IS designed 1.0 operate in boreholes (20 ... 60 n;l de prh], FLACH (19'76). Long Wt.lUr-J·uh", ~·iilrm:'te,. s ha ... e fo IJ nd Dnl)' ~im ited !!! pop I lealion (K"i\IUAfNE'N ~ 979).

Srraf'l 'mf(~lJreme"t.s an: made with extcnsometers [straiarneters] (KING and HILHAM 1913), The strain, which depends on 'the tides, is on the order to IO-1! corresponding LO 0.1 ~.tm/W m: therefore, an instrumental resolution of Ix 10-10 is required. For the complete determinatinn of the six independem componenas of (he strain tensor, strainmeters mus' be oriented in different spatial directicns, The results represent functions or [he Love number h andibe Shida number I [2.4.1].

Meta_] and quartz mb€: extensemeters, as well ,as invar wtres with lengths or 11[l to 30 mart used for these purpose; l;rser lnterleromesers .aUow lengths: up 10 l krn (8E1lGEIIi!. and LEVINE 09'74). Generally one end ofthe i~strument i'!i rinnly attached to the earth's crust; the crustal dlsplacements are measured I:IiI 'l'he D~lhcr end.

Numerous pe"'n~,.bil)g effec:,,[s are superimposed on the tidal signa]:

As fali .as (h..: i,.scrum~11lal sJIs,rerllCtrk ermrs are eoneerned, the uncertainties s associased Wllth the dcterminai!:iOfl ·or the calib:ration and rrcquency tra.nsfer function (frequency dependent darnping and instrumental phase ski'1.) represent a ~imil to the hi.gh~t 311 tainable accuracy. Direet elfeers of umospneric pressure lind ternperahIfe can ,~dl h~1I' be held to a minimum by app'rOpri~le shielding. or delenninoo and taken 'into acc·oulil'l by regression analyses, In.srn~~ ml?Ilrat (Jrij( is obtained eomputanenelly illl the evaluation: however. its influence complicates the- .. ma~ys,is of leng-pericdic tides, The Cffe>cls caused by o.ce.allk rides arc difficult [0 ascertain, They are composed of the direct auractlon of 'I.he water masses and the induced crustal movements due to tidal loading. The semidlurnal parual tide is affecte.d in particlJ,la,r,(G:RO' EN and DKENNHCKE l'5l7J). The: (:Jre~n 'l~die loadieg e:ff~t can be dcterRl~'ned fo.r <1.[1, ,clasLic carib model if the ocean tide distribution is given. G~ohal oceanic li.d:JllJ .models c!(iSl fer the: mest important waves fe.g SCHWIUJ:R..il:KI 1'980, 1983), The~o3dil!lige'lJect aas been llIIodclh:d by F ARJt.nL (19'72), E'lVi'ro~ullilnr{d dis;wrbing eD'tu/..'lS arise from the nUCUHlIliol1s in atmospheric:

4.3 Terrestrial Geodetic Metl:surtments 89'

pr,e1IS'I.!!rt and lemperatllJlJie. as we-II a.. s from varying solar radiation and the re1!Ulling lilt of [be canh,'s surface, These elIt:-cts bear In particular on the diurnal partial tides. Mi!;t~orologica~ and hydrologic-al ~rrt'C'ls also exhibit Jong-tenD behavIOur.

The grtJllrinu?lers. whichare less. sensitive to lnclinauons already furnish good tesults when placed in temperature controlled cellars. Tib:mcHe1"S and exiensometers; on the mher hand, must be shielded from the surlaoe innuence.s by ,3, sl.Imciel'lJ1Jy Lhick (several 10 m] rock cover. They arc' therefore installed in tunnels allld mines, or in bore boles ('VerticaJ pendulum). Local etTecls resulting rrom variable clastic rock preperties, ancmalous topoc:ra.ph.ic stress field., and C~,"'~lY deformations, however. cam affect the results of the inclination and strain measurements, thereby ceusing deviations from regienally valid values of to to IS,}o (HARRISON L 916,).

For the eealuatlon of earth tide measuremems, the recorded udal signal is decomposed into parlhd tides aod compared to the theoretical Lides: [2.4.1].. This harmonic analys,iJi is based on a least squaees adjustment, in order no derive the amplitude factors and phase shifLs of the main waves (VENEOIK:OV ~971. W£N:zru.. (976). With spring-type gravimeters, len to, 'Iwcnty wave groups can be analyzed. depending on the IlengUIi ol'the recording time. Alter several months o:rmeuurements, the factors ,ii, (Ol"€Jlllimefrit' earth tides) ~or the principal waves 0 1 ~ K 1, M2. 52 and K]. 82 as \'\I3.V[: groups wge~her wiLh ncighboringfrequencies are obtained to an accuracy of ± 2 to + S x 10 - J. and ± O~ ~ to O~2 r or the accompanyi ng p hlse sh~fts <(TmlGE and WENZEL 1911): the random errors amount to + 5lo ±20nms-1. Standard deviations, of ±a rew O.l.nms- I( 5 mill. samples] are obtained with digiLa.l recordi[]g(WENZE.L and ZORN 1990,. For superconducting gravimeters, rcgisrration series over five Jean;, and more are availabte, They a~:so permit an analysis oflong-perindic partial tides. and of the polar motion ,effecL (RrCHTEB 1987",

The random error in measurements oC indiHDliolJ is about -t-O:'OOO2. white the attainable instrumental accuracies for the factors I' and the phase shirts am.ount to TO ugh! y ± I i;~ and ±] :'0. T(!spectjvcly. Due no the local SBo]ogica L, topogT"d ph ic and cavil,,. effects mentioned above, the results obtained [rom tiltmeters and extensometers are often not representauve. This is particu~ar!y valid if the illstrumenta~ basis of these instruments is small (few decimeters lo meters],

Gravimetric t.idal profiles (duration of recordings of [our months and more per station] [or the past several ye~rs have been systematically established oyer the' entire earth (MIfiLCH.IOR and DE BECKrot 1983). The principal rderence station in Brussels is available ~or a comparison of the various gravimeters that are being employed rDUCARME J '975).

4,.3 Terrestrial Geodetic Measurements

Horizontal angles, distances, zenith mngmes, and height diITc.rcmces obtained from h:-veHng are measured on the earth surface. These measurements determine the relative spatial PO:s;itiODS of the surface points.