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# LECTURE 8

## PHASES, EVAPORATION & LATENT HEAT

Lecture Instructor: Kazumi Tolich
Lecture 8
2

## ¨ Reading chapter 17.4 to 17.5

¤ Phase equilibrium
¤ Evaporation

¤ Latent heats
n Latent heat of fusion
n Latent heat of vaporization
n Latent heat of sublimation
Phase equilibrium & vapor-pressure curve
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## ¨ If a substance has two or more phases that

coexist in a steady and stable fashion, the
substance is in phase equilibrium.
¨ The pressure of the gas when equilibrium is
reached is called equilibrium vapor
pressure.
¨ A plot of the equilibrium vapor pressure
versus temperature is called vapor-pressure
curve.
¨ A liquid boils at the temperature at which
its vapor pressure equals the external
pressure.
Phase diagram
4

¨ A fusion curve indicates where the solid and liquid phases are in
equilibrium.
¨ A sublimation curve indicates where the solid and gas phases
are in equilibrium.
¨ A plot showing a vapor-pressure curve, a fusion curve, and a
sublimation curve is called a phase diagram.
¨ The vapor-pressure curve comes to an end at the critical point.
Beyond the critical point, there is no distinction between liquid
and gas.
¨ At triple point, all three phases, solid, liquid, and gas, are in
equilibrium.
¤ In water, the triple point occur at T = 273.16 K and
P = 611.2 Pa.
Quiz: 1
5

## ¨ In most substance, as the pressure increases, the melting temperature of the

substance also increases because a solid is denser than the corresponding
liquid. But in water, ice is less dense than liquid water. Does the fusion curve
of water have a positive or negative slope?
A. Positive
B. Negative
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¨ Negative
¨ In most substances, the fusion line has a positive slope. As the pressure increases, the
melting temperature of the substance also increases because a solid is denser than
the corresponding liquid.
¨ In water, the slope is negative because ice is less dense.

Example: 1
7

## ¨ The phase diagram for water is shown.

a) What is the temperature T1?
b) What is the temperature T2?
c) What happens to the melting/freezing
temperature if atmospheric pressure is
decreased?
d) What happens to the boiling/condensation
temperature if atmospheric pressure is increased?
Evaporation/ Demo: 1
8

## ¨ Evaporation is a cooling process.

¨ Freezing water by evaporation
¤ When the pressure is lowered, water boils at a lower temperature.
¤ Evaporation of water lowers the temperature of water itself.
Demo: 2
9

¨ CO2 sublimation
¤ Demonstration of sublimation of CO2
Latent heats
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## ¨ The energy required to convert a

substance of mass 𝑚 from one phase to
another is given by

𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿

## where 𝐿 is the coefficient of latent heat.

¤ latent heat of fusion, 𝐿% , solid to liquid
¤ latent heat of vaporization, 𝐿& , liquid to gas
¤ latent heat of sublimation, 𝐿' , solid to gas
Example: 2
11

¨ A heat transfer of
Q = 9.5 × 105 J is required
to convert a block of ice at
Ti = -12 °C to Tf = 12 °C.
What was the mass of the
block of ice?
Quiz: 2
12

## ¨ Which will cause more severe burns to your skin:

100°C water or 100°C steam of a same mass?
A. Water
B. Steam
C. Both the same
13

¨ Steam
¨ The hot steam first has to undergo a phase change into water
at 100 °C before cooling down. This releases additional
energy causing more severe burns.
Example: 3
14

## ¨ Flesh becomes badly damaged when its

temperature reaches 50.0 °C.
a) Calculate the heat released as
m = 12.5 g of liquid water at Ti = 100 °C
is cooled to Tf = 50.0 °C.
b) Calculate the heat released as
m = 12.5 g of steam at Ti = 100 °C is
condensed and cooled to Tf = 50.0 °C.
c) Calculate the mass of flesh that can be
heated from T’i = 37.0 °C (normal body
temperature) to T’f = 50.0 °C. The
average specific heat of flesh is
cflesh = 3500 J/kg·∙K.
Quiz: 3
15

## ¨ You step out of a swimming pool on a hot day,

where the air temperature is 90°F. Where will you
feel cooler, in Phoenix (dry air) or in Philadelphia
(humid air)?
A. equally cool in both places
C. Phoenix
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¨ Phoenix
¨ In Phoenix, where the air is dry, more of the water will evaporate from your
skin because there is not much water vapor in the air.
¨ Evaporation is a phase change, where the water must absorb the heat of
vaporization from your skin.
¨ That is why you feel cool as the water evaporates.
¨ You may also feel colder when you are taking a shower with a bathroom
door open compared to when the door is closed.
Quiz: 4
17

## ¨ The graph shows the temperature

of a 1.0-g sample of material as
heat is added to it. The material is
initially a solid at 10ºC. The
pressure remains constant, and
there is no chemical change. What
is the coefficient of latent heat of
fusion for the material in cal/g?
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¨ 50 cal/g
¨ The coefficient of latent heat of fusion is
the energy required to convert a substance
of unit mass from one phase to another.
Q
Q 50 cal
L= =
m 1.0 g
Quiz: 5
19

## ¨ The graph shows the temperature

of a 1.0-g sample of material as
heat is added to it. The material is
initially a solid at 10ºC. The
pressure remains constant, and
there is no chemical change. What
is the specific heat of the solid
()*
phase in ?
+,-°
20

()*
¨ 0.25
+,-°
¨ The specific heat is the energy required to
raise the temperature of a substance of
unit mass by 1C°.
Q
0 45  ()* ()*
¨ 𝑐= = = 0.25
1,23 4.5  + 85  °- +,-°

ΔT
Water protects buds from cold weather
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¨ When temperature falls a few degrees below 0 °C, fruit crop is in danger of being ruined.
¨ To protect the buds, farmers spray the trees with water.
¨ Water has large latent heat of fusion.
¨ Before the buds can freeze, the water must be cooled to 0 °C and then freeze.
¨ In this process, the water gives up heat and keeps the temperature of the buds from going
below 0 °C.
¨ The layer of ice over the buds acts like insulation because ice is not a good conductor of heat.