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sequences and wave-structure interaction

To cite this article: Ningbo Gao, Jianmin Yang, Wenhua Zhao & Xin Li (2016) Numerical

simulation of deterministic freak wave sequences and wave-structure interaction, Ships and

Offshore Structures, 11:8, 802-817, DOI: 10.1080/17445302.2015.1073864

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tsos20

Ships and Offshore Structures, 2016

Vol. 11, No. 8, 802–817, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17445302.2015.1073864

Ningbo Gaoa , Jianmin Yanga,∗ , Wenhua Zhaob and Xin Lia

a

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China; b Faculty of Engineering,

Computing and Mathematics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

(Received 16 December 2014; accepted 14 July 2015)

Freak wave, with nonlinear characteristic, has posed great challenge in the design of ships and offshore structures. This

challenge necessitates a better understanding of freak waves. In this study, a freak wave is numerically regenerated and

studied using computational fluid dynamics. A numerical wave tank is developed based on the commercial finite volume

package FLUENT. Based on a linear wave superposition theory, a deterministic freak wave sequence is modelled at specified

site and time. Through the comparison with field data, the developed model shows good capability in generating freak

waves. Furthermore, the interaction of a freak wave with a fixed cylinder has been studied, which will lead to more practical

applications for the design of offshore structures.

Keywords: Navier–Stokes equations; freak wave; NewWave; New Year Wave; transfer function

1. Introduction almost calm before and after it. An extension theory is the

Green water and wave-induced loads on deck have been constrained NewWave which embeds NewWave into a ran-

major concerns in the design of offshore structures. Freak dom wave (Cassidy et al. 2001). Cui et al. (2012) applied

wave is one type of extreme wave which may occur on the constrained NewWave theory in the simulation of freak

calm sea and reach very high amplitudes (at least twice of waves and studied the bottom influence on propagation of

the significant wave height). Considering their unexpected- freak waves. Clauss and Steinhagen (2000) introduced an

ness and abnormal features, these waves can pose devas- optimised method to simulate deterministic freak wave se-

tating damage on ships and marine structures despite their quences, in which a tailed abnormal wave can be reproduced

low probability of occurrence (Nikolkina and Didenkulova within a random sea. Alford and Troesch (2009) applied

2012). the optimisation technique to find a target extreme wave

There have been some assumptions on the genera- which causes a particular extreme ship response within a

tion mechanism of freak wave, such as linear disper- short time series. Bennett et al. (2013,2014) experimentally

sive focusing, wave–current interaction, bottom topography produced a target abnormal wave within a random sea by

influence–wind force on free surface, self-focusing due to utilising the optimisation technique, and investigated the

boundary instability, and nonlinear wave–wave interaction, influence of abnormal waves on a vessel travelling with dif-

and so on (Kharif and Pelinovsky 2003). Linear dispersive ferent forward speed. Sekhar and Nallayarasu (2013) inves-

focusing model, which shows a good predictability through tigated wave slamming and air gap on non-circular offshore

pre-defining the size and shape of an abnormal wave, has structures under predicted maximum wave crests which is

been widely used as an efficient method to reproduce freak due to extreme freak wave.

wave in both numerical and experimental studies. Considering the harsh sea state that freak waves oc-

Tromans et al. (1991) proposed NewWave methodol- cur, rare real freak wave sequences are recorded. In this

ogy as an efficient approach to simulate extreme wave. Sta- article, a situ recorded freak wave sequence is reproduced

tistically, NewWave uses the summation of N component numerically. Furthermore, its interaction with a cylinder has

waves to create an isolated wave peak. Essentially, it is a been studied, which will lead to the practical applications

special case of transient wave group. Baldock et al. (1996) of wave force on semi-submersibles, spars, and other types

reproduced focused wave group experimentally, and drew of offshore structures.

the conclusion that a significant energy was transferred This paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, the

into both higher and lower harmonics during the formation numerical model is presented. Grid and time-step conver-

of NewWave group. A limitation of NewWave theory lies gence analysis are discussed in Section 3. Furthermore,

in that it can only simulate a local wave series which is a recorded freak wave series is reproduced in Section 4.

∗

Corresponding author. Email: jmyang@sjtu.edu.cn

C 2015 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Ships and Offshore Structures 803

Forces on horizontal cylinder are given in Section 5. Fi- where αq is defined as volume fraction, representing the

nally, some conclusions are drawn in Section 6. volume fraction of a cell occupied by the qth fluid,

αq = , (3)

2. Mathematical model total cell volume

2.1. Governing equations

• αq = 0: the cell is empty of the qth fluid;

We consider a 2D laminar flow field with a free surface.

• αq = 1: the cell is full of the qth fluid;

The governing equations include the following continuity

• 0 ≤ αq ≤ 1: the cell contains the interface.

and Navier–Stokes equations:

∇ · V = 0 ware package, and it is enabled to capture the free surface.

∂ V 1 μ

+ (V · ∇)V = − ∇p + ∇ 2 V + F , (1)

∂t ρ ρ

2.2. Geometric model

where V and t are velocity vector and time, respectively; The detailed configuration of the geometric model is shown

p and F are pressure and external force including gravita- in Figure 1. The wave tank length is 20 m, with a 5 m wave

tional force; ρ and μ are density and viscosity, respectively. absorbing zone. The water depth is 1 m with 0.5 m height

The volume of fraction (VOF) method (Hirt and Nichols above the initial free surface. A serial of wave gauges are

1981), which has been proved to be effective, is used to placed along the wave tank at the positions of x = 9–11 m

capture the free surface. Here, another governing equation with an interval of 0.5 m. Structured grids are used to get

is introduced as follows: smooth free surface in the domain. For saving calculating

resources as well as improving accuracy, refined mesh is

⎧ adopted near the free surface, and coarse mesh is used in

⎪ ∂αq

⎨ ∂t + V · ∇αq = 0

⎪ the wave absorbing zone. The overview of grid model is

2

, (2) shown in Figure 2.

⎪

⎪ αq = 1, (q = 1, 2)

⎩

q=1

804 N. Gao et al.

2.3. Boundary conditions The general solution of Equation (5) is of the form

A wall boundary condition is set at wave board and wave ⎧ ⎫

tank bottom. At the top of the tank, a pressure boundary ag ⎨ cosh kj (y + h) i (kj x−ωt ) ⎬

∞

e + c.c.

ω ⎩ j =0 cosh kj h ⎭

lowing fluid flow through the boundary. At the end of the

tank, an absorbing damping zone is implemented to reduce (6)

wave reflection. In the damping zone, an attenuation co- ⎧ ⎫

efficient c(x) is introduced to increase the flow viscosity ⎨∞ ⎬

gradually to absorb the wave reflection. η (y, t) = a ei (kj x−ωt ) + c.c. , (7)

⎩ ⎭

j =0

x − xL

c (x) = 0.001003 + · 800.0, (4) where a is the wave amplitude, i is the imaginary unit,

xR − xL

η(y, t) is the wave elevation, and c.c. denotes the complex

where xL and xR are the starting and the ending coordinate conjugate of the preceding term, respectively. kj are the

of the damping zone, respectively. solutions of the dispersive relation,

For generating the flap wave board motion, dynamic

written in C language is employed to control the wave gen-

erator moving with specified velocity. Equation (8) is a linear dispersion relation generalised to

complex wave numbers, and the solutions not only consist

of the progressive real part solution k0 , but also have an

2.4. Wave generation theory infinity of purely imaginary solutions so-called evanescent

Figure 3 gives an overview of the combined flap and pis- modes kj (j = 1, 2, 3...). Evanescent modes have signifi-

ton type wavemaker. Viscosity and surface tension are ne- cant influence on second-order wave theory and have been

glected, and the simple harmonic wave motion is described. researched widely by Schäffer (1996). In this manuscript,

The wave generation process is characterised by the follow- only linear wave generation theory is applied.

ing control equations: The transfer function is a parameter related to the wave

height H of the progressive wave and the stroke of the

= 0 in the region 0 ≤ x ≤ ∞, −h ≤ y ≤ 0 wavemaker S as follows:

∂

=0 on y = −h wave height H

∂y Tr = = . (9)

∂ wavemaker stroke S

ω2 + g =0 on y = 0 (5)

∂y

1 ∂ For different wavemakers, the shape function U (y) is

η= on y = 0 given by

g ∂t

∂

∂x

= U (y) sin (ωt) on x = 0,

U (y)

1

where (x, y, t) is the velocity potential, U (y) is the pre- Sω

piston wavemaker

= 21 .

defined horizontal velocity on the wavemaker, and ω is the 2

Sω 1 + yh flap wavemaker hinged at the bottom

circular frequency, respectively. (10)

Ships and Offshore Structures 805

Figure 4. Comparison of transfer functions between piston and flap wavemaker. (This figure is available in colour online.)

The hydrodynamic transfer function has been deduced From wave-making theory, the velocity of flap wave-

by Biesel and Suquet (1951), and it was introduced in by maker at the static water level can be written as

Ursell et al. (1960) and written as follows:

⎧

⎪ 2 (cosh 2kh − 1)

⎪

⎨ for piston wavemaker

H sinh 2kh + 2kh

Tr = = , (11)

⎪

⎩ sinh kh kh sinh kh − cosh kh + 1

⎪

S 4

for flap wavemaker hinged at bottom

kh sinh 2kh + 2kh

N

ωi ai

where k is the wave number, h is the water depth, respec- u (t) = cos (ωi t + εi ) , (13)

tively. i=0

Tr

The transfer function Equation (11) is showed in

Figure 4, which describes the relation of H /S and

where T r is the transfer function associated with the ith

non-dimensional water depth. For flap wavemaker, non-

component of progressive wave, ωi and ai are the wave

dimensional water depth has much greater influences on

circular frequency and wave height, εi is the initial phase

transfer function compared with piston wavemaker which

angle.

means that flap wavemaker is much more suitable for deep

water wave generation.

In general, any time series of wave elevation can be

regarded as the combination of certain number of small 3. Convergence analysis

amplitude waves. Therefore, the wave elevation η(t) can be 3.1. Optimisation of the grid model

written as follows: In this section, the sensitivity of the wave elevation to the

grid refinement is checked under three grid models listed in

N

Table 1. The input wave height is 0.1 m and the wave period

η (t) = ai cos (ωi t + εi ). (12) is 1 s. According to the linear dispersive relation, the wave

i=0

length λ is 1.56 m. Thus, the regular wave simulation is in

depth water (h/λ > 0.5). All the simulations are single-core

806 N. Gao et al.

Grid-2 0.018(800) 20 20 0.0068(60) 7 74226 20

Grid-3 0.015(1000) 30 30 0.0051(80) 7 112706 45

Figure 5. Comparison of wave elevations at x = 10 m with different grids models listed in Table 1, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This figure

is available in colour online.)

computed in a DELL workstation Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU are quite steady. However, there is a slight phase shift for

E5-2697 v2 with 32 GB available RAM. Grid-1 model compared with the theoretical result. The

To ensure numerical stability, an instructional guideline phase shift is also proposed by Paulsen et al. (2014) which

is that a fluid particle should not pass more than half a clearly indicates that this resolution is not insufficient to ac-

computational cell per time step, which means the Courant curately capture the physics. For Grid-3, it consumes much

number is no more than 0.5 (C = ut/l < 05, where u more calculation resources, while the result presents little

is the velocity component, l indicates the minimum cell improvement in comparison of Grid-2. The computational

size, t is the time step). Here, the Airy wave theory is time is presented in Table. 1. Considering the fact that a

applied to give a reasonable analytical estimate value for recorded freak wave will be simulated, it is not quite strong

the maximum velocity inside a wave (ux,max = uy,maz = to prove that the Grid-2 is sufficiently effective based on

aw exp(ak)). During the mesh sensitivity test, the time step only one regular wave simulation. In Section 4, the three

is 0.001 s. The Courant number in Grid-3 is the largest grid models are applied to simulate the recorded freak wave

one among the three grid model. The maximum Courant in order to prove that Grid-2 is sufficient to capture the free

numbers are Cx,max = 0.02 in the x-direction and Cy,max = surface.

0.06 in the y-direction. Thus, the stability is ensured.

The simulated results are presented in Figure 5 and

compared with the second-order Stokes theory result. It 3.2. Time-step interval convergence analysis

can be concluded that it shows fewer differences for the The proper setting of time-step interval can not only get

three grid models in wave height, and the wave profiles sufficiently accurate results, but also save many calcula-

Ships and Offshore Structures 807

Figure 6. Comparison of wave elevations at x = 10 m with 3 time steps, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This figure is available in colour online.)

tion resources. In this study, calculations with three dif- Fourier decomposition (Liang et al. 2011). The extended

ferent time steps in Grid-2 are conducted, T /500, T /750, form ofEquation (12) can be written as follows:

and T /1000, respectively. The input wave height is 0.1 m

and the wave period is 1 s. Considering dissipation effects,

the simulating wave height must be smaller than 0.1 m.

N

η (t) = ai cos (ωi t + εi )

The Courant number is maximum in Grid-2 when the time

i=0

step equals T /1000. The maximum Courant numbers are N (14)

Cx,max = 0.018 in the x-direction and Cy,max = = (ai cos εi cos ωi t − ai sin εi sin ωi t)

0.046 in the y-direction which the stability is still i=0

ensured. = Ai cos ωi t + Bi sin ωi t,

Figure 6 shows the comparison between numerical re-

sults and second Stokes theory result. It can be seen that where

there is an obvious phase shift when time step is T /500, Ai = ai cos εi

(15)

while the results show little difference for T /750 and Bi = −ai sin εi

T /1000. Thus, it is acceptable for time step locates be-

tween T /750 and T /1000. In this article, the time step is ai = Ai 2 + Bi2 . (16)

0.001 s for all simulation.

Fourier series expansion is employed to derive Ai and

Bi .

⎧

⎪ 2

T N

⎪

⎪

⎨ Ai = η (t) cos ωi tdt =

2

⎪ T

η (tn ) cos ωi tn

0 N n=1

i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M; B0 = 0, (17)

⎪

⎪

N

⎪

⎪

⎩ Bi =

2

N

η (tn ) sin ωi tn

n=1

4. Numerical simulation of New Year Wave where ωi = i2π /(N t), N is the total number point of

In general, any time series of wave profile can be divided target wave series, t is the time interval, and M = N /2

into certain number of small-amplitude waves through must be satisfied in this equation. It is easy to get ai andεi .

808 N. Gao et al.

Figure 7. New Year Wave recorded in North Sea, (a) overall (b) detailed (0–500 s in (a)). (This figure is available in colour online.)

The wave series propagates upstream to the location where εold phase angles of the initial or previous control

of wave board. Through a linear wave theory, wave board signal,

control signals are derived as follows: εnew new control signal phase angles,

εrecorded phase angles of the registration at target location,

N

ωi ai εtarget phase angles of the target wave train at target location.

u0 (t) = cos(ωi t − k(0 − xp ) + εi ), (18)

i=0

Tr The most famous freak wave is “New Year Wave”

recorded in North Sea in 1995 (Haver 2004). The recorded

where, xp represents the distance from wavemaker to the time series are shown in Figure 7. In this section, New Year

location of freak wave. Wave is chosen as the target freak wave and simulated in the

Kriebel (1992, 1998) show that higher order effects NWT at a scale of 100. For saving calculation resources,

on wave forces are not as significant as those on wave the first 500 s wave series are chosen as the target wave

run-up. In this study, wave run-up and slamming are not (Figure 7b).

considered and thus a linear wave model is applied for the Figures 8 and 9 present the component wave height

purpose of simplifying the numerical model. In order to ai and the initial phase angle εi , respectively. As can be

get efficient simulating results, we adjust the component seen in Figure 8, the wave amplitudes of high frequency

wave phase angles εi and several duplicate simulations are components which the circular frequency is larger than

conducted to improve the results. The basic idea behind 50 rad/s are negligible, so a limited number of wave com-

this generation scheme is based on a method proposed by ponent is adopted in this work. Figure 10 shows the com-

Chaplin (1996). Given a target wave sequence at an assigned parison between the recorded New Year Wave and the fast

position, the initial wave generation control signal can be Fourier transformation (FFT) decomposition result when

obtained easily. The wave train is recorded in the numerical the wave component number is 300. The FFT decompo-

wave tank (NWT). The initial phase angle is adjusted by the sition result agrees well with recorded wave. It also can

comparison of the recorded phase angle (εrecorded ) at target be seen that the trough-to-trough period is 1.3 s where the

location with the target phase angles (εtarget ) in frequency corresponding wave length is 2.6 m based on the dispersive

domain as the following equation: relation. It is classified as intermediate depth water waves.

First, we simulate the New Year Wave in three grid

εnew = εold − 2 · (εtarget − εrecorded ), (19) models. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results

Ships and Offshore Structures 809

are presented in Figure 11. It can be concluded that the earity effects. Anyway, the CFD results agree well with the

results of Grid-2 and Grid-3 show few differences. Thus, recorded wave from the aspect of the wave evolution trend.

it proves that the Grid-2 is suitable to model the recorded The detailed flow field information is given in Figure 14.

wave.

Figure 12 shows wave propagations at different loca-

tions. It shows that an extreme wave group has appeared 5. Interaction with a fixed cylinder

ahead of the specified location. Further comparison is pre- This section describes the numerical simulations of fixed

sented in Figure 13. The detailed differences between nu- horizontal cylinders in regular wave and freak wave en-

merical results and recorded wave series are presented in vironments. The forces shown in all figures are non-

Table 2. The numerical crest index CI = ηcrest /H is 0.65 dimensional using the following formula:

and the recorded wave crest index CI = ηcrest /H equals

0.71. The CFD wave crest is 0.15 m while the recorded F

wave crest is 0.178 m. Adcock et al. (2011) found that the F =

, (20)

gρ π R 2

New Year Wave can be resulted from two crossing wave

groups. Thus, one reason of the deviation could be from

the fact that the numerical wave is simulated in 2D wave where F is the measured force on the cylinder, ρ is the

tank while the recorded data is three-dimensional. More- water density, and R is the cylinder radius, respectively.

over, the wavemaker control signal is derived based on the First, regular wave forces on the cylinder are investi-

linear wave theory which takes no consideration of nonlin- gated and compared with other numerical and experimental

results. Next, the cylinders with different submerged depths

under the freak wave are discussed in Section 5.2.

Table 2. Differences between recorded and numerical results.

results results difference The NWT geometry used here is the same as the above

RR (m) NR (m) (RR − NR)/RR (−)

model dimension. The wave period is 1.646 s and the wave

Wave height H 0.256 0.24 6.25% height is 0.25 m. The position of the cylinder was set about

Crest height ηC 0.178 0.15 15.3% 10 m from the wavemaker, and its axis is on the still water

level. Figure 15 shows the time histories of the relative

810 N. Gao et al.

Figure 10. Comparison of recorded wave series in North Sea and theoretical results, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This figure is available in

colour online.)

Ships and Offshore Structures 811

Figure 11. Comparison of the CFD results of the New Year Wave in three grid models, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This figure is available

in colour online.)

812 N. Gao et al.

Figure 13. Comparison of recorded wave series in North Sea and CFD results, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This figure is available in colour

online.)

Figure 14. Wave contour at t = 25.7 s. (This figure is available in colour online.)

vertical force over one period, and comparison with d = R, d = R/2, d = 0, d = −R/2, and d = −R. The con-

experimental results (Dixon et al. 1979) and other numeri- figuration and the grid model are presented in Figure 16.

cal results (Westphalen et al. 2012). It can be seen that the The freak wave model used here is the same as that

results in this developed model show good agreement with in Section 4. As a fixed horizontal cylinder is set 10.5 m

published numerical and experimental results, indicating downstream from wavemaker, the influence of the cylin-

the reliability of the present model. der on wave evolution should be investigated first. Wave

elevations at two locations (1D ahead of the cylinder and

1D after the cylinder) are recorded. The comparison is pre-

sented in Figure 17. It can be seen from Figure 17a that the

5.2. A fixed horizontal cylinder in freak wave wave height with the cylinder is higher than that without

To identify the interaction of a freak wave and offshore the cylinder at the location of 1D ahead of the cylinder. It is

structures, which might be different with a normal ocean partially due to the reflection effect of the cylinder. Mean-

wave, a cylinder with the diameter (D) of 0.1 m is located while, from Figure 17b, the wave height with the cylinder

at 10.5 m downstream from the wavemaker. Five different is smaller than that without the cylinder at the location of

cases are designed to test the forces on horizontal cylinder 1D behind the cylinder. This is because part of the wave

with different submerging depths, which are distinguished energy has been reflected to the upstream of the cylinder.

by the distance between the axis and the initial free surface, The detailed information is presented in Table 3. Here, it

Ships and Offshore Structures 813

Figure 15. Relative vertical forces on a fixed horizontal cylinder in regular wave. (This figure is available in colour online.)

is roughly regarded that the freak wave will occur in the can be seen that during the period of freak wave genera-

position of the cylinder. Thus, the forces on cylinder due to tion both horizontal and vertical forces bump up obviously.

freak wave can be investigated. Table 4 summarises the positive and negative maximum val-

Figures 18 and 19 present the time histories of the non- ues of the vertical and horizontal forces, as well as the corre-

dimensional horizontal and vertical forces, respectively. It sponding moment they appeared. The variations of positive

and negative maximum forces are given in Figures 20–

21. With the cylinder submerging into water, the positive

Table 3. Information about wave height and crest height.

maximum horizontal forces decrease, while the occurring

1D ahead 1D behind time is almost identical to the freak wave appearing time

in the case without the cylinder. The negative maximum

Without With Without With

horizontal forces show less variations compared with the

cylinder cylinder cylinder cylinder

negative maximum vertical forces. With the cylinder sub-

Wave height H (m) 0.240 0.254 0.223 0.182 merging into water, the value of negative direction vertical

Crest height ηC (m) 0.145 0.150 0.134 0.102 forces is increasing. For the cylinder fully submerged in

814 N. Gao et al.

Figure 17. Wave sequences with and without cylinder, (a) 1D ahead (b) 1D behind. (This figure is available in colour online.)

Figure 18. Non-dimensional horizontal forces due to the horizontal cylinder’s different submerged depths, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This

figure is available in colour online.)

Ships and Offshore Structures 815

Figure 19. Non-dimensional vertical forces due to the horizontal cylinder’s different submerged depths, (a) overall (b) detailed. (This

figure is available in colour online.)

Figure 20. Positive maximum forces due to the horizontal cylinder’s different submerged depths. (This figure is available in colour

online.)

816 N. Gao et al.

Figure 21. Negative maximum forces due to the horizontal cylinder’s different submerged depths. (This figure is available in colour

online.)

Figure 22. Field flow when the horizontal cylinder fully submerged (d = −R). (This figure is available in colour online.)

Table 4. Positive and negative maximum forces due to the horizontal cylinder’s different submerged depths.

Pos. max FH 0.68(t = 25.7 s) 0.64(25.7 s) 0.63(t = 25.7 s) 0.53(25.7 s) 0.38(t = 25.6 s)

Neg. max FH –0.34(t = 25.9 s) –0.22(26.0 s) –0.33(t = 26.0 s) –0.29(26.0 s) –0.31(t = 26.0 s)

Pos. max FV 0.71(t = 25.6 s) 0.63(25.6 s) 0.51(t = 25.6 s) 0.38(25.6 s) 0.31(t = 25.6 s)

Neg. max FV –0.07(t = 25.5 s) –0.24(25.5 s) –0.54(t = 26.6 s) –0.85(26.3 s) –0.89(t = 25.3 s)

forces (FV = −0.89) is larger than that of the positive di- Aiming to study the New Year Wave, an NWT model in 2D

rection vertical forces (FV = 0.31). The detailed flow from has been developed based on commercial package FLU-

t = 25.4 s to t = 26.4 s of the case d = −R is given in ENT. In the numerical model, a recorded freak wave is sim-

Figure 22. This section presents the numerical results of ulated. The CFD result shows acceptable agreement with

the freak wave forces on the horizontal cylinders with dif- the field data of New Year Wave except that there is an

ferent submerged depths, which will be further validated in obvious difference for the wave crest. This is partially due

comparison with experimental data in the future research. to the reason that the field data is short-crested wave while

Ships and Offshore Structures 817

the CFD result is two-dimensional. Further efforts will be Biesel F, Suquet F. 1951. Les appareils générateurs de houle en

focused on incorporating directional propagation effects. laboratoire. La houille blanche. 2:147–165.

Vertical forces on horizontal cylinder in regular wave Cassidy MJ, Eatock Taylor R, Houlsby GT. 2001. Analysis of

jack-up units using a constrained NewWave methodology.

are calculated and compared with other numerical and ex- Appl Ocean Res. 23(4):221–234.

perimental results. It shows very good agreement. New Year Chaplin JR. 1996. On frequency-focusing unidirectional waves.

Wave interactions with fixed cylinders submerged in differ- Int J Offshore Polar Eng. 6(2):30–37.

ent depths are investigated. The tendency of vertical and Clauss G, Steinhagen U. 2000. Optimization of transient de-

horizontal forces is presented, and the results suggest that sign waves in random sea. Proceedings of 10th International

Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference; 2000 May 28–

the largest value of vertical loads appears at the process of Jun 2. Seattle, WA: International Society of Offshore and

the freak wave approaching which may cause severe vertical Polar Engineers.

responses on offshore structures. These numerical results Cui C, Zhang NC, Yu YX, Li JB. 2012. Numerical study on the

will be further validated in comparison to experiment data effects of uneven bottom topography on freak waves. Ocean

in the future research. Eng. 54:132–141.

Dixon AG, Salter SH, Greated CA. 1979. Wave forces on par-

tially submerged cylinders. J Waterway Port Coast Ocean Div.

Acknowledgements 105(4):421–438.

Haver S. 2004. A possible freak wave event measured at the Draup-

The authors would like to thank Dr Sverre Haver from Statoil for ner jacket January 1 1995. Proceedings Rogue Waves 2004;

kindly providing the New Year Wave sequences. This work was 2004 Oct 20–22. Brest, France: IFREMER.

supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China Hirt CW, Nichols BD. 1981. Volume of fluid (VOF) method for

(Grant No. 51239007). Wenhua Zhao was supported by the Shell the dynamics of free boundaries. J Comput Phys. 39(1):201–

EMI offshore engineering initiative at University of Western Aus- 225.

tralia. These forces of support are gratefully acknowledged. Kharif C, Pelinovsky E. 2003. Physical mechanisms of the rogue

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Funding Liang XF, Yang JM, Li J, Li X. 2011. A numerical study on local

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