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Lesson – Introduction
The lesson will begin with using a thinking routine Think, Puzzle, Explore. This will
help students connect to prior knowledge, to stimulate curiosity and to lay the
groundwork for independent inquiry as they begin to learn to develop paragraphs.
1. Begin by giving students a few moments to consider what they Think about
paragraph writing. Have them to brainstorm all that they have learned about
paragraph writing and what good writing might look like.
2. Then ask what puzzles them about writing paragraphs. Have them to think
about the parts of a paragraph as well as the ways on how to achieve coherency
in writing a paragraph.
3. Finally, ask them what they want to explore further. Where might they find the
information that they are looking for? What ways could they gain new insight on
writing paragraphs effectively?
Then, work as a whole class or in small groups and brainstorm ideas in the three
areas. Some may have misconceptions about paragraphs writing that can be worked
through, others will discover a specific skill that they want to learn to explore to
enhance their writing.

Learning Objectives
After this lesson, students will be able to:

 explain what it means to have coherent writing

 understand parallel structure

 describe and use transitional devices

 write their own coherent composition.

Qualities that effective paragraph should contain:

 It should present a single idea

 It should start with a topic sentence which makes some idea evident
 All sentences should act like the supporting evidence that convey single idea

 It should be strategically organized to maintain flow

 It should maintain objective of essay, novel, article, or some other type of work
you’re writing.

 It should entertain and inform reader i.e. it should be short, precise and
informative. Try to avoid the fluff.

Writing Coherent Paragraphs

A good paragraph has unity, is coherent, and is based on one or more methods of
development. Your paragraph will be coherent when you use sentences that are related
to each other in content and grammatical structure. When you do this, your writing will
have a flow and smooth transition, each sentence will relate to the next. Here are the
techniques for writing a coherent paragraph:

 Use parallel structure.

 Use pronouns.

 Use repletion.

 Use transitional expressions.

Parallel Structure
You can use parallel structures to help achieve coherence in a paragraph.
Parallelism is created when you use grammatically equivalent forms in sequence within
a paragraph. For instance, you could use three nouns in a series or three verbs in a
series to make a point. Here is how to create parallel structures within a paragraph:

1. Use parallel words, such as nouns or verbs. Example: He studied, researched,

wrote, and published his masterpiece.

2. Use parallel phrases. Example: He wrote to sooth the pain of the death and to
remember what had happened on that fateful night.

3. Use parallel clauses, such as dependent clauses. He wrote after the war, when
the rubble had been cleared, where so many innocent civilians had perished.
You can create a coherent paragraph by using pronouns to refer back to preceding
nouns in the paragraph. For instance, you can use:

 He/she

 They/their

 It/its

 This/that/those/these

The writer wrote a novel. He then sold it a publisher.

You can also create a coherent paragraph by repeating important words. These
can be nouns, verbs, or phrases.
Democracy is government by the people, government for the people, and
government of the people.
The important point to remember is to use repetition to repeat important words
or phrases.

Transitional Expressions
You can create a coherent paragraph by using transitional words at the
beginning of related sentences within the paragraph. Transitional words and phrases
connect sentences and paragraphs to each other. Within a paragraph, transitions
provide coherence. They give the sense that the paragraph contains one main idea.
They also create a smooth flow from one sentence to the next, or bridge from one
detail or supporting piece of information to the next.

also, and, as well, besides, equally important,

finally, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then,
in like manner, in the same way, likewise, similarly

Conceding a agreed, certainly, granted, obviously, of course, to

point be sure

at the same time, but, conversely, even so, even

Contrasting though, however, in contrast, nevertheless,
ideas nonetheless, on the one hand, on the other hand,
still, yet

as an illustration, as can be seen by, for example,

Providing an
for instance, in other words, namely, specifically, to

afterward, before, currently, eventually, finally,

Relating time first, (second, third, fourth, fifth?), immediately, in
and order of the future, in the past, later, less important,
ideas meanwhile, most important, next, often,
sometimes, soon, subsequently, then, today, when

Resulting from
accordingly, as a result, consequently, so, thereby,
the previous
therefore, thus

adjacent, at the side, between, here, in the back, in

the background, in the distance, in the foreground,
relative location
in the front, nearby, there, to the side

Summarizing finally, hence, in brief, in conclusion, in short, in

ideas summary, that is, that is to say, to sum up

(Relating time and order of ideas)
I completed a number of tasks to become a writer. First, I learned the rules of
grammar and punctuation and style. Next, I read many of the classic fiction books,
such as The Sun Also Rises and 1984. As well, I took courses in creative writing,
especially poetry, fiction, and creative nonfiction. Then I found myself a job that
allowed me to have time to write. Finally, I sat down each night after work and wrote
for an hour. These decisions made all the difference.
The important points to remember are that you can create a coherent
paragraph, one that has flow or bridge between ideas by using parallel structures,
pronouns that refer back to preceding nouns, repetition of important words, and
transitional words to begin related sentences.


 Video lesson Coherence in Writing: Definition & Examples

 Sample piece with examples of incoherence between words, sentences and


 Index cards

 Chart paper

 Markers

Utilize Evaluation

Write a paragraph about the most memorable vacation you’ve ever had.
Describe it in detail.


Creating Understandable and Coherent Paragraphs for Your Essay, Edusson (2018)
retrived from https://edusson.com/blog/creating-understandable-and-

Writing Coherent Paragraphs, Dave Hood (2010) retrived from