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Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

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Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and


Biomolecular Spectroscopy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/saa

Novel spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination


of timolol and dorzolamide in their binary mixture
Hayam Mahmoud Lotfy ⇑, Maha A. Hegazy, Mamdouh R. Rezk, Yasmin Rostom Omran
Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, 11562 Cairo, Egypt

h i g h l i g h t s g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t

 Two novel methods namely; Zero-order spectra of 40 lg/mL of DOR (—) and TIM (. . .), separately in methanol, and binary of a mixture
absorbance subtraction (AS) and of DOR and TIM, 20 lg/mL of each (- - -) and their ratio spectra using the spectrum of TIM (1 lg/mL) as a
amplitude modulation (AM) methods divisor.
were developed.
 Six recently well established
spectrophotometric methods (SRS,
RD, RS, EXRS, CM and MCR) were
applied.
 The proposed methods are very
simple, accurate, precise.
 They do not require any sophisticated
apparatus or computer programs.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Two smart and novel spectrophotometric methods namely; absorbance subtraction (AS) and amplitude
Received 2 December 2013 modulation (AM) were developed and validated for the determination of a binary mixture of timolol
Received in revised form 30 January 2014 maleate (TIM) and dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) in presence of benzalkonium chloride without prior
Accepted 2 February 2014
separation, using unified regression equation. Additionally, simple, specific, accurate and precise spectro-
Available online 15 February 2014
photometric methods manipulating ratio spectra were developed and validated for simultaneous deter-
mination of the binary mixture namely; simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRS), ratio difference (RD), ratio
Keywords:
subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), constant multiplication method (CM)
Absorbance subtraction
Amplitude modulation
and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require
Dorzolamide hydrochloride any separation steps. Accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined
Ratio spectra and timolol maleate and the specificity was assessed by analyzing synthetic mixtures of both drugs. They were applied to
their pharmaceutical formulation and the results obtained were statistically compared to that of a
reported spectrophotometric method. The statistical comparison showed that there is no significant dif-
ference between the proposed methods and the reported one regarding both accuracy and precision.
Ó 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 1112887066.


E-mail address: hayamlotfyhm@hotmail.com (H.M. Lotfy).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.02.005
1386-1425/Ó 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.
198 H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

Introduction tion product without preliminary separation using unified regression


equation, in addition to a comparative study was done between the
Timolol maleate (TIM), (S)-1-[(1,1-dimethyl)amino]-3-[[4-(4-mor- two novel methods (AS and AM) and six recently well established
pholinyl9-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]oxy]-2-propanol is a nonspecific-adren- spectrophotometric methods (SRS, RD, RS, EXRS, CM and MCR) in
ergic blocker (Fig. 1a). It was the first-blocker to be used as an terms of specificity and validation. These two novel methods are con-
antiglaucoma agent [1]. None of the newer-blockers were found to be sidered as new approach of the isosbestic point method either in zero
more effective than timolol [13]. Dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR), order absorption spectrum i.e. isoabsorptive point [27,31–37] or in
(4S,6S)-4-ethylamino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-thieno (2,3-b)thiopy- the ratio spectrum [38] at which the total concentration of both com-
ran-2-sulfonamide-7,7-dioxide monohydrochloride (Fig. 1b), is a human ponents in the mixture was calculated, by using smart mathematical
carbonic anhydrase-II inhibitor used in eye drops to treat increased pres- techniques utilizing the absorption factor [39,40] in zero order
sure in the eye caused by open-angle glaucoma and to treat a condition absorption spectra or constants in the ratio spectra which could be
called ocular hypertension [1]. Both drugs have been co-formulated adapted to isosbestic point analysis for separate quantitative estima-
and widely used to reduce intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma tion of each drug in their mixture using unified regression equation.
and for treating ocular hypertension. The proposed methods are very simple, accurate, precise and do not
Only few methods have been reported for the determination of require any sophisticated apparatus or computer programs.
DOR based on HPLC assay with ultraviolet detection in human ser-
um and urine [2–4] and capillary electrophoresis [5]. Several ana- Theoretical background
lytical procedures have been reported for determination of TIM,
including GC [6], HPLC in plasma [7,8], in pharmaceuticals [9–11] Absorbance subtraction method (AS)
and HPTLC [12].
To the best of my knowledge, very few spectrophotometric This method is based on the same principles as the absorption
methods [13,14], capillary electrophoretic method [15] and few factor method [39,40]. The method could be applied for the analy-
HPLC methods [16,17] were described for the simultaneous deter- sis of a mixture of two drugs X and Y having overlapped spectra
mination of both drugs in eye drops. intersect at isoabsorptive point and Y is extended over X, while X
The main problem of spectrophotometric multicomponent anal- does not show any contribution at another wavelength (k2). In this
ysis is the simultaneous determination of two or more compounds method the isoabsorptive point kiso could be used for separate
in the same mixtures without preliminary separation. Several uni- quantitative estimation of each X and Y in their mixture (X + Y).
variate spectrophotometric methods have been used for resolving The determination can be done using mathematically calculated
mixtures with overlapping spectra such as derivative spectropho- factor of one of these components. By simple manipulation step,
tometry [18], H-point standard addition method for binary [19] we can get the absorbance value corresponding to X and Y, sepa-
and ternary [20] mixtures, the ratio derivative spectrophotometry rately. So, the concentration of each component could be obtained
for binary [21] and derivative ratio spectra-zero crossing for ternary via the isoabsorptive point regression equation without any need
mixtures [22–27], the double divisor-ratio spectra derivative meth- for a complementary method.
od for determination of ternary mixtures [18,26,28]. Multivariate The absorbance values corresponding to X and Y at kiso were cal-
spectrophotometric methods also were reported as partial least culated by using absorbance factor which is a constant for pure Y
squares regression [29], principal component regression [28] and representing the average of the ratio between the absorbance val-
multiple linear regression analysis [30]. ues of different concentrations of pure Y at k1 (Aiso) to those at k2
The aim of this work is to develop and conduct two novel methods (A2) i.e {Aiso/A2}
namely; absorbance subtraction (AS) and amplitude modulation
(AM) methods for resolving those binary mixtures with spectral abs1
interfering problems, either drugs in mixture or drug and its degrada- Absorbance of Y in the mixture at kiso ¼  absk2 ðX þ YÞ
abs2

Absorbance of X in the mixture at kiso


abs1
¼ abskiso ðX þ YÞ   absk2 ðX þ YÞ
abs2
where abskiso, absk2 is the absorbance of Y at kiso and k2; abs1
abs2
is the
absorbance factor and abskiso(X + Y) and absk2(X + Y) are the absor-
bance of the mixture at these wavelengths .
The concentration of each X and Y, separately, is calculated
using the isobsorptive point unified regression equation (obtained
by plotting the absorbance values of the zero order spectra of
either X or Y at isobsorptive point (kiso) against the corresponding
Fig. 1a. Chemical structure of timolol maleate.
concentrations X or Y respectively).

Amplitude modulation method (AM)

The amplitude modulation method is a novel ratio spectrum


manipulating method using normalized spectrum of the divisor
obtained by dividing certain spectrum of Y0 component by its con-
centration. For a mixture of X and Y, where Y is more extended than
X; X and Y shows isoabsorptive point at the zero spectrum and con-
sequently retained as an isosbestic point at the ratio spectrum.
At isoabsorptive point kiso
½Am  ¼ ½AX  þ ½AY 
Fig. 1b. Chemical structure of dorzolamide hydrochloride.
H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207 199

Am, AX, AY are the absorbance values of the mixture, component X where (Y) is extended, then a new curve is obtained after subtrac-
and component Y, respectively at isoabsorptive point. tion of the constant. This can be summarized as the following:
½Am  ¼ ½aX C X  þ ½aY C Y  XþY X Y X
¼ 0 þ 0 ¼ 0 þ constant ð1Þ
Dividing the previous equation with spectrum of Y0 as a divisor Y0 Y Y Y
to get the isosbestic point of the ratio spectrum (at the same wave-
length of the isoabsorptive point in zero order spectra), so the fol-
X X
þ constant  constant ¼ 0 ð2Þ
lowing equation was obtained: Y0 Y

½Am =½aY C Y 0  ¼ ½aX C X =½aY C Y 0  þ ½aY C Y =½aY C Y 0 


Simultaneous ratio subtraction (SRS)
Pm ¼ PX þ PY The concentration of X is calculated using the regression equa-
tion representing correlation between the amplitudes of ratio spec-
where Pm, PX and PY are the amplitudes of the mixture, component X tra YX0 and the corresponding concentration of X in lg/mL.
and component Y, respectively at that isosbestic point. The concentration of the second component (Y) is calculated via
The amplitude of constant (PY) [aYCY]/[aYCY0 ] can be measured measured constant value (CV) using the regression equation repre-
directly from the spectrum in the region where Y is extended since senting correlation between the amplitudes of ratio spectra YY0 and
the constant is a straight line parallel to the wavelength axis. the corresponding concentration of Y in lg/mL [39].
Upon using the normalized spectrum of Y0 , the following equa-
tion was obtained:
Simultaneous ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication
Pm ¼ PX þ PY (SRS–CM)
The concentration of X is determined as previously detailed in
Pm ¼ ½aX C X =½aY  þ ½aY C Y =½aY  SRS, while the concentration of Y can be determined using constant
multiplication method (CM) by multiplying the previously
Pm ¼ ½aXC X =½aY  þ constant measured constant value YY0 in SRS [39] by the divisor Y0 [41,42]
to get zero order spectrum of Y then using the regression equation
PY ¼ ½aY C Y =½aY  representing correlation between the absorbance values of the zero
order spectra of Y at its kmax against the corresponding
PY ¼ ½C Y  concentrations.
The recorded amplitude of the constant is modulated to concen- Y
tration, so it represents the concentration of Y [CY]. (CRecorded of Y). Y¼  Y0; ð3Þ
Y0
For determination of X, the measured value of the constant is
subtracted from the ratio spectrum then the amplitude at kiso
was recorded: Ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS)
The mixture of X and Y could be analyzed using well established
PX ¼ Pm  PY ratio subtraction method [43] where zero order spectrum of com-
ponent X could be obtained by multiplying the obtained ratio spec-
PX ¼ ½aX C X =½aY  þ constant  constant trum in Eq. (2) by the divisor Y0

PX ¼ ½aX C X =½aY  X
 Y0 ¼ X ð4Þ
Y0
At that isosbestic point aX = aY
Another extension of the already developed method has been
PX ¼ ½C X  established as a new approach namely extended ratio subtraction
This obtained amplitude of ratio spectrum is modulated to con- [39,42] to get the zero order spectrum of second component (Y),
centration and it represents concentration of X [CX]. (CRecorded of X). by dividing the obtained D0 spectrum of X in Eq. (3) by a known
To eliminate any error, this recorded concentration of X and Y concentration of X as a divisor (X0 ) to get the constant XX0 for each
could be corrected to the actual concentration by using the follow- concentration in the mixtures then follow the same procedure of
ing unified regression equation at that isosbestic point: the ratio subtraction by dividing each mixture using a known con-
centration of X as a divisor then subtracting the corresponding con-
C Recorded ¼ slope C  intercept stant XX0 and multiplying by (X0 )
The slope is found to be around unity and intercept around zero.
Y
Where CRecorded represents the recorded amplitude correspond-  X0 ¼ Y ð5Þ
X0
ing to the concentrations of X or Y that obtained from the ratio
spectrum using normalized spectrum of Y0 as a divisor and C repre- The concentrations of X or Y in the mixture were calculated
sents the corresponding concentration of X or Y. from the corresponding regression equations (obtained by plotting
the absorbance values of the zero order spectra of each drug at its
Simultaneous ratio subtraction, simultaneous ratio subtraction kmax against its corresponding concentration).
coupled with constant multiplication and ratio subtraction coupled
with extended ratio subtraction methods Ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD)

These methods are applied for the analysis of a mixture of two Ratio difference spectrophotometric method [39,44] was re-
drugs X and Y having overlapped spectra and one of them is ex- cently developed for analyzing a mixture of two drugs X and Y hav-
tended, one can determine X by dividing the spectrum of the mix- ing overlapped spectra depend on the amplitude difference
ture by a known concentration of Y as a divisor (Y0 ). The division between two wavelengths k1 and k2 in the ratio spectra where
will give a new curve that represents YX0 þ constant. If we measure the interfering substance should be contributed at these chosen
this constant which is parallel to the wavelength axis in the region wavelengths and subtracting the recorded amplitudes at these
200 H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

two points, the constant will be cancelled along with any other spectra of the resulting solution were measured in the range of
instrumental error. This can be summarized as the following: 200–400 nm and stored in the computer.
   
X X
P1  P2 ¼ 1  2
Y0 Y0 Absorbance Subtraction method (AS)
The scanned spectra of 5–40 lg/mL TIM were measured at
where P1 is the peak amplitude of the ratio spectrum at k1, P2 is the 272.8 nm and 315 nm. The absorbance factor was calculated which
peak amplitude of the ratio spectrum at k2. is the ratio of the absorbance at these two wavelengths. Calibration
The concentration of X is calculated using the regression equa- curve was constructed relating the absorbance of the zero order
tion representing the linear correlation between the differences of spectra of TIM at 272.8 nm versus the corresponding concentra-
ratio spectra amplitudes at the two selected wavelengths using Y tions of TIM and the regression equation was computed.
as a divisor (Y0 ) to the corresponding concentrations of drug (X).
Similarly, the concentration of Y could be determined by the
same procedure using a known concentration of X as a divisor (X0 ). Amplitude modulation method (AM)
The stored spectra of 5–40 lg/mL TIM were divided by the nor-
Mean centering of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method (MCR) malized spectrum of TIM. The obtained ratio spectra of TIM were
measured at 272.8 nm and 315 nm. Calibration curve was con-
This is a well established spectrophotometric method in which structed relating the recorded concentrations of TIM at 272.8 nm
binary mixtures of X and Y could be determined without previous versus the corresponding concentrations of TIM and the regression
separation. In this method the ratio spectra are obtained after equation was computed.
which the constant is removed by mean centering of the ratio spec-
tra [44–47]. Simultaneous ratio subtraction methods (SRS)
The stored spectra were divided by the absorption spectrum of
Experimental standard solution of TIM (30 lg/mL), where the obtained ratio
spectra were recorded. Calibration curves relating the amplitudes
Chemicals and reagents of the ratio spectra of TIM representing constant value at plateau
region 315–325 nm versus the corresponding concentrations of
Timolol maleate (TIM) was kindly supplied by EIPICO, Cairo, TIM, the absorbance of zero order absorption spectra at 297.5 nm
Egypt. BN: TMM-021341. Its purity was found to be 99.96 versus the corresponding concentrations of TIM and the ampli-
± 0.51% according to the reported method [14]. tudes of the ratio spectra at 250 nm versus the corresponding con-
Dorzolamide hydrochloride (DOR) was kindly supplied by centrations of DOR were constructed and the regression equations
Merck Sharp & Dohm Company, USA. Batch number HC-B12-02- were computed.
001148102291. Its purity was found to be 100.25 ± 0.46% accord-
ing to the reported method [14].
Ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD)
CosoptÒ eye drops bottles were manufactured by Global Napi
The scanned spectra of TIM and DOR solutions were divided by
Pharmaceuticals-Egypt. BN:21182/2001, each 1 mL is claimed to
the absorption spectra of standard solution of DOR (40 lg/mL) and
contain 20 mg dorzolamide and 5 mg timolol.
TIM (30 lg/mL), respectively. The obtained ratio spectra were re-
Methanol was E. Merck, Darmstadt, Germany.
corded. Calibration curves for TIM and DOR were constructed by
plotting the difference between the amplitudes of the obtained ra-
Instruments and software tio spectra at 250–290 nm and 250–280 nm versus the corre-
sponding concentrations of TIM and DOR, respectively; and the
Spectrophotometric measurements were carried out on Shima- regression equations were computed.
dzu 1650 UV-PC spectrophotometer, using 1.00 cm quartz cells.
Scans were carried out in the range from 200 to 400 nm at
0.1 nm intervals. Ratio subtraction methods coupled with extended ratio subtraction
For MCR computations, MatlabÒ 7 was used along with PLS_ methods (RS–EXRS)
toolbox. The stored spectra of the resulting solutions were divided by
the absorption spectrum of standard solution of TIM0 (30 lg/mL)
and standard solution of DOR0 (40 lg/mL). The obtained ratio spec-
Spectral characteristics
tra were recorded. Calibration curve relating the absorbance of the
zero order spectra of TIM at 297.5 nm and DOR at 252.2 nm versus
The absorption spectra of 40 lg/mL TIM and DOR, separately,
their corresponding concentrations were constructed and the
and that of a laboratory mixture containing equal concentrations
regression equation was computed.
of both drugs (each, 20 lg/mL) in methanol were scanned over
the range 200–400 nm as shown in (Fig. 3)
Mean centering of ratio spectra method (MCR)
Solutions and calibrations The scanned spectra were exported to Matlab for subsequent
calculation, then the spectra of DOR were divided by the absorp-
Stock solutions of TIM and DOR (each, 1 mg/mL), calculated tion spectrum of standard solution of TIM (30 lg/mL), the obtained
equivalent to their base, were prepared by dissolving the com- ratio spectrum was then mean centered. Also the spectra of TIM
pounds in methanol then completing in 100-mL volumetric flasks. were divided by the absorption spectrum of standard solution of
Aliquots of the prepared stock solutions were further diluted with DOR (40 lg/mL) and the obtained ratio spectra were mean cen-
methanol to a final volume of 100-mL. The diluted solutions were tered. The calibration curves for TIM and DOR were constructed,
used as the working solutions for TIM and DOR (each, 100 lg/mL). each by plotting the mean centered values at 250 nm and
Standard solutions containing 5–60 lg/mL of TIM and 5–40 lg/mL 249.9 nm, respectively versus their corresponding concentrations
of DOR were prepared separately in methanol. The absorption and the regression equations were computed.
H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207 201

Analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures Application to pharmaceutical formulation

For preparation of laboratory mixtures, into a series of 10-mL CosoptÒ eye drops bottle each 1 mL is claimed to contain
volumetric flasks, aliquots equivalent to 50–600 lg of TIM and 22.26 mg dorzolamide hydrochloride equivalent to 20 mg dorzola-
50–400 lg of DOR were accurately transferred from their working mide and 6.83 mg timolol maleate equivalent to 5 mg timolol.
solutions (each, 100 lg/mL) with different ratios of the two drugs For AS and AM methods, from eye drops bottle 1 mL was trans-
and the volume was completed with methanol. The spectra of ferred into 50-mL volumetric flask then the volume was completed
the prepared mixtures were scanned from 200 to 400 nm and with methanol to obtain a final concentration of 100 lg/mL of TIM
stored in the computer. and 400 lg/mL of DOR. Aliquots equivalent to 50 lg of TIM and
200 lg of DOR were transferred into 10-mL volumetric flasks.
The volume was completed with methanol to obtain final concen-
Absorbance subtraction method (AS) tration 5 lg/mL of TIM and 20 lg/mL of DOR.
The absorbance of TIM in the mixture was calculated using the For SRS, RD, RS, EXRS, CM and MCR methods, Aliquots equiva-
absorbance factor equation, and then the absorbance of DOR was lent to 100 lg of TIM and 400 lg of DOR were transferred into
calculated after subtraction of TIM interference. The concentra- 10-mL volumetric flasks. The volume was completed with metha-
tions of TIM and DOR were calculated from the computed unified nol to obtain final concentration 10 lg/mL of TIM and 40 lg/mL of
regression equation at 272.8 nm. DOR.
The proposed methods were applied for the analysis of the
studied drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation using the proce-
Amplitude modulation method (AM) dures mentioned under analysis of laboratory prepared mixtures
The absorption spectra of different laboratory prepared mix- for each method and the concentrations of the cited drugs were
tures were divided by the normalized spectrum of TIM. The ratio calculated from the corresponding regression equations.
spectra were recorded at 272.8 nm and 315 nm. The concentra-
tions of both drugs were calculated from the computed unified
regression equation at 272.8 nm. Results and discussion

The main task of this work is to establish novel, simple, sensi-


Simultaneous Ratio Subtraction Method (SRS), Ratio Subtraction tive and accurate analytical methods for simultaneous determina-
coupled with extended ratio subtraction (RS–EXRS) tion of TIM and DOR in their bulk powders and pharmaceutical
The stored zero order absorption spectra of the laboratory pre- dosage form with satisfactory precision and accuracy. As well, to
pared mixtures were divided by the absorption spectrum of stan- construct a statistical comparison between the ability of the pro-
dard TIM0 (30 lg/mL), then the amplitudes in the plateau region posed methods to determine both drugs in their pure form, labora-
at k 315–325 nm (the constant) was recorded and subtracted from tory prepared mixture and in their pharmaceutical formulations.
the obtained ratio spectra respectively. The amplitude of the ob- By scanning the absorption spectra of TIM and DOR in metha-
tained spectra were recorded at 250 nm and used for the determi- nol, severely overlapped spectral bands were observed in the
nation of DOR using its corresponding regression equation of SRS wavelength region of 200–300 nm which hinders their direct
or via ratio subtraction method by multiplying the obtained ratio determination (Figs. 2a and 2b), so different methods were applied
spectra by TIM0 (30 lg/mL) to get the zero spectra of DOR and
the concentration of DOR is calculated using the corresponding
regression equation at its kmax and consequently, the constants of
DOR in different mixtures could be obtained using standard solu-
tion of DOR0 (40 lg/mL) as a divisor. The concentration of TIM in
each mixture is calculated using the corresponding regression
equation of the constant value at k 315–325 nm. Zero order
absorption spectra of TIM could be obtained via constant multipli-
cation by multiplying the obtained constant value by the divisor
TIM0 (30 lg/mL) Or via EXRS by the same procedures as RS using
DOR0 (40 lg/mL) as a divisor. The concentration of TIM in each
mixture is calculated using the corresponding regression equation
at its kmax.

Ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD)


The stored spectra of different laboratory prepared mixtures
were divided by the absorption spectra of standard TIM (30 lg/
mL) and standard DOR (40 lg/mL). The ratio spectra were recorded
at 250 nm and 290 nm for TIM and at 250 nm and 280 nm for DOR.
The concentrations of the drugs were calculated from the com-
puted regression equations.

Mean Centring Method (MCR)


The spectra of the prepared solutions of the two series were re-
corded from 200 to 400 nm and stored in the computer then pro- Fig. 2a. Zero-order spectra of 20 lg/mL of DOR (—) and 5 lg/mL of TIM (. . .),
ceed as under the proposed method. The concentration of each separately in methanol, in presence of 5 lg/mL of benzalkonium chloride (h  h) as
drug was calculated using the specified regression equation. preservative.
202 H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

Fig. 3. Ratio spectra of 40 lg/mL of DOR (—) and TIM (. . .), separately in methanol,
Fig. 2b. Zero-order spectra of 40 lg/mL of DOR (—) and TIM (. . .), separately in and binary of a mixture of DOR and TIM, 20 lg/mL of each (- - -) using the
methanol, and binary of a mixture of DOR and TIM, 20 lg/mL of each (- - -) in normalized spectrum of TIM as a divisor.
presence of 5 lg/mL of benzalkonium chloride (h  h) preservative.
Absorption of DOR at kiso 272:8 nm
abs1
¼ abs272:8 ðTIM þ DORÞ   abs315
for achieving best resolution and quantitative determination of abs2
each drug without any interference from the other. where abs272.8 and abs315 are absorption of TIM in the mixture
All spectral measurements were done without interference of at 272.8 nm (isoabsorptive point) nm and 315 nm (no interference)
benzalkonium chloride (preservative present in CosoptÒ eye drops) and abs1 is the absorbance factor is absorption ratio of pure TIM at
abs2
which did not show any absorption and its contribution to the 272.8 nm/315 nm. The concentrations of TIM and DOR were calcu-
absorption of the mixture above 220 nm was considered to be neg- lated using the corresponding unified regression equation (ob-
ligible at a concentration up to 100 lg/mL, so the ternary mixture tained by plotting the absorbance of the zero order spectra of
in range (220–400 nm) acts as a binary mixture of TIM and DOR TIM or DOR at kiso 272.8 nm against the corresponding
(Fig. 2a). concentrations).
The absorbance subtraction method has advantage that the two
Absorbance subtraction method (AS) drugs in the mixture can be determined using unified regression
equation at kiso in contrary to the previously established
TIM and DOR present in their dosage form in ratio (1:4); in isoabsorptive point method [27,31–38] which determines total
which their absorption spectra in methanol are severely concentration of two drugs while one of the drugs is measured
overlapped in the wavelength region of 200–300 nm (Fig. 2a) and by using conventional spectrophotometric method as a comple-
intersect at isoabsorptive point 272.8 nm. This could be confirmed mentary method.
experimentally by recording the absorbance spectra of 40 lg/mL of
TIM and DOR, separately, and that of a mixture containing equal
concentrations of TIM and DOR (each, 20 lg/mL) as shown in
Amplitude modulation method (AM)
(Fig. 2b). In this figure, one can observe that, the mixture and the
pure drugs show an isoabsorptive point at 272.8 nm. These data
As shown in (Fig. 2b), the absorption spectra of timolol (TIM)
permit one to conclude that the mixture of drugs act as a single
and dorzolamide (DOR) in methanol shows isoabsorptive point at
component and give the same absorbance value as pure drug at
272.8 nm (aTIM = aDOR) which is the same place in the ratio spec-
their isoabsorptive point.
trum of TIM using the normalized spectrum of TIM as a divisor ob-
The absorption spectra of the standard solutions of TIM with
tained by dividing the whole spectrum of any concentration by its
different concentrations were recorded in the wavelength range
corresponding concentration to give a new spectrum represents
of 200–400 nm. The value of absorbance factor of pure TIM repre-
the absorptivity of the analyte of interest versus all the measured
senting the average of the ratio between absorbance at two wave-
wavelengths (Fig. 3). The amplitude modulation method was ap-
lengths, one of them showing interference from DOR (kiso) while
plied to solve the mixture of TIM and DOR of overlapping spectra
DOR has no contribution at the other wavelength (k2) was found
by dividing the spectrum of the mixture by 1 lg/mL TIM as a divi-
to be 0.833. Quantitative estimation of DOR in mixture (DOR + -
sor. The division will give a new curve that represents
TIM) was carried out by subtracting the absorbance due to TIM DOR
TIM0
þ constant (Fig. 4). The constant value will be measured in pla-
at kiso using the following equations:
teau (315–325 nm), after subtraction of the measured value the
abs1 constant; the obtained ratio spectrum TIM DOR
0 is used for calculation
Absorption of TIM at kiso 272:8 nm ¼ abs315 
abs2 the concentration of DOR in the mixture.
H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207 203

Fig. 4. Ratio spectra of Timolol (TIM) 5 lg/mL and Dorzolamide (DOR) 20 lg/mL Fig. 5. Division spectra of laboratory prepared mixture of Dorzolamide (DOR) 15,
(. . .) and their laboratory prepared mixture with the same ratio (1:4) (- - -) using the 20, 30, 40 lg/mL and Timolol (TIM) 10 lg/mL using spectrum of TIM (30 lg/mL) as
spectrum of TIM (—) as a divisor. a divisor.

The concentration of TIM and DOR in the mixture could be ob- tudes values of the ratio spectra of DOR at 250 nm against the cor-
tained from the corresponding regression equation (obtained by responding concentrations).
plotting the absorbance values of the isosbestic point of ratio spec- The concentration of TIM in the mixture could be obtained
tra of TIM or DOR at 272.8 nm against the corresponding either via constant value step by recording the constant value
concentrations). and substituting in equation representing the constant values
The advantages of amplitude modulation method over other against the corresponding concentration of TIM or via constant
mathematical techniques utilizing the constants that it reduces multiplication step by multiplying the obtained constant of the
the manipulation steps and only one divisor is needed in order to laboratory mixture by TIM (the divisor), to get the original zero or-
determine each component in the mixture separately. By using der spectra of TIM (Y) in the mixture, which is used for direct deter-
the normalized spectrum of the divisor which represent the mination of TIM at 297.5 nm (Fig. 6) and calculation of the
absorption spectrum, therefore the results will not affected by concentration from the corresponding regression equation (ob-
the use of different concentrations of divisor and it has advantage tained by plotting the absorbance values of the zero order curves
over the isoabsorptive point at zero order that measure the total of TIM at 297.5 nm against the corresponding concentrations).
concentration therefore there is always a need of other conven- The advantages of simultaneous ratio subtraction method [39]
tional method as complementary one to measure one of the com- that only one divisor was needed and minimum manipulation
ponents in the mixture (Fig. 2b). steps in order to determine both components in the mixture
This method has advantages over the newly developed absor- therefore, it is very simple, rapid, accurate and the two drugs in
bance subtraction using unified regression equation at isoabsorp- the mixture could be determined in contrary to the previously
tive point that the obtained values at the ratio spectrum will established ratio subtraction method [43] which determines one
represent the concentration of each component and it will cancel drug only.
all error upon the determination of absorbance factor (Aiso/A2) if
A2 which showing no contribution of interfering component has
lower absorbance value. As well as, the manipulation steps are re- Ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RD)
duced by eliminating of the absorbance factor calculation step
since the value of the constant is the same at the two selected In the RD spectrophotometry, the absorption spectrum of the
wavelengths. mixture is obtained and divided by the absorption spectrum of
the standard solution of one of the components and the ratio spec-
TIM
trum is obtained represents DOR þ constant or DORTIM
þ constant. Ratio
Simultaneous ratio subtraction method (SRS) difference spectrophotometric method (RD) was applied to solve
the problem of the overlapped absorption spectra of the cited
TIM
 TIM
  
The ratio subtraction method was applied to solve the mixture of drugs DOR 1  DOR 2 or DOR
TIM
1  DOR
TIM
2, where the interfering sub-
TIM and DOR of overlapping spectra by dividing the spectrum of the stance was cancelled and subsequently shows no interference.
mixture by a known concentration of TIM (30 lg/mL) as a divisor. The overlapped spectra of the two drugs suggested that a RD
DOR
The division will give a new curve that represents TIM 0 þ constant method was a suitable method for simultaneous determination
(Fig. 5). The constant will be measured at plateau (315–325 nm). of TIM and DOR, respectively.
DOR
If we subtract this constant, the obtained ratio spectrum TIM 0 is used The two main steps affecting the ratio difference method is the
for calculation the concentration of DOR in the mixture from the choice of the divisors and the two selected wavelengths. The se-
corresponding regression equation (obtained by plotting the ampli- lected divisors should compromise between minimal noise and
204 H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

Fig. 8. Ratio spectra of TIM 20 lg/mL (—), DOR 40 lg/mL (. . .) and their binary
Fig. 6. The obtained zero order absorption spectra of TIM after applying the mixture 20 lg/mL TIM and 40 lg/mL DOR (- - -) using 30 lg/mL of TIM as a divisor
proposed method to the laboratory mixture of Dorzolamide (DOR) 15, 20, 30, 40 lg/ showing the two selected wavelengths (250 and 280 nm).
mL and Timolol (TIM) 10 lg/mL.

Fig. 9. The obtained zero order absorption spectra of Dorzolamide (DOR) after
applying the proposed method to the laboratory mixture of Dorzolamide (DOR) 20,
Fig. 7. Ratio spectra of TIM 20 lg/mL, 40 lg/mL of DOR (. . .) and their binary
30, 40 lg/mL and Timolol (TIM) 10 lg/mL.
mixture 20 lg/mL TIM and 40 lg/mL DOR (- - -) using spectrum of DOR (40 lg/mL)
as a divisor showing the two selected wavelengths (250 and 290 nm).

Ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction method


(EXRS)
maximum sensitivity while, the requirements of the two chosen
wavelengths are that the contribution of the interfering substance
The ratio subtraction method was applied to solve the mixture
at them so, the amplitude at 250 and 290 nm were selected for
of TIM and DOR of overlapping spectra by dividing the spectrum of
determination of TIM in the mixture using DOR (40 lg/mL) as a
the mixture by a known concentration of TIM (30 lg/mL) as a divi-
divisor (Fig. 7). Similarly, the two selected wavelengths for the esti-
sor. The division will give a new curve that represents
mation of DOR using TIM (30 lg/mL) as a divisor were 250 and DOR
TIM0
þ constant in plateau (315–325 nm) (Fig. 5). If we subtract this
280 nm (Fig. 8).
constant, then multiply the new curve obtained by TIM0 (the divi-
H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207 205

80

60

40

MCN values
20

-20

-40
200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 11. Mean centered ratio spectra of TIM (5–60 lg/mL) using 40 lg/mL of DOR as
a divisor.

Fig. 10. Division spectra of laboratory prepared mixture of Dorzolamide (DOR) 20, 10
30, 40 lg/mL and Timolol (TIM) 10 lg/mL using spectrum of DOR (40 lg/mL) as a
divisor.
8

sor), therefore we can obtain the original zero order spectrum of


DOR in the mixture (Fig. 9). 6
The determination of TIM could be done by the extended ratio
MCN values

subtraction by dividing this obtained spectrum of DOR by carefully


4
chosen concentration of standard DOR (40 lg/mL) producing ratio
spectrum represent the constant DOR/DOR0 in plateau (250–
255 nm). The previously scanned zero order absorption spectrum 2
of the laboratory-prepared mixture (TIM and DOR), dividing by
the standard DOR0 as a divisor producing a new ratio spectrum that
represent TIM/DOR0 + constant as shown in (Fig. 10), then subtrac- 0

tion of the obtained constant DOR/DOR0 , followed by multiplication


of the obtained spectrum by the standard DOR0 (the divisor). Final- -2
ly, the original spectrum of TIM could be obtained which is used for 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300
direct determination of TIM at 297.5 nm (Fig. 6) and calculation of Wavelength (nm)
the concentration TIM in the mixture from the corresponding
Fig. 12. Mean centered ratio spectra of DOR (5–40 lg/mL) using 30 lg/mL of TIM as
regression equation was done (obtained by plotting the absorbance
a divisor.
values of the zero order curves of TIM at 297.5 nm against the cor-
responding concentrations). the amplitude at 250 nm and 249.9 nm corresponding to a maxi-
The extended ratio subtraction method [39,42] has advantage mum wavelength for each drug respectively (Figs. 11 and 12).
that the two drugs in the mixture can be determined at their kmax For determination of the concentration of TIM and DOR in labora-
in contrary to the previously established ratio subtraction method tory-prepared mixtures and dosage form samples of a pharmaceu-
[43] which determines one drug only. This method is valid for the tical preparation, the same procedure was used.
analysis of binary and ternary mixtures with extended spectra. For all the proposed methods, the statistical parameters of the
regression equations and the concentration ranges are shown in
(Table 1), the table shows that the proposed methods were applied
Mean Centring Method (MCR)
for the determination of pure drugs and satisfactory results were
obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied to the
For optimization of MCR method, the effect of divisor
analysis of TIM and DOR in their laboratory prepared mixtures
concentration on analytical parameters, such as slope, intercept,
and in eye drops dosage form (Table 2).
and correlation coefficient of the calibration graphs was tested.
Mean-centering of the ratio spectra was obtained in the wave-
length range of 200–300 nm. It was observed that changing the Method validation
concentration had no significant effect on the linear calibration
range and calculated analytical parameters. So, the absorption Validation was done according to ICH recommendations [48].
spectra of the standard solutions of the TIM and DOR with different
concentrations were recorded in the wavelength range of 200– Linearity
300 nm and divided by the spectrum of 40 lg/mL of standard
DOR and 30 lg/mL of TIM, respectively to obtain the ratio spectra. The linearity of the methods was evaluated by analyzing twelve
The concentration of TIM and DOR was determined by measuring concentrations of TIM and eight concentrations of DOR ranging
206 H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207

Table 1
Regression parameters and results of determination of pure samples of TIM and DOR by the proposed methods.

Parameter TIM TIM or DOR DOR


SRS RD EXRS & CM MCR AS AM SRS RD RSM MCR
Linearity (lg/ 5–60 5–60 5–60 5–60 5–40 5–40 5–40 5–40 5–40 5–40
ml)
Slope 0.0156 0.7179 0.029 0.0843 0.013 1.0039 0.2401 0.2345 0.0398 0.2043
Intercept 0.0332 0.36388 0.0158 0.4679 0.0025 0.0845 0.1266 0.0811 0.0184 0.129
Correlation 0.9997 0.9998 0.9999 0.9998 0.9999 0.9999 1 1 1 1
Coefficient (r)
Mean ± SD 99.96 ± 0.919 99.78 ± 0.987 99.75 ± 1.116 100.08 ± 1.286 100.09 ± 0.816 99.98 ± 0.810 100.04 ± 0.535 100.04 ± 0.472 100.15 ± 0.754 100.11 ± 0.736
Accuracy ± SD 100.60 ± 0.252 99.87 ± 0.757 99.68 ± 0.693 100.12 ± 0.693 99.98 ± 0.827 100.18 ± 0.407 100.39 ± 0.368 99.81 ± 0.489 100.40 ± 0.717 99.96 ± 0.616

RSD%a 0.693 0.221 0.383 0.427 0.120 0.405 0.299 0.138 0.077 0.527

RSD%b 0.940 0.472 0.693 0.708 0.315 0.713 0.404 0.271 0.304 0.687

RSD%a &
 
RSD%b: the intra-day and inter-day respectively (n = 3) relative standard deviation of concentrations (5, 10, 20 lg/mL).

Table 2
Determination of the studied drugs in the laboratory prepared mixtures and in eye drops by the proposed methods.

Sample TIM (R%a)


Method AS AM SRS CM RD EXRS MCR
Laboratory-prepared mixtures (n = 5)b 99.645 ± 0.668 100.14 ± 0.604 100.36 ± 0.909 99.87 ± 0.852 100.13 ± 0.596 99.36 ± 0.444 99.90 ± 0.795
CosoptÒ Batch No. 21182/2001 100.32 ± 0.620 100.90 ± 0.197 99.69 ± 0.937 100.26 ± 0.768 100.06 ± 0.462 99.98 ± 0.290 100.16 ± 0.679
DOR (R%a)
AS AM SRS RD RS MCR
Laboratory-prepared mixtures (n = 5)b 100.70 ± 0.746 100.203 ± 0.573 100.28 ± 0.392 100.36 ± 0.338 100.11 ± 0.935 100.25 ± 0.816
CosoptÒ Batch No. 21182/2001 100.48 ± 0.271 100.86 ± 0.042 100.41 ± 0.925 100.04 ± 0.289 99.99 ± 0.567 100.45 ± 0.829
a
Recovery + RSD%.
b
5 sets each of 3 replicates.

from 5–60 lg/mL and 5–40 lg/mL, respectively. Each concentra- tions were found to be below 2.0% and the methods proved to be
tion was repeated three times. The assay was performed according robust.
to the experimental conditions previously mentioned. The linear
equations were summarized in (Table 1). Precision

Accuracy Repeatability and intermediate precision


They were determined using three concentrations of each of
The accuracy of the results was checked by applying the pro- TIM and DOR (5, 10, 20 lg/mL) which were analyzed three times
posed methods for determination of different blind samples of intra-daily and inter-daily on three different days using the pro-
TIM and DOR. The concentrations were obtained from the corre- posed methods. The relative standard deviations were calculated
sponding regression equations. From which the percentage recov- (Table 1).
eries suggested good accuracy of the proposed methods (Table 1).
Stability

Range TIM and DOR working solutions in methanol showed no spec-


trophotometric changes up to 4 weeks when stored at 4 °C.
The calibration range was established through considerations of
the practical range necessary according to adherence to Beer’s law
and the concentration of TIM and DOR present in the pharmaceu- Application of the methods in assay of eye drops
tical preparations to give accurate precise and linear results (Table
1). The proposed UV methods were applied for the determination
of TIM and DOR in their combined pharmaceutical formulation
CosoptÒ eye drops and the results are shown in (Table 2) and com-
Selectivity pared with that of the reported method [14]. The good percentage
recoveries confirm the suitability of the proposed methods for the
Selectivity of the methods was achieved by the analysis of dif- routine determination of these components in their combined
ferent laboratory prepared mixtures of TIM and DOR within the formulation.
linearity range. Satisfactory results were shown in (Table 2).
Statistical analysis
Robustness
Tables 3 and 4 showed statistical comparison of the results ob-
Three concentrations of each of TIM and DOR (5, 10, 20 lg/mL) tained by the proposed methods and reported spectrophotometric
were prepared using 80%, 75%, 70% methanol and analyzed three method [14]. The calculated t and F values were less than the the-
times using the proposed methods. The relative standard devia- oretical ones indicating that there was no significant difference be-
H.M. Lotfy et al. / Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 126 (2014) 197–207 207

Table 3
Statistical analysis of the proposed methods and the reported method of TIM and DOR in their pure powdered form.

Parameter Timolol (TIM)


AS AM SRS RD EXRS & CM MCR Reported method** [14]
Mean 100.09 99.98 99.96 99.79 99.75 99.89 99.97
SD 0.816 0.810 0.919 0.987 1.116 0.908 0.666
n 8 8 12 12 12 12 4
Variance 0.666 0.656 0.845 0.974 1.245 0.824 0.444
t-Test* 0.034 (2.228)* 0.004 (2.228)* 0.003 (2.145)* 0.049 (2.145)* 0.054 (2.145)* 0.027 (2.145)*
F* 1.500 (8.89)* 1.477 (8.89)* 1.903 (8.79)* 2.194 (8.79)* 2.804 (8.79)* 1.856 (8.79)*
Dorzolamide (DOR)
AS AM SRS RD RS MCR Reported method** [14]
Mean 100.09 99.98 100.04 100.04 100.15 100.11 99.99
SD 0.816 0.810 0.535 0.472 0.754 0.736 0.472
n 8 8 8 8 8 7 4
Variance 0.666 0.656 0.286 0.223 0.569 0.542 0.223
t-Test* 0.040 (2.228)* 0.004 (2.228)* 0.028(2.228)* 0.031(2.228)* 0.068(2.228)* 0.055(2.262)*
F* 2.987 (8.89)* 2.942 (8.89)* 1.283 (8.89)* 1.000 (8.89)* 2.552 (8.89)* 2.430 (8.94)*
*
The figures in parenthesis are the corresponding theoretical values at P = 0.05.
**
The reported method used is the first derivative spectrophotometry at 250.2 nm for DOR and 312.5 nm for TIM, using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide as a blank.

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