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OFFSHORE STANDARDS DNVGL-OS-E402 Diving systems Edition January 2017 The content of this service document is

OFFSHORE STANDARDS

DNVGL-OS-E402

Diving systems

Edition January 2017

The content of this service document is the subject of intellectual property rights reserved by DNV GL AS ("DNV GL"). The user accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent. DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

FOREWORD DNV GL offshore standards contain technical requirements, principles and acceptance criteria related to

FOREWORD

DNV GL offshore standards contain technical requirements, principles and acceptance criteria related to classification of offshore units.

© DNV GL AS January 2017

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com

This service document has been prepared based on available knowledge, technology and/or information at the time of issuance of this document. The use of this document by others than DNV GL is at the user's sole risk. DNV GL does not accept any liability or responsibility for loss or damages resulting from any use of this document.

Changes - current CHANGES – CURRENT This document supersedes DNV-OS-E402 Offshore standard for Diving systems,

Changes - current

CHANGES – CURRENT

This document supersedes DNV-OS-E402 Offshore standard for Diving systems, October 2010 and DNV-DS- E403 Standard for Surface Diving Systems, July 2012

Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter, section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

January 2017, entering into force 1 July 2017

• General

The following main changes were implemented in this document:

— Combination of the content of the superseded documents referred above.

— Updating of (design) references to DNV GL service documents incl. DNV GL rules for classification: Ships.

— Focusing of the scope of the document on diving systems by removal of content related to diving support vessels/unit arrangements and outer areas.

— Removing procedural descriptions and requirements related to classification.

In addition to the above, the following detail changes were made:

• Ch.2 Sec.2 Life support systems including piping, hoses, valves, fittings, compressors, filters and umbilicals

Ch.2 Sec.2 [5.1.4]: Restrict the use of threaded pipe penetrations to max. thread size M30.

Ch.2 Sec.2 [8]: Restrict the use of detachable connections to max 25 mm (1”).

• Ch.3 Sec.1 Design philosophy and premises

Ch.3 Sec.1 [9.1.2]: Removed reference to specific parts of ISO 9001.

• Ch.3 Sec.2 Pressure vessels for human occupancy, gas storage and other purposes

Ch.3 Sec.2 [1.6.2], Ch.3 Sec.2 [2.3.10] Guidance note, Ch.3 Sec.2 [4.1.3] and Ch.3 Sec.2 [4.1.3]Guidance note, design life with respect to fatigue to be defined by the designer.

Ch.3 Sec.2 [5.1.5]: Added guidance note.

• Ch.3 Sec.3 Life support systems

Ch.3 Sec.3 [5.1.6]: Restrict the use of threaded pipe penetrations to max. thread size M30.

• Ch.3 Sec.6 Launch and recovery systems

Ch.3 Sec.6 [3.2.1]: Text related to safety factors revised to be in line with Ch.2 Sec.6 [3.2.1].

• Ch.3 Sec.7 Pipes, hoses, valves, fittings, compressors, filters and umbilicals

Ch.3 Sec.7 [4.1.1]: Restrict the use of detachable connections to max 25 mm (1”).

Ch.3 Sec.7 [5.1.4]: Updated and more specific requirements to the compressor/filter pack.

Editorial corrections

In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

Contents CONTENTS Changes – current Chapter 1 Introduction Section 1 General 1 2 Introduction References

Contents

CONTENTS

Changes – current

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1 General

1

2

Introduction

References

Chapter 2 Surface diving systems

3

8

8

8

9

25

Section 1 Design philosophy and premises

25

1 Introduction

25

2 Documentation philosophy

25

3 Safety philosophy

27

4 Surface diving system philosophy

29

5 External and internal environmental conditions

31

Section 2 Pressure vessels for human occupancy, gas storage and other purposes

35

1 Introduction

35

2 General principles for design of chambers

39

3 Welded pressure vessels, materials, fabrication and strength

42

4 Gas cylinders

44

5 Acrylic plastic windows

45

Section 3 Life support systems including piping, hoses, valves, fittings, compressors, filters and umbilicals

47

1 Introduction

47

2 Gas storage

52

3 Gas distribution and control system

53

4 Diver’s heating and environmental conditioning in chambers

55

5 Piping systems

57

 

6 Hoses

57

7 Valves

58

8 Fittings and pipe connections

59

9 Pressure regulators

59

10 Compressors for breathing gas systems

59

11 Purification and filter systems

59

12 Umbilicals

60

Section 4 Electrical systems

61

1

Introduction

61

Contents 2 System design 3 Equipment in general 4 Miscellaneous equipment 5 Cables Section 5

Contents

2 System design

3 Equipment in general

4 Miscellaneous equipment

5

Cables

Section 5 Fire prevention, detection and extinction

1 Introduction

2 Fire protection

3 Fire detection and alarm system

4 Fire extinguishing

5 Miscellaneous equipment

Section 6 Launch and recovery systems (LARS)

1 Introduction

2 Design principles

3 Strength

Section 7 Instrumentation and communication

1 Introduction

2 Instrumentation

3 Communication

Section 8 Evacuation systems

1 Introduction

Chapter 3 Saturation diving systems

63

66

67

68

69

69

70

70

71

71

72

72

74

77

80

80

81

85

87

87

88

Section 1 Design philosophy and premises

88

1 Introduction

88

2 Safety philosophy

88

3 General premises

90

4 System design principles

91

5 Diving system arrangement and layout

93

6 Environmental conditions

93

7 External and internal system condition

96

8 Documentation

97

9 Inspection and testing

99

10 Marking and signboards

102

Section 2 Pressure vessels for human occupancy, gas storage and other purposes

104

1 General

104

2 General principles for design of chambers and bells

107

3 Welded pressure vessels, materials and fabrication

109

4 Strength of welded pressure vessels

111

5 Gas cylinders

112

Contents 6 Acrylic plastic windows Section 3 Life support systems 1 2 3 4 Oxygen

Contents

6 Acrylic plastic windows

Section 3 Life support systems

1

2

3

4 Oxygen systems

5 Piping systems

6 Environmental conditioning in bell and chambers

7 Gas control systems

8 Closed circuit breathing systems (CCBS)

9 Diving crew facilities

General Gas storage Gas distribution

Section 4 Electrical, instrumentation and communication systems

1

2 System design

3 Equipment selection and installation

4 Communication

5 Instrumentation

General

Section 5 Fire prevention, detection and extinction

1

2 Fire protection

3 Fire detection and alarm system

4 Fire extinguishing

General

Section 6 Launch and recovery systems

1

2 Design principles

3 Strength

General

Section 7 Pipes, hoses, valves, fittings, compressors, filters and umbilicals

1

2 Components and hoses for oxygen services

3 Pipes and hoses

4 Valves and pressure regulators

5 Fittings and pipe connections

6

7 Purification and filter systems

8

General

Compressors

Umbilicals

Section 8 Hyperbaric evacuation systems

1 Introduction

Appendix A Selection of safety objective

114

116

116

117

119

121

121

122

124

125

126

127

127

129

132

133

136

139

139

140

140

140

142

142

143

145

148

148

149

150

151

151

151

151

152

154

154

165

Contents 1 Introduction 2 Trigger questions 3 Systematic review/analysis Appendix B Dynamic loads in bell

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Trigger questions

3 Systematic review/analysis

Appendix B Dynamic loads in bell handling systems

165

165

167

168

1 General

168

2 Loads on negative buoyant bell

169

3 Loads on a positive buoyant bell (at surface)

172

4 Design loads

172

Changes – historic

174

Chapter 1 Section 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION SECTION 1 GENERAL 1 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.1.1

Chapter 1 Section 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1 GENERAL

1 Introduction

1.1 Objectives

1.1.1 The objectives of this standard are to give criteria and guidance on design, fabrication, installation,

testing and commissioning of diving systems.

1.1.2 Further objectives of this standard are to:

a) provide an internationally acceptable standard of safety for diving systems by defining minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, installation, testing, commissioning, operation, repair, and re-qualification

b) serve as a technical reference document for classification and verification services

c) serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between purchaser and contractor

d) serve as a guideline for designers, purchaser, and contractors.

1.1.3 General guidance is provided as to the use and interpretation of the standard and text from IMO code

of safety for diving systems, 1995 resolution A.831 (19) is included for reference. In the IMO text, this code

is referred to as the code.

1.1.4 The text from IMO code of safety for diving systems, 1995 resolution A.831 (19) is included as

normative reference.

1.2 Scope

1.2.1 The scope is defined in each section for the various disciplines and may refer to standards that apply

to the discipline in general, such as for electrical systems. In these cases this document only contains

requirements that are particular to diving systems, whereas the generic requirements are given in the referred rules, standard or code. The combined requirements shall then constitute the scope.

1.2.2 Requirements for the diving support vessels, such as the requirements for floatation and positioning

ability, are not given in this standard but provided in DNVGL-RU-SHIP Pt.5 Ch.10.

1.2.3 Where the code requires that a particular fitting, material, appliance, apparatus, item or type of

equipment should be fitted or carried in a system, or that any particular provision should be made, or any procedure or arrangement complied with, the administration may allow alternative arrangements in that system, provided that the administration is satisfied that such alternatives are at least as effective as the requirements of the code.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 1.5 equivalents.)

1.2.4 This standard is not applicable to SCUBA diving, submersibles including atmospheric diving suits or

submarines.

Chapter 1 Section 1 1.3 Application 1.3.1 Where reference is made to codes other than

Chapter 1 Section 1

1.3 Application

1.3.1 Where reference is made to codes other than DNV GL documents, the valid revision shall be taken as

the revision that was current at the date of issue of this standard.

1.3.2 In case of conflict between requirements of this standard and a reference document, the requirements

of this standard shall prevail.

1.3.3

For use of this standard as basis for classification including the relevant procedural requirements see DNVGL- RU-OU-0375 Rules for classification of diving systems

1.4 Document structure

1.4.1 Besides this introduction chapter, this standard consist of two technical chapters:

Ch.2 Describing design philosophy and all technical and procedural requirements for surface diving systems

Ch.3 Describing design philosophy and all technical and procedural requirements for saturation diving systems

1.4.2 General applicable procedural requirements, including documentation and survey and testing are

included in the sub-section [1] of the relevant sections both chapters.

1.4.3 Ch.2 is completed with an appendix providing guidance on the selection of a safety objective.

1.4.4 Ch.3 is completed with an appendix providing guidance on dynamic loads in bell handling systems.

2 References

2.1 Normative references

The latest revisions of the following documents apply as normative references:

Table 1 Rules and standards for certification

Reference

Title

DNVGL-RU-SHIP

Rules for classification: ships

DNVGL-RU-OU

Rules for classification: offshore units

DNVGL-ST-0378

Standard for offshore and platform lifting appliances

Chapter 1 Section 1 Table 2 Offshore standards Reference Title DNVGL-OS-A101 Safety principles and arrangements

Chapter 1 Section 1

Table 2 Offshore standards

Reference

Title

DNVGL-OS-A101

Safety principles and arrangements

DNVGL-OS-D201

Electrical installations

DNVGL-OS-D202

Instrumentation, safety and telecommunication systems

DNVGL-OS-D301

Fire protection

Table 3 Class programme

Reference

Title

Type approval DNVGL-CP-0183

Flexible hoses, non-metallic materials

Type approval DNVGL-CP-0184

Flexible hoses with permanently fitted couplings, metallic materials

Table 4 Class guidelines

Reference

Title

DNVGL-CG-0169

Quality survey plan for offshore class new building surveys

Table 5 Recommended practices

Reference

Title

DNVGL-RP-E403

Hyperbaric evacuation systems

Table 6 Other normative references

Reference

Title

ASME VIII div.1 or div.2

ASME boiler and pressure vessel code rules for construction of pressure vessels

ASME PVHO-1

Safety standard for pressure vessels for human occupancy

ASME PVHO-2

Safety standard for pressure vessels for human occupancy: in service guidelines

ASTM G93-03

Standard practice for cleaning methods and cleanliness levels for materials and equipment used in oxygen-enriched environments

API 17E

Specification for subsea production control umbilicals

BS 4778

Quality vocabulary, part 2 quality concepts and related definitions, 1991, British standards institute, London

EN 13096

Transportable gas cylinders, condition for filling gases into receptacles, single component gases

EN 13099

Transportable gas cylinders, condition for filling gas mixtures into receptacles

EN ISO 10524-1

Pressure regulators for use with medical gases

Chapter 1 Section 1 Reference Title EN ISO 9809-1 Gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel gas

Chapter 1 Section 1

Reference

Title

EN ISO 9809-1

Gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel gas cylinders, design, construction and testing, part 1: quenced and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa

EN ISO 9809-2

Gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel gas cylinders, design, construction and testing, part 2: quenced and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater or equal to 1100 MPa

ISO 6406

Gas cylinders, seamless steel gas cylinders, periodic inspection and testing

EN 10204

Metallic products, types of inspection documents

EN ISO 11120

Gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel tubes for compressed gas transport, of water capacity between 150 l and 3000 l, design construction and testing

EN 16753

Gas cylinders, periodic inspection and testing, in situ (without dismantling) of refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 l and 3000 l, used for compressed gases

EN 13445

Unfired pressure vessels

EN 12021

Respiratory equipment compressed gases for breathing apparatus

ISO/IEC/17065:2012

Conformity assessment, requirements for bodies certifying products, processes and services

EN 1708-1

Welding, basic weld joint details in steel, part 1 pressurized components

IMO resolution A.831 (19)

Code of safety for diving Systems, 1995

IMO resolution A.692 (17)

Guidelines and specifications for hyperbaric evacuation systems, 1991

IMO MSC/circ.645 of 6 June 1994

Guidelines for vessels with dynamic positioning systems

IMO Res. MSC 149 (77)

See SOLAS reg. III/6.2.1

IMO Res. MSC 307 (88)

(FTP code)

IMO Res. MSC337 (91)

Code on noise levels on-board ships

IEC No.79-10

International Electro technical Commission's publication No.79-10, and IMO (MODU) code Ch.6

ISO 6385-2004

Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems

ISO 9000

Quality management

ISO 10013

Guidelines for quality management system documentation

ISO 10380, BS 6501

Pipework, corrugated metal hoses and hose assemblies

ISO 10474

Steel and steel products, inspection documents

ISO 13628-5

Petroleum and natural gas industries, design and operation of subsea production systems, part 5: subsea control umbilicals

PD 5500:2009 + latest amendments

Specification for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels

Note: see also Appendix C list of sources to assist in obtaining reference documents

Chapter 1 Section 1 2.2 Informative references Table 7 Informative references Reference Title NORSOK Standard

Chapter 1 Section 1

2.2 Informative references

Table 7 Informative references

Reference

Title

NORSOK Standard U-100

Manned underwater operations

ISO 10297

Gas cylinders, cylinder valves, specification and type testing

ISO 11114-3

Gas cylinders, compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents, part 3: autogenous ignition test in oxygen atmosphere

ISO 10524-1

Part 1: pressure regulators for use with medical gases, part 1: pressure regulators and pressure regulators with flow-metering devices

ISO 10297

Gas cylinders cylinder valves and type testing

(NFPA) Codes

National fire protection agency

SOLAS 1974 , Consolidated edition

International convention for the safety of life at sea

Guidance note:

The latest revision of the DNV GL documents may be found in the publication list at the DNV GL website www.dnvgl.com.

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2.3 Terminology and definitions

2.3.1 Verbal forms

Term

Definition

shall

verbal form used to indicate requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to the document

should

verbal form used to indicate that among several possibilities one is recommended as particularly suitable, without mentioning or excluding others, or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarily required

may

verbal form used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of the document

Note: in the cases where text from the IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2. design, construction and survey is used, the IMO use of should shall be interpreted as shall.

Chapter 1 Section 1 2.4 Definitions Term   Definition Administration The government of the state

Chapter 1 Section 1

2.4 Definitions

Term

 

Definition

Administration

The government of the state whose flag a ship or floating structure which carries a diving system is entitled to fly or in which the ship or floating structure is registered

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.1)

Agreement, by agreement

Unless otherwise indicated, accepted/agreed in writing between manufacturer/ contractor and purchaser. When the standard is applied as basis for certification or classification by DNV GL, the terms shall mean approved upfront in writing by DNV GL.

As-built survey

Survey of the installed and completed diving system, which is performed to verify that the completed installation work meets the specified requirements, and to document deviations from the original design, if any.

Basket

A

divers basket (sometimes known as a stage) is a frame and mesh construction

designed to accommodate divers whilst they are lifted in and out of the water

Bell

A

diving bell is a frame incorporating a dome, and including appendages, for transfer

of divers between the underwater work site and the deck or the surface chamber (TUP or DDC). In the context of this standard, bell is defined as an open bell/wet- bell. (See open bell, closed bell and wet bell)

Bottle

A

pressure container for the storage and transport of gases under pressure

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.2)

Breathing gases

All gases and gas mixtures which are used during diving missions respectively during use of breathing apparatus. Depending on the grade of oxygen, complimentary rules may be taken into consideration. The most common breathing gases used for diving are air, nitrox, HeMix, Trimix and pure oxygen.

Builder

Signifies the party contracted to build a diving system in compliance with this

 

standard

Built in breathing system (BIBS)

A

system of gas delivery to masks, located in the decompression chambers, baskets

and wet-bells. This system facilitates breathing in the event of a contaminated atmosphere, and allows for the use of therapeutic gases during decompression. BIBS may in rare cases be closed circuit breathing systems (see CCBS definition) but are normally open circuit systems where the exhaled gas is dumped to atmosphere.

Category A machinery spaces

Those spaces and trunks to such spaces as defined in the international convention for the safety of life at sea, 1974, as amended

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.20)

Chamber

Surface decompression, pressure or compression chambers (see also DDC), hereafter called the chambers, and are pressure vessels for human occupancy.

Closed bell

A

sealed submersible diving chamber (SDC) that locks on and off the chamber

where the divers decompress (DDC). Pressure differentials are retained by way of a closed door sealing the divers in at pressures, elevated or lowered compared to the surrounding pressure.

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Closed circuit breathing system (CCBS) A system for

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Closed circuit breathing system (CCBS)

A

system for supply of breathing gas to the diver and saving of his exhaled gases for

re-circulation after scrubbing and replenishing

Commissioning

In relation to diving systems, refers to activities which take place after installation and prior to operation, comprising the tests and trials

Compact umbilical

Umbilical consisting of composite bundles of hoses, cables and strength members in

a

braiding or sheathing

Compartment

Part(s) of a chamber sufficiently large to contain at least one person and which may have an internal pressure different from adjacent compartments

Competent body/competent person

In this context defined as a company, organisation or person recognised as fit to carry out specified inspections or tests. The recognition may be by DNV GL or by a statutory agency.

Compressor

A

mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

The increase of pressure may be carried out by pistons, screws or diaphragms. A compressor designed with inlet (suction) pressure above atmospheric is defined as booster. Depending on the application medium, purification and/or filter systems

may be provided downstream.

Construction phase

All phases during construction, including fabrication, installation, testing and commissioning, up until the installation or system is safe and operable for intended use. In relation to diving systems, this includes procurements, manufacture assembly, rectification, installation, testing, commissioning and repair.

Contractor

A

party contractually appointed by the purchaser to fulfil all, or any of, the activities

associated with design, construction and operation

Control stations

Normally as defined in reg.3 and referred to in regulation 20, Ch.II-2 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. Control stand or control station is a control station in which one or more of the following control and indicator functions are centralized:

a) indication and operation of all vital life support conditions, including pressure control

b) visual observation, communication systems including telephones, audio- recording and microphones to public address systems

c) disconnection of all electrical installations and Insulation monitoring.

d) provisions for calibration of and comparison between gas analysing

e) indication of temperature and humidity in the inner area

f) alarms for abnormal conditions of environmental control systems

g) fixed fire detection and fire alarm systems

h) ventilation fans

i) automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire alarm systems

j) launch and recovery systems, including interlock safety functions

k) operation and control of the hyperbaric evacuation system.

Corrosion allowance

Extra wall thickness added during design to compensate for any reduction in wall thickness by corrosion (internally and externally) during operation

Demobilised

Diving system is stored on shore and requires a full maintenance regime for

mobilisation

Deck decompression chamber (DDC)

Deck mounted pressure vessel for human occupancy used for decompression

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Depth The water depth or equivalent pressure to

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Depth

The water depth or equivalent pressure to which the diver is exposed at any time during a dive or inside a surface compression chamber or a diving bell

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.6)

Design

All related engineering to design of the diving system

Design life

The initially planned time period from initial installation or use until permanent decommissioning of the equipment or system. The original design life may be extended after a re-qualification.

Design load

For PVHOs see Ch.2 Sec.3, Ch.3 Sec.2. For LARS see Ch.2 Sec.6 and Ch.3 Sec.6.

Design phase

An initial phase that takes a systematic approach to the production of specifications, drawings and other documents to ensure that the diving system meets specified requirements (including design reviews to ensure that design output is verified against design input requirements). See ISO 9001.

Design temperature, minimum

The lowest possible temperature to which the equipment or system may be exposed to during installation and operation, irrespective of the pressure. Environmental as well as operational temperatures shall be considered.

 

Guidance note:

For LARS the design temperature is defined in DNVGL-ST-0378 standard for offshore and platform lifting appliances.

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Design temperature, maximum:

The highest possible temperature to which the equipment or system may be exposed to during installation and operation. Environmental as well as operational temperatures shall be considered.

Diver heating

A

system for actively heating the divers in the water or in the inner area

Divers

Personnel subjected to higher ambient pressure than one atmosphere

Diving bell

A

submersible compression chamber, including its fitted equipment, for transfer

of diving personnel under pressure between the work location and the surface compression chamber

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.7)

Diving system

The whole plant and equipment necessary for the conduct of diving operations

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.8)

Diving system (in DNV GL terms)

The whole plant and equipment necessary for safe conduct of diving operations where compression and decompression of divers are taking place

dmax

Maximum operating depth of the surface diving system. This is the depth corresponding to the maximum pressure for pressurizing divers. (For Classified systems this may be specified in the certificate and data sheet).

ECU

Environmental control unit. Maintains Temperature, reduces humidity and may include removal of carbon dioxide.

Enriched Air

Nitrogen oxygen mixtures with elevated oxygen content (see NITROX)

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Equipment lock A pressure tight independent lock mounted

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Equipment lock

A

pressure tight independent lock mounted on the shell of the chamber providing

the means for locking in equipment necessary for the divers and the operation of the system (see also medical lock)

Evacuation system

A

system whereby divers under pressure can be safely evacuated from a ship or

floating structure to a position where decompression can be carried out

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.9)

Fabrication

Activities related to the assembly of objects with a defined purpose. In relation to diving systems, fabrication refers to e.g. deck decompression chambers, wet-bells, and pressure vessels for gas storage, environmental control systems, launch and recovery systems etc.

Fabricator

The party performing the fabrication (in this context, normally of windows for PVHOs)

Failure

An event affecting a component or system and causing one or both of the following

 

effects:

— loss of component or system function

— deterioration of functional capability to such an extent that the safety of the installation, personnel or environment is significantly reduced.

Fatigue

Cyclic loading causing degradation of the material

Flag administration

The maritime administration of a vessel's country of registry

Gas

See breathing gas

Gas containers

Cylinders, bottles and pressure vessels for storage of pressurized gas

Guidance notes

Contain advice which is not mandatory for the assignment or retention of class, but with which the Society, in light of general experience, advises compliance

Handling system

The plant and equipment necessary for raising, lowering and transporting the diving bell between the work location and the surface compression chamber

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 1.3.10) (see launch and recovery system (LARS))

Hazard

A

deviation (departure from the design and operating intention) which could cause

damage, injury or other form of loss (chemical industries association HAZOP guide).

Hazardous areas

Those locations in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present, or present for long periods (zone O); in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation (zone 1); in which an explosive gas-air mixture it not likely to occur, and if it does it will only exist for a short time (zone 2).

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.11)

HAZOP (hazard and operability study)

The application of a formal systematic critical examination to the process and engineering intentions of new or existing facilities to assess the hazard potential of inadvertent operation or malfunction of individual items of equipment and their consequential effects on the facility as a whole (chemical industries association HAZOP guide)

Hydro-test or hydrostatic test

See pressure test

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Hyperbaric evacuation system (HES) System for evacuating divers

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Hyperbaric evacuation system (HES)

System for evacuating divers under pressure. This includes the hyperbaric evacuation unit (HEU), the launch and recovery and control systems.

Hyperbaric rescue vessel (HRV)

IMO uses the term hyperbaric evacuation unit (HEU) see above

Inner area

The areas which are inside the chambers. Interconnecting trunks are considered part of the inner area when the door is opened into the chamber.

Inspection

Activities such as measuring, examination, testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements for determine conformity

Installation (activity)

The operations related to installing the equipment, diving system or support structure, e.g. mounting chambers and handling systems etc., including final testing and preparation for operation

Installation manual (IM)

A

document prepared by the contractor to describe and demonstrate that the

installation method and equipment used by the contractor will meet the specified requirements and that the results can be verified

Launch and recovery system (LARS)

The system and equipment necessary to launch and recover the divers, the diver’s basket or wet-bell to the chambers as well as transport the divers between the surface support unit and the underwater working site, including any guide rope systems and cursor systems

Lay-up

A

terminology used for diving systems that are out of commission. In this state the

diving system may be installed on board or permanently stored on shore.

Life support system

The gas supply, breathing gas system, decompression equipment, environmental control system and equipment required to provide a safe environment for the diving crew in the diving bell and the surface compression chamber under all ranges of pressure and conditions they may be exposed to during diving operations

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.12)

Life support systems (in DNV GL terms)

The systems comprising gas supply systems, breathing gas systems, pressure regulating systems, environmental control systems, and systems required to provide a safe habitat for the divers, in the basket, the wet-bell and the chamber compartments under normal conditions during diving operation

Living compartment

The part of the surface compression chamber which is intended to be used as the main habitation for the divers during diving operations and which is equipped for such purpose

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.13)

Living compartment (in DNV GL terms)

A

compartment which is intended to be used as the main habitation for the divers

and which is equipped as such

Load

Any action causing stress, strain, deformation, displacement, motion, etc. to the equipment or system

Load effect

Effect of a single load or combination of loads on the equipment or system, such as stress, strain, deformation, displacement, motion, etc.

Load effect factor

The partial safety factor by which the characteristic load effect is multiplied to obtain the design load effect

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Lot A number of components from the same

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Lot

A

number of components from the same batch. E.g. same heat, the same heat

treatment batch and with the same dimensions.

Main components

Main components of a diving system include the surface compression chamber, diving bell, handling system and fixed gas storage facilities

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.14)

Manufacture

Making of articles or materials, sometimes in larger volumes. In relation to diving systems, refers to activities for the production of pressure vessels, distribution panels and other components, performed under contracts from one or more contractors.

Manufacturer

Signifies the entity that manufactures the material or product, or carries out part production that determines the quality of the material or product, or does the final assembly of the product

Mating device

The equipment necessary for the connection and a disconnection of a diving bell to a surface compression chamber

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.15)

Maximum operating depth

Maximum operating depth of the diving system is the depth in metres or feet

of

seawater equivalent to the maximum pressure for which the diving system is

designed to operate

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.16)

Medical lock

A

pressure tight independent lock mounted on the shell of the chamber providing

the means for locking in provisions, medicine and equipment necessary for the divers and the operation of the system (see also equipment lock)

NDT level

The extent and acceptance criteria for the NDT of the components

NITROX

Nitrogen oxygen mixtures with elevated oxygen content (see enriched air)

Nominal outside diameter

The specified outside diameter. This shall mean the actual outside diameter.

Nominal wall thickness

The specified non-corroded wall thickness, which is equal to the minimum steel wall thickness plus the manufacturing tolerance

Normal cubic meters

(Nm 3 ) is taken as cubic meters of gas at standard conditions of 0°C and 1.013 bar.

Open bell (also known as wet bell)

A

suspended canopy chamber, open at the bottom like a moon pool structure that

is

lowered underwater to operate as a stage for the divers with the advantage of

providing an air pocket for refuge and a space for communication outside the mask/

 

helmet

Operation, incidental

Conditions that are not part of normal operation of the equipment or system. In relation to diving systems, incidental conditions may lead to incidental pressures.

Operation, normal

Conditions that arise from the intended use and application of equipment or system, including associated condition and integrity monitoring, maintenance, repairs etc. In relation to diving systems, this should include, start and finish of dives (pre- and post-dive checks), treatment of decompression-related incidents, gas transfer and changing out of consumables.

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term Definition Operations (phase) The phase when the diving system is

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

Definition

Operations (phase)

The phase when the diving system is being used for the purpose for which it was designed

Pressure, system test

In relation to diving systems, this is the internal pressure applied to the component or system during testing on completion of installation work to test the diving system for tightness (normally performed as hydrostatic testing)

Organization

Organization means the International Maritime Organization (IMO)

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

1.3.17)

Out of roundness

The deviation of the perimeter from a circle. This can be stated as ovalisation (%), or as local out of roundness, e.g. flattening, (mm).

Outer area

Those areas of the diving system that are exposed to atmospheric conditions during operation, i.e. outside the inner system and the room or area that surrounds or contains the diving system.

Ovalisation

The deviation of the perimeter from a circle. This has the form of an elliptic cross section.

Owner

Signifies the registered owner or manager of the diving system or any other organization or person who has assumed the responsibility for operation of the diving system and who on assuming such responsibility has agreed to take over all the duties and responsibilities. See DNVGL-RU-OU-0101 Ch.1 Sec. 5 [1.2].

Oxygen systems

Systems intended for a gas with a higher oxygen percentage than 25

Personal diving equipment

Equipment carried by the diver on his person including his tools, diving suit, diving helmet and self-contained breathing apparatus with gas bottles. This is normally not included in the diving system specified in the standard

Plan approval

Signifies a systematic and independent examination of drawings, design documents or records in order to verify compliance with the rules or statutory requirements. Plan approval will be carried out at the discretion of the Society, which also decides the extent and method of examination.

Planned maintenance system (PMS)

A system for planning and recording of maintenance activities

Pressure, collapse

Characteristic resistance against external over-pressure

Pressure control system

In relation to diving systems, this is the system for control of the pressure in the various systems, comprising the pressure regulating system, pressure safety system and associated instrument and alarm systems

Pressure, design

In relation to diving system assemblies, this is the maximum internal pressure during normal operation, referred to a specified reference point, to which the component or system section shall be designed. The design pressure shall take account of the various pressurised components in the adjoining systems, and their relative design pressures.

Pressure regulating system

In relation to diving systems, this is the system which ensures that, irrespective of the upstream pressure, a set pressure is maintained downstream (at a given reference point) for the component

Pressure safety system

The system which, independent of the pressure regulating system, ensures that the allowable set pressure is not exceeded

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term Definition Pressure test The hydrostatic pressure test initially performed at

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

Definition

Pressure test

The hydrostatic pressure test initially performed at the manufacturer of the pressure vessel in accordance with requirements in the design code

Pressure vessel

A container capable of withstanding an internal maximum working pressure greater than or equal to 1 bar

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

1.3.18)

Purchaser

The owner or another party acting on his behalf, who is responsible for procuring materials, components or services intended for the design, construction, installation or modification of a diving system

Purification and filter systems

Purification and filter systems are used to remove contaminants from breathing gases after compression has taken place

Quality assurance (QA)

Planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality

Quality plan (QP)

The document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, project or contract. A quality plan usually makes reference to the part of the quality manual applicable to the specific case.

Quality system

Signifies both the quality management system and established production and control procedures

Reliability

The probability that a component or system will perform its required function without failure, under stated conditions of operation and maintenance and during a specified time interval

Re-qualification

The re-assessment of a design due to modified design premises and or sustained damage

Resistance

The capability of a structure, or part of a structure, to resist load effects

Risk

The qualitative or quantitative likelihood of an accident or unplanned event occurring, considered in conjunction with the potential consequences of such a failure. In quantitative terms, risk is the quantified probability of a defined failure mode times its quantified consequence.

Risk reduction measures

Those measures taken to reduce the risks to the operation of the diving system and to the health and safety of personnel associated with it or in its vicinity by:

a) reduction in the probability of failure

b) mitigation of the consequences of failure.

Guidance note:

The usual order of preference of risk reduction measures is:

a) inherent safety

b) prevention

c) detection

d) control

e) mitigation

f) emergency response.

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Safety objectives

The safety goals for the construction, operation and decommissioning of the diving system including acceptance criteria for the level of risk acceptable to the owner

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Saturation diving Once a diver becomes saturated with

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Saturation diving

Once a diver becomes saturated with the gases that make decompression necessary, the diver does not need additional decompression. When the blood and tissues have absorbed all the gas they can hold at that depth, the time required for decompression becomes constant. As long as the depth is not increased, additional time on the bottom is free of any additional decompression.

Self-propelled hyperbaric lifeboat (SPHL)

See HEU [2.3.55]

Significant wave height

When selecting the third of the number of waves with the highest wave height, the significant wave height is calculated as the mean of the selection

Specified minimum tensile strength

The minimum tensile strength prescribed by the specification or standard under which the material is purchased

Specified minimum yield stress

The minimum yield stress prescribed by the specification or standard under which the material is purchased

Statement of compliance

A

statement or report signed by a qualified party affirming that, at the time of

assessment, the defined phase, or collection of activities, met the requirements stated by the customer

Submersible decompression chamber (SDC)

Closed bell

Suitable breathing gas

A

gas or gas mixture that is breathable to divers for the pressure and duration they

are exposed to it

Supplementary requirements

Requirements for material properties of component that are additional to the basic requirements, and that are intended to apply to components used for specific

applications

Surface compression chamber

A

pressure vessel for human occupancy with means of controlling the pressure

inside the chamber

(see IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.5)

Survey planning document

As described in Ch.3 Sec.1 [3.1] document describing the diving system and the requirements to survey and testing throughout the lifetime of the diving system

T

op

Maximum operation time, i.e. the time from start of pressurization of the diver, until the diver is back to atmospheric conditions

Transfer compartment

Compartment that is intended to be used for a lock-in or -out operation of divers between other compartments or outer area. Also known as TUP (transfer under pressure).

The diving system should be capable of allowing the safe transfer of a person under pressure from the diving bell to the surface compression chamber (and vice versa).

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

2.2.7)

Transferable diving system

A

diving system designed to be easily transferable in one or more units and which

may be installed on-board a ship, barge or offshore platform for a short period

of

time not exceeding one year. A transferable diving system may be assembled

from different units into a particular configuration suitable for a specific working operation.

Ultimate tensile strength

The measured ultimate tensile strength

Chapter 1 Section 1 Term   Definition Umbilical The link between the diving support unit

Chapter 1 Section 1

Term

 

Definition

Umbilical

The link between the diving support unit and the diving bell and may contain surveillance, communication and power supply cables, breathing gas and hot water hoses. The hoisting and lowering strength member may be part of the umbilical.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey

 

1.3.19)

Umbilical (in DNVGL terms)

A

link between support vessel and the divers, or the diving wet-bell, which may

contain gas hoses, hot water hose, power supply cables and communication cables

Verification

A

service that signifies a confirmation through the provision of objective evidence

(analysis, observation, measurement, test, records or other evidence) that specified requirements have been met

Wet bell

See open bell

Work

All activities to be performed within relevant contract(s) issued by owner, builder or

manufacturer

Working weight

Of the basket or wet-bell shall be taken as the maximum weight of the fully equipped basket or wet-bell, including each fully equipped diver (150 kg for SAT and 200 kg for Surface). The load from this weight applies to:

a) launch and recovery in air

b) launch and recovery submerged, combining the maximum negative buoyancy of the wire rope, umbilical and basket or wet-bell at maximum operating depth.

Yield Stress

The measured yield tensile stress

Chapter 1 Section 1 2.5 Abbreviations and symbols Abbreviation Definition AE Acoustic emission testing API

Chapter 1 Section 1

2.5 Abbreviations and symbols

Abbreviation

Definition

AE

Acoustic emission testing

API

American Petroleum Institute

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

AUT

Automatic ultrasonic testing

BS*

British Standard

C-Mn

Carbon manganese

CE

Conformité Européene (European Conformity)

CRA

Corrosion resistant alloy

DP

Dynamic positioning

DSV

Diving support vessel

EBW

Electronic beam welded

ET

Eddy current testing

FMEA

Failure mode effect analysis

HAZ

Heat affected zone

HAZOP

Hazard and operability study

HFW

High frequency welding

HPIC

Hydrogen pressure induced cracking

IACS

International Association of Class Societies

IM

Installation manual

IMO

International Maritime Organisation

ISO

International Organisation for Standardisation

KV

Charpy value

LBW

Laser beam welded

MPQT

Manufacturing procedure qualification test

MPS

Manufacturing procedure specification

MSA

Manufacturing survey arrangement

NACE

National Association of Corrosion Engineers

NDT

Non-destructive testing alternatively NDE is used with the same meaning

NPD

Norwegian Petroleum Directorate

P

production

Chapter 1 Section 1 Abbreviation Definition Q Qualification QA Quality assurance QC Quality

Chapter 1 Section 1

Abbreviation

Definition

Q

Qualification

QA

Quality assurance

QC

Quality control

QP

Quality plan

QRA

Quantitative risk analysis

ROV

Remotely operated vehicle

UTS

Ultimate tensile strength

WPS

Welding procedure specification

YS

Yield stress

*Note: now PD: public document

2.6 Symbols

A

= cross section area

D

= nominal outside diameter

D max = greatest measured inside or outside diameter

= smallest measured inside or outside diameter = D-2t nom = nominal internal diameter

E = young’s modulus

D

D

min

i

f 0

= ovality,

E = young’s modulus D D m i n i f 0 = ovality, H H

H

H s

= wave height = significant wave height

ID = nominal inside diameter

O = out of roundness, D max - D min

OD = nominal outside diameter

T = operating temperature

T max = maximum design temperature

T min

= minimum design temperature

T nom = nominal thickness

Chapter 2 Section 1 CHAPTER 2 SURFACE DIVING SYSTEMS SECTION 1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY AND PREMISES

Chapter 2 Section 1

CHAPTER 2 SURFACE DIVING SYSTEMS

SECTION 1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY AND PREMISES

1 Introduction

1.1 Objectives

1.1.1 The objectives of this section are to present the safety philosophy applied in this chapter, to identify

and provide a basis for definition of relevant system design characteristics. These are, key issues required for design, construction, operation and re-qualification of surface diving systems.

1.1.2 This section also refers to minimum requirements for documentation for design, manufacture,

installation and some operational aspects.

1.2 Scope

The scope of this section is to outline the requirements for planning and documenting system philosophy, safety philosophy and quality management.

1.3 Marking and signboards

Labels (name plates) of flame retardant material bearing clear and indelible markings shall be placed so that all equipment necessary for operation (valves, detachable connections, switches, warning lights etc.) can be easily identified. The labels shall be permanently fixed.

2 Documentation philosophy

2.1 General

2.1.1 This sub-section specifies the general requirements for documentation during diving system design,

manufacturing, fabrication, installation, commissioning and operation.

2.1.2 In accordance with quality system requirements, design output shall be documented and expressed in

terms that can be verified and validated against design input requirements.

The supplier shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control all documents and data.

2.1.3 All documentation requirements shall be reflected in a document register. The documentation shall

cover design, manufacturing, fabrication, installation and commissioning. As a minimum, the register shall reflect activities from the start of design to operation of the diving system.

2.1.4 The documentation shall be submitted to the relevant parties for acceptance, verification or

information as agreed in ample time before start of fabrication. Documentation pertaining to the system philosophy, concept and manufacturing procedure specification, shall be submitted for approval and information at the start of the project to enable systematic review.

2.1.5 Verified documentation shall be available at the work site before manufacturing commences.

Chapter 2 Section 1 2.2 Documentation of arrangement List and information stating the following particulars

Chapter 2 Section 1

2.2 Documentation of arrangement

List and information stating the following particulars for the diving system shall be included in the Manufacturing Procedure Specification that shall be submitted at the start of the project:

a) maximum operating depth d max

b) maximum operation time T op

c) maximum number of divers in the basket(s) or wet-bell(s)

d) maximum number of divers in the chamber(s)

e) maximum operational sea-state

f) extract from the operation manual, stating the operational procedures, as basis for the design. Plans showing general arrangement of the diving system, location and supporting arrangement

g) plans showing the lay-out of control stand(s)

h) proposed program for tests and trials of systems for normal operation and for emergency use.

2.3 Documentation of installation

Detailed plans, drawings and procedures shall be prepared for all installation activities. The following shall as a minimum be covered:

a) diving system location overview (planned or existing)

b) other vessel (or fixed location) functions and operations

c) list of diving system installation activities

d) alignment rectification

e) installation of supporting structure

f) installation of interconnecting services

g) installation of protective devices

h) hook-up to support systems

i) as-built survey

j) final testing and preparation for operation.

2.4 Documentation for systems in operation

2.4.1 Plans for diving system operation, inspection, maintenance and repair shall be prepared in a Survey Planning Document prior to start of operation. All operational aspects shall be considered when selecting the diving system concept.

2.4.2 The diving system operational planning shall as a minimum cover:

a) organisation and management

b) start-up and shut-down (pre- and post-dive)

c) operational limitations

d) emergency operations

e) maintenance

f) corrosion control, inspection and monitoring

g) general inspection

h) special activities.

Chapter 2 Section 1 2.4.3 In order to carry out periodical surveys, the minimum documentation

Chapter 2 Section 1

2.4.3 In order to carry out periodical surveys, the minimum documentation shall include:

a) personnel responsible for the operation of diving system

b) history of diving system operation with reference to events which may have significance to design and safety

c) a log of the total number of dives and hours of operation in the periods between annual surveys

d) records of new equipment installed and old equipment removed

e) the originally approved viewports for the system shall be included in the operational documentation

f) installation condition data as necessary for understanding diving system design and configuration, e.g. previous survey reports, as-built installation drawings and test reports

g) inspection, testing and maintenance schedules and their records.

2.4.4 In case of mechanical damage or other abnormalities that might impair the safety, reliability, strength

and stability of the diving system, the following documentation shall, as a minimum, be prepared prior to start-up of the diving system:

a) description of the damage to the diving system, its sub-systems or components with due reference to location, type, extent of damage and temporary measures, if any

b) plans and full particulars of repairs, modifications and replacements, including contingency measures

c) further documentation with respect to particular repair, modification and replacement, as agreed upon in line with those for the manufacturing or installation phase.

2.5 Documentation for systems in demobilisation

Demobilisation shall be planned and prepared and the evaluation shall include the following aspects:

a) safety aspects, during and after demobilisation

b) environmental aspects, e.g. pollution

c) impact on other structures

d) possible reuse of equipment at a later stage (re-qualification and certification).

2.6 Filing of documentation

2.6.1 Maintenance of complete files of all relevant documentation during the life of the diving system is the

responsibility of the owner.

2.6.2 The engineering documentation shall be filed by the owner or by the engineering contractor for the

lifetime of the system.

2.6.3 Design basis and key data for the diving system shall be filed for the lifetime of the system. This

includes documentation from design to start-up and also documentation from possible major repair or modification of the diving system.

2.6.4 Files to be kept from the operational and maintenance phases of the diving system shall, as a

minimum, include final in-service inspection reports from start-up, periodical and special inspections, condition monitoring records, and final reports of maintenance and repair.

3 Safety philosophy

3.1 General

The integrity of a surface diving system constructed to this standard shall be ensured through a safety philosophy integrating the different parts.

Chapter 2 Section 1 The objective of this standard is that the design, materials, fabrication,

Chapter 2 Section 1

The objective of this standard is that the design, materials, fabrication, installation, commissioning, operation, repair, and re-qualification, of diving systems are safe and conducted with due regard to public safety and the protection of the environment.

3.2 Safety objective

The purchaser/owner shall define an overall safety objective; planned, established and implemented, covering all phases from conceptual development until demobilisation and scrapping. The safety objective shall address the main safety goals as well as establishing acceptance criteria for the level of risk acceptable to the owner.

3.3 Systematic review

3.3.1 All work associated with the design, construction and operation of the diving system shall be such

that it ensures that the requirements in the safety philosophy are met. As a minimum, it shall ensure that no single failure shall lead to life-threatening situations for any person or to unacceptable damage to the facilities or the environment.

3.3.2 A systematic review or analysis shall be carried out at all phases in order to identify and evaluate the

consequences of single failures and series of failures in the diving system, such that necessary remedial measures can be taken. The extent of the review or analysis shall reflect the criticality of the diving system, the criticality of a planned operation and previous experience with similar systems or operations. This review shall identify the risk to the operation of the diving system and to the health and safety of personnel associated with it or in its vicinity.

The scope of the review should be agreed upon.

3.3.3 Once the risks have been identified their extent can be reduced to a level as low as reasonably

practicable by means of one or both of:

a) reduction in the probability of failure

b) mitigation of the consequences of failure.

The result of the systematic review of these risks is measured against the safety objectives.

3.3.4 Special attention shall be given to the risk of fire and launch and recovery operations.

3.4 Quality management systems

Adequate quality management systems shall be implemented according to requirements in DNVGL-RU- OU-0101 Ch.1 Sec.4 [1.2] to ensure that gross errors in the work for diving system design, construction and operations are limited.

3.5 Inspection and test plans

The tabular description of the inspections and tests to be carried out during the work is frequently known as the inspection and test plan (ITP).The following items shall be checked for inclusion within the inspection and test plan:

a) each inspection and test point and its relative location in the production cycle shall be shown

b) the characteristics to be inspected and tested at each point shall be identified

c) the use of sub-contractors shall be indicated and details of how the verification of sub-contractor’s quality shall be carried out shall be shown

d) hold points established by the constructor, the operator or a third party, where witness or review of the selected inspection or test is required, shall be shown.

Chapter 2 Section 1 4 Surface diving system philosophy 4.1 General As far as reasonable

Chapter 2 Section 1

4 Surface diving system philosophy

4.1 General

As far as reasonable and practicable, a diving system should be designed to minimize human error and constructed so that the failure of any single component (determined, if necessary, by an appropriate risk assessment) should not lead to a dangerous situation.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.1.1.)

Guidance note:

Whereas this is a general requirement for the systems, it is recognised that certain components cannot fulfil this requirement in and of themselves. A typical example of this is the pressure vessel for human occupancy with acrylic windows and the umbilicals.

In these cases the applicable standards will specify stringent safety factors. For other cases a formal safety assessment may be required.

4.2 System integrity

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4.2.1 surface diving systems shall be designed, constructed and operated in such a manner that they:

a) fulfil the specified operational requirements

b) fulfil the defined safety objective and have the required support capabilities during planned operational conditions

c) have sufficient safety margin against accidental loads or unplanned operational conditions

d) consider the possibility of changes in the operating conditions and criteria during the lifetime of the system.

4.2.2 Any re-qualification deemed necessary due to changes in the design conditions shall take place in

accordance with provisions set out in each section of the standard.

4.3 Essential services

4.3.1 Essential services are herein defined as those services that need to be in continuous operation for

maintaining the diving system's functionality with regard to sustaining the safety, health and environment of the divers in a hyperbaric environment. This includes services required by the crew monitoring the divers.

4.3.2 Essential services shall be maintained for the period required by safely terminating the surface diving

operation, including time for decompression of the divers.

4.3.3 For services supporting divers in the water, all services are essential. 20 minutes is considered to be

the minimum time required ensuring that the divers are safely recovered to the wet-bell, or to the surface.

4.3.4 For services supporting divers in a wet-bell, all services are essential. 20 minutes is considered to be

the minimum time required ensuring that the divers are safely recovered into the decompression chambers or to the surface.

4.3.5 For services supporting divers in the decompression chambers, all required services are essential. The

specified maximum decompression schedule is considered to be the minimum time required ensuring that the divers are safely brought to the surface.

Chapter 2 Section 1 4.4 Emergency services 4.4.1 Emergency services are herein defined as those

Chapter 2 Section 1

4.4 Emergency services

4.4.1 Emergency services are herein defined as those services that are essential for safety in an emergency

condition. Examples of equipment and systems for emergency services include:

a) emergency lighting, including external strobe lighting on basket/wet-bell

b) emergency communication

c) emergency life support systems involving pressure containment, oxygen supplies and CO2 scrubbing

d) emergency heating/cooling systems

e) condition monitoring of emergency batteries

f) alarm systems for the above emergency services

g) emergency launch and recovery of the wet-bell(s)/basket(s)/diver(s) (if electrical).

4.4.2 For services supporting divers in the water, all the above services may be considered emergency

services and 20 minutes is considered to be the minimum time required to ensure that the divers are safely recovered in the wet-bell or basket or to the surface.

4.4.3 For services supporting divers in a wet-bell, all the above services may be considered emergency

services and 20 minutes is considered to be the minimum time required to ensure that the divers are safely

recovered in the decompression chambers or to the surface.

4.4.4 For services supporting divers in the decompression chambers, all the above services may be

considered emergency services with the exception of launch and recovery systems.

4.4.5 Services supporting hyperbaric evacuation system are considered statutory scope and therefore

reviewed on a case by case basis according to instructions from the applicable administration.

4.5 Non-important services

Non-important services are those which are not essential/emergency according to the above.

4.6 Layout and arrangement of the surface diving system

4.6.1 All components in a diving system should be so designed, constructed and arranged as to permit easy

cleaning, disinfection, inspection and maintenance.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.1.6.)

4.6.2 The layout of the diving system shall ensure protection from accidental damage and accessibility for

safe operation, maintenance and inspection.

The diving system shall be so designed that the divers and assisting personnel are provided with safe and comfortable operating conditions. Ergonomic principles shall be applied in the design of working systems. (I.e. in accordance with DNVGL-OS-D202 Ch.2 Sec.5 and ISO 6385.)

4.6.3 The elements of the surface diving system shall be configured in such a way as to ensure that a

clear access route is available from the LARS to the decompression chamber, with a distance as short as practicable and not more than that which provides enough time according to the maximum allowable surface interval stipulated in the applied decompression tables.

Chapter 2 Section 1 4.7 Wet-bell – if installed 4.7.1 If wet-bells are employed, they

Chapter 2 Section 1

4.7 Wet-bell – if installed

4.7.1 If wet-bells are employed, they shall meet the requirements for bells given in this standard.

4.7.2 A diving bell should provide a suitable environment and facilities for the persons who use it, having

regard to the type and duration of the diving operation.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.3.3.)

4.7.3 Diving bells should be so designed as to provide adequate space for the number of occupants

envisaged, together with the equipment.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.3.5.)

5 External and internal environmental conditions

5.1 General

5.1.1 Diving systems and components thereof should be designed for the conditions under which they are

certificated to operate.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.1.2.)

5.1.2 Systems and components shall be designed for the environmental conditions given in the diving

system specifications.

Bells and baskets shall meet the environmental requirements for surface and submerged components.

The specifications shall state the limitations on roll, maximum current etc. in order to avoid the basket/bell impacting the ships side or getting trapped under bilge keel.

5.1.3 Environmental phenomena that might impair proper functioning of the system or cause a reduction

of the reliability and safety of the system shall be considered in the MPS (including fixed and land-based installations) as follows:

a) wind and tide

b) waves and currents

c) air and sea temperatures and ice.

5.2 External operational conditions

5.2.1 Materials for diving system components should be suitable for their intended use.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.1.3.)

5.2.2 Design inclinations shall be assumed according to Table 1 unless otherwise specified in the system

specifications.

Chapter 2 Section 1 Table 1 Design inclinations Location Roll Permanent list Pitch Trim Chambers

Chapter 2 Section 1

Table 1 Design inclinations

Location

Roll

Permanent list

Pitch

Trim

Chambers and other surface installations:

       

on a ship

+/-22.5°

+/-15°

+/-10°

+/-5°

On a mobile offshore unit

 

+/-15°

 

+/-15°

Components in a basket or wet-bell

+/-45°

+/-22.5°

   

Guidance note:

For launch and recovery systems the operational design sea-state is given in Sec.7.

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5.2.3 Range of ambient temperature: -10°C to 55°C, unless otherwise specified. For greater temperature

ranges, temperature protection shall be provided.

5.2.4 Humidity: 100%.

5.2.5 Atmosphere contaminated by salt (NaCl): up to 1 mg salt per 1 m 3 of air, at all relevant temperatures

and humidity conditions.

5.3 Internal operational conditions (inner area)

5.3.1 Range of ambient pressure is given by the design code or as a minimum range of 1 bar to 1.3 times

the pressure corresponding to d max with pressurisation and depressurisation rates as specified in Ch.2 Sec.3

[3.1], whichever is the greater range. This shall be applicable to materials and components installed in the pressure vessels for human occupancy.

5.3.2 Range of ambient temperature: 5°C to 55°C, unless otherwise specified.

Guidance note:

Ambient pressure and temperature is here understood to be the pressure and temperature of the environment surrounding the equipment or components utilised in the diving system.

5.3.3 Relative humidity: up to 100%.

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5.3.4 Atmosphere contaminated by salt (NaCl): up to 1 mg salt per 1 m 3 of air, at relevant temperatures and

humidity conditions.

5.3.5 There shall be a limitation on maximum oxygen atmosphere content of 23.5% in manned diving

chambers to ensure that the effects from fire-extinguishing systems/extinguishers have the intended effect.

5.3.6 A description of the internal conditions during storage, construction, installation, pressure testing and

commissioning shall be prepared. The duration of exposure to seawater or humid air, and the need for using measures to control corrosion shall be considered.

When choosing materials, paints etc. the potential for emission of hazardous compounds shall be considered.

Chapter 2 Section 1 5.3.7 Statutory requirements apply for determination of exposure limits such as:

Chapter 2 Section 1

5.3.7 Statutory requirements apply for determination of exposure limits such as:

a) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure.

b) European Commission Directive on occupational exposure limit values.

c) Health and safety executive occupational exposure limits.

d) NASA. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for airborne contaminants (SMAC), 1999.

e) ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs. Ohio: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

f) Segadal K, Djurhuus R, Roseth I. Implementation of a standard procedure for routine surveillance of chemical contamination of diving atmosphere during diving operations in 1995. Bergen: Norwegian Underwater Technology Centre AS, 1995; NUTEC report no. 27-95.

g) Djurhuus R, Jakobsen K, Sundland H, Lindrup AG, Solheim E. Procedure for testing for off gassing from materials used in diving systems. (In Norwegian). Bergen: Norwegian Underwater Technology Centre AS, 1994; NUTEC report no. 5-94.

h) Ahlen C. Cleaning and disinfection of operational saturation diving systems. Recommendations for an industrial standard. (In Norwegian). Trondheim: SINTEF, 1999; STF78 A99123.

i) Ahlen C, Zahlsen K. FUDT-Bacteriology 1991. Disinfecting in hyperbaric environments. (In Norwegian). Trondheim: SINTEF, 1992; STF23 F92015.

Note that the exposure limits need to be translated into a form relative to the depth exposure and atmosphere.

5.3.8 In order to assess the need for internal corrosion control, including corrosion allowance and provision

for inspection and monitoring, the following conditions shall be considered:

a) maximum and average operating temperature and pressure profiles of the components, and expected variations during the design life

b) expected content of dissolved salts in fluids, residual oxygen and active chlorine in sea water

c) chemical additions and provisions for periodic cleaning

d) provision for inspection of corrosion damage and expected capabilities of inspection tools (i.e. detection limits and sizing capabilities for relevant forms of corrosion damage)

e) the possibility of wear and tear, galvanic effects and effects in still water pools shall be considered.

5.4 Submerged components

5.4.1 Range of ambient temperature: -2°C to 30°C.

Guidance note:

Ambient temperature may in this case fall outside the range stipulated. This shall be agreed on a case-by-case basis and stated in the certificates.

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5.4.2 Range of ambient pressure: 1 bar to 1.3 times the pressure corresponding to maximum operating

depth. Environmental requirements apply to submerged materials and components.

5.4.3 Salinity of ambient water: 35 parts per thousand.

5.4.4 The pressure equivalent to depth of seawater at 0°C with 3.5% salinity may be taken as 1.006 bar per

10 msw (meter seawater), as a mean value.

For saltwater, the density may be taken to vary as follows:

— 0.05% increase for each 100 m of depth increase

— 0.4% increase for an increase in salinity from 3.5% to 4.0%

Chapter 2 Section 1 — 0.3% decrease for an increase in temperature from 10°C to

Chapter 2 Section 1

— 0.3% decrease for an increase in temperature from 10°C to 20°C.

5.4.5 For the selection and detailed design for external corrosion control, the conditions relating to the environment shall be defined.

Chapter 2 Section 2 SECTION 2 PRESSURE VESSELS FOR HUMAN OCCUPANCY, GAS STORAGE AND OTHER

Chapter 2 Section 2

SECTION 2 PRESSURE VESSELS FOR HUMAN OCCUPANCY, GAS STORAGE AND OTHER PURPOSES

1 Introduction

1.1 Objectives

Pressure vessels are designed and manufactured to internationally recognised codes and standards. The objectives of this section are to give additional requirements that relate to the function of these pressure vessels in a diving system.

1.2 Scope

1.2.1 The following scope of work is included in the requirements of this section:

a) conceptual and detailed design of pressure vessels for human occupancy, for gas storage and for other purposes

b) manufacturing of such pressure vessels

c) quality control during manufacturing and fabrication of such pressure vessels including documentation requirements

d) load conditions

e) interlock arrangements for doors and hatches.

1.2.2 ASME PVHO-1 safety standard for pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be used for design of

acrylic plastic windows, regardless of which standard is used for the design of the pressure vessel.

1.2.3 Welding of pressure vessels and general workmanship requirements are given in the relevant rules,

codes and standards.

1.3 Application

1.3.1 This section applies to all pressure vessels in surface diving systems designed to comply with

this standard. Note that in addition to this standard, and the applied design standards, further national requirements may apply.

1.3.2 Closed bells are not required for surface diving systems and consequently not included in the

application of this standard. If closed bells are employed, the complete diving system shall comply with the relevant requirements given in Ch.3.

1.3.3 This section has impact upon [Sec. 8], insofar as it provides the basis for design of the pressure

vessels in the hyperbaric evacuation system.

1.4 References

1.4.1 For quantitative design parameters and functional requirements, see relevant standards and

guidelines, including normative references given in Ch.1 Sec.2 and DNVGL-RU-SHIP.

Chapter 2 Section 2 1.4.2 All pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be designed, constructed

Chapter 2 Section 2

1.4.2 All pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be designed, constructed and tested according to one

of the following codes and standards:

a) EN 13445 unfired pressure vessels.

b) ASME PVHO-1, see ASME VIII div.1 or div.2 boiler and pressure vessel code.

1.4.3 Pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be classified in the highest category in the applied code or

standard.

1.4.4 All windows in pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be certified in accordance with ASME-

PVHO-1.

1.4.5 Gas cylinders shall be designed, constructed and tested according to one of the following standards,

norms or directives:

a) EN ISO 9809-1 gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel gas cylinders, design, construction and testing, part 1: quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa.

b) EN ISO 9809-2 gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel gas cylinders, design, construction and testing, part 1: quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater or equal to 1100 MPa.

c) EN ISO 11120 gas cylinders, refillable seamless steel tubes for compressed gas transport, of water capacity between 150 l and 3000 l, design construction and testing.

1.5 Documentation

Pressure vessels shall be documented as follows:

Plans showing structural arrangement, dimensions, welding seams, attachments and foundations of the chamber and other pressure vessels, with details of doors, locks (medical locks and equipment locks), view ports, penetrations, flanged and welded connections.

Plans showing expansion allowances under working conditions for interconnected multi-vessel systems, if applicable.

Documents stating:

a) grade of material

b) welding methods, type and size of filler metal

c) design pressure

d) particulars of heat treatment

e) fabrication tolerances

f) extent and type of non-destructive testing of welded connections

g) type of thermal insulation materials and particulars, i.e.: flammability and specific heat conductivity

h) Drawings and specifications of all windows with detailed drawings and specifications of the penetration the appropriate window fitting. It shall be determined that the tolerances are sufficient including gaskets, O-rings and retainer rings

i) calculations of thicknesses and or stresses

j) fatigue evaluation and if necessary fatigue analysis.

For seamless steel gas cylinders and vessels:

a) plans showing proposed dimensions and details such as valves and safety devices shall be made for each type and size of vessel.

Details shall include:

a) production method

b) heat treatment.

Chapter 2 Section 2 Material specifications for the completed vessel with information on the following:

Chapter 2 Section 2

Material specifications for the completed vessel with information on the following:

a) chemical composition

b) tensile strength

c) yield strength

d) elongation

e) impact test values

f) brinell hardness.

The following particulars shall be provided for information:

a) type of gas

b) filling pressure at 15°C

c) safety relief valve setting

d) weight of empty vessel and volumetric capacity

e) material protection.

1.6 Survey and testing requirements during and after manufacture

1.6.1 For welded pressure vessels the following tests have to be carried out in addition to the tests specified

in the applied design code or standard:

a) all butt welds in diving chambers shall be radiographed over their full length

b) branches and reinforcement of openings, including all weld connections to the shell, shall be subjected to 100% magnetic particle testing.

1.6.2 When the applied code or standard for welded pressure vessels requires heat treatment of dished ends

after hot or cold forming, mechanical testing may be required after the final heat treatment.

1.6.3 The details between intermediate heads and cylindrical shells of chambers may be done in accordance

with requirements given in:

a) EN 1708-1 welding, basic weld joint details in steel Table 9: internal diaphragms and separators

b) ASME Sec.VIII div.I Fig.UW-13.1.

1.6.4 Welded pressure vessels and seamless steel gas containers for internal pressure shall be hydrostatic

tested to an internal pressure in accordance with the design code. Each compartment in chambers shall be tested separately. In addition pressure test shall be performed with test pressure in each chamber simultaneously.

1.6.5 Pressure vessels for external pressure shall, in addition to the internal pressure testing, be hydrostatic

tested to an external pressure in accordance with the design code.

1.6.6 Acrylic plastic windows shall be tested in accordance with ASME PVHO-1 Sec.2 [2.7].

1.6.7 For seamless gas cylinders production tests shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements

given in the applied code or standard. Further production tests, and required attendance during testing, may

be given in the specifications.

1.6.8 Gas cylinders shall be cleaned and sealed according to accepted industry standards.

Chapter 2 Section 2 1.7 Survey and testing requirements during and after assembly The gas

Chapter 2 Section 2

1.7 Survey and testing requirements during and after assembly

The gas storage and chambers shall be tested for leakage at low pressures and the maximum working pressure.

1.8 Marking and signboards

1.8.1 All gas containers shall be marked with a consistent colour code visible from the valve end, showing

the name, chemical formula of the gas it contains and the percentage of each gas. Piping systems shall be marked with a colour code, and there shall be a chart posted in the control room explaining the code.

Table 1 For piping systems and gas storage bottles/pressure vessels the following colour code should be used:

Name

(Symbol)

Colour code

Oxygen

(O

2 )

White

Nitrogen

(N

2 )

Black

Air

(Air)

White and black

Carbon dioxide

(CO 2 )

Grey

In addition, each bottle/pressure vessel should be marked with the name and symbol given above of the gases it contains. The marking and colour coding of the gas storage bottles should be visible from the valve end.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.6.9.)

1.8.2 Each gas container shall be permanently and legibly marked on the collar or neck ring (where the

thickness of the material is greater than the design minimum) as follows:

a) the design code

b) the manufacturer's mark or name

c) the manufacturer's serial number

d) the test pressure (bar) and date of hydrostatic test

e) surveyor's mark and identification

f) settled pressure (bar) at 15°C

g) volumetric capacity of the container, in litres

h) tare weight, i.e. the mass of the container including valve, in kg.

In addition marking of gas content shall be carried out according to Table 1.

1.8.3 Other pressure vessels shall be permanently and legibly marked at a suitable location in accordance

with the requirements in the design code. As a minimum the following information shall be present:

a) the design code

b) the manufacturer's mark or name

c) the manufacturer's serial number

d) the test pressure (bar) and date of hydrostatic test

e) the maximum working pressure

f) the inspection body’s mark and identification

g) the maximum set pressure of the safety relief valves.

Chapter 2 Section 2 1.9 Materials 1.9.1 Material specifications and selection associated with the production

Chapter 2 Section 2

1.9 Materials

1.9.1 Material specifications and selection associated with the production of pressure vessels are given in the

applied codes and standards (EN/ASME).

1.9.2 Areas of steel pressure vessels that can be subjected to corrosion shall be protected by approved

means. The surface of the window seats cavity shall be protected against corrosion.

1.9.3 Windows mounted on chambers shall be protected to avoid damage by impact and to prevent

chemicals, which can deteriorate the acrylic plastic, to come in contact with the window from the outside.

Guidance note:

Many solvents for paints, acetone and other agents will deteriorate the acrylic plastic and reduce the strength significantly.

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1.9.4 All penetrators in pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be designed to minimise corrosion from

any fluid passing through them.

Guidance note:

In some cases this requirement may best be met by the use of a sleeve passing through the hull penetration.

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1.9.5 Paints, cabling and other materials shall be considered for toxic or noxious properties.

2 General principles for design of chambers

2.1 General

2.1.1 A diving system should, as a minimum, include either one surface compression chamber with two

separate compartments, or two interconnected separate chambers so designed as to permit ingress or egress of personnel while one compartment or chamber remains pressurized. All doors should be designed so that locking mechanisms, if provided, can be operated from both sides.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.2.1.)

2.1.2 Where a surface compression chamber is to be used (-omitted, non-applicable text-), it should be so

arranged as to allow most divers to stand upright and to stretch out comfortably on their bunks. The smaller

of the two compartments should be large enough for at least two persons. One of these compartments should be a living compartment.

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.2.2.)

For SURFACE diving systems the minimum inner dimensions measured as free height above the deck plates in the middle of the chamber, shall be 170 cm This may be less if the chamber is only used for stand-by purposes and if national regulations allow it.

Guidance note:

Statutory requirements may require larger dimensions.

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2.1.3 A surface compression chamber should provide a suitable environment and facilities for the persons

who use it, having regard to the type and duration of the diving operation. (-Omitted, non-applicable text-).

(See IMO code of safety for diving systems Ch.2 design, construction and survey 2.2.6.)

Chapter 2 Section 2 2.1.4 All pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be certified. 2.1.5

Chapter 2 Section 2

2.1.4 All pressure vessels for human occupancy shall be certified.

2.1.5 Wet-bells, if employed, and surface diving baskets shall be of adequate size, be equipped to cater for

the number of divers intended to man them and be equipped for handling unconscious or injured divers.

2.2 Design loads

2.2.1 The design pressure for pressure vessels shall not be less than that corresponding to the maximum

operating pressure as defined in the specifications given in the MPS.

2.2.2 Fatigue evaluation and, if necessary, fatigue analysis shall be carried out for the number of full

pressure cycles as defined by the designer. The evvaluation and analysis shall be carried ut according to the applied design code.

Guidance note:

NDT of the surface of the external weld of the large openings such as windows and locks to detect surface breaking defects shall be carried out at the renewal survey.

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2.2.3 The effects of the following loads shall be considered and shall be taken into account, if significant. See

DNVGL-RU-SHIP Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.3 Principles and Sec.4:

a) dynamic loads due to movements of the support vessel

b) local loads

c) loads due to restrictions in expansions

d) loads due to weight of content during normal operation and pressure testing

e) loads due to rough handling

f) the stress evaluation shall apply the distortion theory (von Mises’ criterion).

Guidance note:

Multipurpose vessels may carry relatively heavy deck loads, which can cause stresses and strains on the mountings of the diving system components. If this cannot be avoided through design of the installed diving system, it should be monitored during such operations.

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2.3 Foundations for pressure vessels for human occupancy and for gas storage

2.3.1 The pressure vessels with foundations shall be designed for a static inclination of 30° in any direction

without exceeding the allowable stresses as specified in the design code.

2.3.2 Suitable foundations and supporting structures shall be provided to withstand a collision force acting

on the pressure vessels corresponding to one half the weights of the pressure vessels in the forward direction

and one quarter the weight of the pressure vessels in the aft direction.

Guidance note:

The loads mentioned in [2.3.1] and [2.3.2] need not to be combined with each other or with wave-induced loads.

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Chapter 2 Section 2 2.4 Doors, hatches, windows, branches etc. 2.4.1 The living compartment and

Chapter 2 Section 2

2.4 Doors,