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Assisting Career-Technical Education

Teachers Working in Mixed-Ability


Connections to Education Conference,

Ohio ACTE Annual Conference

Stacia Kaschak, M.Ed, Kent State University

Robert Baer, Ph.D, Kent State University
Davison Mupinga, Ph.D, Kent State University
CTE Teacher Needs
 Focus Group Findings:
◦ Terminology - frustrated with all the terms, definitions, and
◦ Legality/Liability Issues - concerned about appropriateness and
◦ Student Placement - frustrated with process of placing students
and achieving industry standards.
◦ Program Standards - concerned with students' ability to
become gainfully employed and pass licensing exams.
◦ Performance Assessments - confused about assessing students
◦ Support Awareness - confused about supports available and
their involvement in the IEP process.
◦ Effective Instructional Strategies - needed strategies to reach all
students in their classrooms and labs
Purpose of the CTE Project
The CTE Project was funded by the Office for Exceptional
Children and Office of Career- Technical Education to:
◦ Identify CTE instructor needs in conjunction with
university faculty and CTE teachers
◦ Develop and field test a module to improve the
preparation of CTE instructors in addressing the
needs of diverse students.
◦ Develop a web-based training and technical assistance
site for CTE teachers.
◦ Provide regional and local professional development
Essential Elements of Universal
Design for Learning

The Higher Education Act of 2008 defined UDL

1. Flexibility in ways that content is presented
2. Flexibility in ways that students are engaged
with content
3. Flexibility in ways that students respond to
4. Providing Opportunities & Eliminating
Barriers for Students with Disabilities
Module 1
Flexibility in Presentation of
Content Through Universal
Graphic Organizer for CTE in Mixed-Ability Classrooms-Module 1

3. Last Section: 1. Current Module: 4. Next Module:

Introduction Universal Design Engaging Students

5. Big question: How do we make our presentations accessible

to as many students as possible?
2. Is about:
6. The Key Concepts

Unit and Comics and Enhancements
Lesson Graphic Novels

7. Self-test questions 8. Unit Schedule

1. How are graphic organizers delivered? 1. Lecture

2. What is the purpose of the first three steps in the 2. Demonstration of graphic organizers
Lesson Organizer 3. Discussion of comics and graphic novels
3. Why are key concepts often different than 4. Discussion of auditory enhancements
competency descriptors? 5. Group activity in developing a graphic organizer for
4. How can comics and graphic organizers be used? a lesson that is based on CTE competencies.
5. What is a “sound field” and why is it important for
Why Use Graphic Organizers?
 Research indicates that students
◦ 10% of what they hear
◦ 80% of what they see and do
 The purpose of graphic organizers is to
create a mental picture of information
that makes retrieval easier.
Graphic Organizers – the Content
Enhancement (SIM) Approach
 Content Enhancement is a graphic organizer
that was designed by the University of
Kansas Center for Research on Learning
(Deshler & Shumaker, 2005)
 This graphic organizer can be used to
introduce students to the: (a) course, (b)
the unit, (c) each lesson, or (d) specific
problem solving or categorizing activities
 The following graphic organizers are adapted
from this Content Enhancement approach
Module 2
Flexibility in Ways that Students
are Engaged with Content
Graphic Organizer for CTE in Mixed-Ability Classrooms-Module 2

3. Last Section: 1. Current Module: 4. Next Module:

Universal Design Engaging Students Differentiating Instruction

5. Big question: How do we motivate and guide students in

Their learning? 2. Is about:
6. The Key Concepts

Notes and Task Analyses
Mnemonics Feedback and

7. Self-test questions 8. Unit Schedule

1. How could a teacher use a graphic organizer from 1. Discussion about guided notes and feedback
Module 1 as guided notes? 2. Demonstration of a feedback strategy
2. What are the two common types of mnemonics? 3. Discussion of reinforcements
3. Name one strategy for increasing the frequency of 4. Discussion of task analyses
feedback 5. Group exercise on task analyses and mnemonics
4. What is grandma’s principle?
5. Name three ways to train students using a task
Task Analyses
 Task analyses
◦ Task is broken down into steps
 Smaller steps for students experiencing difficulty
with a task
 Teaching using task analyses
◦ Backward chaining -teaches last step until
mastered, then last two steps, etc.
◦ Forward chaining -teaches first step until
mastered, then first two steps, etc.
◦ Whole task chaining teaches all steps
Recording Progress with Task Analysis

1. Cross out steps completed independently

2. Circle total number of steps completed
3. Connect circles to create graph of progress
Table 2. Weekly task analysis and recording sheet
STEPS FOR HAND WASHING Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri.
8. Dry area around basin with towel 8 8 8 8 8
7. Dry hands 7 7 7 7 7
6. Turn off water 6 6 6 6 6
5. Rinse hands 5 5 5 5 5
4. Rub hands together vigorously 4 4 4 4 4
3. Apply soap 3 3 3 3 3
2. Wet hands 2 2 2 2 2
1. Turn on water 1 1 1 1 1
Module 3
Flexibility in Ways that Students
Respond to Content
Graphic Organizer for CTE in Mixed-Ability Classrooms-Module 3

3. Last Section: 1. Current Module: 4. Next Module:

Engaging Students Differentiated Instruction Opportunities for
Students with Disabilities
5. Big question: How do we provide choices and different
ways of learning core content
2. Is about:
6. The Key Concepts

Cognitive Learning Cooperative

Approaches Styles Learning

7. Self-test questions 8. Unit Schedule

1. How is differentiated instruction different from 1. Discussion of the importance of differentiated
“watered-down” curricula instruction for mixed-ability classrooms
2. Name several ways that students can approach core 2. Presentation of the “Think Tac Toe” model
content using Tomlinson’s “Think-Tac-Toe 3. Discussion of the importance of cooperative
3. What are the two key criteria for developing learning
cooperative learning projects 4. Presentation of the “Jigsaw” model
4. Why is it important to work in mixed-ability groups? 5. Group exercise in developing a cooperative learning
5. Describe the steps in the “Jigsaw” approach to project
cooperative learning
Differentiated Assignments
 Improves students response to instruction by:
◦ Making it more relevant to student learning goals
◦ Allowing students to approach learning in their
own way
 Assignments may be differentiated to
◦ Different ways of thinking about a concept
◦ Different ways of approaching or implementing a
Think Tac Toe
 Developed by Carol Tomlinson (2001) who
is a recognized expert in differentiated
 Is designed to be aligned with key concepts
and standards
 Has been applied in a number of ways
including cognitive and learning styles
Think Tac Toe Method -
Differentiating Learning Expression

Kinesthetic Knowledge Auditory

Whole body games, movement list, define, tell, describe, interviewing, debating
activities, making models, identify, show, label, collect, participating on a panel giving
following instructions to make examine, quote, name, who, oral reports participating in oral
something, setting up when, where discussions of written material

Comprehension Core Content Synthesis

Summarize, describe, information is presented in combine, integrate, modify,
interpret, contrast, predict, sequential steps, lessons are rearrange, substitute, plan,
associate, distinguish, estimate, structured and teacher-directed create, design, invent, what if?,
discuss, extend goals are clear requirements are compose, formulate, prepare,
spelled out generalize, rewrite

Visual Evaluation Tactile

computer graphics maps, assess, decide, rank, grade, test, Drawing, playing board games,
graphs, charts, cartoons, measure, recommend, convince, making dioramas, making
posters, diagrams, graphic select, judge, explain, models, following instructions
organizers, text with a lot of discriminate, support, conclude, to make something
pictures compare
Module 4
Providing Opportunities &
Eliminating Barriers for Students
with Disabilities
Graphic Organizer for CTE in Mixed-Ability Classrooms-Module 4

3. Last Section: 1. Current Module: 4. Next Module:

Differentiating Instruction Providing Opportunities for Next steps and evaluation
Students with Disabilities
5. Big question: How do we make career technical education
accessible and appropriate for students with disabilities?
2. Is about:
6. The Key Concepts


Tech-Prep Technology, and
Ensuring Supports
Implications for
Success for
Students with
7. Self-test questions 8. Unit Schedule
1. Describe the implications of legislation for CTE 1. Discussion about federal legislation
2. What types of outcomes are required for Tech-Prep 2. Discussion about the Tech-Prep vision and how it
students? applies to students with disabilities
3. Describe the process for modifying Tech-Prep 3. Discussion about the questions that need to be
standards for students with disabilities? asked in IEP meetings of students for CTE
4. What are the essential requirements of a program and 4. Description of the Job Accommodation Network
how are they determined? (JAN) , CTEproject.com, and other resources for
5. Where is information about accom-modations and identifying disability specific accommodations and
technology for persons with disabilities? technology
Participants’ Comments
 “Very useful, very informative”
 “Need more time”
 “Please come back”
 “User-friendly”
 “Wasn’t interested”
 “Share and use with my students”
 “Be more proactive in contacting VOSE”
 “Helps me teach teachers”
 “Add more graphics to teaching”
 “Would like to have regular education involved”
 “Help keep students organized”
 “Continue to be proactive despite co-workers’ objectives”
 “It was a great inservice”
 “I want a board”
 “I will try and break things down. I hadn’t thought of that.”
Other Training Modules
 Classroom Strategies (Module 5)
◦ Challenges of a mixed ability classroom
◦ Creating a learning environment
◦ Managing learning activities
◦ Quality assignments

 Individual Problem Solving (Module 6)

◦ Unmotivated student
◦ Students with learning, behavioral, sensory or
mobility needs
Next Steps

Questions & Comments?

Thank you!
Sources for Presentation Module

 Deshler, D.D., Shumaker, J.B. (2005). Teaching
adolescents with disabilities: Accessing the general
education curriculum. Sage Publications: Thousand
Oaks, CA
 http://courses.stratepedia.org/course/view.php?id=19
Sources for Engagement Module


Sources for Differentiation &
Cooperative Learning

 Bennett B., Rolheiser, C., Stevahn, L.

(1991) Cooperative Learning: Where Heart
Meets Mind, Educational Connections,
 Tomlinson, Carol A. (2005). How to
differentiate instruction in mixed-ability
classrooms, 2nd ed. Pearson: New Jersey:
Contact Information

 Robert Baer, rbaer@kent.edu
 Stacia Kaschak, smather@kent.edu
 Davison Mupinga, dmupinga@kent.edu