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The Status of Children with Special Needs in

Inclusive Education of Grade One Classes in

Urduja Elementary School

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the
College of Education
University of Caloocan City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements of the Degree
Bachelor in Elementary Education
Major in Early Childhood Education

By

Alvarez, Arnel C.
Baluyot, Henar M.
Castro, Jaya D.
Lopez, Marlon Alfred D.C.
Lorente, Zarah Jane A.

October 2018
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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Background of the Study

In recent times inclusive education of young children has become a

central concern within early childhood education (Reay, 2006). This move is

supported by international legislations and conventions on inclusive practice

(UN, 1989; UNESCO, 1994, 2000), which advanced arguments that inequalities

arising from early childhood educational practices have not been adequately

addressed globally. The same can be said about Philippines’ early childhood

education system. The right of all children to education is asserted in numerous

international treaties and texts, and has been affirmed by both legally binding

and non-binding instruments. States therefore have an obligation to respect,

protect and fulfill the right of all learners to education. (UNESCO, 2014)

Education For All (EFA) is an existing government movement to provide

quality basic education for children, youth and adults. All of us have the right to

education to make sure all children are included; schools collaborate to see

how all children can meet the certain goals given. This area may be a

challenging one for some and it comes down to what does the term “all” really

mean in Education For All”.


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There have been a number of national policy initiatives in response to

the growing concern that many children, particularly those from disadvantaged

families, including those with disabilities are not benefiting from the changed

social economic and educational outcomes thereby becoming more vulnerable.

To this end the framework of education of children with disabilities in

Philippines, the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines Article XIV

Section I: the state shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality

education of all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education

accessible to all. The Act mandated that all individuals should have equal rights

and opportunities to receive basic education provided by the State.

The Philippines has only served 2% of the targeted 2.2 million children

with disabilities in the country who live without access to a basic human right:

the right to education (DepEd, 2009). The implementation of inclusive pilot

programs shifted emphasis from special segregated schools to inclusive

education and in 2009; inclusion for special needs children was implemented in

more public schools. In 2009, the DepEd has ordered Inclusive Education as a

strategy for increasing participation rate of children in school. They organized

the urgency to guarantee the right for all children to receive appropriate

education within regular or inclusive education embraces the philosophy of

accepting all children regardless of race, shape, size, color, ability or disability

with support from school staff, students, parents and the community (DepEd

order 72, series of 2009). These developments have led to Filipino children
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having more opportunities to access educational services and to engage in

early childhood education.

The developments towards inclusive education reflected in policies

considering every child as having the right to receive quality education and

educational opportunities to enable full social and economic participation in

society. It also includes the right to accept care and education for children who

are underprivileged, handicapped, youth, women and the elderly. As a future

teacher in an inclusive class, the researchers would probably encounter

learners with special needs. It is necessary that a teacher have both the right

information and proper attitude in dealing with different disabilities and or

exceptionalities.

There are different ways of presenting categories for Children with

Special Needs. Special education practitioners would have varying terms and

categories based on Omrod’s Educational Psychology.

There are three different types of specific cognitive or academic

difficulties: the Learning Disabilities, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and

Speech and Communication Disorders.

There are also different types of Social/Emotional difficulties: Autism,

Mental Retardation and the Emotional/Conduct Disorders

In Physical Disabilities and Health Impairments, there are also two types:

the Physical and Health Impairment, Severe and Multiple Disabilities.


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There are also different types of Sensory Impairments: Visual

Impairments and Hearing Impairments.

Policies demonstrate the government’s commitment to equity and social

justice for all children, Philippines’ education in the early years is still facing

challenges in terms of achieving successful early childhood inclusive education

for all children. In virtually all some public schools in the Philippines has not yet

implementing inclusive education, the gap between enrolment of children with

and without disabilities remains huge. Comparatively, in Urduja Elementary

School, where the study will be taken, inclusive education is implemented

school year 2016-2017. Still, a large proportion of children with disabilities are

still not receiving educational services. Many children with disabilities who are

included in the schools are “excluded within the classroom” (UNICEF, 2003, p.

50). One of the reasons given for the low enrolment is the insufficient number of

schools that can accept children with disabilities (UNICEF, 2003). Besides,

whether or not children with disabilities are accepted and fully included in

schools depends very much upon the understanding, beliefs and attitudes of

the teachers (Carter, 2006). Coupled with this, it is the lack of qualified teachers

in the field related to early childhood inclusive education that is a cause of

concern. In terms of educational quality for young children, pedagogy remains

penalizing and teacher directed (Klibthong, 2011). There is clear evidence that

Philippines has taken great steps towards providing early childhood inclusive

education for all children. Under the DepEd Order no. 72, S 2009, the
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Department of Education made their ways to reach out learners with special

needs through components of a comprehensive inclusive program such as

Child Find, Assessment, Program Options, Curriculum Modifications, and

Parental Involvement.

In Caloocan City, particularly in Urduja Elementary School where the

study will be conducted, the researchers aim to interpret the status of children

with special needs in inclusive education of grade one classes. There are

concerns to be attended by teachers and school heads along with the

implementation of Inclusive Education. One of the major concerns of the

researchers to conduct this study is to determine if there are improvements to a

child with special needs enrolled in a regular class.

Statement of the Problem

The main objective of this study is to interpret the Status of Children with

Special Needs in Inclusive Education of Grade One Classes in Urduja

Elementary School.

Specifically, this study aims to seek answers to the following problems:

1. How many pupils with special needs are currently enrolled at Grade One

Classes in Urduja Elementary School?

2. What are the disabilities present at Grade One Classes in Urduja

Elementary School?
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3. What disability or disorder has the most number? What disability or

disorder has the least?

4. What is the performance of a pupil with special needs in school together

with normal pupils?

5. What strategies or methods being used by the teacher to handle the

needs of the pupils with disabilities?

6. What are the problems encountered by the teacher in implementing

Inclusive Education?

7. What are the comments or suggestions of the teachers on implementing

Inclusive Education in public schools?

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The objective of the study is to interpret the status of inclusive education

of grade one classes in Urduja Elementary School, Division of Caloocan City.

It will describe the status of children with special needs enrolled in inclusive

education.

This study was conducted, SY 2018-2019, with the use of survey

questionnaires as data gathering procedures and to interview such teachers

who are handling classes of children with special needs.

This study will focused on the observed categories of disability or

disorder of a child with special needs according to the interview and survey
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questionnaires among teachers who are currently handling grade one classes

in Urduja Elementary School where the study will be conducted.

Significance of the Study

The researchers believe that the findings of this study will have significant

contributions to the following people:

Children with Special Needs. Specifically, in grade one pupils, this

study will help them to socialize with normal pupils and feel belongingness.

Grade One Teachers. This may widen their horizon in different

perspective views in education, to be more competent in teaching and be

aware with the conditions of learners with special needs.

Parents. This study will help the parents to understand more the

situations of their children inside the classroom and how their children deal with

different circumstances they are encountering. Also, this research may develop

understanding and awareness on their child’s preferences of learning.

School Administrators. They may be guided in their administrative

functions especially on matters regarding the implementation of the curriculum

as a core of educational efforts in response to the demands of change and the

needs of the time.


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Researchers. This study may have basis in determining their strength in

terms of developing any material for the improvement of the pupils.

Future Researchers. They may be able to conduct further study that

could be of help in improving the performance of students. This study will also

serve as a guide if they will be having the same or related topic so that they can

get related literature and additional information about the topic.

Students who pursues Education Courses. They may be able to use

this as a reference or source in getting ideas and possible situations that they

will be encountering in the future.