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THE

VULGATE

LATIN COUESE:

CONTAINING

GRAMMAR, DELECTUS, EXERCISE BOOK, AND VOCABULARIES.

FOR THE XJ8DE OF SCHOOLS.

WILLIAM DODDS,

MASTER OP WRAGBT GRAMMAR SCHOOL ;

Author of "The Excelsior Latin Series," "A Complete Guide to Matricu lation at the University of London," "Algebra for Beginners," dec.

Manchester: JOHN HEYWOOD;-^44riffiD 143, Deansgate; Educational Department, 141, Deansgate. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co.; J. C. Tacey.

306.

. * . ?'
.
*
.
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V

V

PREFACE.

The plan of the following work was suggested by M. Arnold, Esq., one of Her Majesty,s Inspectors of Schools, in his General Report of the Public Elementary Schools visited by him in the Westminster Division during the year 1871-2. He expresses a hope that Latin will be much more used as a special subject, and even adopted, finally, as part of the regular instruction in the upper classes of all Elementary Schools. " Of course I mean," he says, " Latin studied in a very simple way ; but I am more and more struck with the stimulating and instructing effect upon a child,s mind of possessing a second language, in however limited a degree, as an object of reference and com parison ; and Latin is the foundation of so much in the written and spoken language of modern Europe, that it is the best to take as a second language." Mr. Arnold is of opinion, how ever, that the teaching should be on quite a different plan from that adopted in classical schools : "I am convinced that, for the elementary teacher,s purpose, the best way would be to disregard classical Latin entirely ; to use neither ' Cornelius Nepos,, nor 'Eutropius,, nor ' Csesar,, nor any delectus from them, but to use the Latin Bible, the Vulgate. A chapter or two from the story of Joseph, a chapter or two from Deuteronomy, and the first two chapters of St. Luke,s Gospel, would be the sort of delectus we want; add to them a vocabulary, and a simple grammar of the main formB of the Latin language, and you have a perfectly compact and cheap school book, and yet all that you need. In the extracts the child would be at home, instead of, as in extracts from classical Latin, in an utterly strange land ; and the Latin of the Vulgate, while it is real and living Latin, is yet, like the Greek of the New Testament, much nearer to modern idiom, and, therefore, much easier for a modern learner than classical idiom can be. * * * * What we want to give to our elementary schools in general is the vocabulary, to some extent, of a second language, and that language one which is at the bottom of a great deal of modern life and modern language." The plan thus roughly sketched by Mr. Arnold we have here endeavoured to carry out. Part I. contains an outline of the Accideroe and the First Rules of Syntax, with exercises in Declension and Conjugation to be written out and committed to memory. Part II. consists of a collection of easy and familiar extracts from the Latin Bible, preceded by a few simple exercises for parsing and construing on the principal rules of grammar,

PREFACE. The plan of the following work was suggested by M. Arnold, Esq., one of Her

IV.

PREFACE.

progressively arranged, and gradually leading up to the Sacred Text, which may be used pan passu with the Grammar, or their study deferred until the pupil has made some progress with the Accidence, at the discretion of the teacher. Pakt III. contains a number of easy, simple sentences for translation into Latin, based upon the introductory exercises in Part II. The study of Latin is one which is generally admitted to be of the highest importance, and hence we find that it occupies a foremost place in the curriculum of every school having any pretension to respectability. And rightly so, for it forms an excellent mental discipline, and is admirably adapted for sharpening the wits, strengthening the memory, and cultivating the judgment, thereby increasing the student,s general capacity for work ; whilst from Latin, more than any other language, cnn we gain a knowledge of the general laws of grammar, upon which all languages are built. But the main advantage to be derived from a knowledge of Latin is the immense assistance it affords us to a correct spelling of English. In fact, it offers us a complete key to the spelling of a large number of the very words with which children and those unacquainted with the grammatical structure of the Roman tongue experience most difficulty. At least ten thousand words in the English language, many of them in common use, are of Latin origin, and cannot readily be understood by those ignorant of the originals; whereas a slight knowledge of Latin would give a clue to the root-words and the prepositions by which their compounds are formed, and lay bare their meaning at once. The importance of these roots maybe seen from the fact that "from pono and positum we have in English two hundred and fifty words ; from plico two hundred ; from fcro and latum one hundred and ninety-eight ; from specie one hundred and seventy-seven ; from mitto and missum one hundred and seventy-four ; from tcneo and tentum one hundred and sixty-eight ; from capio and captum one hundred and ninety-seven ; from tendo and tensum one hundred and sixty-two ; from duco and duclum one hundred and fifty-six ;" that is to say, from nine Latin verbs are derived sixteen hundred and eighty-two English words. Teachers of Elementary,Schools will therefore find this a most useful extra subjeet, that will not only prove " easy to learn and pleasant to teach," but will also indirectly increase the money grants for Reading and Dictation, whilst very little time need be devoted to it in school, as the rules of grammar and the vocabularies can all be learnt at home. §§ 1 32 are adapted to the requirements of Standard IV. ; §§ 33 77, 81 137, and Exercises I. XXIV. for Standard V. ; the remainder of the work for Standard VI.

IV. PREFACE. progressively arranged, and gradually leading up to the Sacred Text, which may be used

THE VULGATE LATIN COUBSE.

Part I- GRAMMAR.

THE ALPHABET AND PARTS OF SPEECH.

§ 1. The Latin Alphabet

consists of 25

letters,

the same as the English without W, both capitals

and small.

§ 2. The consonants.

Letters

are divided

into vowels

and

§ 3. The Vowels are a, e, i, of u, y'; Consonants.

the rest are

§ 4. A Syllable consists of one or

more letters

pronounced together. Every syllable contains at least

one vowel. A Diphthong is the sound

of two vowels in one

syllable. The Latin diphthongs are *aer *oe, ait, and ei, eu, ui.

A syllable is long

(a) or short (5), according

to the

length (or quantity) of its vowel.

Obs. All syllables containing a diphthong are long.

§ 5. The Parts of Speech are eight, viz. :

Noun,

Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Prej>osition, Con

junction, Interjection.

Note. There is no Article in Latin, so that nox may be translated " night," "a night," or " the night."

(1) Nouns are the names of persons, places, and things ; as Partint, St. Paul ; Galilaea, Galilee ; mensa, a table.

* These diphthongs are often printed thus : M, w : 03, ce, and are sounded like "e" in the English word "me," as in Casar.

THE VULGATE LATIN COUBSE. Part I- GRAMMAR. THE ALPHABET AND PARTS OF SPEECH. § 1. The
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THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§ 6.

(2) Pronouns stand instead of Nouns ; as ejo, I ; tu, thou ; Me, he.

(3) Adjectives express the qualities of persons and things ; as, vnus dims et alter pauper, the one rich and the other poor.

(4) Vbrbs tell what persons and things do, suffer, or are ; as, scribae dicunt, the scribes say ; a/jnus oceisus est, a lamb was slain ; lex est bona, the law is good.

(5) Adverbs show how, when, or where a thing is done ; as, Venio cito, I come quickly.

(6) Prepositions govern the cases of nouns and pronouns, an I show their relation to each other; as, Vado ad Patrem, I go to the Father.

(7) Conjunctions join together words and sentences ; as, ores et boves, sheep and oxen.

(8) Interjections are words of exclamation ; as, Ecce Homo I Behold the man I

§ 6. Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Verbs are inflected, i.e., their endings are changed in order to show their relation to other words, where we in Eng lish use prepositions, by, with, from, in, to, for, (fee.

The inflection of Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives is called Declension ; that of Verbs, Conjugation.

NOUNS. § 7. Nouns are declined by Number and Case.

There are two numbers, Singular and Plural. The Singular speaks of one, and the Plural of more than one ; as discipulus (sing.), a disciple ; discipuli (plur.),

disciples.

§ 8.

There

are six Cases,

Nominative,

Genitive,

Dative. Accusative, Vocative, Ablative.

(1) The Nominative Case usually goes before the verb, and answers the question Who ? or What ? As, Who sleeps ? Ans.,

Puella dormit, the maid sleepeth.

(2) The Genitive Case is translated by, of, or 's, and answers the question whose? As, Whose son? Ans., /airs Jilius, the

carpenter,s son.

6 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. § 6. (2) Pronouns stand instead of Nouns ; as ejo,

§ 9.

FIRST DECLENSION.

7

(3) The Dative Case answers the question to or for whom or what ? As, To whom was it given ? Ans., Datum est puellae, it was given to the damsel.

(4) The Accusative Case generally follows the verb, and

answers the question whom or what ?

As, Whom does the

Father love ? Ans., Pater amat Fiiium, the Father loveth the

Son.

(5) The Vocative Case is translated by O ; as Mi fill, O my son.

(6) The Ablative Case is translated by the prepositions by, with, from, in, and others ; as, In domo PatrU mei, in my Father* house.

§ 9. All Latin Nouns are arranged in five classes, called Declensions, distinguished by the endings of

the

Genitive Case Singular :

(l)ae, (3)1,

(3) Is,

(4) us,

(5)65.

§ 10. There are Three Genders, Masculine, Feminine, Neuter.

Obs. When a noun may be either Masculine or Feminine, it is said to be of the Common Gender ; as parens, parent.

FIRST DECLENSION. § 11. The Nominative Singular of Nouns

of the

First Declension ends in a, and the Genitive in ae.

 

Singular.

 

Plural.

Kom. Mens-a,

a table

Mens-ae,

tables

Gen. Mens-ae,

of a table

Mens-arum, of tablet

 

Dat.

Mens-ae,

to, or for a table

Mens-Is,

to, orfor tables

Ace.

Mens-am, a table

 

Mens-as,

tables

Voo.

Mens-a,

0 table

[a table.

Mens-ae,

0 tables

[tables.

Abl.

Mens-a,

by, with, or from

Mens-Is,

by,

with,

or from

Obs. Every noun is made up of two parts ; (I) the Stem, that part of the word which remains unchanged ; and (2) the Case-ending. The stem of a noun may always be found by throwing away the case-ending of the gen. sing. Stem, mens. Case-endings a, ae, am, arum, is, as. Nouns of the First Declension are Feminine, except the names of

moles, as Poeta, a poet ; Propheta, a prophet.

Decline also ; Turba, a multitude ; puella, a girl ; causa, a cause ; scriba, a scribe ; poeta, a poet ; porta, a gate ; propheta, a prophet; flamma, a flame ; Stella, a star ; epietola, a letter.

§ 9. FIRST DECLENSION. 7 (3) The Dative Case answers the question to or for whom

THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§12.

SECOND DECLENSION.

§ 12. The Nominative Singular of Nouns of the Second Declension ends in us> er, um, and the Genitive

in i.

Nouns in us and er are generally Masculine, those in u»i Neuter.

A. Masculine.

 

Singular.

 

Plural.

Nom. D5mIll-US, the lord

D5mln-r,

lords

Gen. D6mln-I, of the lord

D6min-5rum,

of lords

Dat,

D6min-O, to, orfor the lord

DSmln-Is,

to, or for lords

Ace.

DomitL-um, the lord

Domln-os,.

lords

Voc.

D6mln-S, 0 lord {the lord.

DSmln-I,

0

lords

[lords.

Abl.

D6mln.-5t, by, with, orfrom

DOmln-Is,

by, w itli, orfrom

Nom. MagistSr,

a master

Magistr-I,

musters

Gen. Magistr-I,

of a master

Maglstr-5rum, of masters

Dat.

Magistr-o,

or for a master

to,

Magistr-Is,.

to, orj,or master*

Ace. Maglstr-um, a master

Magistr-os,

masters

Voc.

MagistSr, 0 master

Maglstr-I,

0

masters

Abl. Maglstr-S,

by,

with,

from a master.

or

Magistr-Is,

by, with, orfrom masters.

Nom. PuSr,

a boy

PfiSr-i;

bolts

Gen PuSr-I,

of a boy

P{ier-5rum,

of boys

Dat. Pugr-5,

to, orfor a boy

Piier-Is,

to, orfor boys

Aco.

Puer-nm, a boy

Puer-os,

boys-

Voc.

PuSr,

O boy

[a boy.

Ptter-I,.

0

boys

[boys.

Abl.

Pu6r-5,

by, with, orfrom

Ptter-Is,

by, with, or from

 

E. Neuter.

 

Singular.

 

Plural.

Nom. Regn-um, a kingdom

Regn-a,

kingdoms

Gen.

Regn-I,

of a kingdom

Regn-orum, of kingdoms

 

Dat. Regn-O, toorforalcingdom

Regn-Is,

Xo oxfor kingdoms

Ace.

Regn-um, a kingdom

Regn-a,

kingdoms

Voc.

Begn-um, 0 kingdom

Regn-a,

0 kingdoms

Abl.

Regn-O,

by, with, or from a kingdom.

Eegn-lS,

vith,

by,

kingdoms.

or from

THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. SECOND DECLENSION. § 12. The Nominative Singular of Nouns of the Second

§ 13. SECOND AND THIRD DECLENSIONS.

9

Obs I The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative of all Neuter Nouns 'are alike in each number, and in the Plural these Cases-always

end in a. 2 The Vocative is

always the same as the Nominative, except iu

Singular Nouns of the Second Declension in us. The Dative and Ablative

Plural are always the same.

  • 3. Filius, a son, makes fill in the Vocative Singular.

4: Most Nouns in er are declined like magistcr, throwing out t in tho Genitive, a few only are declined like pucr.

Decline

an enemy;

also (like Dominus) : Angelus, an angel; inimicus, hartus, a garden ; gladius, a sword ; murus, a wall ;

servus, a servant : asinus, an ass ; amicus, a friend ; oculus, an

eye; annus, a year ; discipulus, a disciple ; lupus, a.wolf ; aguus, a lamb ; digitus, a finger ; equus, a horse.

Decline also (like Magister) : Minister, ministn, a servant ; faber, fabri, a workman (a carpenter) ; liber, libri, a book ; ager, agri, a field ; arbiter,. arbitri, an umpire.

Decline also (like Puer) : Socer, soceri, a father-in-law ; gener, generi, a son-in-law ; vesper, vesperi, evening.

Decline also (like Regnum) : Bellum, war ; astrum, a star ; donum, a gift ; jwjum, a yoke ; pretium, value,, price ; vestigium, footstep ; templum, a temple ; signum, a sign ; folium, a leaf ; verbum, a word ; coelum, heaven ; proelium, a battle ; scutum, a shield:

THIRD DECLENSION.

§ 13. The Nominative Singular ofNouns of the Third Declension ends in various letters, but the Genitive Singular always ends in is.

A. Masculine and Feminine,

(a) Not increasing in the Genitive.*

 

Singular.

1.

Plural.

Nom. Nub-es, a cloud

 

Nub-es, clouds

Gen.

Nub-Is, of a cloud

 

Nub-Ium, of clouds

Dat.

Nub-I, to orfor a cloud

N&b-Ibus, to orfor clouds

Ace.

NGb-om, a cloud

Nub-es, clouds

Voc.

Nub-es, 0 cloud

[cloud.

Nub-es,

0 clouds

AbL

Nub-5,

by, with, atfrom a

 

Nub-ibus, by, with, orfrom clouds.

* When, the Genitive Singular contains a syllable moro than the Nominative, the Noun is said to increase in the Genitive.

§ 13. SECOND AND THIRD DECLENSIONS. 9 Obs I The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative of all
  • 10 TH3 VULGATE LATIN COUKSB.

§13.

 

Singular.

 

PluraL

Nom. CIv-Ig,

a citizen

Clv-Bs, citizen*

 

Gen.

CIv-lB,

of a citizen

CIv-Iura,

of citizens

Dat.

Clv-L

to orfor a citizen

CIv-IbUS, to orfor citizens

 

Ace.

Civ-em, a citizen

 

CIv-88, citizens

Voc.

CIv-is, 0 citizen

[citizen.

 

CIv-es,

0 citizens

Abl.

ClV-d,

by, with, or from a

CIv-IbUS, by, with, or from citizens.

 

(6) Increasing in the Genitive.

 
 

1.

Kom. Lapis,

a stone

Lapld-Ss, stones

Gen. Lapld-is, of a stone

 

Lapld-um, of stones

Dat.

Lapld-I,

to orfor a stone

Lapid-Ibiis, to orfor stones

Ace.

Lapld-ent, a stone

 

Lapld-es, stones

Voc.

Lapis,

0 stone [a stone.

 

Lapld-es, 0 stones [stones.

Abl.

Lapid-&,

by, with, orfrom

Lapld-lbus, by, with, or from

Nom. Judex,

a judge

Judlc-es, judges

 

Gen. Judle-Is, ofa judge

 

JudlC-um, ofjudges

Dat.

Judlc-I,

to or for a judge

 

Judlc-Ibus, to orforjudges

Ace.

Judlc-em, a judge

 

Judl0-SS, judges

Voc.

Judex,

O judge

[a judge.

 

Judlc-es,

0 judges

[judges.

Abl.

Judio-6,

by, with, or from

Judlc-Ibus, by, with,

or

from

Nom. Virgfl,

a virgin

Vlrgln-8B, virgins

Gen. Virgin-Is, of a virgin

 

Vtrgln-um, of virgins

Dat. Virgln-I,

to or for a virgin

 

Vlrgln-IbuB, to orfor virgins

Ace. Vlrgln-em, a virgin

 

Virgin-SB, virgins

Voc. VirgS,

0 virgin

Virgln-8s,

0 virgins

Abl. VirgIn-6,

by, with, orfrom a virgin.

 

Virgln-IbuS, by, with, or from virgins.

Nom. Serpens,

 

SSrpSnt-iS, serpents

Gen. Serpent-Is,

a serpent of a serpent

 

Serpent-ium, of serpents

Dat. Serpent-I,

to

or for a serpent

 

Serpent-Ibus, to orfor serpents

Ace.

S6rpSnt-em, a serpent

 

SSrpSnt-Ss, serpents

 

Voc. Serpens,

0 serpent

Serpent-es,

0 serpents

Abl. BSrpent-6,

by,

with,

or

from a serpent.

 

Serpent-Ibus, by, with, or from serpents.

10 TH3 VULGATE LATIN COUKSB. §13. Singular. PluraL Nom. CIv-Ig, a citizen Clv-Bs, citizen* Gen. CIv-lB,

§13.

 

THIRD DECLENSION.

 

11

 

B. Neuters.

 

(a) Plural a.

 

Singular.

1.

Plural

Nom. Ndmen,

a name

 

NSmln-a, names

Gen. Nomln-Is, of a name

Nomln-um, of names

rut.

N6mln-I,

 

N6mInI-bUs, to orfor names

Ace. NomCn,

to orfor a name a name

N6lll'n-a, names

Voc.

Nomen,

0 name

[a name.

 

Normn-a, 0 names [name*.

AW.

N6mln-e,

by, with, or from

Nomln-Ibus, by, with, or from

 

2.

Nom. Opus,

a work

Op8r-a, works

 

Gen.

Op8r-IS, of a work

 

Oper-um, of works

Dat.

Op8r-I,

to ovfor a work

 

Op5r-Ibus, to or for works

Ace.

Opus,

a work

Op8r-a, works

Voc. Opus,

0 work

[work.

 

Op5r-a.

0 works

Abi. Op8r-8,

by, with, or from

a

Oper-lbUS, by, with, orfrom works

 

(6) Plural ia.

 
 

1.

Nom. MarS,

the sea

Mar-la, seas

 

(ien.

Mar-Is, of the sea

 

Mar-Ium, of seas

Dat.

Mar-I,

to orfor the sea

 

Mar-Ibis, to orfor seas

Ace.

MarS,

the sea

Mar-la, seas

Voc.

MarS,

0 sea

[sea.

 

Mar-la,

0 seas

AM.

Mar-I,

by, with, orfrom the

Mar-ibus,

by, with, or from seas.

Nom. Animal,

an animal

 

Animal-la, animals

(ien.

Anlmal-lS, of an animal

Anlmal-Inm, ofanimaU

Bat.

Anlmal-I,

to

or

animal

for

,

Anlmal-Ibus, to orfor animals

Ace.

Animal,

an animal

Animal-la, animals

 

Voc.

Animal,

0 animal

 

Antmal-Ia,

0 animals

Abl.

Anlmal-I,

by, with, orfrom an animal.

 

Anlmal-Ibus, by, with, or from animals.

Decline also (like Nubes) : A wis, auris, an ear ; testis, testis,

a witness

ovis, avis, a sheep ; avis, avis, a bird ; pars, partis,

a part ; nox, noctit, night ; urbs, urbis, a city ; civis, civis, a citizen .

Decline also (like Lapis) : Rex, regis, a king ; princeps,

principis, a chief ; flos, floris, a flower ; pes, pedis, a foot ; trabs,

trabis, a beam ; arbor, arboris, a tree ; sacerdos, priest ; lex, legis, a law ; homo, homiuie, a man ; lion ; miles, militis, a soldier.

sacerdotis, a leo, leonis, a

THIRD DECLENSION. B. Neuters. (a) Plural a. Singular. 1. Nom. Ndmen, a name NSmln-a, names Gen.
  • 12 THE V0LGAT3 LATl,X C9URSE.

§14.

Decline also (like Serpent): Gens,

ijentis, a nation; mons,

mouth, a mountain; dens, dentis, a tooth ; puns, pontis, a bridge; fona, fontis, a fountain.

Decline also (like Nomen) : Corpus, corporis, a body ; caput, capitis, a head; cor, cordis, a heart; te.npus, temporig, time; munus, muneris, a gift ; onus, oncris, a burden ; carneii, canninis, a song.

Decline also (like Mare) : Sete, retig, a net ; altarc, altaris, an altar.

FOURTH DECLENSION.

§.14. The Nominative Singular of Masculine aiul Feminine Nouns of the Fourth Declension ends in usr Neuters in u.

 

Singular.

Plural.

Nom. Grad-U3, a step

Grad-us, st,ps-

Gen.

Grad-U8,

of a step

Grad,-uum. of,steps

Dat.

Grad-ul,

to or for a step

Grad-ibiis, to or for steps

Ace.

Grad-um, a step

[a step.

Grad-us, iteps

Voc:

Grad-iis, 0 step

Grad-tls,

0 steps

Abl.

Grad-U,

by, with, or from

Grad-Ib&9, by, w.t,h, orfrom steps.

Nom. G6n-U, a knee

G8n-&a, knees

Gen.

G$n-ttB, of a hvee

G6n-iium,

of hues

Dat.

GSn-u,

to orfor a knee

Gen-Ibus,

to or for knees

Ace.

GSn-fl,

a knee

GSn-ua,

knees

Voc. GSn-u, Oknee

[knee.

Genua,

0 k.ues

A bl.

Gen U,

by, with, or from a

Gdn-IbUS, by, with, or from knees.

Obs. The holy name of Jesus Is thus doclined : N. Jesus, G. D. V, and Abb Jesu, Ace. Jesum.

Decline also (like

Gradu») : Fructus, fruit ; manus, the

hand ; exercitus, an army ; spiritus, a spirit ; portus, a haven ;

passus, a pace ; querela*, an oak ; tribus*, a tribe.

Decline also (like Genu) : Oornu, a horn.

"Ablative Rural ubus.

12 THE V0LGAT3 LATl,X C9URSE. §14. Decline also (like Serpent): Gens, ijentis, a nation; mons, mouth,

§ 15.

FIFTH DECLENSION AND IRREGULAR NOUNS.

13

FIFTH DECLENSION.

§ 15. The Nominative

Singular of Nouns of the

Fifth Declension ends in ea, and the Genitive in ei.

 

Singular.

Plurai.

Nom. Dl-es,

a day

DI-Bs, days

Gen.

Dl-el,

of a day

DI-5rum, of days

Dat.

DI-BI,

to orfor a day

Dl-ebiis, to orfor days

Ace.

DI-em, a day

 

Dl-es,

days

Voc.

Dl-es,

0 day

[day.

DI-6S,

0 days

Abl.

Dl-e,

by. with, or from a

Dl-ebus, by, with, or from days.

Ops. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine, except Dies, which is Common in the Singular, and Masculine in the Plural.

Decline also (like Dies) : Fades, a face ; res, a thing; and, in Singular only, species, appearance ; sjpes, hope ; fides, faith,

IRREGULAH NOUNS.

§ 16. The following are irregularly declined: Yir,

a man,

or husband,; vis, strength; domus, a house;

bos, an ox ; senex, an old n an ; Dems, God.

6.

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Ace.

Voc.

Abl.

,P. Nom.

Gon.

Dat.

Ace.

.Voc.

Abl.

VIr {man)

VM

Viro

Vlrum

VIr

Vlro

Vlrl

Vlrorum

Vlrls

Vires

Vlrl

Vlrls

VIS (strength)

Vim

VI

VIr6s

Vlrlum

VMbtis

Vires

Vires

VIrlbus

DomuS (Iiov.se)

Domus

Domul

Domum

Domus

X»omo

Domus

Domuum (domorum)

Domlbus

Domes (domfls)

Domus

Domlbus

The form domi is used to simplify "at home/

§ 15. FIFTH DECLENSION AND IRREGULAR NOUNS. 13 FIFTH DECLENSION. § 15. The Nominative Singular of
  • 14 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§17.

8.

Nom.

B6S {ox)

Gen.

Bdvls

Dat.

Bovl

Ace.

B6vem

Voc.

Bos

AbL

Bdve

Nom. B6ves

Gen.

Dat.

BSbus (bllbus)

Ace.

B6ves

Voc.

B6ves

Abi.

Bobiis (btlbus)

S6nex {old man) Deiis (God)

Senis

SenI

Senem

Sgnux

sene

Del

De6

Deum

Deus

Deo

  • P. SSnea

Bovum Cbftum) Senum

Senlbus

Senea

Senes

Senibus

Del, Dil, DI Deorum, Deum Dels, Dlls, DIs DeSs Del, Dil, DI Dels, Dlls, DIs

ADJECTIVES.

§ 17. Adjectives are declined by Number, Gender, and Case.

§ 18. Adjectives

of Three Endings in us, a, um, or

er, a, um, follow the First and Second Declensions of

Nouns; as, bonus, good; niger, black; tener, tender.

JBonus, a, um, are declined like Dominus, Mensa, and Segnum. Niger ia declined like Magiater, and Tener like Puer.

N.

G.

D.

A.

V.

A.

M.

Bonus

BonI

Bono

Bbnum

Bone

Bono

Singular.

F.

bona

bdnae

bSnae

N.

bSnum

b6nl

b6n5

bonam b6num

bona

bona

bonum

bono

l.

M.

BonI

Bdnorum

Bonis

Bonos

,

BonI

Bonis

Plural.

P.

bdnae

bdnarum

bonis

bonas

bonae

b5nls

s.

bona

bSnSrum

bonis

b6na

bona

bonis

N.

G.

D.

A.

v.

A.

NlgSr

Nlgrl

NlgrS

nigra nigrum

nlgrae nlgrl

nlgrae nlgr-5

Nigrum nigraru nigrum

Niger

NlgrS

nigra nigrum

nigra

nlgro

Nlgrl

nlgrae

nigra

NigrSrum nigrarum nigrSrum

Nigrls

Nigroa NigrI

Nigrls

nigrls

nigras

nigrae

nigrls

nigrls

nigra

nigra

nigrls

Tener tenera tenerum

N.

Tener! ten8rae tener!

G.

D.TSnSrS tengrae tenero

A.

v.

Tenerum tengram tenerum

Tener t8nSra tSnSrum

A.

TenerS t8n8ra tgngro

TSnerl

tgnerae

tenera

Tengrorum tSnerarum tgnerCrum

Tenerls

Ten6r63

Ten8rl

tSnerls

tSngras

tenerae

tenerls

tenera

tenera

Tenerls

tenerls

tenerls

14 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. §17. Bdvls Dat. Bovl Ace. B6vem Voc. Bos AbL Bdve Nom.

§ 19.

ADJECTIVES.

15

Decline also (like Bonus) : Verus, true ;

excehut, high ;

malus, wicked ; durut, hard ; cams, dear ; magnus, great.

Decline also (like Niger) : Sacer, sacred ; pulcher, beautiful. Decline also (like Tener) : Liber, free ; miser, wretched.

§ 19. Adjectives of Two Endings follow the Third Declension of Nouns : as tristis, sad , melior, better,

  • l. N.

trist-ia

trlst-Ii

trlst-U

m8H8r-a

m81I8r-a

mellor-a

M.

P.

N.

M. F.

  • N. Trlst-es

Trlst-Is

trist-8

  • Q. Trist-Ium

Trlst-Is

  • D. Trlst-Ibus-

Trist-I

  • A. Trlst-es

Trist-em

trisfr-S

  • V. Trist-Ss

Trist-is

trist-«

  • A. Trist-Ihus

Trist-I

i L

  • N. Mellor-es

HRlKSr

melius

  • O. Mollor-um

Melior-Is

  • D. MSlior-Ibus

M61Ior-I

  • A. MSlIor-es

MeTior-em

melius

  • V. Mellor-es

Melior

melius

  • A. MelI6r-Ibus

Meli5r-S or I

Decline also

(like Tristis) : Brevis, short ; facilis, easy ;

fidelis, faithful ; omnis, all, every.

Decline also (like Melior) : Durior, harder ; altior, higher ; pulchrior, more beautiful.

§ 20, Adjectives of One Ending also follow the Third Declension: B&felix, happy; prudens, wise, prudent.

  • M. f.

N.

  • l. N.

M. F.

N.Felix
G.
D.
A.

FSUc-IS

FSlIc-I

Felle-em

V.Felix
A.

FSUc-I or e

  • N. Prudens

felix

Fellc-es

fellc-ia

Fellc-Ium

Felle-Ibus

Fellc-es

Fellc-Ss

fSUc-Ia

fellc-Ia

Fellc-Ibus

Prudent-es t>rudent-Ia

G.

  • D.
    a.

V.

PrQdent-Is

Prlldent-I

Prudent-em

Prudens

prudens

Prudent-Ium

Prudent-Ibis

Prudent-5s prudent-la

Prudent-8s

prudent la

  • A. Prttdent-1 or 8

Prudent-Ibis

M. f. N. l. M. F. N.Felix G. D. A. FSUc-IS FSlIc-I Felle-em V.Felix A. FSUc-I
  • 16 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§21.

Decline also (like Felix) : Eapax, ripacis, rapacious ; audax, audacis, bold.

Decline also (like Prudent) :

amans, loving ; sapient, wise.

Potent, potcntit, powerful ;

Adjectives in er, of the Third Declension, have three endings in the Nominative and Vocative Singular : as acer, acrit, acre, sharp ; cehr, celer-it, celer-e, swift.

 

M.

F.

N.

M.

P.

N.

N Acer

acr-Is

acr-8

Acr-es

acr-8s acr-Ia

0. Acr-!s

 

Acr-Ium

D.

Acr-I

Acr-IMW

a.

Acr-em

acr-em acr-8

Acr-es

acr-es

acr-Ia

v.

Acer

acr-Is

ficr-8

Acr-Ss

acr-es

acr-ia

A.

Acr-I

Acr-lMs

X.

C81er

c618r-ls c818r-e

C61gr-es

c616r-es c81grift

G.

CSl8r-ls

C8l8r-um

D.

C81gr-l

C616r-Ibas

A.

C81er-em c818r-em c818r-e

C818r-es

o818r-es c81er-Ia

V.

C81Sr

c816r-l8 c818r-e

C818r-es

c&ler-es c818r-l&

A.C816r-i

C616r-lbus

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

§21. Adj cctives have three Degrees of Comparison the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.

Poa.

Altus, high

Comp.

altior, higher

Superl.

altissimus, highest.

The Positive is the Adjective in its simplest form.

The Comparative .is formed from the Positive by changing i or is of the Genitive Singular into tor (M. and F.), ius (N.).

The Superlative is formed by changing i or is of the Genitive into issim-us, a, um.

Pos.

Docttis (doct-i),

Brcv-Is (brev-fe),

learned,

short,

Sapiens (sitplent-ls), wise,

Audax (audac-Is),

bold,

Comp.

doct-IGr,

brov-NSr,

sapIent-ISr,

audac-IOr,

SuperL

doct-isslmtis

brSv-issImtis

saplent-isslmtls

audac-isslmus.

16 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. §21. Decline also (like Felix) : Eapax, ripacis, rapacious ; audax,

22.

COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES.

17

The Comparative is declined like melior, the Super lative like bonus.

Adjectives in er form the Superlative by adding rimus to the .Nominative.

NIggr, black, nigr-IBr, nlger-rlmils Miser, wretched, mlsgr-ISr, mlser-rlmils Acer, sharp, aer-Ior, Scer-rlnras Cglgr, swift, cglgr-IOr, cgler-rlmtis.
NIggr,
black,
nigr-IBr,
nlger-rlmils
Miser,
wretched,
mlsgr-ISr,
mlser-rlmils
Acer,
sharp,
aer-Ior,
Scer-rlnras
Cglgr,
swift,
cglgr-IOr,
cgler-rlmtis.
Tie following form the Superlative in liiaiut:
FacIHs,
easy,
facll-lor,
facil-llmtis
DifflcIHs,
difficult,
diffldl-IOr,
.difficil-llmas
Gracilis,
slender,
gracll-10r,
.gracil-llmus
Humllls,
humble, low,
.mlmll-ior,
bumil-llmus
SImllls,
like,
slmll-Ior,
slmil-llmtis
Disslmllls, unlike,
disslmll-lor,
disslmil-llmtis.

If a vowel comes before «j in the Nominative of an Adjective, it is compared by magis, more, and maxime, most : as,

Dtiblus, doubtful, magis dfiblus, maxime diiblus ; but,

Plus,

godly,

magis plfis,

plisslmtis.

§ 22. The following Adjectives are irregularly com pared :

Bonus,

Malus,

good,

bad,

Magnus, great,

Parvus, small,

Multus,

much,

Nequam, worthless,

DivSs,

Sgngx,

rich,

old,

Juvgnis, young,

Extgrus, outward,

Infcrus,

low,

Stipgrus, high,

Postgrus, hindward,

melior,

PSjor,

major,

minor,

plus,

nequior,

ditior,

sgnior,

junior,

extgrior,

inferior,

stipSrior,

postgrior,

optimua pessimus

maximus minimus plurimus nequissimus ditissimus (natu maximus) (uatu minimus) extremus and extlmus infImus and iinus supremus and summus postremus and postumua

§ 23.

Some

Comparatives and Superlatives are

formed from Prepositions.

(Citra, this side of), clterior, cltlmuB (Intra, within), interior, intlmus (Ultra, beyond), ultgrior, ultimas (Prae, before),
(Citra, this side of), clterior,
cltlmuB
(Intra, within),
interior,
intlmus
(Ultra, beyond),
ultgrior,
ultimas
(Prae, before),
prior,
primus
(PrQpg, near),
prSpior,
proximus.

B

COMPARISON OP ADJECTIVES. 17 The Comparative is declined like melior, the Super lative like bonus. Adjectives
  • 18 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§24.

Compare the following adjectives: IHgnus, worthy ; durus, hard ; altus, high ; integer, Integra, integrum, whole ; latut, broad ; fortis, brave ; gravis, weighty ; tener, tenera, tenerum, tender ; felix (gen. fdicis), happy ; liber, libera, liberum, free ; levia, light ; pulcher, pulchra, pvlchrum, beautiful ; tagax (gen. lagacis), sagacious ; cdeber, Celebris, celebre, famous.

NUMERALS.

§ 24. The two principal classes

of Numerals are

Cardinals and Ordinals. Cardinal Numerals answer the question, how many? Septem, seven. Ordinals answer the question, which (in point of order)? as, Septimus, the seventh.

§ 25.

Units, one ;

duo, two ; tres, three ;

millia,

thousands ; and ambo, both, are thus declined :

F.

N.

M.

F.

N.

  • N. Un-tts

un-a

-un-ius

tin-am

un-a

un-um

un-ius

Du-0

du-ae

du-S

  • G. Du-6rum du-arum du-orum

Un-ius

  • D. Un-1

fln-I

  • a. Un-um

un-1

un-um

un-6

Du-obus

Du-5s

du-abus du-Sbus

du-as

du-0

du-abus du-Sbus

  • A. Du-obus

Un-5

M. F.

N.

N.

M.

F.

N.

  • N. Ambo ambae ambS

TrSs

tria

Millia

  • G. AmbSrum ambarum ambSrum

Trium

trium

Millium

  • D. Ambobus ambabus ambobus

Trlbus

trlbus

Mllllbus

  • a. tria

TrSS

Millia

AmbSs ambas amb6

 
  • A. Ambobus ambabus ambSbus

Trlbus trlbus

MUlibus

Obs. (1)

Cardinals from quattuor to centum are indeclinable.

 

(2) Ducenti, ae, a ; trecenti, ae, a ; &o., are regularly declined like the Plural of bonus, a, um.

<3) Uille is indeclinable in the Singular. The Noun following millia is put in the Genitive, e.g., quattuor millia hominam, 4,000 men.

(4) Ordinals are regularly declined like bonus, a, um,

18 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. §24. Compare the following adjectives: IHgnus, worthy ; durus, hard ;

§25.

NUMERALS.

10

No.

Roman

Numerals.

Cardinals.

Ordinals.

1

1

aims, a, um

primus, a, um

2

II

duo, ilu,io, duo

secundus

3

III

tres, tres, tria

tertius

4

IV quattuor

quartus

5

V

quinque

quintus

6

VI

sex

sextus

7

VII

septem

Septimus

8

VIII

octo

octavos

9

IX

novem

nonus

10

X

decem

decimua

11

XI

undecim

undedmus

12

XII duodeoim

duodecimus

13

XIII

tredecim

tertius decimus

14

XIV quattuordecim

quartus decimus

15

XV quindecim

quintus decimus

16

XVI

sedeeim sextus decimus

17

XVII septemdecim

Septimus decimus

18

XVIII duodeviginti

duodevicesimus

19

XIX undeviginti

undevicesimus

20

XX

viginti

vicesimus or vigesimus

 

21

XXI

unus et viginti

unus et vicesimus

28

XXVIII duodetrigiuta

duodetrigesimus

29

XXIX undetriginta

undetrigesimus

80

XXX triginta

trigesimusor tricesimus

40

XL quadraginta

quadrSgesimus

60

L

quinquaginta

quinquagesimus

60

LX

sexaginta

eexagesimus

70

LXX septuaginta

septuazesimus

80

90

100

200

300

LXXX octoginta

xc nonaginta

c

cc

ccc

centum

ducenti, ae, a

trecenti

octogesiuiua

nonagesimus

centeaimus

ducentesimug

trecentesimus

'

j

400

cccc

quadringenti

quadringentesimua

500

D or Ig

quingenti

quingentesimus

1

600

DO

sexcenti

sexcentesimus

|

700

DOC septingenti

septingentesimus

800

DCCC octingenti

octingentesimus

)

900

DCCCC nongenti

nongentesimus

1

1000 MorCIo

mille

milleuimua

 

i

NUMERALS. 10 No. Roman Numerals. Cardinals. Ordinals. 1 aims, a, um primus, a, um duo, ilu,io,

20

THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

26.

PRONOUNS.

§ 26. Pronouns have Three Persons, 1st, the speaker,

ego, I;

2nd, the person spoken to, tu, thou ; 3rd, the

person spoken of, tile, he.

§27.

Nom. Ego,

Gen.

Dal.

M8T,

mill,

Ace. MS,

Abl.

Me,

A. Personal.

Singular.

(1) First Person.

Plural.

I of me to, orfor me me by, with, or from me.

NSs,

we

Nostrl, and nostrum, of us

Nobis,

N5s,

Nobis,

to, orfor us us by, with, osfrom us.

Nom; TU,

Gen.

Dat.

TU,

TIM,

Ace. TS,

Voc.

TO,

AM. TS,

(2) Second Person,

thou of thee to, or for thee

'thee

0 thou 'by, with, orfromiliee.

V6s,

V*

Vestrl, and vestrum, of you

Vobls,

V6s,

Vos,

VdbIs,

to, orfor you you 0 ye by, with, orfrom you.

(8) Reflexive Third Person.

Singular and Plurai.

Nom. (wanting)

Gen. Sill,

Dat. SIM,

ofhimself, herself, itself, or themselves to orfor himself, herself, itself, themselves

Ace. S5, or sese, himself, herself, itself, themselves Abl. S8f or sese, by orfrom himself,.herself, itself, themselves.

§28.

B. Possessive.

Decline (like Sonus, a, um) : Meus, mea, meum, my, mine* Tuus, tua, tuum, thy, thine

Suua, sua, suuru,

his, her, its, their own.

Decline (like Niger, nigra, nigrum) : Noster, nostra, nostrum, our

Vester, vestra, vestrum,

your.

* The Vocative Masculine iugular of meus is mi, miflli, O my son.

20 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. 26. PRONOUNS. § 26. Pronouns have Three Persons, 1st, the speaker,

§29.

§ 29.

VROXOCXS.

C. Demonstrative and Determinative.

21

 

(1) Hie, this (bore).

 

M.

P.

N.

H.

F.

N.

Nom. Hie

Gen. HuJlM

haec

hoc

HI

Horum

hae

haec

harum harum

Dat. Hulo

His

Ace. Hunc

banc

hoc

Hos

has

haec

AbL HSc

h&c

hoc

His

(2) Iste, that (there).

Nom. IstS

1st*

istud

IstI

lstae

lsta

Oen. Istlua

istud

IstSrum istarum

Istls

Ista,s

lstas

istarum

lata

Dat. IstI Ace. Istum lstam

AW. IstS

lata

lata

Istls

(3) Ilie, that (yonder).

Nom.ni6

ilia

lllud

mi

Mae

Ilia

Oen. I11IUB

IllSnun illarum

illorum

Dat. IUI

Ace. ilium

iUam

ilia

Iliad

mo

nils

LUSs

nils

illas

ilia

Aid. 1116

(4) Is, that (<w be, she, it).

Nom. Is

ea

Id

II

eae

ea

Sen. EJUS

Earum

earum

earum

Dat. EI

lis or els

Ace. Eura

earn

id

E5s

eas

ea

AbL ES

eft

eO

lis or els

(5) Ider n, same.

Nom. Idem

eadem Idem

Ildem eaedem eadem

Gen. EJusdem

Eorundem earundem eorun-

Dat.

Eldem

Hsdem or elsdem

[dem

Ace. Eundem eandem Idem

Abl.

ESdem

eadem eSdem

Easdem

easdem e&dem

Ilsdem or elsdem

 

(6) Ipse, self.

Nom. Ipse"

ipsa

ipsum

Ipsl

ipsae

ipsa

Gen. Ipslus

IpsSrum ipsarum Ips8rum

Dat

IpsI

Ipsls

Ace. Ipsum

Ipsam ipsum

IpsSs

ipsas

ipsa

Abl

IpsS

ipsa

lpsS

Ipsls

§ 29. VROXOCXS. C. Demonstrative and Determinative. 21 (1) Hie, this (bore). P. H. F. N.

22

THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

30.

§30.

Nom. Qui

Gen. CflJUS

Dat

Cul

Ace. Quern

AM.

QUS

§31.

Nom. QulS

Gen. CilJUS

Dat.

Cul

Ace. Quern

aw.

Qua

 

D. Relative-

 

Qui, who or which.

quae

qu6d

Qui

quae

quae

 

Quorum

quarum

quorum

Qulbus, quels, or quls

quam

qu6d

Quos

quas

quae

qua

quS

Qulbus, quels, or quia

Interrogative. Quia? -who» which ? what ?

 

quae

quid

Qui

quae

quae

 

Quorum quarum QuIbUB, quels, or quls

quorum

quam

quid

QuSs

quas

quae

qua

quo

Qulbus, quels, or quls

Note. When joined to a Noun quod ia used instead of quid, and qui for quit.

§32.

F. Indefinite.

Decline (like TTnut, a, um) :

Ullus, a, um (Genitive ullIUS), any. Nullus, a, um (Genitive nulllus), none. Solus, a, um (Genitive sollus), alone. TotUS, a, um (Genitive lotlUS), whole. Alius, a, Ud (Genitive alius), another. Alter, a, um (Genitive altSrius), one of two, the other. Uter, utra, utrum (Genitive utrlus), which of two. Neuter, neutra, neutrum (Genitive neutrlus), neither.

Decline (like Qui) : .

Qui-dam, quae-dam, quid-dam (quod-dam with a noun), a certain one.

Decline (like Qui») :

Quis-que, quae-que, quid-que whoever.

(quod-que with a nous)

Decline (like Uter) : Uter-que, utra-que, utrum-que, each.

22 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. 30. §30. Nom. Qui Gen. CflJUS Dat Cul Ace. Quern AM.

§ 33.

THE VERB.

23

VERBS.

§ 33. Verbs have Two Voices: 1st, Active; as, amo,

  • I love :

2nd, Passive ; as, amor, I am loved.

§ 34. A Deponent Verb is chiefly Passive in form, with an Active signification : as, hortor, I exhort.

§ 35. Active and Deponent Verbs are either Transi tive or Intransitive.

Transitive Verbs require an object : as, Amo Beam,

  • I love God ; Sequere me, follow me.

Intransitive Verbs express a he sleeps ; Morior, I die.

state : as, Dormit,

§ 36. Mood means manner. There are Four Moods :

the Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive.

§ 37. Tense means time.

There are

Six Tenses :

the Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future,

and Future Perfect.

§ 38. In each tense there are two three Persons.

Numbers and

§ 39. There are four classes, or Conjugations, of Regular verbs, known by the endings of the Infinitive Mood are, ere, ere, ire, thus :

1. AmSre, to love ; 2, Monere, to advise ; 3, RegSre, to rule ; I, A udire, to hear.

Before these can be learnt it is necessary to conjugate the Verb Sum.

§ 33. THE VERB. 23 VERBS. § 33. Verbs have Two Voices: 1st, Active; as, amo,
  • 24 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§ 40.

 

§ 40.

 

THE VERB SUM.

 
 

Sum, is, fill, ess6, f&tfir&s, to be.

 

INDICATIVE MOOD.

 

(1) Present Tense am.

 

l.

Sum,

lam

P. I. BUmtiB, me are

 

2.

s.

SB,

est,

thou art

he is.

2.

3.

estis,

sunt,

ye are

they are.

 

Imperfect Tense was.

S.

1.

£ram, iwas

 

P.

1.

gramils, we were

 

2.

6ras,

thou wast

2.

gratis, ye were

3.

drat,

he was.

3.

erailt, they were.

 

(3) Perfect Tense have.

 

S.

1.

Ful,

1 have been

P.

1.

fnlmUB, we have been

2.

fulstl, thou hast been

 

2.

fuistls, ye have betn

S.

fult,

he has been.

3.

fueiunt, they have been.

 

(4)-

Pluperfect Tense had.

 

S.

1.

FllSram, / had been

 

P.

I. fueraims, we had been

2.

fuSras,

thou hadst been

2.

fueratls,

ye had been

3.

fuerat, he had been.

 

3.

fu;rant,

they had been.

 

(5) FortrRE Tense shall or will.

8.

1.

Ero,

I shall be

P.

1.

erimus, we shall be

 

2.

eris,

thou wilt be

2.

erltis,

ye will be

3.

erit,

he will be.

3.

erunt,

they will be.

 

(6) Future Perfect Tesse shall or will have.

 

B.

1.

FttSro, I shall

 

P. 1. fugrlmus, we shall

2.

fuSrlS, thou wilt

Si

2.

fueritls,

ye will

L |

3.

fuerlt, he will

3.

fuSrlnt,

they willj "*

§41.

 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

 

(1) Present Tense may or can.

S.

1.

Sim,

I may be

P.

1.

Blmtts, we may be

 

2.

Bis,

thou mayst be

2.

sltls,

ye may be

8.

Bit,

he may be.

3.

Bint,

they may bt.

N

24 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE. § 40. § 40. THE VERB SUM. Sum, is, fill, ess6,

§41.

THE VERB SUM.

25

(2) Imperfect Tense might or could.

S.

1.

Essem, 1 might be

F.

1.

essimus, we might be

2.

esses,

thou miyhist be

2.

essStls, ye might be

3.

essdt,

he might be.

3.

essent,

they might be.

 

(3) Perfect Tensi -may have, should have, Ac.

S.

1.

Tu6Tlm,lmay

\

IP. 1.

fuftrlmfts, we may »

2.

fuerls,

thou mayst I S J

2.

fueritls,

ye may

J

3.

fuertt,

he may

) *

3.

fuerlnt,

they may j

B.

1.

2.

(4)

Pluperfect Tense might, would have, &c

Fulssem,

/ might

fulsses, thou mightst >q g: i

P.

l. fulssBmus, u<e mipAt

2.

fulssStls, ye might

* iuiobduu,

:, mtyw.

j

' i c

3.

fulsset, he might

)^*"

|

8. fulfiSent,

they might)**

 

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

(1) Present Tense.

 

8. 2. Es,

be thou.

I

P. 2. estd,

be ye.

(2)

Future Tense.

 

S.

2.

EBt5,

thou shalt be

F.

2.

estSt6.

ye shall be

3.

esto,

he shall be, or

let him be.

3.

sunto,

INFINITIVE MOOD.

they shall be, or

let them be.

 

Present.

EssS,

to be

Perfect.

Fuissd,

to have been

Future. FUtftrus

esse, or furg,

to

be about to be.

PARTICIPLES.

Present (does not exist).

Future. Ftttflrus, a, um;

about to be.

Obs. Like Sum, are conjugated its compounds : Absum, I,am away

from; adsum, / am present ; desum, Iam wanting; insum, lam in; iuter-

sum, / am present at; obsum, / am in the way ; praesum, / am before, or,

at the head ; proBum, I am serviceable ; subsum, / am under ; supersum, i

am over, I am left. Prosum takes d before e; as, Prosuni, prodes, prodest,

£rosumus, prodestis, prosunt.

THE VERB SUM. 25 (2) Imperfect Tense might or could. S. 1. Essem, 1 might be
  • 26 THE VULGATE LATIN COURSE.

§ 42.

§ 42. FIRST CONJUGATION. ACTIVE VOICE.

Anio, &m?.vl, amatum, amarg, to love.

 

INDICATIVE MOOD.

 
 

(1) Present Tense am, do.

S.