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ETHIC IN RESEARCH

Opening Activity:

Ethical issues are present in any kind of research. The research process creates tension between
the aims of research to make generalizations for the good of others, and the rights of participants to
maintain privacy. Ethics pertains to doing good and avoiding harm. Harm can be prevented or reduced
through the application of appropriate ethical principles. Thus, the protection of human subjects or
participants in any research study is imperative.

Violations of human rights in the name of scientific research have been among the darkest
events in history. From 1932 to 1972, more than 400 African-American people who had syphilis were
deliberately left untreated to study the illness. Although the Tuskegee syphilis study was sponsored by
the United States Public Health Service, the disclosure of the 40-year study caused public outrage
(Caplan, 1992).

Another example of unethical research is the experiment conducted between 1950 and 1952, in
which more than 1,000 pregnant women were given diethylstilbestrol to prevent miscarriages. These
women were subject to a double-blind study without consent. Only 20 years later, when the children of
these women had high rates of cancer and other abnormalities, did the participants learn they were
subjects of these experiments (Capron, 1989).

The nature of ethical problems in qualitative research studies is subtle and different compared
to problems in quantitative research. For example, potential ethical conflicts exist in regard to how a
researcher gains access to a community group and in the effects the researcher may have on
participants. The literature provides few examples of ethical issues in qualitative health research. Punch
(1994) claimed that one hardly ever hears of ethical failures in qualitative research. However, Batchelor
and Briggs (1994) claimed that the failure of researchers to address ethical issues has resulted in those
researchers being ill-prepared to cope with the unpredictable nature of qualitative research. Qualitative
researchers focus their research on exploring, examining, and describing people and their natural
environments. Embedded in qualitative research are the concepts of relationships and power between
researchers and participants. The desire to participate in a research study depends upon a participant’s
willingness to share his or her own experience. Nurse researchers have to balance research principles as
well as the well-being of clients (Ramos, 1989).

Qualitative health research is focused on the experiences of people in relation to health and
illness. Yet, nurse researchers may find that their roles as researchers and as clinicians may be in conflict.
Qualitative studies are frequently conducted in settings involving the participation of people in their
everyday environments. Therefore, any research that includes people requires an awareness of the
ethical issues that may be derived from such interactions. Ethics in health research includes
appropriateness of the research design, the methodological design, the funding sources, and the
behaviors in reporting data. The purpose of this paper is to show these and related ethical issues and
principles to be used in qualitative research (Orb, 2000).

Source: Ethics in Qualitative Research by A. Orb, L. Eisenhauer, and D. Wynaden (2000)

GUIDE QUESTIONS

1. Based on the article, how will you define ethics in research?


2. Are the Tuskegee syphilis study and diethylstilbestrol study on pregnant women unethical? Why?
3. If you were a part of the research teams who conducted the research studies, what will you do to
correct the unethical aspect of the experiments?
Opening Activity Instruction

A. . Instruct the students to form discussion groups. Ask them to read the selection and answer the
following guide questions.

Important of Research Instructions

1. Have the students explain why research should be guided by ethical principles and considerations.
2. Let them explain the benefits of engaging in ethical research.
3. Have them research information on their assigned type. The students may use additional library and
online resources.
4. Call each group to share their output to the class.
5. Facilitate the sharing of the outputs by adding additional information and examples for each one.

Ethical Standards In Research Writing Instructions

CHAPTER SUMMARY
1. Discuss the general ethical
considerations for research
writing.
2. Ask the students to explain
the importance of ethics
and ethical writing in a
research study.
3. Discuss the concept of
plagiarism, intellectual
property, and fair use.
Explain their legal aspects
by citing the relevant
provisions.
4. Discuss the implications of
plagiarism in a research
study.
5. Have the students identify
and discuss some
controversial instances of
publicized plagiarism issues
such as the cases of Senator
Tito Sotto and Court Justice
Mariano del Castillo.

1. Ethics in research promotes the pursuit of knowledge, truth, and credibility; helps ensure
researcher’s accountability; and builds public support for the study.
2. Some of the ethical codes are honesty, care, confidentiality, objectivity, openness, respect
intellectual property, and responsible mentoring.
3. Participants in a research have the rights to voluntary participation, informed consent, freedom from
risk of harm, confidentiality, and anonymity.
4. For writing to be considered as ethical, the writing should be clear, accurate, fair, and honest.
5. The purposes of literature review are to assess the body of the literature, to synthesize previous
works, and to locate gaps.
6. The following are reminders for ethical writing: honesty with professional colleagues, protection
from harm, and right to privacy.
7. Plagiarism is the claiming of other works as one’s own work.
8. The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines or R.A. 8293 contains provisions regarding
published works and copyright ownership.
9. Some tips to avoid plagiarism are to collect hard copies of all the relevant references; read all the
references carefully and highlight important areas; and place sufficient attribution while using the
ideas of others.

INSTRUCTIONS
6. Discuss various tips to avoid
plagiarism.
7. Present a sample
plagiarized text and have
them correctly paraphrase
it.
8. Highlight the importance of
proper citation and
attribution.
9. Ask the students how they
will apply the guidelines on
ethical writing in their
research study.

CHECK-UP

1. Encircle the letter of the best answer.


1. All the data to be reported should include all facts with accuracy.
a. Honesty c. Competence
b. Objectivity d. Care

2. Whatever agreed upon with the participants must be actualized.


a. Integrity c. Social responsibility
b. Legality d. Responsible publication

3. The researchers should accept all comments and give considerations.


a. Openness c. Non-discrimination
b. Respect for intellectual property d. Responsible mentoring

4. When a paper is already submitted to a publication, no submission to another should be done.


a. Objectivity c. Care
b. Legality d. Responsible publication

5. The researcher should be fully equipped with research skills when conducting the study
a. Confidentiality c. Legality
b. Competence d. Openness

6. An experienced researcher should impart knowledge to his or her students.


a. Responsible publication c. Respect for colleagues
b. Non-discrimination d. Social responsibility

7. The researcher should ensure that the participants will not be adversely affected by the research and
its results.
a. Care c. Respect for colleagues
b. Human subjects protection d. Social responsibility
8. Any participants to any research activity must not be forced to take part in the study.
a. Voluntary participation c. Risk of harm
b. Informed consent d. Social responsibility

9. Informed consent for a participant is best exemplified in which of the following actions?
a. Talking to him or her privately
b. Surprising him or her with a questionnaire c. Writing him or her a letter
d. Using a padrino system

10. Confidentiality of a participant is best exemplied in which of the following actions?


a. Asking the participant to write his or her name in the questionnaire
b. Not mentioning his or her name in the Participants of the Study section
c. Introducing himself or herself in an interview
d. Taking his or her picture and placing it in the appendix

2. . Put an “X” on the space before the statement that describes a case of plagiarism.
1. Alexandra puts her name on a quotation of Shakespeare.
2. After reading a selection, Pristine correctly wrote the contents of the selection and
cited the author.
3. The author is Ramoso, Gabriel but the reference of Aaron is Ramoso, Gabrielle.
4. In Athena’s assignment, she carefully expressed the ideas of the author and wrote the
author’s name.
5. Because of lack of time, Pauline omitted some of the important details from a source in her
thesis.

APPLICATION

A. Complete the following phrases by referring to the ethical principles for research.

1. When I conduct research, I will ________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

2. The participants of my study will be


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
3. To finally arrive at the best findings, I will
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

B. Divide the class into four groups. Each group will be assigned to create a thematic show about a
radio or television program airing an episode with the theme, “No Plagiarism Please.” Each group
will be given time to prepare their show. Their performance will be rated by the other groups and
the teacher with the use of the rubric below.

CRITERIA 4 3 2 1
More than 5 concepts 4 concepts were 3 concepts were Less than 3 concepts
Content were displayed. displayed. displayed. were displayed.

Creativity 75% - 100% creative 50% - 74% creative 25% - 49% creative 1% - 24% creative
0 to 1 instance of 2 to 3 instances of 4 to 5 instances of More than 5 instances
Coordination
discoordination discoordination discoordination of discoordination

Participants 75% - 100% 50% - 74% 25% - 49% 1% - 24%


participated participated participated participated

More than 5 props were 4 props were displayed 3 props were displayed Less than 3 props were
Props displayed appropriately. appropriately. appropriately. displayed appropriately.

ASSIGNMENT
Instruct the students to write their reaction piece on their researched case of plagiarism on an
intermediate pad.

ABSTRACTION

1. Discuss the research title and the research problem.


2. Let the students discuss the purpose of a research title and research problem.
3. Discuss the criteria for determining the research problem.

Considerations In Formulating the research problem


1. Discuss the two types of criteria to be considered in formulating the research.
2. Have the students explain the specific criteria for each type and how each one is applied in
formulating research problems.
3. Provide additional input when necessary.

ANALYSIS

Answer the following questions.


1. What is the purpose of the research title in a study?
2. Why do you think research problems are more likely to be derived from circumstances that convey a
sense of difficulty?
3. As a high school student, how will you consider the innovative quality of your study if it is
recommended that the research is feasible and can be done within your means? What is the purpose of
the research title in a study?
4. Why do you think research problems are more likely to be derived from circumstances that convey a
sense of difficulty?
5. As a high school student, how will you consider the innovative quality of your study if it is
recommended that the research is feasible and can be done within your means?

APPLICATION
1. Divide the class into groups. Ask each group to think for the important problem that can be
addressed through research process.
2. Answer Research Activity 1.

ASSESMENT
Evaluation of Research Problem the students proposed

THE INTRODUCTION
ACTIVITY
1. Assign each student a partner
2. Let the students perform a role play on the following situation: If you are a businessman, how will
you introduce yourself to a prospective client?
3. Instruct the students to answer the guide questions of Activity A on page

A. Get a partner and role-play the situation below. Then, answer the following questions.

Situation: If you are the businessman on the picture, how will you introduce yourself to the
prospective client?

ANALYSIS:
GUIDE QUESTIONS:
1. Based on your role play, what are the elements of a proper introduction?
2. For what purpose does an introduction serve in general?
3. In a research study, what do you think is the significance of an introduction?

Answers to the Guide Questions:


1. Some of the possible answers are: name, age, title or position, name of the company, and
products, among others.
2. The purpose of introduction is to inform people of the general picture or the perspective of the
intention.
3. It is very important for it serves as the compass or guide on what the research is all about.
4. Introduction can also give more interest and excitement to the reader.
5. Ask the students to answer Activity B.
6. Instruct the students to base their answers in the first guide question on the graphic organizer in
Activity B.

ACTIVITY B: Based on your answer in the first activity, identify the elements of a proper introduction
using the graphic organizer.

ABSTRACTION:
begInnIng oF the research
1. Discuss the essential elements of the beginning part of the research and explain their purpose in the
research paper.
2. Ask the students to explain the functions of each element of the first chapter.
3. Have the students to read and analyze the given example on page 61 to gain further context.

Introduction
1. Discuss the elements of the introduction.
2. Have the student discuss the
3. Guide questions in formulating the introduction.
4. Cite and discuss the examples given on pages 58-59 for each element of the introduction.
Review
1. Have the students refer
to their corrected
Research Activity 1 and
review your comments.
2. Encourage them to ask
clarifications when
necessary.
3. Emphasize that the final
selected problem will
be used as they work
on developing the
different aspects of
their research paper.

APPLICATION

1. Ask each group to continue to continue working on their research problem.


2. Answer research activity 2 (The Introduction).

ASSESMENT
Evaluation of their introduction

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


ACTIVITY
Recall and event in your childhood when you did not fully comprehend what was happening. Write it on
the space provided below. Afterwards, write at least three questions regarding that event back then still
remain unanswered today. Write a reason why the questions remain unresolved.

ANALYSIS
1. Give the students 10 minutes to do the activity.
2. Let each student share his or her output to at least two classmates.
3. Have the students comment on the shared outputs.
4. Provide the following examples of questions and corresponding reasons as guide in formulating their
own answers.
a. Why are my some of classmates much taller than I am?
Possible Reason: The genetic make-up or traits of my parents and ancestors should be
considered.
b. Why am I always alone in the house?
Possible Reason: My father and mother are both working.

ABSTRACTIO
statement of the problem
1. Define the statement of the problem and describe its function in the research paper.
2. Have the students discuss the criteria on writing the purpose statement. Discuss the criteria for
specific problems.
3. Discuss the examples on pages 68-69 and explain how they follow the criteria in writing the research
problem.
4. Discuss the two types of research questions.
5. Ask the students to discuss the guidelines in formulating the central and sub-questions on pages 69-
70.
6. Have the students provide an example of a central question and sub-question

Types of research Questions


7. Discuss the different types of research question.
8. Ask the students to formulate an example for each type of research question based on their outputs
in the research activities.

.APPLICATION
1. Ask each group to continue to continue working on their research problem.
2. Answer research activity 3 (Statement of the Problem).
3. Have them write the questions down as reference for Research Activity 3.

ASSESMENT
1. Evaluation of their Statement of the Problem.
2. Evaluation of their Research Questions.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION


ACTIVITY
1. Instruct the class to form groups of three.
2. Ask each group to answer the opening activity.
3. Let each group share their answers to the activity to two more groups.
4. Ask the students to give comments on the outputs of the other groups.

INSTRUCTION: Follow the instructions below in doing this activity. Answer the guide question that
follows.

Directions:
1. Synthesize your ideas and create captions for the two pictures.
2. Discuss to the class why you chose the captions. Compare your answers with those of the other
groups.
ANALYSIS
1. What is the common interpretation of the groups on the pictures?
2. What is the most likely meaning of the target board relative to research?
3. How can you relate the pictures in the conduct of research?

ABSTRACTIO
Setting the scope of the study and Delimitation of the study
1. Define the scope and delimitation of the study.
2. Describe their relevance to each other and their purpose in the research paper.
3. Discuss the variables and attributes.
4. Provide examples for each to provide further context.
5. Discuss the different characteristics and kinds of variables.
6. Ask the students to discuss each one and provide an example for each based on their research topic.
7. Identify and describe the limitations that may arise from the research design and methodology and
from the actual conduct of the research. Provide examples for each one.
8. For further context, discuss the components of this section in the research paper and cite the
examples on pages 81-82.

Significance of the study


9. Ask the students to define the significance of the study and its purpose.
10. Discuss the importance of identifying the beneficiaries of the research.
11. Discuss the examples on pages 83-85 for further context.

APPLICATION
1. Present the scope and beneficiaries of each research .
2. Answer research activity 4 (Scope and Delimitation).

ASSESMENT
Evaluation of their presentation

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
ACTIVITY

1. Ask the students to read the selection in this activity.

The Importance of Reading Comprehension

Imagine your employer has just handed you an important document to read and tells you he expects
a summary of the material on his desk tomorrow. You take a look and see it is written in a language
totally foreign to you. After your initial confusion, you may try to make some sense of it and scan the
document. While you may be able to phonetically decipher the words and sound them out, that’s where
your “reading” would end. You wouldn’t have any idea what the words you just read actually meant.
How would you feel? Upset? Discouraged?
Obviously, this is an extreme example but sadly, classrooms across the nation are interspersed
with students who experience the same type of frustration every day. They don’t possess adequate
reading comprehension skills to do what is expected of them. Without comprehension, reading is simply
following words on a page from left to right while sounding them out. The words on the pages have no
meaning. While people read for many different reasons, the chief goal is to derive some understanding
of what the writer is trying to convey and make use of that information—whether for fact gathering,
learning a new skill, or for pleasure. That’s why reading comprehension skills are so important. Without
them, the reader cannot gather any information and use it to efficiently function and enjoy the richness
of life.

Reading is a multifaceted process that develops only with practice. There are certain aspects of
reading, such as fluency and word recognition, which can be learned in a few years. These basics must be
mastered but at the same time reading comprehension should be emphasized in the process. Students
can parrot words on a page all day but if they don’t have the necessary comprehension skills, they will
not be able to make predictions about what will happen next, monitor their understanding of content,
sequence or characters, clarify confusing parts of the text, or connect what they’re reading to their own
experience or prior knowledge. And that is what true comprehension is all about.

Source: The Importance of Comprehension Reading by K12 Reader, n.d.

ANALYSIS
1. Have them answer the questions.
1) If you are in a similar scenario as the one stated at the beginning of the selection, what
would you have done?
2) Do you agree that “without comprehension, reading is simply following words on a page
from left to right while sounding them out”? Why? Why not?
3) How has improving your reading comprehension benefitted you in real life?
4) What do you think will be the significance of reading comprehension in a review of
literature in a research study?
5)
2. Ask students to share their output to the class.

ABSTRACTION
Review of Literature
1. Ask the class to identify their favourite books.
2. Have the students give the reason for their choice of favourite book and discuss the lessons they
have learned from it.
3. Relate the discussion to the review of literature.
4. Define the review of literature and its purpose in the research paper.
5. Discuss the different types of reading and demonstrate how each is done for further context.

Conducting A Review Of the Literature


6. Discuss the steps in reviewing literature and strategies in reading literature.
7. Ask the students if they have personally done the strategies discussed in the past.
8. Ask them to provide some additional guidelines they have learned from their personal experience.
9. Cite the examples provided in the book for further context.

APPLICATION
INSTRUCTIONS: Read and analyse the article using the highlighting strategy. Apply the highlighting marks
on the text.

Philippines wins arbitration case vs. China over South China Sea

It has finally been decided that the Philippines has exclusive sovereign rights over the West
Philippine Sea (in the South China Sea) and that China’s “nine-dash line” is invalid, according to the
United Nations (UN) Arbitral Tribunal.
The Tribunal issued its decision last Tuesday after several months of hearings and submission of
documents. China was absent throughout the proceedings, refusing to recognize the case.

“The Tribunal concluded that there was no legal basis for China to claim historic rights to
resources within the sea areas falling within the ‘nine-dash line,” the statement released to the media
said.

“Having found that none of the features claimed by China was capable of generating an exclusive
economic zone, the Tribunal found that it could—without delimiting a boundary—declare that certain
sea areas are within the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, because those areas are not
overlapped by any possible entitlement of China,” it added.

The Tribunal also said that China has violated Philippines sovereign rights.

“Having found that certain areas are within the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, the
Tribunal found that China had violated the Philippines’ sovereign rights in its exclusive economic zone by
(a) interfering with Philippine fishing and petroleum exploration, (b) constructing artificial islands, and (c)
failing to prevent Chinese fishermen from fishing in the zone,” the Tribunal said.

The Tribunal further held that Chinese law enforcement vessels had unlawfully created a serious
risk of collision when they physically obstructed Philippine vessels,” it said.

The Spratly Islands and its many reefs are being claimed by China under its “nine- dash line” claim that
covers nearly the entire South China Sea including parts of the Philippines’ Exclusive Economic Zone
(EEZ).

China insists it has “historic rights” in asserting its ownership of the region believed to be rich in
natural gas resources and also a vital trade route for international cargo ships.

Philippines filed its case in January 2013 following a tense standoff between Chinese and Philippines
ships at Scarborough shoal in April 2012.

Since the initiation of the arbitration case, China has conducted several massive reclamation
projects to turn submerged reefs into artificial islands capable of hosting military structures and
equipment.

China’s reclamation activities have alarmed other Southeast Asian nations, particularly Vietnam, that
also has competing claims in the South China Sea.

Source: “Philippines wins arbitration case vs. China over South China Sea” by Matikas Santos,
Philippine Daily Inquirer, 2016 July 12

ASSESMENT
Identify the word or term being described in each statement

1. ____________This is done by physically marking the text to identify key details and note the
relationships among ideas.
2. ____________It is the highest level of reading which requires the reader to place what he or she is
currently reading in relation to other materials he or she has previously read.
3. ____________It is the highest level of reading which requires the reader to place what he or she is
currently reading in relation to other materials he or she has previously read.
4. ____________It is a good source of reference materials where journals, textbooks, reference books,
theses abstracts, dissertations, and computers with internet access can be found.
5. ____________It is the process of compiling, classifying, and evaluating what other researchers have
written on a certain topic.
6. ____________ is the process of compiling, classifying, and evaluating what other researchers have
written on a certain topic.
7. ____________It is the process of reading to get a general idea of the things to look for in the text.
8. ____________ It is the recording of the reader’s reactions as marginal notes.
9. ____________This is useful especially when the researcher is already synthesizing and compiling
ideas from various references.
10. ____________It consists merely of the recognition of letters and basic sounds and the literal
comprehension of sentence.

THE STANDARD STYLE OF WRITING

ACTIVITY

1. Ask the students to answer the activity for 15 minutes.


2. Provide some general guidelines in writing an essay with an academic tone.
3. Have them share their work to the class.

Think about any topic that you can passionately talk about. Then, in the space provided below, write a
formal essay about that topic as if you are writing an academic paper. Provide a title for your work as
well. Afterwards, each student will share his or her work to the class.

Title:_________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

ANALYSIS
Guide questions:
How did you organize your related literature?
What pattern did you follow in organizing it?
What is an APA and what are the information needed to collect in doing related lit?

ABSTRACTION
Different Styles of Writing
1. Introduce the lesson by talking about academic writing; how it has been used in various research
papers, and the different styles of research writing.
2. Introduce the three most commonly used styles today which are the APA, MLA, and Chicago or
Turabian styles.
3. Discuss each one by explaining its origins and what its general characteristics are, and how is it
applied in academic writing.
4. Discuss the formatting guide provided in the book to provide further context.

APPLICATION
Follow the checklist of requirements in making related literature. Do necessary revisions in your related
literature following the APA style

ASSESMENT
Evaluate the constructed related literature to ensure that APA was followed

ASSIGNMENT
1. As a preparation for the opening activity for the next lesson , divide the class into eight groups.
2. Assign one theorist per group.
3. Instruct them to research on their assigned theorist and have the groups prepare their outputs for
group synthesis in the next lesson.

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
ACTIVITY

Divide the class into eight groups. One theorist will be assigned to each group. Each group will be given
time to research about their respective theorist and their theories. Then, the members of each group
will discuss the theories of the theorist assigned to them. Their collective ideas will be presented to the
class.
1. Robert Owens 5. George Elton Mayo
2. Frederick Taylor 6. Abraham Maslow
3. Max Weber 7. Kenneth Blanchard
4. Henri Fayol 8. Robert Greenleaf

ANALYSIS
GUIDE QUESTIONS

1. What are the significant ideas, concepts, and theories proposed by this theorist?
2. What are the significant applications of these theories?
3. To which disciplines or areas are these theories most relevant?

ABSTRACTION
Research Framework
1. Introduce the lesson by defining the research framework and describing its function.
2. Identify the two types of research framework.
3. Ask the students to discuss and compare the two framework types.
4. Discuss further the two types of research framework by providing more extensive definitions and
presenting other examples.
5. Emphasize that the theoretical framework should be used in their study.

ELEMENTS OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND DEVELOPING THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


1. Have the students define the elements of the theoretical framework.
2. Discuss each one and explain their purposes in the research study.
3. Present examples for each one.

RELEVANT THEORIES
1. Define the word “theory.”
2. Discuss the relevant theories and its purpose in the research paper.
3. Discuss the different parts of this section.
4. Present the examples for further context.

APPLICATION
1. Ask the students to create their own paradigm for their research study.
2. Ask the students to compare their work with their seatmate.
3. Remind them that they can use their output in their final research paper if they prefer.
4. Answer Research Activity 4

ASSESMENT
Evaluation of their Presentation