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TASK :TERM PAPER

TOPIC : EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS USED FOR


MANUFACTURING AUTOMOBILE PARTS.
;

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 4

CONTENT ...................................................................................................................................... 5

CRANKSHAFT .............................................................................................................................. 7

Description of a crankshaft. ..................................................................................................... 7

Functional requirements of crankshafts. .................................................................................... 8

History of development and evolution of material used to make crankshafts. ........................... 9

Manufacturing processes of crankshafts .................................................................................. 11

CAR FRAME................................................................................................................................ 12

Description of a car frame...................................................................................................... 12

Functional requirements of car frame ....................................................................................... 12

History of development and evolution of material used to make car frames. .......................... 13

Properties of materials used to make car frames ................................................................... 14

FENDERS ..................................................................................................................................... 17

Description of a fenders .......................................................................................................... 17

Functional requirements of . fenders ........................................................................................ 17

Manufacturing of fenders. ......................................................................................................... 17

Major property requirements of materials used in fender manufacturing. ............................ 19

History of development and evolution of material used to make fenders ................................ 19

Characteristics of materials used to make fenders ................................................................. 19


STEERING KNUCKLE.. ............................................................................................................. 20

Description of a steering knuckle ........................................................................................... 20

Functional requirements of .steering knuckle. ......................................................................... 20

Major property requirements of materials used in manufacturing the steering knuckle ...... 21

History of development and evolution of material used to make steering knuckle .............. 22

Characteristics of materials used to make the steering knuckle ............................................ 22

General technical, economic ,legal, sustainability and hurdles that hinder application of
candidate materials........................................................................................................................ 23

CONCLUSION. ............................................................................................................................ 24

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 24
INTRODUCTION
The introduction of new materials into automobile manufacturing has often been dictated by
how fast such materials can be processed in the production line .Right from the first cars until
the present, steel has been the preferred option for structural components requiring high
strengths.

This term paper explains the properties and characteristics that a suitable material should have to
be accepted in automotive production. In also gives a detailed review of the history of
development of the materials in automotive from the most traditional to the most recent ones. In
the category of the metallic materials like steel, aluminium and magnesium and the most recent
alloys of these used in the automotive are explained. Some of the properties, manufacturing and
joining processes for these metals are described. The advantages and problems of using each of
these materials are also discussed. The potential application of these materials in different parts
of a vehicle is identified.

But with the need to produce lighter cars being driven by the C02 emission regulations
imposed for new car builds ,the term paper will also cover on the technical ,economical ,legal
,sustainability and social hurdles that could hinder some of the candidate engineering
materials.
CONTENT
Materials that are applied in manufacturing in engineering are very broad and are also used in
extensive applications . And for the topic under car materials some of the requirements of the
materials in automotive design include;

Lightweight

As there is a high emphasis on greenhouse gas reductions, reduction of emission and improving
fuel efficiency this criterion is most important one for an automotive company. Lightweight
materials can improve fuel efficiency more than other factors. Experiments reveal that 10 percent
of weight reduction can lead to 6 to 8 percent improvement in fuel usage. Weight reduction can
be obtained by three ways:

 Replacing materials of high specific weight with lower density materials without
reducing rigidity and durability. For example replacement of steel with aluminium,
magnesium, composites and foams.
 Optimizing the design of load-carrying elements and exterior attachments so as to reduce
their weight without any loss in rigidity or functionality.
 Optimizing the production process, such as reducing spot welding and replacing new
joining techniques.

But the single main obstacle in application of lightweight materials is their high cost. Yet the
weight reduction is still the most cost-effective means to reduce fuel consumption.

Economic effectiveness

One of the most important consumer driven factors in automotive industry is the cost, that
determines whether any new material has an opportunity to be selected for a vehicle component.
Cost includes three components: actual cost of raw materials, manufacturing value added, and
the cost to design and test the product.

Aluminum and magnesium alloys are certainly more costly than the currently used steel and cast
irons. Since cost may be higher, decisions to select light metals must be justified on the basis of
improved functionality. Meanwhile the high cost is one of the major obstacles in use of the
composite materials.

Safety

The ability to absorb impact energy and be survivable for the passengers is called
“crashworthiness” of the structure in vehicle. At first two concepts in automotive industry should
be considered: crashworthiness and penetration resistance. In the more accurate definition of
crashworthiness, it is the potential of absorption of energy through controlled failure modes and
mechanisms. However, penetration resistance is concerned with the total absorption without
allowing projectile or fragment penetration.

Recycling

The most important concerns in industeries such as automotive, are ‘protection of resources’,
‘reduction of CO2 emissions’, and ‘recycling’

Major properties of material used in automotive design is shown below;


CRANKSHAFT

Description of a crankshaft.
Crankshaft is a shaft which is connected perpendicularly to piston through connecting rod .At the
one end of crankshaft, the flywheel is connected. Flywheel is a energy reservoir, that receives
energy from the piston during power stroke and it gives back the same energy to the piston
during remaining strokes due to the moment of inertia. On the other end, the shaft is connected to
camshaft through belt drive which helps for opening and closing the inlet and exhaust valves.
Image source: Google images

Crankshaft is a part of the engine that helps you convert the linear motion of the Piston into
rotary motion that can be delivered to the gearbox/wheels. Without the crankshaft you can't
transfer the reciprocating motion of pistons to the drive shaft. It also holds The flywheel which is
like an energy reservoir that helps maintain the constant reciprocating motion of the Piston
without any mis-alignment and mis-firing. It's also the connecting link between the engine and
the gearbox/drive shaft. Power is delivered from the crankshaft to the wheels/geabox.

Functional requirements of crankshafts.


The steel alloys are used in high strength crankshafts for what each designer perceives as the
most desirable combination of properties.The alloying elements typically used in these carbon
steels are magnesium, chromium , molybdenum, nickel , cobalt and vanadium must been
carefully designed to produced specific requirements in mechanical, chemical and physical
properties stated below.

Medium carbon steel are commonly used and are highly favoured in manufacturing of crank
shaft since it provides all basic functional requirements for working of a crankshaft to its best
performance. Therefore for maximum power output by the crankshaft the following material
requirements must be attained :

 Hardenability : have high hardness.


 Ultimate tensile strength of 620 Mpa, yield strength of 415 Mpa ,and high endurance
limit (fatigue strength)
 Core hardness
 Material should be ductile: Ductility
 Impact resistant
 Corrosion resistant
 Temper-embrittlement resistant.(Thermal expansion co-efficient 0f 11.3 m/m0c)

1040 Carbon steel is regularly the chosen medium carbon steel.

Image source : http://www.slideshare.net/finaldocumentforengine

History of development and evolution of material used to make crankshafts.


Until around 1960 ,carbon steels of 450 M pa class had been used for the solid type crankshaft.
Subsequently, low alloy steels began to be used and have gradually increase in usage. Currently
more than 50 % of crankshafts use low-alloy steels (>800 Mpa). A noteworthy trend is recent
application of super high strength steel of 950 Mpa class.
Advances in steel making technology are essential for reducing impurities for crankshaft. The
removal phosphorous and sulphur are especially important along with degassing .Until around
1998 tap degassing process (TD Process) until around 1988. Subsequently the ladle furnace
process( LF Process)

Older crankshaft technology involved heat-treating to a higher core hardness and shotpeening
the fillet radii for fatigue improvement.
Figure 1: shows the relative fatigue strength of 4340 material from heat treating alone, heat
treating plus shotpeening (old technology), and heat treating plus nitriding

Manufacturing processes of crankshafts


There are two main ways of producing crankshafts :

Forging : A billet is heated to an approximate forging temperature usually between 1065-


1230.The heated billet is then pressed into the required shape by a pair of dies squeezing the
material under very high pressure. More sets of dies are required when more intricate shapes are
attempted.

Machining: Motorsport engines require more defined and cmplex crankshafts therefore they are
machined from a billet to produce a more accurate shape. The use of Cnc and 3D CAD
programs allow rapid alterations to be made to tweek designs to create an optimal working
engine. CNC also makes producing these components very cost effective.

Regarding the steel alloys typically used in high-grade crankshafts, the desired ultimate (and
hence yield and fatigue) strength of the material is produced by a series of processes, known in
aggregate as ‘heat treatment’.
The typical heat-treating process for carbon-steel alloys is first to transform the structure of the
rough-machined part into the face-centered-cubic austenite crystalline structure (‘austenitize’) by
heating the part in an oven until the temperature throughout the part stabilizes in the
neighbourhood of 950°c to 1356°c (depending on the specific material). Next, the part is
removed from the heating oven and rapidly cooled ("quenched") to extract heat from the part at a
rate sufficient to transform a large percentage of the austenitic structure into fine-grained
martensite. The desired martensitic post-quench crystalline structure of the steel is the high-
strength, high-hardness, form of the iron-carbon solution. The rate of cooling required to achieve
maximum transformation varies with the hardenability of the material, determined by the
combination of alloying elements.

CAR FRAME.

Description of a car frame..


A vehicle frame also known as its chassis , is the main supporting structure os a motor vehicle
to which all other components are attached , comparable to the skeleton of an organism

Functional requirements of car frame


Minimize momentum by cutting out excess materials

Bend ability ( ductility)-Car frames are designed so that there is less material at desired point of
bending hence bending can be done without damaging parts that should not be bent

Easy to manufacture and assemble by minimizing number of parts.


History of development and evolution of material used to make car frames.
The structures were made of a wooden frame with wooden body panels mounted on it.An
introduction of steel and aluminum sheets(1900) enabled the designers to create shapes with
more freedom.

Image source : Automotive in the past years ,Journal ,pg 128

First high volume all steel car :Dodge Brothers(1914)

In 1922 the Lancia Lambda was a revolution in the evolution of chassis design. Inspired by
shipbuilding the design emphasized on All steel body monocoque structure
Dogde brothers (1914)

Source: http://www.news.lt/Upload/200103/Lambda1.jpg

Lancia Lambda (1922)

Source: http://www.carbodydesign.com/

Properties of materials used to make car frames


Some of the properties use in the construction of car frames with their respective properties
include :

Aluminium

Use of aluminium can potentially reduce the weight of the vehicle body. Its low density and high
specific energy absorption performance and good specific strength are its most important
properties.

Aluminium is also resistance to corrosion. But according to its low modulus of elasticity, it
cannot substitute steel parts and therefore those parts need to be re-engineered to achieve the
same mechanical strength, but still aluminium offers weight reduction.

Magnesium

Magnesium is another light metal that is becoming increasingly common in automotive


engineering. It is 33% lighter than aluminium and 75% lighter than steel/cast iron components.
Magnesium components have many mechanical/physical property disadvantage that require
unique design for application to automotive products. Although its tensile yield strength is about
the same, magnesium has lower ultimate tensile strength fatigue strength, and creep strength
compared to Aluminium. The modulus and hardness of magnesium alloys is lower than
aluminium and the thermal expansion coefficient is greater.

Magnesium alloys have distinct advantages over aluminium that include better
manufacturability, longer die life and faster solidification. Also magnesium components have
higher machinability.

Advanced composite materials

Fibre reinforced composites offer a wide range of advantages to the automotive industry. It has
the potential for saving weight offered by their low density. Component designs can be such that
the fibres lie in the direction of the principal stresses, and amount of fibre used is sufficient to
withstand the stress, thus optimizing materials usage.

Carbon-fibre epoxy composite

Most recently, the most of the racing car companies much more rely on composites form whether
it would be plastic composites, Kevlar and most importantly carbon-fibre epoxy composition. It
is because the composite structures is the high strength/low weight ratio. The most common
materials used for racing cars are carbon (graphite), Kevlar and glass fibres. Epoxy composites
have been the first choice in Formula 1 car industeries and other race cars.

Glass-fibre composites

Glass fibre is being used mostly for the sports car which includes Formula 1 cars. It is lighter
than steel and aluminium, easy to be shaped and rust-proof. And more important factor is that it
is cheap to be produced in small quantity

The table below shows values and properties of different materials used in the design and
manufacturing of car frames.
.
FENDERS

Description of a fenders
It is a part of an automobile, motorcycle or other vehicle body that frames a wheel well.It’s
primary purpose is to prevent sand , mud ,rocks, liquids and other road spray from being thrown
into the air by the rotating tire.

Image source : www.volkswagen/steelresistantfenders/.info

Functional requirements of . fenders


Should have the capability to absorb impact and impact resistant

Corrosion resistant.

Manufacturing of fenders.
The following are manufacturing procedure that are used in processing fenders;

Method 1 : It includes stamping a right fender and its complementary left fender from a unitary
sheet metal blank at one and the same time and forming the inner edge portion of each complete
fender from the intermediate portion of the blank.

Method 2 : This is method of manufacturing automobile fenders which includes holding a. sheet
metal blank along opposite edges, stamping the blank so held to form a right fender and its
complementary left fender at one and the same operation and forming the outer edge portion of
one fender from that portion of the blank adjacent to one held edge thereof and forming the outer
edge portion of the other fender from that portion of the blank adjacent to the other held edge
thereof and forming the inner edge portion of each fender from the intermediate portion of the
blank.

Method 3 : Manufacturing an automobile front fender having a crown, an outer edge portion
bent downwardly substantially at a right angle to the crown and an inner edge portion sloping
gradually downwardly away from the crown at a slight angle which comprises holding a unitary
sheet metal blank along opposite edges, stamping the blank so held to form therein at one
operation a right fender and its complementary left fender, said stamping operation including
subjecting that portion of the blank adjacent to each of said held edges to substantially the same
amount of distortion and to a substantially greater distortion than the intermediate portion of the
blank and forming there from the outer edge portions of the two fenders, and subjecting the
intermediate portion of the blank to substantially less distortion and forming there from the inner
edge portions of the two fenders, separating the two fenders stamped in the blank and trimming
each to size.

Method 4 :This is a method of shaping an automobile fender blank as an intermediate step in the
manufacture of automobile fenders comprising stamping a unitary sheet metal blank to form with
one and the same operation a right fender and its complementary left fender, and forming the
outer longitudinal edge portion of each fender from an outer edge portion of the blank and
forming the inner edge portion of each fender from the intermediate portion of the blank.

Method 5 : In this method of manufacturing a pair of automobile front fenders comprising


holding a unitary sheet metal blank along opposite edges, stamping the blank so held to form at
one and the same operation a pair of complementary front fenders. said stamping operation
including subjecting that portion of the blank adjacent to each held edge to considerable
distortion and forming there from and at substantially a right angle thereto the outer edge portion
of one of the fenders and subjecting the intermediate portion of the blank to very considerably
less distortion and forming there from and at a relatively slight angle thereto the inner edge
portion of each fenders
Major property requirements of materials used in fender manufacturing.
Though metals like steel and aluminium are applied in manufacture of fenders, the major
materials used are modern plastics which have the following properties.

History of development and evolution of material used to make fenders


The cars from a few decades back used steel and aluminium to provide cushioning and
protection allowing the fender to absorb impact and remain relatively undamaged.But the recent
development in polmers and polymerization has seen modern plastics covered Styrofoam and
aluminium.

The majority of the modern plastic are made from thermoplastic olefins , polycarbonates,
polyamides or blends with glass fibres.

Characteristics of materials used to make fenders.


High strength

High rigidity

Corrosion resistant

STEERING KNUCKLE..

Description of a steering knuckle


A forged joint that usually includes the spindle and the steering arm , allowing the wheel to
pivot , is known as a steering knuckle. It is a forged component that holds the assembly of the
suspension, steering ,axle, brakes and wheel hub together.

It acts as the end joint which provides directional assistance as per the inputs of the steering
wheel. The steering knuckle as the part of the wheel hub is finally bolted to the wheels.

Functional requirements of .steering knuckle.


The steering knuckle, being a part of the vehicle’s suspension system, has alternatives of forging

and casting as its base manufacturing process. Since it is connected to the steering

parts and strut assembly from one side and the wheel hub assembly from the other, it

has complex restraint and constraint conditions and tolerates a combination of loads. In
addition, parameters such as internal defects, stress concentrations and gradients,

surface finish, and residual stresses can have considerable influence while designing

for fatigue. A common practice of fatigue design consists of a combination of analysis

and testing

Major property requirements of materials used in manufacturing the steering knuckle


A steering knuckle assembly that is made of a lightweight material, such as an aluminum-based
material, but is strong enough to withstand various induced stresses like those caused during a
press-fit installation of a wheel bearing assembly. In one embodiment, the steering knuckle
assembly includes a steering knuckle component made of an aluminum-based material that is
over-molded or cast around a reinforcing insert made of a stronger ferrous-based material. The
reinforcing insert has an inner surface surrounding an opening that is designed to receive a wheel
bearing assembly, where the inner surface can be machined before or after the over-molding or
casting process.

Ductile irons and gray cast iron are the most widely used materials in manufacture of steering
knuckles because of the following reasons

They are lightweight.


They have more fatigue resistance which is a functional requirement.
They have compressive strength that is comparable to low and medium carbon steels.
They are resistant to high temperatures.
Introduction of some alloys like chromium makes the corrosion resistant

Some of the numerical values of required physical properties have been shown in the table
below.
History of development and evolution of material used to make steering knuckle

Cast iron has been always applied in the construction of steering knuckles since the automotive
industry came to life in the early 1900’s . As the development and discovery of new better alloys
chips in the new era , possibilities of cast irons been thrown out increase with possibilities of
aluminium alloys which are lighter , stronger and more resistant to chemical and extreme
temperatures replacing them.

Characteristics of materials used to make the steering knuckle.

For processing and manufacturing of steering knuckle, Grey Cast iron is commonly used with
the following properties usually taken into considerations :
General technical, economic ,legal, sustainability and hurdles that hinder application of
candidate materials

Though steels and their alloys have proven to be the best materials for manufacturing
application in automobile they face some challenges which are discussed below;

Raw materials trouble: With an extended fall in steel prices globally, steel making raw
materials have been in a tough spot . The implosion in prices is attributed to large oversupply of
raw materials and prolonged dullness in global economy that which resulted in over capacity in
steel and losses .Few of the largest iron ore miners have cut down expansion plan and have
shifted focus to low cost mining assets.

Low potential utilization : According to a research, the potential usage of steel and iron is quite
low. It generally doesn’t exceed 80%.

Huge demands : Even fter low per capita consumption rate of steel ,the demand for iron and
steel is increasing everyday and huge chunks of iron and steel are to be imported in order to
meet demands.

Some of the technical problem during processing of materials include;


Distortion and induced residual stress are two of the biggest problems involved in heat-treating.
Less severe quenching methods tend to reduce residual stresses and distortion. Some alloys (EN-
30B and certain tool steels, for example) can reach full hardness by quenching in air. Other
alloys having less hardenability can be quenched in a bath of 400°F molten salt. Still others
require quenching in a polymer-based oil, and the least hardenable alloys need to be quenched in
water. The shock of water-quenching is often severe enough to crack the part or induce severe
residual stresses and distortions. As the hardenability of a material decreases, the hardness (thus
strength) varies more drastically from the surface to the core of the material. High hardenability
materials can reach much more homogeneous post-quench hardness

Economic hurdles.

The cost of aluminium and price stability is its biggest obstacle for its application..

CONCLUSION.
The choice of materials for a vehicle is the first and most important factor for automotive design.
There is a variety of materials that can be used in the automotive body manufacturing, but the
purpose of design is the main challenge here. The most important criteria that a material should
meet are lightweight, economic effectiveness, safety, recyclability and life cycle considerations.
Some of these criteria are the result of legislation and regulation and some are the requirements
of the customers. The review of historical development of materials brings in a curiosity that the
future will bring more eco friendly and more strong and durable materials that are cost effective
and sustainable.

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