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THE DAILY OBSERVER
Tuesday,
ERIES
LECT(3UrdREEditSion)
January 23,
2018
:
dy guides Page 01
CSEC stu anguage
s h L
Engli nology
on Tech
Informati
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► English Language 3–6
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► Social Studies 13 – 17
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► Human and Social Biology 25 – 30
► Principles of Business 31 – 36
► Principles of Accounts 37 – 41
► Integrated Science 42 – 45
► English Literature
13
46 – 49

THE HOME OF CHAMPIONS &


12 UDE
D
MANCHESTER HIGH SCHOOL, MANDEVILLE: These E S L
sports fanatics were seen preparing for a game of R A D INC
G L SO
cricket at lunch time on their playing field. A
(PHOTO: GARFIELD ROBINSON)

LECTURE SERIES (3 rd
Edition)
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PRODUCTION TEAM
EDITOR: Debra-Gail Williamson • ASSOCIATE EDITOR – DESIGN: Rorie Atkinson • GRAPHIC ARTIST / PAGINATOR: Roy France

CONT R IBUTOR S

ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Shawnette Myers-Lawrence Kamau Karenga Charmaine Fuller-Wallace Shandeen Robinson-White

HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS INTEGRATED SCIENCE
Leroy Munroe Hilary Bassaragh Tedmore Clarke Marlene Grey-Tomlinson

ENGLISH LITERATURE COMMUNICATION STUDIES CARIBBEAN STUDIES CAREER TALK


Simone Gibbs Peta-Gaye Perkins Bryan Debgeri Whitely Heart Trust NTA

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ENGLISH
LANGUAGE Lesson 16
with
Shawnett Myers-Lawrence

NARRATIVE WRITING:
DEVELOPING THE PLOT
Hello everyone.

In the last lesson we looked at the elements of a story


focusing on the plot. Having discussed the elements of plot
in some detail I want us to look at planning the story using
the different elements as the guide.

It is not a good idea to just put pen to paper and allow


yourself to be led wherever the story will take you.
This approach will lead you down the paths of: FOCUS ON THE CHARACTERS

• An unbalanced and circuitous plot


This planning approach is particularly useful for an in class
• Flat characters or homework activity. You may also use it if your story is
heavily character based. Regardless of the situation it must
• Rambling instead of narration be noted that it is your characters; especially the
• Exceeding the word limit protagonists who experience the conflict of your story and
it is they who will seek a resolution. The actions that your
• Exceeding the time limit characters take while seeking a resolution will form the
plot of your story. A short story for English A has a limited
number of words so you have to select only a few
Whether you are writing a story for homework, in class or characters to be involved. Please note that some excellent
for an exam you need to think about: stories have been written with only one character. To begin
you need to do a little character sketch. Creating a graphic
• Who your characters are
organizer will give more order to your outline.
• Where your story will take place
Give your characters names
• What your conflict is
This name may be ordinary or it may have some
• How this conflict will be resolved
significance. Names are an integral part of a person’s
identity so by giving your characters names they start
If you are able to envision how your conflict will be
becoming more real to the audience.
resolved before you start to write then it is easier to get
there once you begin to write. Here are some approaches
that you could use to help you to plan your story. JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page
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JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continued from previous page

Decide what kind of persons your characters are


Depending on how you plan to characterize, the character’s physical appearance may be of some significance. If it is
not then do not spend too much time describing the character for your readers. Your sketch must also include an outline
of the character’s personality focusing on the main traits that he/she possesses. You may also include in this the type
of character that they will be. Your protagonist must be more complex than the others. While you do not have the
scope to have a truly complex character in your short story this person must have more than one aspect to their
personality to make him/her more believable to the audience. The protagonist may also be a dynamic character so you
must indicate the change that he/she will undergo.

Establish your characters’ roles


Decide who the protagonist will be and who the other characters are in relation to the protagonist. If the conflict in
the story is interpersonal then there must be an antagonist. This does not have to be a character in the story but this
person must be mentioned.

Outline the conflict that the character is experiencing


This is a summary of the problem including the characters attitude to it. You must also state the obstacles that are in
the way of the character resolving that issue. At this point you could even do a brief plot outline indicating the major
steps that will be taken to deal with the problem and the outcome of these steps. If the character is intended to learn
something from the experiences that he/she will have then you could also indicate what this is.

Decide who the narrator will be


The point of view from which the story is told will have an impact on the tale itself. If you decide that you want one
of the characters to tell the story from a personal point of view then it must be either the protagonist or someone
close enough to the protagonist to be privy to certain information. The story may also be narrated by an omniscient
narrator who is not in the story at all. Whichever the case, you will need to make this decision in the planning stages.

JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page


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JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continued from previous page

SAMPLE CHARACTER BASED OUTLINE

Story prompt: Write a story based on the title “The Visitor”

Character 1 Character 2 Character 3

Names Jamie Andrea Jamie’s father

Description A fourteen year old boy who A single parent who An absentee father who
is smart and usually does works as a full time has a sudden attack of
well in school. He has secretary and part time conscience.
become rebellious and hairdresser. She is a
neglectful of his school work. loving mother but has
little time for her son.

Roles The protagonist. He is Jamie’s mother. A flat Jamie’s father. A static,


experiencing an identity character. Typical single uni-dimensional
crisis. This is manifested in parent who means well character. A stereotypical
delinquent behaviour. He is a but fails in the parenting absentee father.
dynamic character as he role. Often the recipient
learns to deal with his issues of her son’s anger and
and gain some closure. resentment.

Conflict Jamie does not know his


father. He was told that his
father was dead but
discovers that this was a lie
when a man shows up at his
house

Point of Third person omniscient


view narrator. The narrator is able
to give insight into the minds
of all three characters.

Focus on the plot


In the previous lesson we examined the elements of the plot in detail. Planning based on the plot is useful in an exam
situation where there is a limited time to plan. This approach involves identifying the conflict and the major events
that will occur in trying to resolve the conflict. There are two ways that you could do a plot outline when you have
limited time. The first involves giving a summary of plot.

JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continues on next page


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JOL ENGLISH LANGUAGE continued from previous page

SAMPLE PLOT SUMMARY

Story prompt: Write a story based on the title “The secret”

The other day, Alice borrowed without permission, her older sister Karen’s Ipod, which she loves. It was a special
present for her good report card last term. Now, two days later, her sister searches for her Ipod and cannot find
it. The problem is that Alice took it outside to the park and lost it. She knows her sister will be angry and she does
not know how to tell her what happened. Karen approaches her to ask if she has seen it and she lies that she has
not. Karen becomes depressed and Alice’s conscience will not allow her to keep her secret. She then confesses
what happened to her sister. This leads to a loud and heated argument. Their mother comes into the room after
hearing them shouting. She diffuses the argument, promises to replace the Ipod and Alice will have to do chores
to repay her for spending extra money.

Most short stories will be narrated in a linear or chronological fashion. That means all the events will follow each other
in time and one event usually leads to the next event. The second way of outlining the plot involves using Freytag’s
five part plot structure. You may jot down five events which will constitute the five parts of the plot. You do not have
to represent these as a triangle but may just number them one to five. Look at the following example.

Sample plot outline In your preparation for


exams it is useful to practice
and build your skills using
Story prompt: Write a story based on the title, “Lost in the woods”
any of these techniques. Of
course, once you have
Climax: created your outlines you
Mandy loses track of time and realizes that it is getting dark will then have to write your
and she does not remember the way back to the camp. She begins to panic. story. Keep in mind that your
n : rther first effort may not be your
i o u
fro sn ter t

act ers f more . best effort so you must be


ay he as trac

g
p.

d n ed
w sc nd n:

lin n prepared to revise and


aw hile s out ms dis

Fal e wa g eveonfus stop


cam
the s
the r frie actio

m eak

Sh ttin nd c es to e rewrite your stories. As


ge st a cid to b
He sing

always, the rule of thumb


lo e de ait
Ri

Sh d w d. regarding exam preparation


an scue is practice, practice, practice.
re

Exposition: Resolution: Shawnett Myers-Lawrence


Mandy is excited about She is found the next is on the staff of
her first camping trip. She morning by the St. Hugh’s High School
tells her friends that she scoutmaster. ! Email:
plans to sneak away to shawnomyl@yahoo.com
see the famous sink hole.
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 7

www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited

MATHEMATICS Lesson 16
with Kamau Karenga

7 8 9
TRIGONOMETRY 3

+
Greetings, everyone! This week we will complete a ‘trilogy’
in Trigonometry; that is, a set of three lessons in
TRI-GON-OMETRY. First, we looked at Pythagoras, and then
we discussed SOH CAH TOA. Today we will examine
4 5 6 –
applications in ‘ANGLES of ELEVATION’, ‘ANGLES of
DEPRESSION’, and ‘BEARINGS’. We are still going to focus
on the simpler cases using right-angled triangles, but the 1 2 3 –:
principles that apply will be the same in all cases.

B
0 • = +
If we look down to the ground from the top of a building,
the angle between the horizontal and the line of sight
c a looking down will be the angle of depression.

If we look up to the top of a tree from the ground, the


angle between the horizontal and the line of sight looking
up to the top of the tree will be the angle of elevation.
A b C

ANGLES OF DEPRESSION/ELEVATION Example 1

Ann stands on top of a building which puts her 50 feet


The Angle of Elevation and the Angle of Depression may be
considered together because they have the same above ground. She looks into the distance (the HORIZON)
definition. First, let us consider the word HORIZON. Think and then she looks down towards the feet of her sister
of a day at the beach, when we look out to sea and there Betty, who is standing on the horizontal ground, 30 feet
is this ‘horizon-tal’ line in the distance, where the skies from the building.
seem to meet the sea. This HORIZONTAL line is always going
to be the line of reference when we measure or define the
angle of depression or elevation. JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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JOL MATHEMATICS continued from previous page

Calculate the angle of depression of the girl on top of the Example 2


building, with respect to her sister on the ground.
A tree in a schoolyard is measured using the angle of
elevation from a point A, 25 feet from the base of the tree
on level ground. The angle of elevation (θ) is found to be
angle of depression 43.7°.

Calculate the height (h) of the tree.

50 ft.


30 ft.

Solution 1

In a problem like this, we must assume that the distance


Solution 2
given (50 feet) above ground is the distance to the eye
level of the girl on the building. We should also recognise Here again we use a simplified triangle.
that the two horizontal lines – at the top of the building Angle θ = 43.7°, the adjacent side x has a distance of 25
and on the ground – are parallel. This creates ‘alternate feet, and the opposite side h is the unknown height.
angles’ and makes the angle of depression equal to the Opposite and adjacent requires the use of the Tangent
angle x ° seen in the diagram. ratio.

To find the angle x we use the opposite side (50 ft) and Therefore h
! Tan θ = –––
the adjacent side (30 ft), in a simplified triangle. From our x
previous lesson we know that opposite and adjacent
h
involves Tangent ratio. ! Tan 43.7 = ––––
25

! 25 × Tan 43.7 = h ! h = 23.9 feet


Answer: Angle of depression = 59.0°
Answer: Height of the tree is 23.9 feet
[We should know by now how to find the inverse trig
function on our scientific calculators] JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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JOL MATHEMATICS continued from previous page

NOTE: The angle of elevation and the angle of Example 3


depression can be measured using the App
‘Clinometer’ on an ordinary smart phone. The diagram below, not drawn to scale, shows the journey
[However, this will not add to your exam points of a ship which started at port A, sailed 30 km due south
in CSEC Maths.] to port B, and then a further 40 km due west to port C.

N
A

• •
Instructions:

a) Copy the diagram and label it to show the points B


and C, and the distances 40 km and 30 km.
BEARINGS
b) Calculate AC, the shortest distance of the ship from
the port where the journey started.
Bearings may be defined simply as the direction WITH RESPECT
TO NORTH and in a CLOCKWISE DIRECTION, of one point on a c) Calculate the measure of angle BAC, giving your
map to another. The Bearing of an object is the angle answer to the nearest degree.
measured in a clockwise direction from north to the object.
d) Determine the bearing of A from C.

Solution 3

a)
N
A

By convention we place the north direction pointing
straight up. That puts east pointing to the right at 90° 30 km
(usually written 090°); south is straight down at 180° and
west is to the left at 270°. The four cardinal directions are
north, south, east and west.
Bearings are always written using three digits: north is •C 40 km
•B
000°, northeast is 045° and east is 090°.
Problems with bearings require us to interpret
information, make sketches and solve triangles. JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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JOL MATHEMATICS continued from previous page

b) To find side AC of this right-angled triangle, we use


EVALUATION
Pythagoras’ theorem

Find the hypotenuse ! (AC)2 = (30)2 + (40)2 The diagram below, not drawn to scale, shows three points
A, B and C on the horizontal ground. BT is a vertical tower
Square both numbers ! (AC)2 = 900 + 1,600 of height 20 m. The angle of elevation of the top of the
tower T from A is 30°. A is due east of B and C is due south
Adding ! (AC)2 = 2,500;
__________ of B. BC = 35.5 m.
Square rooting ! AC = √ 2,500
T
Answer: AC = 50 km

c) To find angle BAC we use the Tangent ratio


20 m
opp.
! Tan A = –––––
adj.
B A
40
! Tan A = ––––
30 35.5 m

! A = Tan–1 ( ) 40
––––
30
Answer: Angle BAC = 53° C
d) The bearing of A from C is 53°. This can be seen
clearly from a sketch using the information Instructions:
gathered before.
N a) Sketch separate diagrams of the triangles ABT, TBC
and ABC. Mark on each diagram the given measure
N
•A of side and angles.
53°

b) Calculate the distance AB


θ
•C •B c) Calculate the length of AC correct to one
decimal place.
The two ‘north’ lines are two parallel lines.
Therefore, the bearing of A from C (angle θ) and the d) Calculate the angle of elevation of the top of the
angle BAC (53°) form alternate angles (Z angles) tower T from C.
! θ = 53°
Answer: The bearing of A from C is 53° JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page
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JOL MATHEMATICS continued from previous page

SOLUTION TO EVALUATION

a) The three triangles requested are all right-angled b) To calculate the distance AB, we use triangle ABT where
triangles. the unknown side AB is adjacent to the known angle
(30°), and the known height of the tower (20 m)
First, ABT: AB is on horizontal ground and BT is a represents the opposite side.
vertical tower. 20
The Tangent ratio is suggested ! Tan 30° = –––––
AB
T
Cross multiply ! AB Tan 30° = 20
20
Divide by Tan 30° ! AB = –––––––
20 m Tan30°
Answer: ! AB = 34.6 m
30°
A
B
c) To calculate the side AC, we use triangle ABC. Two
sides are known and the unknown side is the
Next, TBC: TB is the vertical tower and BC is on horizontal hypotenuse.
ground.
T This is a classical Pythagoras theorem application:
! (AC)2 = (34.6)2 + (35.5)2 [squaring and squaring]
! (AC)2 = 1,197.16 + 1,260.25 [adding]
20 m
! (AC)2 = 2,457.41
______________
C ! (AC) = √ 2,457.41 [square rooting]
35.5m B
Answer: AC = 49.6 m

Triangle ABC is also a right-angled triangle, where we d) The angle of elevation is the angle at C, using
are now looking down on tower BT. triangle TBC.

The right angle is formed because A is east of B and C is TB is the opposite side (20 m) and BC is the adjacent
south of B. side (35.5 m).
20
Using the Tangent ratio ! Tan C = –––––
B 35.5
A

( )
Using the inverse Tan function ({shift} {tan}):
! C = Tan–1 20
–––––
35.5
35.5m
Answer: C = 29.4°

C JOL MATHEMATICS continues on next page


THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 12
JOL MATHEMATICS continued from previous page

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

PEACE and LOVE!

Kamau Karenga is on the staff of Portmore Community College ! Email: kkarenga@pcc.edu.jm

LECTURE SERIES NOW


The most comprehensive collection AVAILABLE
of CSEC study guides:
♦ English Language
♦ Information Technology BUY
♦ Spanish YOUR
COPIES
Available at JAMAICA OBSERVER LIMITED:
• Kingston – 926-7655 • Ocho Rios – 795-3632 • Montego Bay – 979-2401 • Mandeville – 963-0515 T ODAY!
Also available at bookstores islandwide.
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SOCIAL
STUDIES Lesson 16
with
Charmaine Fuller-Wallace

SECTION A – UNEMPLOYMENT:
WAYS BY WHICH UNEMPLOYMENT
CAN BE REDUCED
In order to reduce unemployment the following can be done:

1. Instead of exporting products such as cocoa and sugar in their raw state, use them to generate new products or
use them to make a variety of products for sale locally and internationally. For example, cocoa can be used to
make chocolate, sweets and drinks.

2. The government should control the high birth rate by encouraging family planning. In the past there was a
popular slogan “Two is better than too many”, which seemed at the time to be very effective.

3. The Ministry of Education should ensure that the curricula in schools reflect the changes that are taking place in
Jamaica and around the world. Therefore more emphasis should be placed on technical/vocational subjects such
as Electrical Installation, Plumbing and Agricultural Science.

4. Creation of New Industries, for example, recently in Jamaica there has been a growing interest in the production
of bamboos and cassava.

5. Allow workers to become shareholders in firms in which they are employed. This will see an increase in
productivity as well as profitability which will lead to companies expanding and an increase in the
creation of jobs.

6. Create incentives, such as tax relief /reduce tax returns during holidays, for local or foreign investors so that they
can generate jobs and money.

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ACTIVITY 1

Instruction: Read the questions carefully before attempting to answer

Use the term/concept in the box below that corresponds with the explanation in Column B by writing the correct
term/concept in Column A. Some terms can be used more than once.

Labour Force Labour Force Survey Dependency Ratio

Labour Force Participation Rate Unemployment Rate

Column A Column B
TERMS DESCRIPTIONS
a) This is a household-based survey conducted by the Statistical Institute of Jamaica (STATIN)
1) on a quarterly basis and targets the non-institutional population with persons 14 years old
and over.

2) b) One of the key labour market indicators and a good measure of current economic activity.

3) c) The working age population

d) This tells us the proportion of the population not in the labour force who are 'dependent' on
4)
those of working-age.

5) e) the percentage of the unemployed to the total labour force (sum of the employed and unemployed)

f) Persons in the age group 14 to 60 years (proposal to change to 65) who are capable and
6)
willing to work)

g) This is used to produce the unemployment rate, the employment rate and the labour force
7) participation rate. It also provides employment estimates by industry group, occupation,
hours worked and much more.)
h) Prisoners and persons living in institutions such as hostels, army barracks, and places of safety
8)
are excluded from this.
i) This refers to the number of people who are either employed or are actively looking for work.
It is the ratio between the active labor force and the overall size of the potential labor force.
9)
It provides an indication of the size of the supply of labour available to engage in the
production of goods and services, relative to the working age population.

JOL SOCIAL STUDIES continues on next page


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SECTION A: In this section we will focus on Population Movement

POPULATION MOVEMENT

Objectives:

At the end of this lesson students should be able to:

" Explain and use correctly the concepts: migration; urbanization

" State the difference between internal and external migration; immigration and emigration

" Give examples of internal and external of migration

" Discuss two examples each of internal and external migration

What conclusion can you draw from the picture?

Migration whether in the form of emigration/ immigration/urbanization has been happening for many years.
Historically human beings have always had migratory lifestyles. The Nordics migrated from their homeland and settled
in the Caribbean, so did the Tainos and the Europeans. Prior to and immediately after independence many Jamaicans
migrated to England to seek better paying jobs. Similarly, today many Caribbean people are migrating to many different
countries inside and outside the region for various reasons.

What is migration?

Migration is the movement of people from one geographical area to another.

JOL SOCIAL STUDIES continues on next page


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TYPES OF MIGRATION

Different words are used to describe different directions of migration. The terms used are dependent on the flow and
number of people involved, the reasons for their movement and the nature of their migration. Migration is however
of two main types, namely:

3 Internal: This is migration within a country (migrating from Kingston to live in St. Ann); region (from Jamaica to
Cuba) or continent (Italy to France).

3 External or international migration: This refers to movement from one country to another. For example migrating
from Jamaica to live in England.

• Rural-Urban Migration/Urbanization: This involves the movement of people in large numbers from rural areas
or countrysides to urban areas of the same country in search of new opportunities and lifestyles.

• Regional /Intra-regional Migration: This refers to movement of people from one country to another country in
the same region continent or country. For example: migrating from Jamaica to live in Barbados or migrating
from the USA to live in Canada or from Italy to France

JOL SOCIAL STUDIES continues on next page


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• Intercontinental Migration: This refers to the


ACTIVITY #2
movement of people across continents, such as from
India in Asia to Venezuela in South America.
Instruction: For questions 1 - 5: Write ‘T’ if the answer is
• Intracontinental Migration: This refers to movement true or ‘F’ if it is false on the lines provided.
within the same continent. Example: an individual
migrating from India to China 1. ______ Migrating from Trinidad to live in Guyana is
referred as intra-regional migration.
• Forced or Involuntary Migration: This is when the
government or authorities of a place force people to 2. ______ Migrating from Jamaica to live in France is
referred to as internal migration.
migrate for a reason. For example if an area is flood
prone the government can do mandatory
3. ______ A retired person and a full time student are
evacuation.
classified as unemployed.
• Impelled Migration (also called reluctant or imposed
4. ______ The prospect of earning high salaries in
migration): This is where persons voluntarily developed countries has contributed to ‘brain
migrate due to push factors such as war, hunger and drain’ in the Caribbean.
other difficult conditions.
5. ______ Availability of well-paid jobs in the Caribbean
• Return Migration: This involves the voluntary return has resulted in the migration of a number of
of migrants to their original place after several Caribbean nationals to countries such as
years, usually when they are much older. Often Canada and England.
times, young people who move into the cities or to
another country to work return home when they
ANSWERS FOR ACTIVITIES
retire to spend the rest of their lives in the quiet of
their home and family and childhood friends.
ACTIVITY #1
PATTERNS OF IMMIGRATION 1) Labour Force Survey 6) Labour Force
2) Unemployment Rate 7) Labour Force Survey
3) Labour Force 8) Labour market survey
There are two main patterns of migration; immigration
emigration. This is also referred to as external or 4) Dependency Ratio 9) Participation Rate
international migration. 5) Unemployment Rate

• Immigration: This is the movement of people into a


country to which they are not natives in order to ACTIVITY #2
settle there. For example: Moving from Spain to live 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. True 5. True
in Jamaica. These migrants are called immigrants.
Have a Great Week!
• Emigration: This is the act of leaving one’s native
country with the intent to settle elsewhere. It is
moving out of a country/an area to live somewhere Charmaine Fuller-Wallace is on the staff of
else. For example: to emigrate/leave from Jamaica St. Andrew Technical High School
! Email: charmief2@yahoo.com
to live in Spain. These migrants are called emigrants.
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 18

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INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY Lesson 16
with
Shandeen Robinson-White

WRITING ALGORITHMS USING PSEUDOCODE, FLOWCHARTS AND PASCAL

Hello there! I trust you are working on your SBA. Before


we continue, ensure that you have reviewed lessons 14
and 15 which demonstrated the use of flowcharts and
pseudocode in the writing of an algorithm. Today we will
explore examination type questions on the topic.

STARTER ACTIVITY

Write the keys you need to press to get Beebot to the flower.
Beebot moves one space each time forward is put in.

Use:

Check your answer at the end of the lesson.

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The objective of today’s lesson is for you to be able to:

# develop algorithms to solve simple problems

# use trace tables to check the logic of an algorithm

A Quick Reminder:
Flowcharts represent a solution using symbols.
Always identify the start and stop

JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continues on next page


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JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continued from previous page

EXERCISE 1:PROGRAM WRITTEN IN PASCAL

Consider the following program written in PASCAL.

Question: What is the difference between this program and an algorithm written with pseudocodes?

Response: This program/algorithm is written using the syntax of a high level programming language – PASCAL. It is
like learning to speak in another language.

Look at it this way. How do you say ‘Hello, I love Information Technology. This qualification is much sought
after in today’s business world.’ In Spanish?

In Spanish - Hola, te amo Tecnología de la Información. Esta calificación es mucho más clase muy solicitado en el mundo
empresarial de hoy.

See, the same sentence, but written in another language!

JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continues on next page


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JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continued from previous page

This is what PASCAL programming is, a language whose syntax you need to
study. That is why we encourage you to write the algorithm using
English-like words (Pseudocode), and THEN convert it to PASCAL.

This is a screen shot


of a solution to a problem
written using
PASCAL syntax!

Now, let us take the solution line by line.

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JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continued from previous page

Question: What are some of the things you noticed in (3) State the name of a variable used in the program.
this program that were not done when Indicate its data type and the line number where it
writing pseudocodes? is declared. (3 marks)

Response: The use of semi-colons (;) at the end of some Write any of the variable named in line 4 (salary,
statements. deduction, net, tax, OR medical), and the data type is real
Readln and Writeln to replace READ and PRINT
respectively (4) State the name of a constant used in the program.
In the assignment statement, instead of =, in Indicate the line number where it is declared and
PASCAL: = the value of the constant. (3 marks)
The words ‘begin’ and ‘end’. There must be a
period after end. Union, line 2, 200 (1 mark for EACH correct
The output statements are written in brackets response)
(parentheses) and placed in quotes
(5) Line 7 has an error.
Have you noticed any other difference? (i) State the type of error.
(ii) Indicate when the error would be identified.
(iii) How would you correct the error?
(3 marks)

It was a syntax error; it would be identified during the


TYPICAL EXAMINATION QUESTIONS: compiling of the program; this error can be corrected by
placing a semi colon at the end of line 7

(6) State ONE reason for including comments in a


(1) Name the variable to accept the input data and program. Indicate the line number where a
identify the line number of the input statement. comment is used in the program.
(2 marks) (2 marks)

Analysis Comments make the source code easier to understand


(more user friendly) and it is in line 14.
This question is testing your knowledge of variables.
Variables are used to store the data entered by the user or (7) State the name of a control structure used in the
the result after processing. This data can change as the program and indicate the line numbers of the
program is executed. More importantly, each variable can control structure. (2 marks)
only store one piece of data at a time.
If, then, else (conditional branching). It was used in 2
The answer is ‘salary’; line 8 different places in the program – lines 9 to 11 and 16 to
18. In the examination you only need to identify one place.
(2) State the line number where a number is initialized. The 2 marks are for identifying the correct structure and
(1 mark) identifying a set of line numbers. However you would not
be penalized for writing both places it is used (likewise
Line 6, where the variable net is set to 0 at the start of you will not gain an extra mark)
the program. For one mark you just need to identify the
correct line. JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continues on next page
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(8) State TWO line numbers in the program in which arithmetic operations are used. (2 marks)

Lines 11, 12, 13 OR 15. Arithmetic means the use of +, -, *, OR /. Again you would only need to state 2 lines.

Please note that the


questions will not get any
simpler than this. You need to make
sure you know the basics of PASCAL
programming. Practise to
make perfect!

(9) Copy and complete the following trace table. Use 15000 as the salary entered for the applicant.

(10 marks)

You will get 2 marks for EACH row, starting at line 8. One mark for the correct line and another mark for the correct
number under the correct variable column.

This topic (trace table) is another area of programming that will be tested. It is a tool you use to test the logic of the
program. Note that this program does not loop, which means that each statement (line) will be executed once.
Therefore, it is a matter of writing down the value that will be in the variable when the program reaches that line.

(10) Using the results of the trace table in (i) above, determine the output of the program after the program has been
compiled and all errors corrected. (2 marks)

You have qualified for a house lot.

Please do not put the quote in the answer. The quotes are there to tell the computer to print the words
in them as is. If you put the message in quotes you will lose a mark.

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JOL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY continued from previous page

Conclusion

Programming can be overwhelming to a candidate, but I will admit that there has been a significant improvement in
the number of candidates attempting the programming questions. This is commendable. It comes with practice. This
is where we will stop for this lesson. I trust you are understanding, as this topic is vital to your SBA and Paper 2 in your
examination. Next week we will continue to explore programming questions. Until then, keep practising!

STARTER ACTIVITY SOLUTION: forward, forward, left turn, forward, forward, GO!

Word to the wise: “Press on – nothing can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common
than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb.
Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Perseverance and determination alone
are omnipotent.” – Calvin Coolidge

WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

Shandeen Robinson-White is affiliated with Maths Unlimited and Hillel Academy.


! Email: teacherrobwhite@hotmail.com
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 25

www.jamaicaobserver.com JOL LECTURE SERIES Jamaica Observer Limited


HUMAN & SOCIAL
BIOLOGY Lesson 16
with
Leroy Munroe

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Objectives:

At the end of this lesson students should be able to:

1. State the importance of the respiratory


system and breathing in humans.
2. Identify and describe the functions of the
organs of the respiratory system.
3. Explain the importance of gaseous exchange
in the alveoli.
4. Discuss the factors that affect breathing rate.

It is the only means of supplying our body with oxygen


IMPORTANCE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
which is vital for our health and one of the ways to get
The respiratory system consists of the organs that help us rid of waste products and toxins from the body, such as
to breathe. The respiratory system is important because it carbon dioxide and water vapour. Breathing is the
brings oxygen into our bodies that we need for our cells process by which a balance between oxygen and carbon
to live and function properly. It also helps us to get rid of dioxide is maintained.
carbon dioxide that is a waste product of cellular functions.
The system does this through the breathing mechanism. When we breathe in (inhale), the air enters our body
When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon through the nasal cavities and/ or the mouth. This air that
dioxide and water vapour. This exchange of gases is the passes through the nasal cavities is moist and warm. The
respiratory system’s means of obtaining oxygen into the nasal cavity is lined with ciliated epithelial cells that
blood and getting rid of carbon dioxide along with other secrete mucus. These cells have tiny hairs projecting from
waste produced by the body’s metabolic activities. them called cilia. The purpose of these tiny hairs or cilia is
to filter or remove the tiny dust particles that enter the
nasal cavity. This is to ensure that the air reaching the
THE IMPORTANCE OF BREATHING IN HUMANS lungs is clean. If air enters the body through the mouth, it
Breathing can be defined as the process by which the body does not go through the process of filtration, therefore
takes air into the lungs by inhalation and gets rid of it by containing dust particles that travel to the lungs through
exhalation. We cannot function if we are not breathing; the windpipe or trachea with the dust particles.
hence it is very important to the human body. If we are
not breathing, we will die. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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Diagram of the Respiratory System

THE ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

The nose is the first and last organ that air passes through. The function of the nasal cavity is to warm, moisturize, and
filter air entering the body before it reaches the lungs. Hairs and mucus lining the nasal cavity help to trap dust, mold,
pollen and other environmental contaminants before they can reach the inner portions of the body. Air exiting the
body through the nose returns moisture and heat to the nasal cavity before being exhaled into the environment.

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The pharynx or back of the mouth leads to the larynx that The bronchi (singular bronchus) are large air tubes leading
is covered by a flap known as the epiglottis. The purpose from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from
of the epiglottis is to ensure that food does not pass down the lungs. The bronchi have cartilage as part of their
into the trachea or windpipe and cause choking. The supporting wall structure. The bronchi branches into
pharynx, also known as the throat, serves two purposes. smaller tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles are
It moves air into your lungs and food into your stomach. smaller airways that send the air on to the inside walls of
In the pharynx, the cilia moves bacteria up and away from the lungs where the alveoli allow the oxygen to be
the lungs so that you swallow it into your stomach, where absorbed by the blood cells and oxygenate the blood for
the bacteria can do little harm. transfer throughout the body.

The larynx or voice box is found at the top of the trachea. The lungs are a pair of sponge-like organs in the chest.
The larynx is the swelling found at the throat. It contains Their function is to supply the body with oxygen and
your vocal cords which produces sound. We use the larynx remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Your lungs are in
your chest, and they are so large that they take up most
when we breathe, talk or swallow. Its outer wall of
of the space in there. The lung on the left side of your body
cartilage forms the area of the front of the neck referred
is a bit smaller than the lung on the right. This extra space
to as the ‘Adams apple.’ When we talk, the vocal cords
on the left leaves room for your heart. Your lungs are
tighten up and move closer together. Air from the lungs is
protected by your rib cage, which is made up of 12 sets of
forced between them and makes them vibrate, producing
ribs. These ribs are connected to your spine in your back
the sound of our voice. The tongue, lips, and teeth form
and go around your lungs to keep them safe.
this sound into words. The openings of the oesophagus
and the larynx are very close together in the throat. The lungs are important in the body’s defense against
infection and other harmful environmental factors. While
The trachea or windpipe is made up of cartilage rings in the nose is the first line of defense against inhaled harmful
the shape of a C. Because the trachea is so flexible and materials, the lungs provide the second line of defense.
twistable, without these cartilage rings, it would collapse Inhaled particles (smoke, pollution) or infectious agents
under the partial vacuum formed when inhaling. Its (bacteria, viruses) pass through the mouth or nose and
structure, a membrane consisting of cartilage rings, opens lodge in the lungs.
in the back with their free ends connected by muscle bands
allows the trachea to stretch and contract in breathing. Mucus, a sticky fluid produced in the lungs, can trap these
When you cough, the muscle also contracts to force air out inhaled agents and aid the lungs’ protective white blood
at a faster speed to dislodge food or other foreign objects cells in the engulfment and destruction of bacteria and
stuck in it. other harmful materials.

It also connects the larynx to the bronchi. Tiny hairs, or Coughing is the best way to clear mucus and other
cilia, in the mucous membrane lining keep dust and other materials from the lungs; however, the larger airways have
foreign particles from entering the lungs. The foreign tiny hair-like cells called cilia that aid in this process. The
material becomes trapped in the mucus and is swept by cilia beat with a rhythm fast enough, and a force sufficient
the beating cilia to the nose or mouth where it is enough, to propel mucus and cells up the airways to be
discharged from the body. The trachea branches off into coughed out or swallowed. When a person smokes, the
two main bronchi, your left and right bronchi, which lead cilia are inactivated or destroyed, allowing thick mucus to
to the left and right lung respectively. Your right lung is accumulate and compromise lung defense.
slightly wider and taller than the left; this makes it more
vulnerable to the invasion of foreign bodies. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
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JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continued from previous page

The Diaphragm is a large, dome shape muscle located Gaseous Exchange in the alveoli (air sacs)
directly below the lungs. The diaphragm contracts and Gaseous exchange is the movement of oxygen into the
flattens during inhalation, which causes the chest cavity lungs, and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. Gaseous
to expand. This manoeuvre creates a vacuum which pulls exchange takes place in the lungs by diffusion through the
air into the lungs. During exhalation, the diaphragm alveolar surface. The lungs contain many alveoli (singular
relaxes, returns to its previous shape, and air is forced out alveolus). Each bronchiole ends in a tiny air chamber that
of the lungs. As the diaphragm contracts and moves looks like a bunch of grapes. Each chamber contains many
downward, the lungs expand and air moves into them. As cup-shaped cavities known as alveoli. The walls of the
the diaphragm relaxes and moves upward, the lungs alveoli, which are only about one cell thick, are the
contract and air forced out of them. respiratory surface.

Diagram showing Gaseous Exchange in Alveoli

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The alveoli provide a very large, moist surface area, richly


FACTORS AFFECTING BREATHING RATE
supplied with blood capillaries so that gases can easily
diffuse into and out of the blood. They are like this to
allow gases to pass through or exchange easily. Alveoli The normal breathing rate is between sixteen to twenty
have a very large surface area in total; these provide
breaths every minute for the average adult male and
plenty of room for gaseous exchange to occur. There are
female. In a young child the breathing might vary.
between three hundred to five hundred million alveoli
within the internal surface area which is equivalent to There are various factors that affect persons breathing
the size of a tennis court. The exchange of carbon dioxide rate, these include:
and oxygen occurs in the alveoli. Each alveolus is
surrounded by a network of small blood vessels called $ Exercise this is because carbon dioxide and lactic
capillaries. Like the alveoli, these small blood vessels acid is accumulated in the blood.
have extremely thin walls.

Blood that enters the vessels has a high level of carbon $ Smoking: Carbon monoxide is converted to carbon
dioxide, which it picked up from the body tissues produced dioxide and inspired; causes shortness of breath and
during cellular respiration. It contains a small amount of particles constrict bronchioles inducing wheezing.
oxygen. The carbon dioxide leaves the blood and moves
through the walls of the blood vessels and alveoli into the $ Anxiety: Adrenaline is released in the blood stream
lungs. Oxygen from the air in the lungs then passes
that causes an increase in the metabolic rate.
through the walls of the alveoli and blood vessels and into
the blood. The blood, now rich in oxygen, leaves the lungs
and travels to the heart. The heart then pumps it to cells $ Drugs: These are stimulants that increase the
throughout the body. Carbon dioxide is expelled from the metabolic rate.
lungs as waste when we exhale.
$ Altitude: The low pressure affects breathing and
Inspiration (inhalation): muscles work harder to compensate for the lack of
When the diaphragm contract it flattens, and when the
oxygen above three thousand metres above sea
external intercostal muscles contract the ribs are raised
upwards and forwards, and the chest cavity is enlarged. level, this causes carbon dioxide to accumulate in
The pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases. Since the lungs.
the spaces within the lungs are open to the atmosphere
the higher atmospheric pressure forces air into the $ Weight: The lungs have to do more work because
lungs until the pressure is equalized. Because the lungs the body size is larger.
contain elastic connective tissue, they become inflated
with air.
$ Environment factors: Poor ventilation accumulates
Expiration (exhalation): carbon dioxide in inspired air; air pollution by cars
Relaxation of the diaphragm allows it to return to its increases carbon dioxide inspired.
convex (upward) domed position. The external
intercostal muscles relax and the internal intercostals $ Illnesses such as asthma causes wheezing as the
muscles contract, moving the ribs inwards and bronchioles constrict.
downwards, thus decreasing the volume of the thoracic
cavity. The air pressure in this cavity is increased and
air is forced out of the lungs. JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continues on next page
THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 30
JOL HUMAN & SOCIAL BIOLOGY continued from previous page

WATCH THE THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

Have a good week.

Leroy Munroe is on staff of the Trench Town Polytechnic College ! Email: leroy_munroe@yahoo.com

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♦ Information Technology BUY
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PRINCIPLES OF
BUSINESS Lesson 16
with
Hilary Bassaragh

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

In today’s lesson, we will be covering the Communication Process.

Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which
the communicated information is understood by both sender and receiver. It is a process that allows organisms to
exchange information by several methods.

Communication can also be seen as conveying information or giving instructions. Simply put, communication is the
process of making contact between two points, or interaction in any form. Communication may be external (the firm
or business organization communicating with the outside world) or it may be internal (involving persons within the
firm or business organization communicating with each other).

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The communication process or cycle involves

3 The transmitter (sender) who creates the message. A message (includes body language or any form of non-verbal
communication)

3 The medium of transmission ( the channel through which the message is sent, for example internal memorandum)

3 The receiver (the recipient of the message)

3 Feedback (response to the message, for example responding to the memorandum indicating that it was received
or understood.

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Communication can take place in different ways. These include:

1. Vertical – that is up and down the organization. Downwards is from the superiors to subordinates.
(Examples: giving orders, setting targets). Upward is employee to employer. (Example: presenting a report)

2. Lateral – that is communication across the organization (Example: one team to another, or department
to department)

3. Non verbal – this is communication without the use of words. (Example: using body language, using letters,
memo and diagrams)

4. Verbal – that is using words whether they are spoken face to face or by means of the phone or written as in the
form of e mails.

5. Formal – following the channels of communication established by the organization.

6. Informal – using channels established by the workers. Often called the grapevine. This method passes around
information quickly but it can become distorted.

7. Internal – that is what takes place within the organization.

8. External – this takes place outside the organization or between other organizations. (Example: advertising and
annual report.

METHODS OF COMMUNICATION

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Strategies for Effective Communication

Effective communication in a business is the lifeblood of its existence. Internal communication is important
because it:

◉ develops employer-employee understanding

◉ communicates instruction and intelligence

◉ furthers employee interests

◉ lessens the shock of technological change

◉ helps to create a good public image

◉ gives employees opportunities for communication

Good communication achieves efficiency. Without it there may be a breakdown or delay in production. This may increase
the production cost.

So, what can be done to increase effective communication?

1. Ensure that the communication is two-way. This means that the sender should allow the receiver to respond to
what was received.

2. Make an effort to eliminate all distractions; anything that interferes with the message, e.g. noise and
interruptions.

3. Choose an appropriate method or channel.

4. Ensure that all five communication elements are present.

5. Be specific by avoiding vague or general words, or words with several meanings. For example: Sales increased a
little. This is a vague statement. It is more effective to say: Sales increased by 10 percent.

6. Avoid distortions. This refers to people consciously or unconsciously changing the message.

7. Plan the message by thinking through the idea before saying or writing it.

8. Keep the receiver in mind by treating him or her with courtesy and respect.

9. Keep the communication as short as possible. This can be done by omitting unnecessary detail.

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JOL PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS continued from previous page

COMMUNICATION SENDERRECEIVER, ABBOTT COSTELLO COMEDY ROUTINE.MP4

EFFECTS OF POOR COMMUNICATION

1. It may cause distrust and lack of confidence among staff

2. Results in poor productivity which causes low morale


and increases errors made by workers

3. More errors result in reworking/double work and


increase cost

4. Lack of control in decision making

To remedy the situation, management should investigate


the root causes of communication and fix immediately. In
recent times the use of delayering has been utilized.
Delayering is the process of removing one or more levels
in the hierarchy to flatten the organizational structure.

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JOL PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS continued from previous page

IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY
Technology has changed how we communicate today. Virtually every day a new and more effective way of
communicating has developed. There are several choices open to the business community, including:

◉ voice mail ◉ Tele and video conferencing ◉ Snapchat

◉ Internet (Email and Ebay) ◉ Voice recognition and touch screen computers

Hilary Bassaragh is on the staff of The Queen’s School ! Email: ac_teacher@yahoo.com

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PRINCIPLES OF
ACCOUNTS Lesson 16
with
Tedmore Clarke

FINAL ACCOUNTS WITH ADJUSTMENTS


CONT’D

EXERCISE
From the following Trial Balance and additional information, prepare the Income Statement (Trading and Profit and
Loss Account) of M. Addison for the year ended June 30, 2017 and his Balance Sheet as at the same date.

Additional Information:

1. Stock at June 30, 2017,


was valued at $10,000.

2. Furniture bought for


$1,000 on January 1,
2017 had been included
in the Purchases
Account.

3. Depreciate ALL fixed


assets by 10% per
annum on cost.

4. Rates paid in advance


$500.

5. Wages owing $800.

6. Loan Interest for


6 months was
outstanding.

7. Provision for Bad Debts


to be reduced to $500.

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SOLUTION

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JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continued from previous page

NOTE
Since furniture had been included in the purchases account, this amount must be deducted from Purchases and
added to Furniture at cost. However, the new furniture should only be depreciated for six (6) months since it was
bought on January 1, 2017.
Depreciation of Furniture is therefore calculated as:
$
‘Old’ Furniture - 10% of $10,500 1,050
‘New’ Furniture - 10% of $1,000 x 6/12 50
1,100
====

Tutorial Note:
Long-term
liabilities may
instead be
deducted
from the
assets.

JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continues on next page


THE DAILY OBSERVER Tuesday, January 23, 2017 Page 40
JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continued from previous page

SELF-TEST EXERCISE
From the following information, of G. Caldon, prepare the income statement for the year ended December 31, 2016 and
a balance sheet as at that date.

JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continues on next page


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JOL PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTS continued from previous page

The following matters are also available at December 31, 2016:

a) Inventory was valued at $4,000.

b) Rates amounting to $200 had been paid in advance.

c) Rent of $300 and loan interest for the year were outstanding.

d) Provision for doubtful debts to be increased to $230.

e) On January 1, 2016, Caldon sub-lets part of the premises occupied to a tenant at an annual rental of $500. This
tenant owed $100 on December 31, 2016.

f) Machinery and motor vans are to be depreciated by 10% and 20% per annum, respectively, on cost.

HINTS & ANSWERS

1. The full amount due for the year from the tenant should be included in the profit and loss account ($400 received
+ $100 owing = $500 due for the year).

2. Loan interest for the year = 15% of the loan (ie. 15% of $2,000 = $300).

3. Gross Profit $18,100; Other Revenues $800; Net Profit $4,370; Fixed Assets $10,000; Current Assets $11,470; Current
Liabilities $4,100.

Tedmore Clarke is on the staff of Quality Academics


! Email: tedmoreorless@hotmail.com

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♦ Information Technology BUY
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Also available at bookstores islandwide.
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INTEGRATED
SCIENCE Lesson 16
with
Marlene Grey-Tomlinson

THE TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT – PART 2

Hello students, in this the second lesson, we will continue our discussion on
the four types of fronts.

FRONTS AND WEATHER


Air masses do not only influence the weather within them but also the weather
at their boundaries. The passage of weather across a country or region can be ascertained by keeping track of the
movement of air masses.

Fronts are important because they separate two different kinds of weather. As a front approaches an area, there is a
change of weather. Sharper weather changes are experienced when there is great difference between the air masses.
Fronts are almost always associated with precipitation. This occurs because at the frontal surface, warmer air rises
high into the troposphere which leads to cooling, condensation of water and then precipitation.

A warm front occurs at the leading


edge of a warm air mass that is
moving to replace a cooler air mass.
We already know that warm air
moves over the top of cold air. This is
because the air masses have different
temperatures and densities. Warmer
tropical air is forced over the cooler
polar air. This forms a bulge on the
front called a warm front.

The warm air mass is moving to


replace the cooler air mass and at the
boundary a warm front forms.

JOL INTEGRATED SCIENCE


continues on next page
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These different air masses do not mix because they have


different temperatures and densities. As the cold front
develops the warm air ahead of the front is pushed up over
the top of the cold air. This happens because the warm air
is lighter (less dense) than the cold air. Clouds often form
at a cold front. This is because as the warm air rises, it
cools and moisture in the air condenses. Clouds are masses
of cool, condensed air.

Fronts can be several hundred kilometres in width. The


air behind a warm front is warmer than the air ahead of
it. If a warm front passed overhead when you were
standing outside, then you would feel the air warming up.
The air would also be more moist (humid) than before.
The air behind a cold front is cooler than the air in front of
A cold front occurs at the leading edge of a cold air mass it. If a cold front passed overhead when you were standing
that is moving to replace a warmer air mass. The cold air outside, then you would feel the air cooling down. The air
mass is moving to replace the warmer air mass and at the would also be dryer than before.
boundary, a cold front forms.
Occluded fronts are linked with areas of low pressure called
depressions. When a depression forms, there is usually a
warm front and a faster moving cold front. The diagram
below shows this. To the north of the warm front is the cool
air that was in the area before the depression developed:

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The warm air mass is replacing this cool air and at its
leading edge is a warm front.

As the depression intensifies, the cold front catches up


with the warm front (remember it moves faster than the
warm front). This is shown below. The line where the two
fronts meet is called an occluded front:

Stationary fronts are pretty much just that, stationary. The


two air masses just do not move as neither of the masses
is strong enough to replace the other.
When an occluded front passes overhead, you would feel
changes in temperature and wind speed. Occluded fronts The weather along these fronts is similar to warm fronts,
can generate quite stormy weather as they pass over. less turbulent, but often longer lasting.

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WATCH THE VIDEO BELOW FOR MORE.

Until next week when the lesson continues, have fun learning!

Marlene Grey-Tomlinson is on the staff of Excelsior High School ! Email: mgrey.xlcr@gmail.com

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ENGLISH
LITERATURE Lesson 16
with
Simone Gibbs

SHORT STORIES – PART 2

Good day to you. I hope that you have continued your


preparation for the examination as it is just around
the corner.

Last week I started looking at the prescribed short


stories from A World of Prose for CSEC edited by David
Williams and Hazel Simmons-McDonald. Due to the fact
that you will be required to compare two of the ten
stories in the examination (if you choose to do the
question on the short stories and not the question of
one of the novels in Section C), I focused last week on
stories in which the narrator is a child.
EMMA
This week I would like to pay attention to those stories
where the dominant theme of Appearance versus
Reality can be seen. It is important to note that you may
find more than one theme in any of the stories. For
example, in Berry written by Langston Hughes, the
theme of Racism is evident along with Appearance
versus Reality. Here are other stories which feature the
theme of Appearance versus Reality:

Mom Luby and the Social Worker by Kristin Hunter The narrator in this story is Dorian (nicknamed Dory), a
little girl who is about eight years old. To Dory, life is a
game. She and her friend next door, Maria, live in a
To Da-duh, in Memoriam by Paule Marshall world of pretence where they imagine themselves as
adults who dress up and go dancing at nights. In
The Two Grandmothers by Olive Senior particular, the girls like to pretend that they are like
Emma, Dory’s mother, who is beautiful and kind to them,
Emma by Carolyn Cole unlike Mrs. Robinson, Maria’s mother.

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Another thing that the girls like to do is to play cards. In While there, Mrs. Robinson’s unkind nature surfaces. Not
one of the card games that the children like to play, only does she order something that she knows that
whoever gets the big joker is likely to win. The player who neither of the children enjoyed eating, but she needles
gets the little joker, is unfortunate; she is likely to lose. Emma about her unstable relationship with Jack. Mrs.
Robinson is bitter because her husband had abandoned
her and Maria. She also tells Emma that she should send
Dory believes that all adults play games. She sees the
Dory to a boarding school in order to spend more time
relationship that exists between her parents as a game.
with Jack and ensure that he does not pay attention to
Her father is a player. While Emma is dedicated to Jack
other women. That’s what she would do, she claimed, if
(Dory’s father) and her family, Jack has not formed a bond she were in Emma’s position.
with his daughter and doesn’t appear to want to have a
relationship with her. Dory reports that the only time that In order to prevent the children from hearing the
her father comes to her room was when he came to get unpleasant conversation between the two adults, Emma
her mother, who was spending time with her there. takes a pack of cards from her bag, gives it to the girls and
instructs them to play with them. The children pretend to
Dory also notices that many evenings her father does not play a card game, but they still hear the awful comments
come home early. Instead he goes to meet “the lady at the that Mrs. Robinson is making. When Dory can no longer
train station”. To her, this woman is somehow involved in stand to hear these comments, she asks her mother’s
permission to take the bus with Maria to the train station
this game that the adults are playing. Maria, who is a little
in order to go skating. At first Emma says no, but Mrs.
older, understands that Jack is having an affair with this
Robinson urges her to give the children permission to go.
woman. Dory, however, does not realise this and simply
describes what she sees happening between the woman At the train station Maria and Dory skate and enjoy
(who she thinks wears too much perfume) and her father. themselves until they see something terrible: the woman
Dory does not want her mother to lose in this game that who used to meet Dory’s father was there. Then Jack
the adults are playing. appears. The woman runs to meet him and hugs and kisses
him, just like her mother would. Unfortunately, Emma and
The only time Jack came home on time was during the Mrs. Robinson have arrived at the train station and witness
summer when Emma’s father (Dory’s grandfather) visited. the scene. Emma is furious and screams at her husband.
When Dory’s grandfather stayed with them that summer Then she turns and runs away into the street. Blinded by
rage and perhaps her tears, she does not see the motor
Jack pretended to be the perfect husband. He was attentive
car that hits her (and Dory who ran after her).
to his wife and seemed to have forgotten about the lady
at the train station. Emma’s father is not fooled, however.
Dory does not understand what happened. All she knows
On one occasion, Dory told her grandfather that her father is that her beloved Emma was lying on the ground and her
had said that her grandfather needed something to keep face was “real bloody. It didn’t look like Mommy”. There
him busy. Her grandfather commented that her daddy was was also a man in a white coat who was hitting her
busy enough for both of them. mommy in the chest. The contents from Emma’s handbag
were scattered all over the street. The card with the little
The girls also liked to go shopping with their mothers and Joker, was right beside Emma. After that day her mommy
go skating at the train station. One day while both girls never came home.
go shopping with their mothers, they stop at a restaurant
called Gino’s for lunch. JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continues on next page
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Dory’s life changed after that. Maria was even kinder to During the visit, Mom Luby informs Ms. Rushmore that she
her and played all the games that she wanted to play. Once has a number of tasks to accomplish outside of her home
she thought her mommy had come home because she and invites Ms. Rushmore to go along with her. In the
heard the bed making the same sound it used to make space of a few hours, Mom Luby, an old woman with few
when her mommy and daddy were in the bedroom resources, delivers a baby, acts on behalf of someone in a
legal matter, administers medicinal herbs to another
together. Sadly she discovers that it was not Emma, but
person and officiates at a funeral.
Mrs. Robinson who was in Emma’s bed with her father.
Then the worst thing happened: Mrs. Robinson sends Maria When they return to Mom Luby’s house the formerly neat
away to Saint Agnes House – a boarding school. She and organised Ms. Rushmore is dishevelled and out of
convinces Jack to do the same to Dory. breath. She is surprised at the fact that this seemingly
helpless old woman could have done so many things in so
On the morning that the two girls are placed on the train little time. It appears as if Ms. Rushmore is impressed by
to Saint Agnes, they are both very sad. Maria attributes Mom Luby. For her part, Mom Luby concludes that she and
their problems to the games that grown-ups play and the children will be just fine without assistance from the
expresses her fear to Dory about dying like Emma did. Dory welfare services; she doesn’t need their help after all.
assures her, however, that they would be fine because she
Throughout the story Kristin Hunter constantly highlights
had learned a lot about the games that adults play. Having
the differences which exist between Mom Luby and Ms.
learned from the adults, when it was their turn to play the
Rushmore. Ms. Rushmore is youthful, has formal education
game, they could play it smarter. and has a job with an organised institution that has the
power to affect the lives of thousands of people. Mom Luby
MOM LUBY AND THE SOCIAL WORKER on the other hand is old, uneducated (the reader can come
to this conclusion based on the language she uses) and
operates an unlicensed establishment which caters to her
In this story Mom Luby, a poor, uneducated, old black neighbours and one in which illegal liquor is served.
woman who resides in the southern United States, tries to Clearly the two women are opposites.
get assistance from the Welfare Services for the two small
children (Elijah and Puddin’) who are in her care. When The writer highlights the long period of time that it takes
she goes to the welfare agency she is given a myriad of for the welfare services to provide the needy children with
instructions to follow before she receives help. These uniforms and money for their care and the short period of
time that Mom Luby takes to accomplish several difficult
instructions are difficult to understand and to execute and
tasks. She also shows that this system with its young,
they are time-consuming as well. Further, someone has to
educated and seemingly efficient employees is anything
visit Mom Luby’s residence in order to ascertain whether but what they are supposed to be: efficient. In this way
she really needs the assistance that she is asking for. Hunter seems to be criticising the bureaucratic system
which, instead of helping those who need it, often
When the agent from the welfare services, Ms. Rushmore frustrates these persons and in reality offers little help.
goes to Mom Luby’s house, she seems to be organised, This is quite ironic since the government services are
neat, educated and efficient. It appears as if she has the supposed to help the less fortunate, not make their lives
ability to accomplish much and the power to determine more difficult.
whether or not the lives of Mom Luby and her charges are
made better. JOL ENGLISH LITERATURE continues on next page
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Mom Luby is supposed to be the one in need of help and the government operated welfare system, which has many
resources, should serve to improve their situation. Ultimately, however, Ms. Rushmore, the government agent, spends
a few hours with Mom Luby and learns what it means to be efficient. Mom Luby comes to the realisation that the help
that she thought that she needed for the children, she really didn’t need it after all; she would be just fine on her own.

Additionally, the author is able to achieve a number of other things with the use of satire. Firstly, Hunter is able to
encourage those who have been frustrated by the American bureaucratic system. Secondly, she highlights the many
flaws present in the welfare system and thirdly, the use of satire serves to create humour as the reader is able to laugh
at Mom Luby’s situation as well as the problematic system of bureaucracy which exists in the United States of America.

I hope you have learnt from this week’s lesson and that you have found the material useful in the upcoming examination.

Please join me next week for another lesson.

Simone Gibbs is on the staff of Calabar High School


! Email: simonecgibbs@yahoo.com

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COMMUNICATION
STUDIES Lesson 16
with
Peta-Gaye Perkins Bryan

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION

Hello everyone. I hope you were able to do the quiz as well


as read ahead for today’s lesson. This week we will be looking
at different methods of data collection and sampling.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE


DATA COLLECTION METHODS

The Quantitative data collection methods rely on random


sampling and structured data collection instruments that
fit diverse experiences into predetermined response
categories. They produce results that are easy to
summarize, compare, and generalize.

Quantitative research is concerned with testing


hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to
estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. Depending
on the research question, participants may be randomly
assigned to different treatments. If this is not feasible, the
researcher may collect data on participant and situational
characteristics in order to statistically control for their
influence on the dependent, or outcome, variable. If the
intent is to generalize from the research participants to a
larger population, the researcher will employ probability
sampling to select participants.

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Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include: Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI): is a form
of personal interviewing, but instead of completing a
• Experiments/clinical trials. questionnaire, the interviewer brings along a laptop or
• Observing and recording well-defined events (e.g., hand-held computer to enter the information directly
counting the number of patients waiting in into the database. This method saves time involved in
emergency at specified times of the day).
processing the data, as well as saving the interviewer
• Obtaining relevant data from management
from carrying around hundreds of questionnaires.
information systems.
• Administering surveys with closed-ended questions However, this type of data collection method can be
(e.g., face-to face and telephone interviews, expensive to set up and requires that interviewers have
questionnaires etc). computer and typing skills.

INTERVIEWS QUESTIONNAIRES

In Quantitative research (survey research); interviews are Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number
more structured than in Qualitative research. of people and saves the researcher time and money. People
are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires
In a structured interview, the researcher asks a
regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact
standard set of questions and nothing more. (Leedy
and Ormrod, 2005) that their responses are anonymous.

Face -to -face interviews have a distinct advantage of Disadvantages:


enabling the researcher to establish rapport with potential Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don’t
participants and therefore gain their cooperation. These return them and those who do might not be
interviews yield highest response rates in survey research. representative of the originally selected sample. (Leedy
They also allow the researcher to clarify ambiguous and Ormrod, 2005)
answers and when appropriate, seek follow-up
information. Web based questionnaires: A new and inevitably growing
methodology is the use of Internet based research. This
Disadvantages include impractical when large samples are
would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click
involved time consuming and expensive (Leedy and
Ormrod, 2005). on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to
fill in a questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker
Telephone interviews are less time consuming and less and less detailed.
expensive and the researcher has ready access to anyone
on the planet who has a telephone. Disadvantages of this method include the exclusion of
people who do not have a computer or are unable to
Disadvantages are that the response rate is not as high access a computer. Also the validity of such surveys is in
as the face-to- face interview are but considerably question as people might be in a hurry to complete it and
higher than the mailed questionnaire. The sample may
so might not give accurate responses.
be biased to the extent that people without phones are
part of the population about whom the researcher
wants to draw inferences. JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
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Creating your questionnaires


Questionnaires often make use of Checklist and rating scales. These devices help simplify and quantify people’s behaviors
and attitudes. A checklist is a list of behaviors, characteristics, or other entities that the researcher is looking for. Either
the researcher or survey participant simply checks whether each item on the list is observed, present or true or vice
versa. A rating scale is more useful when a behavior needs to be evaluated on a continuum. They are also known as
Likert scales. (Leedy and Ormrod, 2005).

Qualitative data collection methods play an important role • they use triangulation to increase the credibility of
in impact evaluation by providing information useful to their findings (i.e., researchers rely on multiple
understand the processes behind observed results and data collection methods to check the authenticity
assess changes in people’s perceptions of their well-being. of their results)
Furthermore qualitative methods can be used to improve
the quality of survey-based quantitative evaluations by • generally their findings are not generalizable to any
helping generate evaluation hypothesis; strengthening the specific population, rather each case study produces
design of survey questionnaires and expanding or a single piece of evidence that can be used to seek
clarifying quantitative evaluation findings. These methods general patterns among different studies of the
are characterized by the following attributes: same issue

• they tend to be open-ended and have less structured Regardless of the kinds of data involved data collection in
protocols (i.e., researchers may change the data a qualitative study takes a great deal of time. The
collection strategy by adding, refining, or dropping researcher needs to record any potentially useful data
techniques or informants) thoroughly, accurately, and systematically, using field
notes, sketches, audiotapes, photographs and other
• they rely more heavily on interactive interviews; suitable means. The data collection methods must observe
respondents may be interviewed several times to the ethical principles of research.
follow up on a particular issue, clarify concepts or
check the reliability of data JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
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The qualitative methods most commonly used in evaluation can be classified in three broad categories:

• in-depth interview

• observation methods

• document review

Additional information can be garnered from the video below but do not discount the advantages of reading on your
own. For those of you who do not mind you may pause the video and make your notes.

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2. It must be representative; that is, all segments of


SAMPLING
the population indicated by relevant variables
such as age, sex, social class, occupation etc. are
Let us first look at the definition of sample. What do you to be proportionately included in the sample.
think a sample refers to? Many of you would remember (McDermott, 2008).
this from your 5th form experience as you completed your
SBA. There are others of you who would also be exposed Please see below the answers for the review quiz I
to it from Sociology classes. If you want to do a research shared last week. For our lesson next week we will
you are going to be asking for some help to get your finalise our look at research so please do some further
questions answered. Some of those answers may very well reading on your own. You can also look at the different
be coming from people you know and people you do not types of sampling and decide which you want to use in
know, but how do you know how many individuals to ask your own research as you prepare your notes for your
for help. This is where you decide on your sample. Have a extemporaneous presentations.
look at the picture below and see if you can suggest a
definition. Until next week, take care and don’t forget to
read and prepare.

References:
Leedy, Paul D. and Ormrod, Jeanne Ellis (2005). Practical
Research: Planning and Design. New Jersey: Pearson
Prentice Hall.

McDermott, Harold (2008). CAPE Communication Studies.


La Romaine, Trinidad: Caribbean Educational Publishers.

SECTION A - TRUE OR FALSE


Did you say it was a part of a population? If so, you are
close. A sample is a portion, fraction or subset of a Direction: For items 1 – 10, write ‘T’ if the statement is true
population. For your sample to accurately reflect the and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
opinions, beliefs or choices of the population, it must
satisfy two basic conditions: 1. T__ Language is the human ability to use certain
forms for thinking, speaking, enjoyment and
1. It must be adequate or sufficient; that is numerically aesthetic pleasure.
large enough to correctly reflect the view of the
whole population. The larger the sample size the 2. F__ Language is common to all living things.
more accurate will be any generalization made
about the population JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continued from previous page

3. T__ A language is used by a particular community. 5. Identify a possible audience for the following types
of registers: casual and consultative. (2 marks)
4. T__ Language is acquired at birth. Casual – friends, loved ones, family, peers
Consultative – teacher/student; counselor or
5. F__ The rules for one language always apply to doctor/patients; lawyer/client
another.
6. Which variety of English would a taxi man in a resort
6. T__ An infant will speak as a native tongue whatever
area use with tourists? (1 mark)
language it is exposed to during the first few
Foreign
weeks of life.

7. T__ The stages of acquisition of language in Spanish 7. Identify the varieties of English below: (2 marks)
children and Chinese children are the same. a) I an I a go beat down Babylon system with
them downpressing of people pretending like
8. F__ English is a prestigious language because it is they don’t overstand the I
inherently superior to other languages. Rastafarian
b) Fluency leads to higher judgements’ of truth,
9. F__ Language is centered in the brain. confidence, frequency and fame. Furthermore,
the effects of fluency are strongest when the
10. F__ Intelligence is measurable independent of
fluency is discrepant (Reber et al, 1999).
language and culture.
Erudite
Total = 10 marks

8. Speech related variation in the Caribbean may all be


SECTION B – SHORT ANSWERS
located on the Language Continuum

1. State THREE types of listening. (3 marks)


Critical, discriminative emphatic 9. Identify the different types of communicative
behaviours outlined below: (3 marks)
2. What is the difference between hearing and listening? a) Character’s Gucci handbag and Bimmer
(2 marks) artefacts
Hearing is the reception of sound waves vs listening b) Character pouts at new entrant to the
which is the attending stage conversation facial expressions
c) GET OUT OF MY ROOM NOW, YOU PEST!
3. Which type of listening should be employed in the Vocalics/paralanguage
external exam for the listening comprehension?
Critical (1 mark) 10. State the different types of discourse. (4 marks)
Expository Narrative Descriptive Argument/
4. Which attitude to language is reflected in the
Persuasive
following statement: ‘How I talk not a problem for
me yuh know.’ (1 mark)
Pride JOL COMMUNICATION STUDIES continues on next page
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11. Identify the type of discourse used in the passage 16. Give three (3) examples of the linguistic features of
below. (1 mark) Creole languages. (3 marks)
“It was a cold grey day in late November. The Peculiar words, dropping of first or last consonants
weather had changed overnight, when a backing (th & st), reduplication, pluralisation (dem/them)
wind brought a granite sky and a mizzling rain with subject verb word order, etc
it, and although it was now only a little after two
o’clock in the afternoon the pallor of a winter Section C
evening seemed to have closed upon the hills,
cloaking them in mist.” In no more than twenty (20) words state the main idea in
Descriptive the following passage. (2 marks)

12. What are the purposes of language. (4 marks) Dis ting called language is real funny
Communicative Expressive We does use it for all kinda ting you see
Reflective Identification Sometimes it fancy and sometimes it free
And in di Caribbean, is a real potpourri
13. From which continent do the majority of official
languages of the Caribbean come? (1 mark) When it fancy we call it formal and we real ‘la de da’
Europe When it free we does call it vernacular
Each country down here have it own language flavour
14. Identify the official language in The Dominican But they each have a standard that they must master.
Republic. (1 mark)
Spanish While languages across the Caribbean are varied and
peculiar there is still a standard and non-standard variety
15. Identify the popular language of:
(4 marks) Hope you got all the answers.
St Lucia Kweyol, English-based Creole
Jamaica Patois
Bonaire Papiamentu Peta-Gaye Perkins Bryan is on the staff of
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.
Queen’s High School for Girls
! Email: perkins.pg@gmail.com
English-based Creole

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CARIBBEAN
STUDIES Lesson 16
with
Debgeri Whitely

IMPACT OF
GEOGRAPHICAL PHENOMENA
This week, we’ll continue looking at Identity and Social Formation from Module Caribbean Sea

1: Caribbean Society and Culture. You’ll get the answer for last week’s activities
and we’ll delve into the topic of the “Impact of Geographical Phenomena.” Please
continue to do your reading so you’ll be better able to understand the topic(s)
that are covered each week. All the best for this week. See you next week.

ANSWERS TO LAST WEEK’S ACTIVITIES


Activity #1 – use the following words (plural society, douglarization, underclass, acculturation, caste, plantocracy,
intelligentsia and bourgeoisie) to complete the table below

TERMS DEFINITION
Plantocracy refers to the influence wielded by planters in the society as effectively the ruling class.
are those who have had the benefits of higher education, the intellectual elite who comprise
Intelligentsia
the managerial and professional class.
Bourgeoisie are the capitalists who owned the means of production.
is the lowest social stratum in a country or community consisting of the poor and
Underclass
unemployed.
Caste a Hindu system of predetermined hereditary ranking of the people in society.
means to be socialized into another, more dominant culture, whether it be the culture of a
Acculturation
colonial power, or that of a migrant’s host country.

involves the existence of separate and distinct ethnic or racial communities within a society,
Plural society which may come together for a number of common functions such as work or recreation but
which preserve their own societal institutions, especially language, the family and religion.

is a word used by people especially in Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, and Guyana. It is used
Dougla
to describe people who are of mixed African and Indian/South Asian descent.

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Activity #2 Cultural Erasure: the act of neglecting, looking past,


minimizing, ignoring or rendering invisible an ‘other’. This
Complete a chart/table highlighting the racial admixture oftentimes takes place because of globalization, the impact
and colour in the formation of Caribbean society and
of other cultures and the day-to-day demands of making
culture, for example mestizo and dougla.
a living in a highly competitive society. The Television has
also played a part in this. Foreign values and lifestyles have
RACIAL ADMIXTURE RESULT been inadvertently ingrained in the young minds of our
children just because our parents are too busy with chores
White + Indian = Mestizo and have no time for them.
African + Indian = Dougla
Example: our methods of preparing food have changed -
White + Black = Mulatto more microwaved food. Erasure of traditional games (ring
games, Chinese skip, jax, etc) for more modern
computerized games (nintendo, etc)
Activity #3

“Culture is subject to the forces of change that from time


to time characterize man’s development. These impact on Cultural Retention: the preservation of an aspect of one’s
the way we act or even think. This eventually results in culture. The aspect does not need to survive in its original
erasure, retention and renewal of culture.” or intact form. For example, vestiges of indigenous culture,
such as elements of language (eg. hurricane) survive in
CAPE Caribbean Studies by Ottley, Gentles and Dawson various parts of the Caribbean so too their method of
(distributer Pearson Education Ltd) Pg.125
preparing meat – barbecue. A country’s culture is often
retain through the process of education and practice, eg.
Social Studies, Caribbean Studies and through the
assistance of service clubs – heritage/tourism.

Cultural Renewal: refers to efforts to salvage parts of our


past or aspects of our culture that have been latent. Or to
return to, or the rediscovery, and refreshing of elements
of culture that have been forgotten, suppressed or ignored.
A major example is the resurgence in interest in, and a
heightening of the value placed on, the African legacy and
African culture, as well as Africa itself developed through
Garveyism and the rise of ‘black consciousness’ in the form
of negritude. One can see the African dress being worn in
society today.

Instruction: From the above diagram, give a definition of


each term and an example from a Caribbean society. JOL CARIBBEAN STUDIES continues on next page
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Assess the Impact of Geographical Processes on Caribbean Society and Culture

• Plate tectonics:
– definition;
– location and movement of the Caribbean plate and its interaction with other plates; (see lesson 7 Location
and Definition of the Caribbean Region and its Diaspora – Geological definition of the Caribbean)
– earthquakes and volcanoes: threat of tsunami, social displacement
• Hurricanes – social and economic consequences
• Soils – erosion, conservation
• Coral Reefs – coastal protection, sustainability of fishing industry
• Droughts and Floods – social and economic impact

Plate Tectonic – is the study of the movement of the crustal plates and the landforms, which result from these
movements. This theory explains that the crust of the earth is broken into seven major and several minor plates –
continental (made up of older, lighter granitic rocks) and oceanic (made up of younger, denser basaltic rocks). These
plates either move towards, away from or alongside each other. Refer the diagram that follows.

It is along these margins that most of the world’s major landforms develop and where seismic, volcanic and tectonic
actions take place.

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Location and Movement of the Caribbean Plate and its Interaction with Other Plates

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The Caribbean plate is moving relatively eastward towards the South American plate. As it moves, the northern
boundary slides past the margin of the North American plate. Its boundary stretches from Belize and Honduras
to the far south-east islands of Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. (See CAPE Caribbean Studies by Ottley, Gentles
and Dawson. Pages 63-64)

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SEISMIC

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard

Emit magma or lava


pyroclastic flows (gas,
ash and rocks) and
crystallized minerals.
Effusive eruptions – slow
25 active volcanoes moving lava
(Eastern Caribbean) Explosive –
Phreatic – (La Soufriere
17 eruptions recorded Guadeloupe)
Pelean – (Mt Pele,
1902 – Mount Pele Martinique)
(Martinique)
Tectonic activities Volcanic dust, pyroclastic
Rift volcanoes – divergent Soufriere flows and surges, lava
plate boundaries (St. Vincent) – also 1972, flows, gases
(seafloor spreading) 1979 Earthquakes
Volcanoes Hot Spot Volcanoes – Phreatic explosions
convergent plate margins La Grande Soufriere
(subduction – represents (Guadeloupe) – 1956, Atmospheric ash falls
all volcanoes in the 1976 Landslides and debris
region) flow
Montserrat – 1995, 1997, Tsunamis
2002 – Soufriere Hills Acid Rain

1939; 1965 – kick ‘em Soil fertility – agriculture


Jenny submarine volcano Tourist attractions
9km north of Grenada Destruction of farm land,
(erupted 11 times) timber resources
Loss of life
Destruction of
infrastructure
Destruction of
communications

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SEISMIC (cont’d)

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard
Environmental
(Magnitude is measured
by a richter scale)

Nicaragua – 1972 Ground shaking


Surface faulting
Tectonic activities El Salvador – 2001 Ground failure and soil
Stress build up between liquefaction
plates at fault lines Puerto Rico – 1670. 1787, Landslides and rock falls
leading to the 1867, 1918 (116) Debris and mudflows
displacement of rocks and (shallow) Tsunamis
the release of energy
from a hypocenter Jamaica – 1692 (2000), Impact
(Modified Mercalli
(surface equivalent – 1907 (1000) (shallow)
measures intensity in
epicenter)
relation to effects on
Earthquakes Depths Leeward Islands – 1974
people)
3000km + - deep (5000), 2004 (1)
Destruction of building
earthquakes, subduction
structures
zones, eastern Caribbean Dominican Republic – Interruption of water
70 – 300km – 1946 supply and public utility
intermediate, - 70km – Floods from collapsed
shallow, transform Cayman islands 2004 dams
margins or near to Release of hazardous
marine trenches, Martinique, windward material
northern Caribbean region – 2007 (1) Fires spread of chronic
illness
Haiti - 2010 Social and economic
displacement
Disturbance of economic
activities
Loss of life
50 recorded events in the
Caribbean since 1530
Tsunamis/ Usually caused by Puerto Rico – 1918 (40)
tidal waves earthquakes or volcanoes Dominican Republic –
1946 (100)
Virgin Islands – 1867 (12)

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METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard

Is a low pressure system


accompanied by heavy
winds carrying rainfall
and which spiral around
Storm surges – coastal
an eye
flooding
Formed only between 5
Loss of life, injury
and 20degrees north of te
Illnesses and diseases
equator
1951 - Charlie related water and food
Season – June 1 to
1988 – Gilbert supplies
November 30
1989 – Hugo Damage to social and
Movement of ITCZ in the
Hurricanes 1992 – Andrew physical infrastructure
summer and El Nino
Hurakan – devil 1995 – Luis and Marilyn Loss of housing/loss of
Eye, eye wall
wind – 1999 – Lenny, Mitch roofs
Tropical disturbance –
(typhoons or 2001 – Michelle Disturbance of social,
tropical depression –
willy willies) 2004 – Ivan economic and political
tropical storm –
2005 - Emily activities
hurricane (winds of 74
2007 – Dean, Matthew Losses in agriculture and
m/p and up)
2012 – Sandy tourism (major industries
Originate in the Atlantic
2017 – Irma and Maria for Caribbean countries)
(Cape Verde Islands)
mid-season and western
Integration
Caribbean and Gulf of
Dependence
Mexico at the beginning
Cultural sharing
and end of the season
The track of each
hurricane is essentially
unique

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METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL (cont’d)

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard

Usually caused by
hydrological weather
Belize is particularly Agricultural damage
systems such as
vulnerable Loss of housing
hurricanes as well as tidal
Landslides
Flooding waves associated with
Most widely reported Destruction of road and
seismic activities
small scale disasters in water systems
Coastal
the Caribbean Silting of water bodies
Riverine
Flash flooding

Agricultural drought – Threats to health and


Moisture deficiency with
insufficient soil moisture nutrition such as water
serious implications for
borne diseases
food production and
Hydrological drought: Reduction in agricultural
surface water supply for a
low/depleted water yields and food supply
particular region
storage/flow Saltwater intrusion on
Changing weather
rivers
Droughts patterns which result in
Meteorological drought: Depletion of ground
Creeping Hazard excessive buildup of heat
Well-below average or water stores
on the earth’s surface
normal rainfall that spans Soil erosion
Meteorological changes
from a few months to a Loss of bio-diversity
which affect rainfall – El
few years. Starvation, famine
Nino (every 2-7 years)
Reduction in quality of
Rainfall is affected by
Guyana 1998 7months life
size, relief and location
drought (ESNO) conflict

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard

Detachment of material
by either raindrop impact
or flow traction and their Reduction in soil fertility
Soil erosion
removal of wind, water or (negatively affects
and accelerated
moving ice agriculture)
soil erosion
Accelerated by activities Sitting of water bodies
such as deforestation, (may increase the chance
Creeping hazard
poor farming techniques of flooding)
and unplanned housing Respiratory difficulties
Situation tends to be
worsened by poverty

Resulting from hurricanes


Typical in mountainous Michelle and Mitch
regions Blue Mountains are
Loss of life
Moves soil, weathered susceptible due to slope
Damage to property and
bedrock (rigolith) or angle and aspect –
infrastructure
rocks downhill geologically young,
Disruption of transport
Change in balance heavily fractured bedrock
and communications
between the pull of deeply weathered
Landslides/ Localized losses of soil
gravity and the forces of
slope failure resources
resistance Judgement cliff, Jamaica
Silting of water bodies
May be triggered by – 1692
Dams across rivers
seismic activity, torrential
Flooding
rainfall, Preston Lands, Jamaica –
Social and economic
1986
displacement
Accentuated by human
activity Carholm-Huxley,
Dominica – 1997

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GEOMORPHOLOGICAL (cont’d)

Types of
Natural Causes Examples Impact
Disasters/Hazard

Earthquakes, hurricanes,
volcanic eruptions, ESNO,
drought and Increased damage from
Destruction of
desertification (sahel hurricane, tidal waves
coral reefs
region of Africa) Threats to fishing
Bleaching – Belize 1997,
Overfishing, blasting, industry
Barrier – Belize 1982-3 (ESNO), Global
building of marinas, Reduction of marine
Fringing – warming
improper sewage diversity
Buccoo reef in
treatment and disposal, Damage to the eco
Tobago Atolls
industrial effluents, hot system
water emissions, tourism,
quarrying dredging

Debgeri Whitely is on the staff of St. Hugh’s High School


! Email: dwhitely@sthughshigh.org

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