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Sectorization Macro−micro cells

" Use directional antennas with 60 deg or 120 deg " Very small cells can be created in city centers, for
example, a street, or a few blocks. The transmitter
" Power of transmitters needs to be the same, as can be at street level. These are called microcells.
distance to cell boundary is the same. " Increased capacity, increased costs, more
" In a 3−sectored cell, each sector has 1/3 the handovers.
number of users as in the cell, but all 3 sectors " Hierarchical structure: overlay with larger
need different channels. This means the same
macrocells. When a fast handoff needs to happen,
overall number of channels.
as when a car turns into a new street, the call can
" Small gains in capacity are possible. revert to the macrocell.
" Multipath effects are lowered, range is increased. " Macrocell may have only a few channels.

Narrowband systems Wideband systems

" Available spectrum is carved up into channels " Entire frequency band is available to all users.
about 25−30 kHz wide. " Also called spread−spectrum systems
" Each user is assigned a forward and reverse " Fading does not affect the entire channel.
" Emission masks not crucial.
" Emission masks very necessary.
" No blocking − graceful degradation in
" Fading affects entire transmission. performance as system load increases.
" Blocking systems. " Eg Fast frequency hopping, CDMA
" Available bandwidth is divided into 30 khz slots. " Each carrier frequency is "divided" into time
" Each user is assigned forward and reverse slots, each time slot constitutes a channel.
channel. " Each user is assigned a transmit slot and a receive
" Advantages: simplest method to implement. slot, which are separated both in time and in
" Disadvantages: (1) Expensive filtering elements
needed (2) Duplexer circuitry needed
" User’s transmission is buffered and then sent in
(3) Inefficiency in use of spectrum because of the right transmit slot.
guardbands (4) RF elements needed for every " Burst−mode transmission.


" Advantages: (1) No duplexer circuitry necessary, " Overhead is very little. " Overhead is high.
as transmission and reception are not Frequencyguardbands. Sync sequences
simultaneous. (2) Handoffs can be done in idle No synchronization necessary.
slots. (3) Better sharing of system costs. required.
" Disadvantages: (1) Need to synchronize sender " Duplexer needed. " Duplexer not needed.
and receiver slots. Done by using synchronization " Handoff difficult. " Handoff transparent to
sequences which uses bandwidth. (2) More user.
complex to implement. (3) Needs adpative
equalization. " More channels for " Fewer channels for
same # of users. same # of users.
FDMA versus TDMA Spread spectrum
" Cochannel " Can be reduced by
interference is bad. using slow freq
" Based on Claude Shannon’s information theory.
hopping. " Originated during World War II, as a way to
" ISI not a big problem. " ISI a big problem. enable communication in presence of jammers.
Adaptive equalization " Imagine game with three participants:
is required. C: Communicator
" Mobile unit simple. " Mobile unit complex. R: Receiver
J: Jammer
" Not used in newer " Adaptive.
" C wants to send to R, J is an enemy who wishes
to jam the communication by sending on the same
" Poor sharing of costs " Better sharing of costs. channel as C.

Communication game. Communication game

" Assume all participants can transmit on any of a " Winning strategy for C: make the length of the
number of channels, and all have the capability to transmission burst <= length of propagation time.
scan the spectrum to figure out which channel C By the time J gets the signal, C has already
is sending on. switched to a new channel.
" Strategy for C: Send on a channel, and as soon as " To prevent J from guessing the sequence, C and
J jams it, switch to a new channel. C and R have a R use a shared random sequence.
shared sequence of channels which they use, " This scheme is called Fast Frequency Hopping.
which enables R to find the channel that C is
sending on quickly.
Frequency Hopping Direct−sequence spread spectrum
" Effect of noise is reduced.
General idea: Add the signal to much stronger noise−
" Effect of multipath is reduced, as multipath like signal, and send that instead of signal. At the
affects only some of the frequencies. receiver end, subtract out the noise−like signal.
" If another user is added, he is assigned a new
random sequence, and if the number of Let information signal be I with a bit rate of 10K b/s
frequencies is large, chances of collisions are low and the code signal be C with bit rate of 100kb/s.
"Add" I to C and send that. Since the transmitted
" As more users are added, the level of interference
signal is of much higher bandwidth than original
increases, but there is no fixed limit on number of
signal, code is said to spread the signal.
users. When quality deteriorates, callers self−

Example 1
Spreading and despreading
" Spreading: Let the codeword be
1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 Suppose sender wants to send d=1.
The bits of the sequence are called chips.
If the bit to be sent is 1, send the codeword. Transmitted signal: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
If the bit to be sent is 0, send the inverse of the Received signal: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
codeword, i.e. −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 Receiver codeword: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
" Despreading: Process of retrieving signal from Multiplication: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
received signal. Multiply the received signal with
the codeword, then divide by size of code. Result= 8
" Processing gain: rate of code/rate of information.
Example 1 contd. Sending in presence of interferer

Suppose there is an interferer with codeword

Suppose sender wants to send d=0.
1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1. Suppose he wants to
send the bit 1 as well.
Transmitted signal: −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1
Transmitted signal: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Received signal: −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1
Interfering signal: 1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1
Receiver codeword: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Received signal: 2 0 0 −2 2 0 0 −2
Multiplication: −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1
Receiver code: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Multiplication: 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2
Result = −8
Result = 8. Thus the signal can be retrieved.

What if interferer sends at higher

What if interferer wants to send 0?

Transmitted signal: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Transmitted signal: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Interferer’s signal: 2 2 −2 −2 2 2 −2 −2
Interfering signal: −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1 1 1
Received signal: 3 1 −1 −3 3 1 −1 −3
Received signal: 0 −2 2 0 0 −2 2 0
Receiver code: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Receiver code: 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1
Multiplication: 3 −1 −1 3 3 −1 −1 3
Multiplication: 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0
Result= 8. Can still retrieve the right signal.
Result = 8 , can still retrieve it.
Orthogonality Walsh_Hadamard codes
A family of orthogonal codes. Constructed
recursively. H_0 = (1).

Even if there are more interferers, the signal H_(i+1) = H_i H_i
can still be retrieved, provided all senders are H_i −H_i
using orthogonal codes.
H_1 = 1 1 H_2 =
Two codes (of same length) are orthogonal if their 1 −1
scalar product is 0.
Each row gives a codeword. Any two rows are

Code requirements Orthogonal variable spreading factors

" Balanced − equal numbers of 1 and −1. " Some users may want higher data rates than
" Low auto−correlation: how much a code others.
correlates with a time−shifted version of itself. " Can give a user many channels, or have different
" Low cross−correlation: how much a code spreading factors.
correlates with a time−shifted version of another. " Different users may be using different spreading
" Walsh codes have high auto−correlation, and factors, but they still need to be orthgonal.
cross−correlation for some time shifts. " Walsh code 1 −1 is orthogonal to 1 1 −1 −1.
" PN codes, Gold and Kasami sequences have these
properties, but are not orthogonal.
" Also useful to have many codes available.
Varaible spreading factor codes Variable length codes

Suppose A uses codeword S and B uses codeword L

Walsh codes can be constructed in a tree fashion as where length(L)= 2 length(S).
follows: Root=1. Left child = parent.parent, and
right child = parent.inv(parent) Suppose L can be constructed as S. S. Then if A
1 sends the message 1 1 and B sends the message 1,
these messages cannot be distinguished.
1 1 1 −1
If L is an ancestor of S in the tree, then L and S
1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 cannot be used together.

GSM revisited GSM contd.

" TDMA/FDMA system that incorporates slow "
12 bursts have voice information, then the 13th
frequency hopping. burst is used for control information. The next 12
" Each channel is 200 khz and is divided into 8 bursts again hold voice data, and the 26th burst is
slots. A user is given one slot to transmit. Thus, if free. The cycle repeats.
the user is given slot 1, she transmits in slots " The slots where control information is sent by the
1, 9, 17, ..... mobile is called the associated control channel,
" A transmission by a user is called a burst. The which is mobile−specific. The remaining bursts
user’s first burst is in slot 1, second burst is in slot constitute the traffic channel.
9, etc. " Transmit slot and channel are different from
receive slot and channel.
Control channels IS−95
" On some carriers, a slot may be reserved for " Uses CDMA. Walsh codes for downlink and PN
control channels. These have a cycle of 51 bursts. codes for uplink.
They periodically broadcast a pure sine wave, " Each channel is 1.23 Mhz wide and is divided
followed by synchronization information, other into 64 logical channels (Walsh codes).
broadcast information, and paging messages.
" Uses variable rate speech coding. As more users
" The uplink channel corresponding to this is the enter the system, users can be given the lower
random access channel. rate which results in poorer voice quality.
" Mobile listening to control channel in its idle slots " All cells can use the same channels in principle.
is guaranteed to find any slot of the control

Near−far problem Power control

" In CDMA systems, if the interferer uses much " Open loop power control: Mobile estimates signal
higher power than the sender, it can cause strength from base station. As it gets weaker, it
significant interference. increases its own strength. As it gets stronger, it
" As the mobile moves further away from the base decreases its own strength.
station, the base station cannot decode the signal. " Closed loop power control: Base station makes
" It is attempted to keep all signal strengths in a measurements and sends explicit instructions to
small range. the mobile.
" Without power control, capacity is reduced
TDMA versus CDMA TDMA versus CDMA
" Wastage of spectrum " Without power " Sectorizing does not " Sectorizing is claimed
due to power ramping, control, capacity is really increase to improve capacity at
ISI, synchronization. greatly reduced. capacity. low cost.
" Some users have " Interference evenly " No problem with " May not work well
greater interference. distributed. micro−macrocells. with micro−macrocells
" In practice, less " In practice, 30% more " B/w flexibility can be " B/w flexibility can be
capacity. capacity. achieved by giving a achieved by using
" Frequency planning is " No frequency planning user more time slots. variable spreading
necessary. necessary. Code factors.
planning? " Low risk. " Higher risk?