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1 Paschen curve

Early vacuum experimenters found a rather surprising be-

havior. An arc would sometimes take place in a long ir-

regular path rather than at the minimum distance between

the electrodes. For example, in air, at a pressure of 10−3

atmospheres, the distance for minimum breakdown volt-

age is about 7.5 µm. The voltage required to arc this dis-

tance is 327 V which is insuﬃcient to ignite the arcs for

gaps that are either wider or narrower. For a 3.5 µm gap,

the required voltage is 533 V, nearly twice as much. If

500 V were applied, it would not be suﬃcient to arc at

the 2.85 µm distance, but would arc at a 7.5 µm distance.

It was found that breakdown voltage was described by the

equation:[1]

Bpd

Paschen curves obtained for helium, neon, argon, hydrogen and VB =

ln(Apd) − ln[ln(1 + 1

γse )]

nitrogen, using the expression for the breakdown voltage as a

function of the parameters A,B that interpolate the ﬁrst Townsend Where V is the breakdown voltage in Volts, p is the pres-

coeﬃcient.[1] sure in Pascals, d is the gap distance in meters, γse is

the secondary electron emission coeﬃcient at the cath-

ode, A is the saturation ionization in the gas at a par-

Paschen’s Law is an equation that gives the breakdown ticular E/p (electric ﬁeld/pressure), and B is related to

voltage, that is the voltage necessary to start a discharge or the excitation and ionization energies. The constants A

electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function and B are determined experimentally and found to be

of pressure and gap length.[2][3] It is named after Friedrich roughly constant over a restricted range of E/p for any

Paschen who discovered it empirically in 1889.[4] given gas. For example, air with an E/p in the range of

450 to 7500 V·(kPa·cm)−1 , A = 112.50 (kPa·cm)−1 and

Paschen studied the breakdown voltage of various gases B = 2737.50 V·(kPa·cm)−1 .[6] The graph of this equation

between parallel metal plates as the gas pressure and gap is the Paschen curve. By diﬀerentiating it with respect to

distance were varied. The voltage necessary to arc across pd and setting the derivative to zero, the minimum volt-

the gap decreased as the pressure was reduced and then age can be found. This yields

increased gradually, exceeding its original value. He also

found that at normal pressure, the voltage needed to cause

an arc reduced as the gap size was reduced but only to pd = e1−b

a point. As the gap was reduced further, the voltage re-

quired to cause an arc began to rise and again exceeded its and predicts the occurrence of a minimum breakdown

original value. For a given gas, the voltage is a function voltage for pd = 7.5×10−6 m·atm. This is 327 V in air

only of the product of the pressure and gap length.[2][3] at standard atmospheric pressure at a distance of 7.5 µm.

The curve he found of voltage versus the pressure-gap The composition of the gas determines both the mini-

length product (right) is called Paschen’s curve. He mum arc voltage and the distance at which it occurs. For

found an equation that ﬁt these curves, which is now argon, the minimum arc voltage is 137 V at a larger 12

called Paschen’s law.[3] µm. For sulfur dioxide, the minimum arc voltage is 457

At higher pressures and gap lengths, the breakdown volt- V at only 4.4 µm.

age is approximately proportional to the product of pres- For air at STP, the voltage needed to arc a 1-meter gap is

sure and gap length, and the term Paschen’s law is some- about 3.4 MV. The intensity of the electric ﬁeld for this

times used to refer to this simpler relation.[5] However gap is therefore 3.4 MV/m. The electric ﬁeld needed to

this is only roughly true, over a limited range of the curve. arc across the minimum voltage gap is much greater than

1

2 3 DERIVATION

gap the arc voltage is 327 V which is 43 MV/m. This is

about 13 times greater than the ﬁeld strength for the 1 me-

3.1 Basics

ter gap. The phenomenon is well veriﬁed experimentally

and is referred to as the Paschen minimum. The equa-

To calculate the breakthrough voltage a homogeneous

tion loses accuracy for gaps under about 10 µm in air at

electrical ﬁeld is assumed. This is the case in a paral-

one atmosphere [7] and incorrectly predicts an inﬁnite arc

lel plate capacitor setup. The electrodes may have the

voltage at a gap of about 2.7 micrometers. Breakdown

distance d . The cathode is located at the point x = 0 .

voltage can also diﬀer from the Paschen curve prediction

for very small electrode gaps when ﬁeld emission from To get impact ionization the electron energy Ee must be-

the cathode surface becomes important. come greater than the ionization energy EI of the gas

atoms between the plates. Per length of path x a num-

ber of α ionizations will occur. α is known as the ﬁrst

Townsend coeﬃcient as it was introduced by Townsend

in,[9] section 17. The increase of the electron current Γe

can be described for the assumed setup as

2 Physical mechanism

Γe (x = d) = Γe (x = 0) eαd (1)

The mean free path of a molecule in a gas is the aver-

age distance between its collision with other molecules. (So the number of free electrons at the anode is equal

This is inversely proportional to the pressure of the gas. to the number of free electrons at the cathode that were

In air the mean free path of molecules is about 96 nm. multiplied by impact ionization. The larger d and/or α

Since electrons are much faster, their average distance be- the more free electrons are created.)

tween colliding with molecules is about 5.6 times longer

The number of created electrons is

or about 0.5 µm. This is a substantial fraction of the 7.5

µm spacing between the electrodes for minimum arc volt-

age. If the electron is in an electric ﬁeld of 43 MV/m, it ( )

Γe (d) − Γe (0) = Γe (0) eαd − 1 (2)

will be accelerated and acquire 21.5 electron volts of en-

ergy in 0.5 µm of travel in the direction of the ﬁeld. The Neglecting possible multiple ionizations of the same

ﬁrst ionization energy needed to dislodge an electron from atom, the number of created ions is the same as the num-

nitrogen is about 15 eV. The accelerated electron will ac- ber of created electrons:

quire more than enough energy to ionize a nitrogen atom.

This liberated electron will in turn be accelerated which ( )

will lead to another collision. A chain reaction then leads Γi (0) − Γi (d) = Γe (0) eαd − 1 (3)

to avalanche breakdown and an arc takes place from the Γi is the ion current. To keep the discharge going on, free

cascade of released electrons.[8] electrons must be created at the cathode surface. This

More collisions will take place in the electron path be- is possible because the ions hitting the cathode release

tween the electrodes in a higher pressure gas. When the secondary electrons at the impact. (For very large applied

pressure-gap product pd is high, an electron will collide voltages also ﬁeld electron emission can occur.) Without

with many diﬀerent gas molecules as it travels from the ﬁeld emission, we can write

cathode to the anode. Each of the collisions randomizes

the electron direction, so the electron is not always be-

ing accelerated by the electric ﬁeld—sometimes it travels Γe (0) = γΓi (0) (4)

back towards the cathode and is decelerated by the ﬁeld.

where γ is the mean number of generated secondary elec-

Collisions reduce the electron’s energy and make it more trons per ion. This is also known as the second Townsend

diﬃcult for it to ionize a molecule. Energy losses from a coeﬃcient. Assuming that Γi (d) = 0 one gets the re-

greater number of collisions require larger voltages for the lation between the Townsend coeﬃcients by putting (4)

electrons to accumulate suﬃcient energy to ionize many into (3) and transforming:

gas molecules, which is required to produce an avalanche

breakdown. ( )

1

On the left side of the Paschen minimum, the pd product αd = ln 1 + (5)

γ

is small. The electron mean free path can become long

compared to the gap between the electrodes. In this case,

the electrons might gain lots of energy, but have fewer 3.2 Impact ionization

ionizing collisions. A greater voltage is therefore required

to assure ionization of enough gas molecules to start an What is the amount of α ? The number of ionization

avalanche. depends upon the probability that an electron hits an ion.

3.3 Breakdown voltage 3

area of a collision between electron and ion σ in relation

dx

to the overall area A that is available for the electron to dΓe (x) = −Γe (x) (9)

λe

ﬂy through:

This diﬀerential equation can easily be solved:

Nσ x ( )

P = = (6)

A λ x

Γe (x) = Γe (0) exp − (10)

λe

As expressed by the second part of the equation, it is also

possible to express the probability as relation of the path The probability that λ > x (that there was not yet a col-

traveled by the electron x to the mean free path λ (dis- lision at the point x ) is

tance at which another collision occurs).

( )

Γe (x) x

P (λ > x) = = exp − (11)

Γe (0) λe

According to its deﬁnition α is the number of ionizations

per length of path and thus the relation of the probability

that there was no collision in the mean free path of the

a

ions, and the mean free path of the electrons:

( ) ( )

P (λ > λI ) 1 λI 1 EI

b

α= = exp - = exp - (12)

λe λe λe λe Ee

It was hereby considered that the energy E that a charged

particle can get between a collision depends on the

electric ﬁeld strength E and the charge Q :

penetrates the blue circle, a collision occurs with particle a. So

the area of the circle is the cross-section and its radius r is the

sum of the radii of the particles. 3.3 Breakdown voltage

N is the number of molecules which electrons can hit. It For the parallel-plate capacitor we have E = U , where U

d

can be calculated using the equation of state of the ideal is the applied voltage. As a single ionization was assumed

gas Q is the elementary charge e . We can now put (13) and

(8) into (12) and get

pV = N kB T (7)

( p : pressure, V : volume, kB : Boltzmann con- ( )

L · p · d · EI

stant, T : temperature) α = L · p exp - (14)

eU

The adjoining sketch illustrates that σ = π(ra + rb )2 . Putting this into (5) and transforming to U we get the

As the radius of an electron can be neglected compared Paschen law for the breakdown voltage Ubreakdown that was

to the radius of an ion rI it simpliﬁes to σ = πrI2 . Using ﬁrst investigated by Paschen in [10] and whose formula was

this relation, putting (7) into (6) and transforming to λ ﬁrst derived by Townsend in,[11] section 227:

one gets

Ubreakdown =

L·p·d·EI

e(ln(L·p·d)−ln(ln(1+γ −1 ))) (15)

kB T 1 πrI2

λ= = (8) with L =

pπrI2 L·p kB T

3.4 Plasma ignition

overview.

The alteration of the current of not yet collided electrons Plasma ignition in deﬁnition of Townsend (Townsend

at every point in the path x can be expressed as discharge) is a self-sustaining discharge, independent of

4 7 REFERENCES

an external source of free electrons. This means that elec- been knocked out of orbit. All three eﬀects change

trons from the cathode can reach the anode in the distance the number of collisions needed to cause an exponential

d and ionize at least one atom on its way. So according to growth in free electrons. These free electrons are neces-

the deﬁnition of α this relation must be fulﬁlled: sary to cause an arc.

If αd = 1 is used instead of (5) one gets for the break- • Breakdown voltage

down voltage

• Dielectric strength

L · p · d · EI d · EI • Atmospheric pressure

Ubreakdown Townsend = = ( ) (17)

e · ln(L · p · d) e · λe ln λde

7 References

4 Conclusions / Validity [1] Lieberman, Michael A.; Lichtenberg, Allan J. (2005).

Principles of plasma discharges and materials processing

Paschen’s law requires that (2nd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Interscience. 546.

ISBN 978-0471005773. OCLC 59760348.

• there are already free electrons at the cathode ( [2] “Paschen’s Law”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.

Γe (x = 0) ̸= 0 ) which can be accelerated to trig- Merriam-Webster, Inc. 2013. Retrieved April 10, 20113.

ger impact ionization. Such so-called seed electrons Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

can be created by ionization by cosmic x-ray back-

ground. [3] Wadhwa, C.L. (2007). High Voltage Engineering (2nd

ed.). New Age International. pp. 10–12. ISBN

• the creation of further free electrons is only achieved 8122418597.

by impact ionization. Thus Paschen’s law is not valid [4] Friedrich Paschen (1889). "Ueber die zum Funkenüber-

if there are external electron sources. This can for gang in Luft, Wasserstoﬀ und Kohlensäure bei

example be a light source creating secondary elec- verschiedenen Drucken erforderliche Potentialdif-

trons via the photoelectric eﬀect. This has to be con- ferenz (On the potential diﬀerence required for

sidered in experiments. spark initiation in air, hydrogen, and carbon diox-

ide at diﬀerent pressures)". Annalen der Physik.

• each ionized atom leads to only one free electron. 273 (5): 69–75. Bibcode:1889AnP...273...69P.

But multiple ionizations occur always in practice. doi:10.1002/andp.18892730505.

• free electrons at the cathode surface are created by [5] Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics

the impacting ions. The problem is that the num- (7th ed.). Newnes. p. 542. ISBN 0750698667.

ber of thereby created electrons strongly depends on

[6] Husain, E.; Nema, R. (August 1982). “Analy-

the material of the cathode, its surface (roughness,

sis of Paschen Curves for air, N2 and SF6 Using

impurities) and the environmental conditions (tem- the Townsend Breakdown Equation”. IEEE Transac-

perature, humidity etc.). The experimental, repro- tions on Electrical Insulation. EI-17 (4): 350–353.

ducible determination of the factor γ is therefore doi:10.1109/TEI.1982.298506.

nearly impossible.

[7] Emmanouel Hourdakis; Brian J. Simonds & Neil M. Zim-

• the electrical ﬁeld is homogeneous. merman (2006). “Submicron gap capacitor for mea-

surement of breakdown voltage in air”. Rev. Sci. In-

strum. 77 (3): 034702. Bibcode:2006RScI...77c4702H.

doi:10.1063/1.2185149.

5 Eﬀects with diﬀerent gases

[8] Electrical Discharges-How the spark, glow and arc work

Diﬀerent gases will have diﬀerent mean free paths for [9] J. Townsend, The Theory of Ionization of Gases by Colli-

molecules and electrons. This is because diﬀerent sion. Constable, 1910. Online: http://www.worldcat.org/

molecules have diﬀerent diameters. Noble gases like he- wcpa/oclc/8460026

lium and argon are monatomic and tend to have smaller

diameters. This gives them a greater mean free path [10] Paschen, F. (1889). “Ueber die zum Funkenübergang

length. in Luft, Wasserstoﬀ und Kohlensäure bei verschiedenen

Drucken erforderliche Potentialdiﬀerenz”. Annalen der

Ionization potentials diﬀer between molecules as well as Physik. 273 (5): 69–96. Bibcode:1889AnP...273...69P.

the speed that they recapture electrons after they have doi:10.1002/andp.18892730505.

5

Online: http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/4294747

8 External links

• High Voltage Experimenter’s Handbook

• Paschen’s law calculator

• Paschen Equation (broken link as of Jun 2016)

• Electrical Discharges

• Pressure Dependence of Plasma Structure in Mi-

crowave Gas Breakdown at 110GHz

6 9 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

9.1 Text

• Paschen’s law Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paschen’{}s_law?oldid=728289137 Contributors: Charles Matthews, Stone, Choster,

Ofey, Frogg320, Rama, Sn0wﬂake, Whosyourjudas, Wtshymanski, Gene Nygaard, BD2412, Rjwilmsi, The wub, Physchim62, Krish-

navedala, RussBot, Shaddack, Giro720, Salsb, Kkmurray, Spondoolicks, 2BRN2B, Bluebot, Schnazola, DogFog, Chetvorno, Thijs!bot,

Headbomb, Tkirkman, Thasaidon, Aalemann~enwiki, Adiel lo~enwiki, Pasquale.Carelli, Cfn137, Yintan, Lightmouse, Mr. Granger, Clue-

Bot, Trojancowboy, Jtonti, Addbot, DOI bot, MrOllie, Yobot, KamikazeBot, Rubinbot, Efa, Citation bot, ArthurBot, Tom.Reding, Game-

cock Goose, EmausBot, MikeyMouse10, Hhhippo, Wikfr, Donner60, ClueBot NG, Bibcode Bot, Muso2, Anarij, Aisteco, Swapnilnigam,

BillBucket, BattyBot, Xhuicao, Isambard Kingdom, Ajpikul, Kesppr and Anonymous: 41

9.2 Images

• File:Paschen_curves.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Paschen_curves.svg License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Contributors: Own work Original artist: Krishnavedala

• File:Wirkungsquerschnitt-Skizze.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wirkungsquerschnitt-Skizze.

svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Muso

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