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SPA5302

HOMEWORK SET 1

NUCLEAR PHYSICS & ASTROPHYSICS 2018

HAND IN: FRIDAY 19 OCTOBER BY 4PM

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Hand in solutions to ALL questions. ONE of these will be marked and will count towards your class record.

1.

2.

3.

4.

(a)

(b)

Calculate the potential energy in MeV due to Coulomb repulsion of: a gold nucleus (Z = 79) and an α-particle with centres 10 fm apart.

Li, and hence the energy released in the

fusion reaction 2

Calculate the binding energies of 2 H, 4 He and

6

3

1

2

1

H+

6

3

Li −→ 2 4 He.

2

5
5
 Use the SEMF to predict the atomic mass of 238 U in atomic mass units. Compare this to the real value and calculate the difference in MeV. Hence estimate the percentage error. 10 Mirror nuclei are pairs of nuclei with the same mass number A but with the number of protons 10 and neutrons ‘swapped’, e.g., 14 O and 14 C. By considering the mirror nuclei 19 Ne and 19 F, 8 6 use measured values of their binding energies and the SEMF to estimate the value of the constant multiplying the Coulomb term, a C . Compare with the value quoted over the page, and comment on your answer. Consider isobars of nuclei with A = 75. Look up the atomic masses of these nuclei in the range Z = 28 to Z = 38. Make an accurate sketch of atomic mass versus Z for this isobar (you can plot the data on a computer if you like). Now do the same for the isobar with A = 76. With reference to the SEMF, discuss the qualitative difference between the ﬁgures. 10

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Some (potentially) useful information: The radius of a nuclei may be approximated by R 1.2A 1/3 fm. The semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) for the binding energy of a nucleon is

B(Z, A) = a V A a S A 2/3 a C Z(Z 1)

A

1/3

a A (A 2Z) 2

A

+ δ(Z, A) .

Constants in the SEMF: a V = 15.56, a S = 17.23, a C = 0.697, a A = 23.28, a P = 12.0 where each number is in MeV.

e 2

4πε

0

Boltzmann’s constant Planck’s constant Speed of light Neutrino mean lifetime Atomic mass unit

Mass of electron

Mass of proton Mass of neutron

Mass of 1 1 H Mass of 2 H Mass of 3 H

1

1

Mass of 2

Mass of 4 He Mass of 232 Th

3 He

2

90

Mass of 234 Th

90

Mass of 235 U

92

Mass of 236 U

92

Mass of 238 U

92

Mass of 239 U

92

Mass of the Sun Gravitational constant

Nuclei masses given are atomic masses.

= 1.439965 MeV fm

k B = 8.6173303 × 10 5 eV/K

h =

4.135668 × 10 15 eV s

2.99792 × 10 8 m/s 881 s 1 u = 931.4940954 MeV/c 2 = 1.66054 × 10 27 kg

m e = 5.4858 × 10 4 u = 0.51099895 MeV/c 2

= 1.00727646688 u = 938.27208 MeV/c 2

m p

m n = 1.00866491578 u = 939.56541 MeV/c 2

= 1.00782503 u = 2.01410178 u = 3.01604927 u = 3.01602932 u = 4.00260325 u = 232.038055 u = 234.043601 u = 235.043930 u = 236.045568 u = 238.050788 u

= 239.054293 u M = 1.988 × 10 30 kg G = 6.67408 × 10 11 m 3 kg 1 s 2

c =

You can look up other nuclear data from websites https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html