Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

Indonesia’s Construction Ripple Phenomenon: How it


Affects Yogyakarta’s Genius Loci

Trias Mahendarto
Faculty of Architecture
Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract — Indonesia is experiencing a surge of construction cities, built by huge private corporations such as Lippo Group
boom that is being orchestrated by the government thru their with the Meikarta Project [2], was a subject of the rippling
infrastructure developments. The government has chosen areas phenomenon of building development growth throughout
that become the center of developments within their multiyear Indonesia due to the lucrative prospect of the economic values
development plan. The constructions in these centers created a from new development projects. Yogyakarta has not yet started
ripple phenomenon that affects the cities in Indonesia. This its planned infrastructure projects, but the effects of the
phenomenon was started by the private sectors that wish to construction ripple phenomenon have already taken its effects,
gamble their chances into seizing the foreseeable economic and the changing process of the city has already begun.
potential of cities that became the government’s focus of
construction. Yogyakarta is one of the case in which the city itself A city known for its heritage, tourism, and academic value,
is not yet a center of the ripple, but it was affected by the ripples Yogyakarta saw a huge spike of construction development of
created by the surrounding development centers, mainly from high rise building and quarters in the recent years [3] due to the
Jakarta and Surabaya. booming construction projects. Most of these buildings and
quarters have economic and residential functions, such as, but
Yogyakarta is a city with a strong sense of spirit of place due not limited to, malls, hotels, and apartments, yet they were built
to the presence of the palace complex and historic quarters in the without firstly calculating the city’s needs for these functions
center of the city. But the outer perimeter of the city lacks this
[3]. Even so, they were already built, and due to their scale,
strength. Unfortunately, the construction ripple phenomenon hit
these perimeter areas. The evolution of the city’s spirit of place is
these buildings are evolving the face and fabric of the city, ever
becoming a tug of war between the new high-rise buildings that changing its Genius Loci into a new shape and spirit.
are racing to become the areas’ iconic building. If this continues, This paper will focus with the effects of planned and newly
Yogyakarta is threatened to lose its iconic heritage spirit of place. constructed high rise and huge scale constructions that was
The pressure of change will double in the future due to the built in the past 10 years to the Genius Loci of Yogyakarta, and
planned major infrastructure development in the city, which will how the growth of private based constructions due to
transform Yogyakarta as one of the center of the construction
construction ripple phenomenon will affect the city’s future if it
ripple phenomenon.
still goes uncontrolled. We believe that by identifying,
This paper’s goal is to locate key elements that can help characterizing, and acknowledging the presence of the
steering the evolving spirit of place of the city to still maintain its construction ripple phenomenon, we can realign and reconnect
traditional and unique features, and how these key elements can the new spirit of place of modern Yogyakarta so that it can still
work together to reach that end. If done correctly, the city of maintain its unique historic features in the future.
Yogyakarta can welcome their new status as one of the center of
the construction ripple process without losing its uniqueness. And
these key elements can then be applied to other places that have A. Yogyakarta: a historic city
the same problem as Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta is a special city in Indonesia due to the
presence of the Sultan and how the government acknowledges
Keywords: Yogyakarta, construction ripple phenomenon,
infrastructure, genius loci, sense of place, built environment,
his position in the city by electing him as the governor of the
interpretation. province, the only monarch in Indonesia that has such privilege
[4]. The city was built with the Sultanate palace as its main axis
I. INTRODUCTION as the center of an imaginary line that connects the Mount
Merapi and the South Java Sea [5]. Due to its importance, its
In the recent years, Indonesia is very active in building its
unique classical Javanese architectural style, and also its scale,
infrastructure to strengthen its economic powers [1]. This
the palace complex has become the architectural spirit of the
movement drove the private sectors to fill in the surrounding
city. The presence of the European Architecture from the
spaces of the infrastructure with commercial and residential
Netherlands’ occupation era and the Chinese quarters
functions, creating a growth sprout of new satellite cities that
completed the city’s dynamic yet unique Genius Loci.
further enveloped the landmasses in Indonesia. These satellite

6th Annual International Conference on


Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)
Copyright © GSTF 2018
ISSN 2301-394X
doi: 10.5176/2301-394X_ACE18.137
355 GSTF © 2018
6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

among others. It is also within conceptualization that Indonesia


is planning to relocate its capital to the Island of Kalimantan to
ease the burden of city of Jakarta. In the sense of the
construction ripple phenomenon, these constructions can then
being considered as the centers of the construction ripple, while
the private-based constructions are the rippling effect that
affects the surrounding area. These government-sponsored
projects are spread around Indonesia, making the ripple felt in
the most part of the country. Noticing this, the private sector
quickly aims the surrounding areas of the projects before the
land price surges.
II. CONSTRUCTION RIPPLE EFFECT IN YOGYAKARTA
The construction ripple phenomenon that affects the cities in
Indonesia is started by the private sectors that wish to gamble
their chances into seizing the foreseeable economic potential of
cities that became the government’s focus of construction.
Yogyakarta is no exemption from this case, because of the
planned construction of a new international airport [7] in the
city and the construction of the outer ring road that connects
the Island of Java into a series of provincial roads [8]. These
major construction plans are due to start as early as 2018,
especially the International Airport because the current airport
is no longer able to effectively serve the sky transportation.
Due to the limitations of the lands and the positions of the
strategic locations in the city, the private sectors aggressively
built high-rise buildings around Yogyakarta’s perimeter (with
the maximum height of 12 stories due to the air traffic
regulations), mostly as hotels and residential apartments. Aside
Figure 1. The imaginary line between the palace complex with mount from individual high-rise buildings, there are also new
merapi and the south sea (retrieve from supplement of the local regulation of
the special region of Yogyakarta No.6 Year 2012 regarding conservation of
residential complexes, although not as huge as other places in
cultural heritage) Indonesia. Huge malls and shopping centers have already
spawned in strategic spots to add the commercial areas in the
Although the city grew larger and larger along the passage city. Due to their size and scale alone, these new buildings are
of time, one still recognizes the center spirit of the city is the morphing Yogyakarta’s urban face. Yogyakarta is in the
Sultanate’s palace. Nowadays, even though it still functions as process of renewing her spirit of place.
the residence for the Sultan and his extended families and
subordinates, the sultanate complex and its surrounding areas TABLE I. THE NUMBER OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS IN YOGYAKARTA IN
COMPARISON WITH OTHER NON MAJOR CITIES IN INDONESIA (WITH MAXIMUM
are more famous as tourism spot, and they became a symbol of HEIGHT OF 12 STOREY)
tourism of the city alongside the ancient Prambanan and
Borobudur Temples [6]. As an area, The Sultanate complex Findings
No
and its surrounding quarters is generally regarded as the city’s City
Building with the height
between 7 – 11 storey
most recognizable feature.
01 Semarang 70
B. The construction ripple phenomenon in Indonesia
02 Bandung 47
The construction ripple phenomenon can be defined as the
aggressive private-based construction that took place close to 03 Yogyakarta 42
or around major government-sponsored construction. 04 Surakarta 15
Indonesian government allocated a part of its spending in
building infrastructures, such as roads, airports, ports, and 05 Malang 5
mega-projects such as the now problematic northern Jakarta data taken from personal analysis and data from Skyscrapercity Forum Indonesia
Reclamation Project and the Palembang mega construction,

356 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

Figure 2. The development center plan of Java Island (retrieve from


supplement of the regulation of the president of the republic of indonesia
No.32 Year 2011)

III. METHODOLOGY found in the modern times but its sense has evolved. In today’s
time of globalization and world connectivity, the Genius Loci,
In order to foresee the effects of the construction ripple or the spirit of place, are the only way for an area to have
phenomenon in Yogyakarta and how the city should and would distinctive characteristics that can separate one place from
adapt to it, this paper is being conducted with the practice- other areas. Due to the speed of constructions around the rich
based built environment research methodology. This method and emerging countries today, there are also difficulties for
includes case-based knowledge, evidence-based design and people to become attached to a place, to identify and orient
performance-based outcomes for the built environment [9]. themselves into one place. This negative development for the
This paper will only cover the case-based and evidence-based spirit of place can threatened a space. The stronger the sense of
research method by surveying the city’s constructions that place can then be seen as a means to establishing sense of
occurs in the past 10 years, the planned constructions that will identity and belonging [11]. As such, a place that lacks the
be done in the city, and going through peer reviewed literatures sense of place can affect the residents that lived within the
that can be used and become base to identify the key place, and it can lead to the deterioration of the area. Although
challenges, threats, and potentials of the construction ripple nowadays it is difficult to see the spirit of place of an area or
phenomenon in Yogyakarta. neighborhood, Isis Brook tried to identify the following range
of ideas that can be used as a setting to identify a spirit of place
IV. LITERATURE REVIEW
[12]:
A. Genius Loci in the modern city fabric a. abode of special beings
Genius loci in is a term derives from the Roman religion b. energy fields
and was reinterpreted by Christian Norberg-Schulz who wish c. authenticity
to who indicated that each space is a resultant of the d. narrative
concrete realism defining and effecting the place, as well as the e. local distinctiveness
certain phenomena that each space has, established by f. essence
countless aspects of the environment of which the space g. character
is located [10]. The ancient concept of genius loci can be h. ecosystem
i. pantheism
j. panpsychism

357 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

B. The symbolism of Yogyakarta precious chance to investigate how local culture and identity,
As ever changing as it is now, Yogyakarta still has a also in modern times, shape and give definite meanings to
distinctive characteristic of a city in Indonesia due to the some places and to the urban space as a whole [14].
presence of the Sultanate complex, the old city quarters, and C. The ‘Bilbao effect trial’ in Yogyakarta
the special status of the Sultan. These factors make a bold
difference with other Indonesian cities. A research that was Yogyakarta has strong characteristics in its central area due
conducted by Peter Nas to explore the emic vision of the to the presence of the palace complex, but it has no strong
population of Yogyakarta and their perception of the living urban fabric on its perimeter areas. The lack of iconic buildings
urban space showed that the traditional center focused on the in Yogyakarta’s perimeter area gave the room for newly
royal palace is still significant in the imageability of this constructed buildings to try to become its new icon/face. These
Javanese city, but other symbols in the city are creating a new structures, with their scale and height, can be the anchor of
fragmented image of it [13]. This showed the strength of the a new city identity if designed correctly, as in the case of the
palace complex, its history, its culture and rituals, and the Guggenheim Bilbao museum. The Guggenheim museum in
immediate surroundings to mold the face of Yogyakarta. Bilbao has become the starting point of the cultural renaissance
of a once problematic area in Bilbao [15]. This phenomenon
also gives birth to the term the ‘Bilbao/Guggenheim Effect’
that has been studied around the world in order to solve areas
that are lacking signature architecture [15].
Essentially, for a building to have such an impact to its
surroundings, it needed the distinctive architectural language
that differs from its surroundings and also a dominant size and
scale in comparison to its surroundings. The research done by
Marichela Sepe and Giovanni Di Trapani regarding the ‘Bilbao
effect’ on the city of Bilbao also found that the traditional
urban renewal policies that usually based on combating social
exclusion and physically building, are generally changing. In
the present time, there is an increase of realization that cities
are not made solely by buildings and structures, but also those
who lived inside it, the network and intangible elements, such
as the memory, history, social relationships, emotional
experiences and cultural identities [16].
V. FINDINGS
A. The changing of the city’s Genius Loci
Yogyakarta is one of the growing economic centers in
Indonesia due to its status as a province capital. The effects of
the construction ripple phenomenon in Yogyakarta, although
not as strong as other major ripple center such as Jakarta, can
be seen with the constructions of major scale buildings. New
economic centers showed up in the form of malls and shopping
centers, and due to their size and appeals, they slowly turning
Figure 3. The historic city center and its surrounding areas (retrieve from
supplement of the local regulation of the special region of Yogyakarta No.6
the areas around them to become new city centers. About 70
Year 2012 regarding conservation of cultural heritage) percent of the buildings are designed with contemporary
architectural style that has less connection with Yogyakarta’s
characteristics. Some other buildings introduced the ‘European
style’ in massive scale, complete with roman columns and
Yet unfortunately, The Sultanate palace complex along statues, while there are some who tried to implement the
with the heritage old city quarters are mostly centered in the traditional Javanese style with a modern touch to their
central area of the city. Their sphere of influence in regards of buildings.
the spirit of place does not reach the new economic centers that
grew around the new malls, such as Ambarrukmo Plaza Mall, Another important issue that was found in the surveys is
or from the new high rise buildings. The research of Nas also that these new constructions are mostly located in the city’s
showed that aside from the city center and the economic perimeter areas that are already lacking a strong spirit of place.
centers, Yogyakarta has a limited characteristic for its other And because of their size and scale, the surge of huge scale
areas. Different periods of construction and development have buildings alongside the newly constructed high rise buildings
influenced the characteristic of these areas, and today’s across the city created confusion for people to recognize the
globalization, tourism and other new phenomena are soul of the city. And due to the fact that these new buildings
constructing their own symbols [14]. One potential that are carrying their own architectural style and most of them are
Yogyakarta have to maintain its symbolism is the particular designed with the idea that they will assume the position as
abundance of behavioral signifiers in Yogyakarta that offers a Yogyakarta’s new icon around their area of construction.

358 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

Yogyakarta itself did not have large scale iconic buildings to a city affected by ripple from the surrounding areas to
instill the architectural characteristic for the modern city. The becoming one of the centers of the construction ripple
palace complex and the historic quarters, even though huge in phenomenon in Indonesia. The ongoing construction phase in
term of space, are mostly low rise building types. They did not Yogyakarta will surely became faster, and there will be more
create the current skyline of city. The new high rise buildings new city centers that come into being as the result of these new
are the ones that will dictate the skyline of the city, and due to constructions.
their ‘selfishness’ in design, the skyline is rich in character but
lack in term of continuity. There are already movements from the private sectors to buy
huge amount of lands in and around these two major
B. The constructions v. the city’s needs construction sites because the land price has not gone up yet.
One of the main problems caused by the construction ripple They will eventually build projects that will support the new
phenomenon in Indonesia is that the constructions often time projects, and due to the lack of strong image in those newly
did not consider the need of the city. They were built mainly as developed areas, these new projects will surely become the
a gamble that the area will eventually developed into new new faces of the area. It is a frightening prospective if we
economic centers. That is why the developers bought huge consider that even without being the center of the ripple,
amount of lands that were still cheap so that they can sell them Yogyakarta has already being forced to adapt to the changes
in high price when the area around them became a new city and began losing its unique city characteristics. Without proper
center, and their gamble is paid off. This case also happened in and stronger rules and efforts from the government and the
Yogyakarta. The land price in Yogyakarta is still relatively citizen themselves, Yogyakarta will eventually lose their
cheap compared to the other major cities in Java, but after the unique city characteristic that differ them with other cities in
Construction Ripple Phenomenon happened, the land price Indonesia, and it will surely affect the tourism industry that has
soars, especially on areas that are close to the new huge contribution to the region’s economic income.
constructions. VI. DISCUSSION
A problem that often time occurs when the private sector The effects of the construction ripple phenomenon in
tried to take advantage of the ripple is that the growth of high Yogyakarta eventually will result in the major changes of the
rise residential buildings and hotels does not essentially urban fabric of the city. This changes will happened firstly in
correlate with the need of new living quarters due to the growth the perimeter area, where the new city centers are being
of population in Yogyakarta or the sudden rise of tourists [17]. developed. These areas will be the first to define the new spirit
But due to the presence of new residential houses, and also the of place of the Yogyakarta’s perimeter area, and it will spread
status of Yogyakarta as the center for education, these newly out to the rest of the city. The lack of a major and dominant
developed residential areas are filled with new people that iconic new building that can bring out the ‘Bilbao effect’ in
eventually lived in Yogyakarta. The rise of traffic jams on the Yogyakarta will surely hurt this phase. In the end, the spirit of
major streets becomes a proof that the city has not been able to place in these new areas will be hard to recognize, as there are
supply enough infrastructures to the new citizens. Another too many elements and characteristics that is being mixed. This
problem that occurs is that clean water has also becoming evolution process will define the whole Genius Loci of the city
problematic as there are cases that the wells of the residents of Yogyakarta.
around these new buildings becoming dry because the new
buildings drained the water to facilitate their needs [18]. But considering the economic pressure presented by the
ripples, this process will eventually affect the palace complex
The loss of the city’s unique architectural characteristics and the historic city center. Even now there are already cases in
due to the confusion caused by the ripple buildings’ effort of which some historic buildings in the city center being
becoming the new ‘icon of the city’ also have ripple effect to demolished and replaced by new contemporary buildings that
new small scale buildings, as they are being built without severe their fabric connections to its surroundings. There is
consenting to the image of Yogyakarta as the city of heritage. also examples of huge scale building that are being erected
These new ‘generic’ looking buildings are growing fast in inside the city center, such as Unisi Hotel and Neo Malioboro
number, and in some cases, replace old buildings that have Hotel that has multiple stories and large in scale, whose style
unique characteristics that can represent the old face of the city. does not correlate to the historic center’s spirit of place. The
There are numerous cases, even those that happened inside the spirit of place of the historic city center, a characteristic that
city’s historic center, that new buildings were erected in the defines the city as a whole, will be weakened slowly but surely.
expense of old historic buildings that has rich architectural
characteristics of Yogyakarta. If this continues, not only The eventual weak Genius Loci will lower the sense of
Yogyakarta’s skyline that changes, but also Yogyakarta as a belonging from the people to the city. Without it, the city will
whole. The risk of losing its heritage richness will surely affect become less and less maintained. More signs of decay will
Yogyakarta as one of the main tourist destinations in Indonesia. show up in the city, and less people will be interested to stay in
Yogyakarta. In the end, it will lower the tourism interest
C. Yogyakarta’s future as a ripple center towards Yogyakarta. With most of the new high-rise buildings
Until now, Yogyakarta is affected by the construction ripple in Yogyakarta are being developed as hotels and
phenomenon from other cities and areas. This situation will accommodation, their future functionality will also become
change significantly when the construction of the new obsolete if the number of tourists drops. If this scenario
international airport and the Outer Ring Road project began. happened, then the city will be threatened to have
These two huge infrastructures will transform Yogyakarta from

359 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

nonfunctioning high-rise building complexes. Yogyakarta will The government should protect and maintain buildings and
then become inhabitable for its own citizen. places that has significant value towards the historic spirit of
place. Heavy fine should be put for those who demolish these
We can compare the current development of Yogyakarta to types of buildings to create space for new buildings that has a
the expansion of London in the wake of the industrial area, in different style of architecture in the city center. There should be
which Benjamin Disraeli noticed in 1847 that the city is no more cases of historic buildings being demolished in order
blandly expanding in a monotonous way [19]. Disraeli noticed to make space for new buildings, such as the case of at
the lack of strong character that defined the city of London, and Pajeksan Street, where the historic building was destroyed so
the risk it bears to its residents and also to itself. Yogyakarta is that a modern style hotel can take its space.
not being expanded monotonously, but rather too colorful in
characters yet each of them lacks the strength to imprint It is also to be noticed that most of the protected heritage
themselves as the dominant spirit of place. Even so, we also zones are within the historic city center [20]. If we wish to
need to understand that the evolution and expansion of a city is create a unity for a stronger spirit of place of Yogyakarta, the
an unstoppable process. According to P. Geddes, the genius protection of historic buildings and quarters should also be
loci were easily captured by doing nearly nothing. The best expanded to other places besides the city center. By doing so,
strategy was to adopt a passive position and ‘wait in reverence we will eventually eliminate the grey areas that circles the
for the genius of the place to work its miracle in its own way’ historic city center, clearing the ambiguity of Yogyakarta’s
[19]. This case cannot happen in Yogyakarta, especially as it is urban face.
one of the major development centers for the future of
Indonesia. Sooner or later, Yogyakarta will need to change, and B. Genius Loci by citizen involvements
so will its Genius Loci. We also need to realize that the spirit of place of a modern
city has developed more than just its buildings, even though the
What it can do is to steer the evolution process so that buildings are still being considered the cornerstones of the
Yogyakarta will not lose its unique characteristics. In order to people’s memory and perspective of a place because it can be
do so, there are three ways the city of Yogyakarta can seen easily. But in today’s time, buildings can be easily
rearrange its Genius loci in order to maintain its unique spirit replaced with another new one in a short amount of time. This
while still embracing the continuous construction from the is because of the speed of changes a city must endure due to the
construction ripple effect, and eventually by the pressure of advancement of construction technology and the speed of
being the center of the ripple effect itself. These ways are being globalization that pressurize the area with economic demands.
divided by their main actors, which are the government, the We eventually need a more enduring image of the city to
citizen of Yogyakarta, and by the buildings itself, old and new. capture its spirit of place.
A. Genius Loci by government rules The lack of a clear Genius Loci and the rapid growth of the
We cannot hold back the changes in the city, and city has already taken its effects in the surrounding perimeter
Yogyakarta will surely receive more construction pressure area of Yogyakarta, especially within the Sleman District
when the major constructions projects of the toll road and where the ripple effect felt the strongest. In the reports in 2017,
airport is finished. Rather than refusing them, we might as well the criminal rate in Sleman is the highest amongst
as embrace it with open arms. To do so, we need to analyze the Yogyakarta’s five major districts. As Jane Jacobs has noticed
current genius loci of the new city centers. These grey areas, in her studies, the active involvement of the people who lived
especially in the Sleman District, are in a state of re- in the surrounding neighborhood is the key to have a more safe
identification of its spirit of place, and the government must and civil area [21]. But in order to have such involvement, one
use its power and jurisdiction to help the process. This is a must have a sense of belonging that is raised from their
crucial issue, especially when the perimeter area does not have attachment to the area through its Genius Loci. This element is
clear rules regarding new major construction development such severely missing in the outer perimeter of the city of
as high-rise buildings [18]. Yogyakarta.
Using the theory of Isis Brooke, we can define the eventual Nas in his research has coined the term ‘urban symbol
spirit of place of the new central areas around Yogyakarta’s bearers’ as a way to differentiate an area’s characteristic from
outer perimeter, especially using the tools in character and another [13]. These symbols can be seen easily, such as
local distinctiveness [12]. These are the two elements of buildings and monuments, or more subtle and hidden. Nas
Genius Loci that can be easily analyzed from the historical city concluded that these urban symbol bearers and their
center in order to be able to define the essentiality of configuration can be considered the totems that represent the
Yogyakarta’s spirit of place. With the Genius Loci eventually urban community shaping and supporting a sense of identity
being classified and defined, there will be a set of tools and within the city. This is why there is a need to involve the
rules that should be implemented to have an order for the residents of Yogyakarta to join the effort of rearranging the
growing areas that are lacking the sense of characterization. Genius Loci of the city. The active involvement of the citizen
This tool will limit the style, the size, and scale of the new will ensure the stronger rules to protect the urban fabric of the
buildings that will be built around the perimeter. city is being upheld, and they will eventually be active in
participating on events that happens in their area. They will
Stronger rules will be applied to protect the spirit of place eventually have the important sense of belonging from the
of the historic city center and the palace complex, as it is the residents. This is the key factor that can prepare the city to
core of the Genius Loci that will be spread to the grey areas.

360 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

receive the upcoming pressure from becoming one of the main of place, the government should reduce the negative effect of
ripple centers of the construction wave. the ripple phenomenon.
C. Genius Loci by state-funded iconic buildings The government, however, cannot work by themselves. An
The problem with the development of Yogyakarta’s active participation from the citizens in also needed so that they
perimeter area is that the major constructions are being funded can help protect the city from the urban threat. With having
by the private sector. This is the main reason why the new strong Genius Loci, there will be a great sense of belonging
buildings each wishes to become the ‘icon’ of their towards the city, and it will eventually help the city itself from
surrounding areas. And with each building are trying their best becoming a generic modern city that does not have a caring
with designs that are monumental or unique, there is a citizen. Another actor that can play a part in protecting the
confusion for the residents around them to attach themselves to spirit of place of Yogyakarta is the public buildings. New
the area. This confusion can also be the main reason behind the public buildings should be placed on areas that are lacking
rise of new small scale buildings that are being designed strong genius loci, so that the new buildings, designed
without consenting to Yogyakarta’s traditional, because they specifically in respect to the unique characteristic and
could not find any particular spirit that they are obliged to architectural heritage of Yogyakarta, can imprint and spread
follow. the genius loci of the historical city center and the palace
complex to the perimeter areas.
What Yogyakarta can do, however, is to replicate the
Guggenheim Bilbao effect to her surrounding perimeters. By The process of construction and growth of the city is a
constructing monumental buildings with designs that respected natural phenomenon that will happen everywhere.
the city’s spirit of place in spots that are severely lacking Unfortunately for Yogyakarta, this process is being pressured
identity, the government can imprint the area with a controlled by the construction ripple phenomenon. What the city can do to
spirit of place. These monumental buildings can act as public protect its weakening spirit of place is steering the evolution
buildings, such as offices, or museums, or other functions that process so that new spirit of place still has the fragments of the
can be accessed by the public. By doing so, the buildings will unique Yogyakarta, and the city can still be differentiated from
be accepted faster into the public’s image and memory, and other cities in Indonesia. The key actors that have to take the
they will become the cornerstone for their areas. center roles are the government, with its policy, support, and
rules, and the residents themselves, with their willingness to
The main goal for this ‘controlled imprint’ is not to force include themselves in the effort to protect this important yet
the citizen to agree a certain type of Genius Loci. That process latent richness.
will be done naturally and also with time, but it is more to force
the private funded major constructions to not try to become the REFERENCES
new icon of the city with the risk of sacrificing the unique [1] BMI Research, “Indonesia infrastructure report Q4 2017”. London: BMI
character of Yogyakarta, something that is currently happening Research, 2017
in terrifying speed in the city. [2] PT Lippo Karawaci Tbk (“LPKR”), “Lippo launches Meikarta, a new
city in the center of Indonesia economic activities”, (2017). Available at:
By involving these three actors, we will have a city that is https://www.lippokarawaci.co.id/press-release/read/lippo-launches-
ready to evolve without losing its heritage root and face. And meikarta-a-new-city-in-the-center-of-indonesia-economic-activities.
Yogyakarta can become an example for other cities around (Accessed January 18, 2018).
Indonesia, such as Bandung, Surakarta, or even Surabaya and [3] A. Cahyadi, “Analisis prospek investasi apartemen di Daerah Istimewa
Yogyakarta”, unpublished.
Jakarta, which currently experience the same problem.
Indonesia can continue its development and ascent to the elite [4] F. la Cecla, Contro l’urbanistica. Turin: Giulio Enaudi Editore, 2015.
economic country without losing something that can [5] A.Y. Haryono, “Penanda kawasan sebagai penguat nilai filosofis sumbu
utama kota Yogyakarta”, in ATRIUM - Jurnal Arsitektur, [S.l.], v. 1,
differentiate itself with other countries. no. 2, pp 93-107, November 2015.
VII. CONCLUSION [6] Dinas Pariwisata Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Statistik kepariwisataan
Yogyakarta 2016. Retrieve from
The construction ripple phenomenon does present a threat https://visitingjogja.com/downloads/Buku%20Statistik%20Kepariwisata
to the Genius Loci of the city. It happened even in Yogyakarta, an%20DIY%202016.pdf. (Accessed January 18, 2018).
a city that has a traditionally strong spirit of place. The [7] N. Scott, AP I/GVKPIL – New Yogyakarta International Airport –
prospect of Yogyakarta becoming one of the centers of the Indonesia. London: Timetric, 2016.
ripple added the threat even more. As in 2018, more and more [8] N. Scott, PUPR – Yogyakarta to Solo Toll Road – Indonesia. London:
Timetric, 2017.
buildings that does not correlate and respect the surrounding
[9] L. Lee, An integrated design strategy for South Australia: building the
spirit of place are being constructed in Yogyakarta. An future. Adelaide: Adelaide Thinkers in Residence, 2011.
intervention by the government and the residents need to [10] C. Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci Towards a Phenomenology of
happen to stop this trend. Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.
The government and the residents should become the main [11] A. Kepczynska-Walczak and B.M. Walczak, “Visualising ‘genius loci’
of built heritage”. proceeding of the 11th Conference of the European
actors to lead the preservation of Yogyakarta’s unique urban Architectural Envisioning Association, Milan 25-28 September 2013,
characteristics. By implementing stronger rules for Track 3, pp. 451-457. Retrieve from
constructions, protecting the heritage buildings and quarters, http://www.labsimurb.polimi.it/11EAEA/T03/paper/EAEA11_PAPER_
and banning new buildings that does not respect the city’s spirit T03_p451_KEPCZYNSKA_WALCZAK.pdf. (Accessed January 18,
2018).

361 GSTF © 2018


6th Annual International Conference on Architecture and Civil Engineering (ACE 2018)

[12] I. Brooke, “Can 'Spirit Of Place' Be A Guide To Ethical Building?”. [18] P.P. Noviandri, “Apartment planning concept in settlement area of
From in Ethics and the Built Environment. London: Routledge, 2000. Sleman District, D.I.Yogyakarta (case study : H Residence Plemburan
[13] P.J.M. Nas, Cities full of symbols, a Theory of Urban Space and Hinggil Apartment)”. proceeding of the CITIES 2015: Intelligent
Culture. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2011. Planning Towards Smart Cities, Surabaya, Indonesia, 3-4 November
2015 pp. 270 – 277.
[14] B. Plaza, P. Gonzales-Casimiro, P. Moral-Zuazo, and C. Waldron,
“Culture-led city brands as economic engines: theory and empirics”, in [19] I. B. Whyte, ed., “Modernism and the Spirit of the City”. Oxon:
The Annals of Regional Science, Issue 1, pp. 179–196, January 2015. Routledge, 2003.
[15] Anonymous, “The Gugenheim Effect”, in The Wilson Quarterly, pp. 90, [20] P. Aryunto, “Peran dan strategi pembangunan kota yogyakarta sebagai
Autumn 2006. kota budaya”. Unpublished. Retrieve from
https://www.academia.edu/31525547/peran_dan_strategi_pembangunan
[16] M. Sepe and G. di Trapani, “Cultural tourism and creative regeneration: kota yogyakarta sebagai kota budaya (Accessed January 18, 2018).
two case studies”, in International Journal Of Culture, Tourism And
Hospitality Research, VOL. 4. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing [21] J. Jacobs, The death and life ofgreat american cities. New York: Vintage
Limited, 2010, pp. 214-227. Books, 1961.
[17] L. Colquhuon, “Melia announces new Yogya property amid moratorium
calls”, retrieve from Hotel Management Asia; Newton, September 3,
2013.

362 GSTF © 2018


Copyright of Annual International Conference on Architecture & Civil Engineering is the
property of Global Science & Technology Forum and its content may not be copied or
emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written
permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Похожие интересы