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SAN BEDA COLLEGE 

MANILA 
COLLEGE OF LAW 
 
EVIDENCE, LEGAL & TRIAL TECHNIQUE 
Atty. Francesca Lourdes M. Señga 
 
Rule 128 General Provisions 
 
Quantum of Evidence 
Tan, Jr. v. Hosana, G.R. No. 190846, February 3, 2016 
Tolentino v. Mendoza, A.C. No. 5151, October 19, 2004 
People v. Caranguian, G.R. No. 124514, July 6, 2000 
 
Sec. 3. Admissibility of evidence 
People v. Del Monte y Gapay, G.R. No. 179940, April 23, 2008 
BSB Group, Inc. v. Go, G.R. No. 168644, February 16, 2010 
De Jesus v. Sanchez-Malit, A.C. No. 6470, July 8, 2014 
People v. Samontañez, G.R. No. 134530, December 4, 2000 
Navarro v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 121087, August 26, 1999 
 
Rule 129 What Need Not Be Proved 
 
Spouses Latip v. Chua, G.R. No. 177809, October 16, 2009 
Juan v. Juan, G.R. No. 221732, [August 23, 2017 
 
Sec. 1. Mandatory Judicial Notice 
People v. Documento, G.R. No. 188706 (Resolution), March 17, 2010 
Peltan Development, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 117029, March 19, 1997 
People v. Sevilleno y Villanueva, G.R. No. 129058, March 29, 1999  
 
Sec. 2. Discretionary Judicial Notice 
Candelaria v. People, G.R. No. 209386, December 8, 2014 
Habagat  Grill  v.  DMC-Urban  Property  Developer  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  155110,  March 
31, 2005 
 
Sec. 3. Judicial Notice, When Hearing Necessary 
People v. Tundag, G.R. Nos. 135695-96, October 12, 2000 
People v. Liban, G.R. Nos. 136247 & 138330, November 22, 2000  
 
Sec. 4. Judicial Admissions 
Alfelor v. Halasan, G.R. No. 165987, March 31, 2006 
People v. Castillo y Lumayro, G.R. Nos. 131592-93, February 15, 2000  
 
Constantino v. Heirs of Constantino, Jr., G.R. No. 181508, October 2, 2013 
Atillo III v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 119053 (Resolution), January 23, 1997 
 
Rule 130 Rules of Admissibility 
 
A. Object (Real Evidence) 
Sec. 1. Object as Evidence 
People v. Rullepa y Guinto, G.R. No. 131516, March 5, 2003 
Bank of the Philippine Islands v. Reyes, G.R. No. 157177, February 11, 2008 
Ricalde v. People, G.R. No. 211002, January 21, 2015 
 
B. Documentary Evidence 
Sec. 2. Documentary Evidence 
1. Best Evidence Rule 
Sec. 3. Original Document Must be Produced 
Consolidated  Bank  and  Trust  Corp.  v.  Del  Monte  Motor  Works  Inc.,  G.R.  No. 
143338, July 29, 2005 
Bayani Magdayao v. People, G.R. No. 152881, August 17, 2004 
Josef v. People, G.R. No. 146424, November 18, 2005 
Lorenzana v. Lelina, G.R. No. 187850, August 17, 2016 
People v. Cayabyab, G.R. No. 167147, August 3, 2005 
 
Heirs of Prodon v. Heirs of Alvarez, G.R. No. 170604, September 2, 2013 
Marquez v. Espejo, G.R. No. 168387, August 25, 2010 
 
Rule  on  Electronic  Evidence,  A.M.  No.  01-7-01-SC,  August  1,  2001  and 
Expansion  of  the  Coverage  of  the  Rules  on Electronic Evidence​, September 24, 
2002 
Republic Act No. 8792, Electronic Commerce Act 
Implementing Rules and Regulations of the E-Commerce Act, July 13, 2000 
Garcillano  v.  House  of  Representatives  Committees  on  Public  Information,  G.R. 
No. 170338, 179275, December 23, 2008 
People v. Enojas y Hingpit, G.R. No. 204894, March 10, 2014 
Maliksi v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 203302, March 12, 2013 
Bartolome v. Maranan, A.M. No. P-11-2979, November 18, 2014 
MCC  Industial  Sales  Corp.  v.  Ssangyong  Corp.,  G.R.  No.  170633,  October  17, 
2007 
Garvida v. Sales, Jr., G.R. No. 124893, April 18, 1997 
National Power Corporation v. Codilla, Jr., G.R. No. 170491, April 3, 2007 
 
Sec. 4. Original of Document 
Bank  of  the  Philippine  Islands  v.  SMP,  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  175466  (Resolution), 
December 23, 2009 
Capital  Shoes  Factory,  Ltd.  v.  Traveler  Kids, Inc., G.R. No. 200065, September 24, 
2014 
 
2. Secondary Evidence 
Sec. 5. When Original document is unavailable 
Dantis v. Maghinang, Jr., G.R. No. 191696, April 10, 2013 
Country Bankers Insurance Corp. v. Lagman, G.R. No. 165487, July 13, 2011 
Republic v. Spouses Mateo, G.R. No. 148025, August 13, 2004 
Citibank v. Teodoro, G.R. No. 150905, September 23, 2003 
 
Sec. 6. When original document is in adverse party’s custody or control 
Bayani Magdayao v. People, G.R. No. 152881, August 17, 2004 
 
Sec. 7. Evidence Admissible when the original document is a public record 
Republic v. Development Resources Corp., G.R. No. 180218, December 18, 2009 
Bunagan-Bansig v. Celera, A.C. No. 5581, January 14, 2014 
Saad Agro-Industries, Inc. v. Republic, G.R. No. 152570, September 27, 2006 
Cabugao y Sison v. People, G.R. No. 158033, July 30, 2004 
 
Sec. 8. Party who calls for document not bound to offer it 
Rule 27, Rules of Court 
 
3. Parol Evidence Rule 
Sec. 9. Evidence of written agreements 
Pilipinas Bank v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141060, September 29, 2000 
Eagleridge  Development  Corp.  v.  Cameron  Granville  3  Asset  Management, Inc., 
G.R. No. 204700 (Resolution), November 24, 2014 
Manila Electric Co. v. Heirs of Spouses Deloy, G.R. No. 192893, June 5, 2013 
Spouses  Paras  v.  Kimwa  Construction  and  Development Corp., G.R. No. 171601, 
April 8, 2015 
Marquez v. Espejo, G.R. No. 168387, August 25, 2010 
Spouses Amoncio v. Benedicto, G.R. No. 171707, July 28, 2008 
Spouses Trinidad v. Imson, G.R. No. 197728, September 16, 2015 
Leighton  Contractors  Philippines,  Inc.  v.  CNP  Industries,  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  160972, 
March 9, 2010 
Rosario  Textile  Mills  Corp.  v.  Home  Bankers  Savings  and  Trust  Co.,  G.R.  No. 
137232, June 29, 2005 
 
4. Interpretation of Documents 
Art. 788-794, Civil Code 
Art. 1370-1379, Civil Code 
 
Sec. 10. Interpretation of a writing according to its legal meaning 
 
Sec. 11. Instrument construed so as to give effect to all provisions 
Home  Development  Mutual  Fund  v.  Court  of  Appeals,  G.R. No. 118972, April 3, 
1998 
BPI-Family  Savings  Bank,  Inc.  v.  Spouses  Domingo,  G.R.  No.  158676, November 
27, 2006 
Development Bank of the Phils. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 137557, October 30, 
2000 
De Mesa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 106467-68, October 19, 1999 
Multinational  Village  Homeowners  Association  Inc.  v.  Ara  Security  & 
Surveillance Agency, G.R. No. 154852, October 21, 2004 
 
Sec. 12. Interpretation according to intention; general and particular provisions 
Cañedo  v.  Kampilan  Security  and  Detective  Agency,  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  179326,  July 
31, 2013 
 
Sec. 13. Interpretation according to circumstance 
 
Sec. 14. Peculiar signification of terms 
Moreno, Jr. v. Private Management Office, G.R. No. 159373, November 16, 2006 
Jimenez v. Reyes, G.R. No. 8227, March 9, 1914 
Security Bank Corp. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141733, February 8, 2007 
Enriquez v. A. S. Watson & Co. Ltd., G.R. No. 7180, March 30, 1912 
 
Sec. 15. Written words control printed 
Jarque v. Smith, Bell & Co., Ltd., G.R. No. 32986, November 11, 1930] 
De los Santos v. Vibar, G.R. No. 150931, July 16, 2008 
 
Sec. 16. Experts and interpreters to be used in explaining certain writings 
 
Sec. 17. Of two constructions, which preferred 
Horrigan v. Troika Commercial Inc., G.R. No. 148411, November 29, 2005 
Asturias  Sugar  Central,  Inc.  v.  Pure  Cane  Molasses  Co.,  G.R.  No.  36026A, 
November 16, 1932 
Enriquez v. A. S. Watson & Co. Ltd., G.R. No. 7180, March 30, 1912 
 
Sec. 18. Construction in favor of natural right 
 
Sec. 19. Interpretation according to usage 
 
C. Testimonial Evidence 
 
1. Qualification of Witnesses 
 
Sec. 20. Witnesses; their qualifications 
Armed  Forces  of  the  Philippines  Retirement  and  Separation  Benefits  System  v. 
Republic, G.R. No. 188956, March 20, 2013 
People v. Umali y Amado, G.R. No. 84450, February 4, 1991 
People v. Dominguez, G.R. No. 100199, January 18, 1993 
People v. De Leon, G.R. No. 115367, September 28, 1995 
People v. Aleman y Longhas, G.R. No. 181539, July 24, 2013 
People v. Bustos, G.R. No. 27200, January 20, 1928 
People v. Tuangco, G.R. No. 130331, November 22, 2000 
People v. Gerones, G.R. No. 91116, January 24, 1991 
People v. Hamto y Coderas, G.R. No. 128137, August 2, 2001 
People v. Deauna, G.R. Nos. 143200-01, August 1, 2002 
 
People v. Acbangin, G.R. No. 117216, August 9, 2000 
People v. Mendoza, G.R. No. 113791, February 22, 1996 
People v. Galas, G.R. No. 114007, September 24, 1996  
 
Rule  on  Examination  of  a  Child  Witness,  A.M.  No.  004-07-SC,  December  15, 
2000 
People v. Esugon y Avila, G.R. No. 195244, June 22, 2015 
People v. Ibañez y Albante, G.R. No. 197813, September 25, 2013 
People v. Rama, G.R. No. 136304, January 25, 2001 
 
Sec. 21. Disqualification by reason of mental incapacity or immaturity 
People v. Obogne, G.R. No. 199740 (Resolution), March 24, 2014 
Dulla v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123164, February 18, 2000 
People v. Golimlim, G.R. No. 145225, April 2, 2004 
People v. Maceda, G.R. No. 138805, February 28, 2001 
People v. Lagarto y Petilla, G.R. Nos. 118828 & 119371, February 29, 2000 
 
Sec. 22. Disqualification by reason of marriage 
Alvarez v. Ramirez, G.R. No. 143439, October 14, 2005 
People v. Quidato, Jr., G.R. No. 117401, October 1, 1998 
People v. Pasensoy, G.R. No. 140634, September 12, 2002 
 
Sec. 23. Disqualification by reason of death or insanity of adverse party 
Tan v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 125861, September 9, 1998 
Sanson v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127745, April 22, 2003 
Garcia v. Vda. de Caparas, G.R. No. 180843, April 17, 2013 
Intestate Estate of Tongco v. Vianzon, G.R. No. 27498, September 20, 1927 
Babao v. Perez, G.R. No. L-8334, December 28, 1957 
Hko Ah Pao v. Ting, G.R. No. 153476, September 27, 2006 
Santos v. Santos, G.R. No. 133895, October 2, 2001 
Sunga-Chan v. Chua, G.R. No. 143340, August 15, 2001 
Bordalba v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 112443, January 25, 2002 
Londres v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136427, December 17, 2002 
Cequena v. Bolante, G.R. No. 137944, April 6, 2000 
Goñi v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-27434, September 23, 1986 
Asturias v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-17895, September 30, 1963 
Fitzsimmons  v.  Atlantic,  Gulf  &  Pacific  Co.  of  Manila,  G.R.  No.  L-2016,  August 
23, 1949 
Icard v. Masigan, G.R. No. 47442, April 8, 1941 
 
Sec. 24. Disqualification by reason of privileged communication 
Eagleridge  Development  Corp.  v.  Cameron  Granville  3  Asset  Management, Inc., 
G.R. No. 204700 (Resolution), November 24, 2014 
Air Philippines Corp. v. Pennswell, Inc., G.R. No. 172835, December 13, 2007 
 
a. husband and wife 
Zulueta v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 107383, February 20, 1996 
Lacurom v. Jacoba, A.C. No. 5921, March 10, 2006 
United States v. Antipolo, G.R. No. L-13109, March 6, 1918 
People v. Carlos, G.R. No. 22948, March 17, 1925 
 
b. attorney and client 
Hilado v. David, G.R. No. L-961, September 21, 1949 
Regala v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 105938, 108113, September 20, 1996 
Saura, Jr. v. Agdeppa, A.C. No. 4426, 4429 (Resolution), February 17, 2000 
Sanvicente v. People, G.R. No. 132081, November 26, 2002 
 
c. person authorized to practice medicine and patient 
Gonzales v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 117740, October 30, 1998 
Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 91114, September 25, 1992 
Chan v. Chan, G.R. No. 179786, July 24, 2013 
Krohn v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 108854, June 14, 1994 
 
d. minister or priest and person making the confession 
 
e. public officer 
 
f. others 
Rule on Examination of a Child Witness, A.M. No. 004-07-SC, December 15, 2000 
Neri  v.  Senate  Committee  on  Accountability  of  Public  Officers  and 
Investigations, G.R. No. 180643, March 25, 2008 
RA  1405,  An  Act  Prohibiting  Disclosure  Of  Or  Inquiry  Into,  Deposits  With  Any 
Banking Institution And Providing Penalty Therefor 
Philippine National Bank v. Gancayco, G.R. No. L-18343, September 30, 1965 
Banco  Filipino  Savings  and  Mortgage  Bank  v.  Purisima,  G.R.  No. 56429, May 28, 
1988 
People v. Estrada, G.R. Nos. 164368-69, April 2, 2009 
RA  10365,  An  Act  Further  Strengthening  The  Anti-Money  Laundering  Law, 
Amending  For  The  Purpose  ​Republic  Act  No.  9160​,  Otherwise  Known  As  The 
“Anti-Money Laundering Act Of 2001”, As Amended 
Pentagon Steel Corp. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 174141, June 26, 2009 
 
Sec. 25. Parental and filial privilege 
Art. 215, Family Code 
Lee v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 177861, July 13, 2010 
People v. Invencion y Soriano, G.R. No. 131636, March 5, 2003 
 
3. Admissions and Confessions 
 
Sec. 26. Admissions of a Party 
Sanvicente v. People, G.R. No. 132081, November 26, 2002 
People v. Lorenzo y Corsino, G.R. No. 110107, January 26, 1995 
Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, 146738 (Resolution), April 3, 2001 
Sanvicente v. People, G.R. No. 132081, November 26, 2002 
People v. Caritativo, G.R. Nos. 145452-53, June 10, 2003 
Estrella v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-44902, April 20, 1989 
Cuison v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 88539, October 26, 1993 
People v. Licayan y Sucano, G.R. No. 144422, February 28, 2002 
People v. Zuela y Morandarte, G.R. No. 112177, January 28, 2000 
 
People v. Omictin y Singco, G.R. No. 188130, July 26, 2010 
Heirs  of  Clemeña  y  Zurbano  v.  Heirs  of  Bien,  G.R.  No.  155508,  September  11, 
2006 
 
Sec. 27. Offer of compromise not admissible 
People v. Magdadaro y Gerona, G.R. Nos. 89370-72, May 15, 1991 
 
Civil Cases 
Smith  Bell  and  Co.  (Philippines),  Inc.  v.  Court  of  Appeals,  G.R.  No.  56294,  May 
20, 1991 
Trans-Pacific  Industrial  Supplies,  Inc.  v.  Court  of  Appeals,  G.R.  No.  109172, 
August 19, 1994 
Tan v. Rodil Enterprises, G.R. No. 168071, December 18, 2006 
Servicewide Specialists, Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 117728, June 26, 1996 
El  Varadero  de  Manila  v.  Insular  Lumber  Co.,  G.R.  No.  L-21911,  September  15, 
1924 
Philippine  Airlines,  Inc.  v.  PAL  Employees  Savings  &  Loan  Association,  Inc., 
G.R. No. 201073, February 10, 2016 
 
Criminal Cases 
People v. De Joya y Cruz, G.R. No. 75028, November 8, 1991 
People v. Mejia y Villafania, G.R. Nos. 118940-41 & 119407, July 7, 1997 
San Miguel Corp. v. Kalalo, G.R. No. 185522, June 13, 2012 
People v. Manuel, G.R. No. 92503, July 8, 1991 
People v. Mangat y Palomata, G.R. No. 131618, July 6, 1999 
Bricenio v. People, G.R. No. 157804, June 20, 2006 
People v. De Guzman y Sico, G.R. No. 117217, December 2, 1996 
People v. Abadies y Claveria, G.R. Nos. 139346-50, July 11, 2002 
People v. Prades, G.R. No. 127569, July 30, 1998 
People v. Erguiza, G.R. No. 171348, November 26, 2008 
People v. Bayani, G.R. No. 120894, October 3, 1996 
 
Sec. 28. Admission by third-party/ Res inter alios acta, Part One 
People v. Raquel, G.R. No. 119005, December 2, 1996 
Tamargo v. Awingan, G.R. No. 177727, January 19, 2010 
FGU  Insurance  Corp.  v. G.P. Sarmiento Trucking Corp., G.R. No. 141910, August 
6, 2002 
Reyes  v.  Ombudsman,  G.R.  Nos.  212593-94,  213163-78,  213540-41,  213542-43, 
215880-94 & 213475-76, March 15, 2016 
Salapuddin v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 184681 (Resolution), February 25, 2013 
Santiago v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 128517, September 10, 1998 
 
Sec. 29. Admission by co-partner or agent 
Estrada v. Desierto, G.R. Nos. 146710-15, 146738 (Resolution), April 3, 2001 
Learning  Child,  Inc.  v.  Ayala  Alabang  Village  Association,  G.R.  No.  134269, 
134440, 144518, July 7, 2010 
Narra  Nickel  Mining  &  Development  Corp.  v.  Redmont  Consolidated  Mines 
Corp., G.R. No. 195580, April 21, 2014 
 
Sec. 30. Admission by conspirator 
People v. Bokingo, G.R. No. 187536, August 10, 2011 
People v. Palijon, G.R. No. 123545, October 18, 2000 
People v. Cachuela, G.R. No. 191752, June 10, 2013 
People v. Constancio y Bacungay, G.R. No. 206226, April 4, 2016 
People v. Comiling, G.R. No. 140405, March 4, 2004 
People v. Baydo y Arcamo, G.R. No. 113799, June 17, 1997 
People v. Baharan, G.R. No. 188314, January 10, 2011 
 
Sec. 31. Admission by privies 
Republic v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 152154, July 15, 2003 
 
Sec. 32. Admission by silence 
People v. Roa, G.R. Nos. 138195-96, July 10, 2003 
People v. Magdadaro y Gerona, G.R. Nos. 89370-72, May 15, 1991 
People v. Paragsa, G.R. No. L-44060, July 20, 1978 
Solas v. Power Telephone Supply Phils., Inc., G.R. No. 162332, August 28, 2008 
People v. Ranario, G.R. No. 25083, August 17, 1926 
 
Sec. 33. Confession 
People v. De los Santos, G.R. No. L-35598, May 29, 1987 
People v. Satorre, G.R. No. 133858, August 12, 2003 
People v. Cavite, G.R. No. 86784, November 8, 1991 
United States v. Corrales, G.R. No. 9230, November 10, 1914 
People v. Artellero, G.R. No. 129211, October 2, 2000 
People v. Urro, G.R. No. L-28405, April 27, 1972 
People v. Bascugin y Agquiz, G.R. No. 184704, June 30, 2009 
People v. Muit, G.R. No. 181043, October 8, 2008 
 
Ra  7438,  An  Act  Defining Certain Rights Of Person Arrested, Detained Or Under 
Custodial  Investigation  As  Well  As  The  Duties  Of The Arresting, Detaining And 
Investigating Officers, And Providing Penalties For Violations Thereof 
People v. Omilig y Mancia, G.R. No. 206296, August 12, 2015 
People v. Deniega y Macoy, G.R. No. 103499, December 29, 1995 
People v. Felixminia y Camacho, G.R. No. 125333, March 20, 2002 
People v. Jimenez, G.R. No. 82604, December 10, 1991 
People v. Chi Chan Liu, G.R. No. 189272, January 21, 2015 
Aquino v. Paiste, G.R. No. 147782, June 25, 2008 
Mesina v. People, G.R. No. 162489, June 17, 2015 
People v. Guting y Tomas, G.R. No. 205412, September 9, 2015 
People v. Sison, G.R. No. 70906, May 30, 1986 
Manuel v. N.C. Construction Supply, G.R. No. 127553, November 28, 1997 
People v. Marra y Zarate, G.R. No. 108494, September 20, 1994 
People v. Suarez, G.R. No. 111193, January 28, 1997 
People v. Buluran y Ramirez, G.R. No. 113940, February 15, 2000 
People v. Guillermo y Garcia, G.R. No. 147786, January 20, 2004 
People v. Galgarin, G.R. No. 133026, February 20, 2001 
Gutang v. People, G.R. No. 135406, July 11, 2000 
People v. Paynor, G.R. No. 116222, September 9, 1996 
People v. Gamboa, G.R. No. 91374, February 25, 1991 
People v. Carreon, G.R. No. L-2154, April 26, 1950 
People v. Omilig y Mancia, G.R. No. 206296 , August 12, 2015 
Ladiana v. People, G.R. No. 144293, December 4, 2002 
 
4. Previous Conduct as Evidence 
 
Sec. 34. Similar acts as evidence/ Res inter alios acta, Part 2 
Cruz v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 126713, July 27, 1998 
Tanzo v. Drilon, G.R. No. 106671, March 30, 2000 
People v. Acosta, G.R. No. 126351, February 18, 2000 
People v. Magpayo, G.R. Nos. 92961-64, September 1, 1993 
People v. Dadles, G.R. Nos. 118620-21, September 1, 1997 
Tanzo v. Drilon, G.R. No. 106671, March 30, 2000 
People v. Magtuloy y Montaray, G.R. No. 105671, June 30, 1993 
Malig v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 71712, April 15, 1988 
People v. Saguban, G.R. No. 96287, April 25, 1994 
 
RA 8505, Rape Victim Assistance and Protection Act of 1998 
RA 10364, Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 
Child Witness, A.M. No. 004-07-SC, December 15, 2000 
 
Sec. 35. Unaccepted offer 
Mclaughlin v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-57552, October 10, 1986 
 
5. Testimonial Knowledge 
 
Sec.  36  Testimony  generally  confined  to  personal  knowledge;  hearsay 
excluded 
Espineli v. People, G.R. No. 179535, June 9, 2014 
Gulam v. Spouses Santos, G.R. No. 151458, August 31, 2006 
Bayani v. People, G.R. No. 155619, August 14, 2007 
Lea  Mer  Industries  Inc.  v.  Malayan  Insurance  Co.  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  161745, 
September 30, 2005 
 
6. Exceptions to the Hearsay Rule 
 
Sec. 37. Dying Declaration 
People v. De Las Eras y Zafra, G.R. No. 134128, September 28, 2001 
People v. Peña, G.R. No. 133964, February 13, 2002 
People v. Norrudin, G.R. No. 129053, January 25, 2002 
 
Sec. 38. Declaration Against Interest 
Lazaro v. Agustin, G.R. No. 152364, April 15, 2010 
Parel v. Prudencio, G.R. No. 146556, April 19, 2006 
Phil. Free Press Inc. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 132864, October 24, 2005 
 
Sec. 39. Act or declaration about pedigree 
Herrera v. Alba, G.R. No. 148220, June 15, 2005 
Dela Cruz v. Gracia, G.R. No. 177728, July 31, 2009 
Tecson  v.  Commission  on  Elections,  G.R.  No.  161434,  161634,  161824,  March  3, 
2004 
 
Sec. 40. Family reputation or tradition regarding pedigree 
People v. Gallano y Jaranilla, G.R. No. 184762, February 25, 2015 
 
Sec. 41. Common reputation 
Civil Service Commission v. Belagan, G.R. No. 132164, October 19, 2004 
 
Sec. 42. Part of the res gestae 
DBP  Pool  of  Accredited  Insurance  Co.  v.  Radio  Mindanao  Network,  Inc.,  G.R. 
No. 147039, January 27, 2006 
People v. Lobrigas, G.R. No. 147649, December 17, 2002 
Capila y Rayuma v. People, G.R. No. 146161, July 17, 2006 
People v. Palanas, G.R. No. 214453, June 17, 2015 
People v. Palmones, G.R. No. 136303, July 18, 2000 
Talidano  v.  Falcon  Maritime  &  Allied  Services,  Inc.,  G.R.  No.  172031,  July  14, 
2008 
People v. Preciados, G.R. No. 122934, January 5, 2001 
 
Sec. 43. Entries in the course of business 
Jose, Jr. v. Michaelmar Phils., Inc., G.R. No. 169606, November 27, 2009 
Land  Bank  of  the  Phils.  v.  Monet's  Export  and  Manufacturing  Corp.,  G.R.  No. 
184971, April 19, 2010 
Security Bank & Trust Co. v. Gan, G.R. No. 150464, [June 27, 2006 
 
Sec. 44. Entries in Official Records 
DST  Movers  Corp. v. People's General Insurance Corp., G.R. No. 198627, January 
13, 2016 
Barcelon,  Roxas  Securities,  Inc.  v.  Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue,  G.R.  No. 
157064, August 7, 2006 
Dimaguila v. Spouses Monteiro, G.R. No. 201011, January 27, 2014 
 
Sec. 45. Commercial lists and the like 
Manila  Electric  Co.  v.  Quisumbing,  G.R.  No.  127598  (Resolution),  February  22, 
2000 
 
Sec. 46. Learned treatises 
Paje,  et  al.,  v.  Casiño,  et  al.,  G.R.  Nos.  207257-76,  207282  &  207366,  February  3, 
2015 
 
Sec. 47. Testimony or deposition at a former proceeding 
Ilao-Quianay, et al., v. Mapile, G.R. No. 154087, October 25, 2005 
Ambray, et al., v. Tsourous, et al., G.R. No. 209264, July 5, 2016 
 
7. Opinion rule 
 
Sec. 48. General Rule 
 
Sec. 49. Opinion of expert witness 
Marcos v. Heirs of Late Dr. Andres Navarro, Jr., G.R. No. 198240, July 3, 2013 
Tabao v. People, G.R. No. 187246, July 20, 2011 
 
Sec. 50. Opinion of ordinary witnesses 
Dela Llana v. Biong, G.R. No. 182356, December 4, 2013 
People v. Duranan, G.R. Nos. 134074-75, January 16, 2001 
Hernandez v. San Juan-Santos, G.R. Nos. 166470 & 169217, August 7, 2009 
Sps. Lim, et al., v. Chuatoco, et al., G.R. No. 161861, March 11, 2005 
 
8. Character evidence 
 
Sec. 51. 
People v. Lee, G.R. No. 139070, May 29, 2002 
 
Rule 131 Burden of Proof and Presumptions 
 
Sec. 1. Burden of Proof 
Supreme  Transliner,  Inc.,  et  al.,  v.  Court  of  Appeals,  et  al.,  G.R.  No.  125356, 
November 21, 2001 
People v. Kinok, et al., G.R. No. 104629, November 13, 2001 
 
Sec. 2. Conclusive presumptions 
 
Datalift  Movers,  Inc.  v.  Belgravia  Realty  &  Development  Corp., G.R. No. 144268, 
August 30, 2006 
Spouses Trinidad v. Imson, G.R. No. 197728, September 16, 2015 
Concepcion v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123450, August 31, 2005 
Philippine  National  Bank  v.  Spouses  Reblando,  G.R.  No.  194014,  September  12, 
2012 
 
Sec. 3. Disputable presumptions 
People v. Urzais y Lanurias, G.R. No. 207662, April 13, 2016 
Barcelon,  Roxas  Securities,  Inc.  v.  Commissioner  of  Internal  Revenue,  G.R.  No. 
157064, August 7, 2006 
Blue Cross Health Care, Inc. v. Olivares, G.R. No. 169737, February 12, 2008 
Royal  Cargo  Corp.  v.  DFS  Sports  Unlimited,  Inc.,  G.R. No. 158621, December 10, 
2008 
 
Sec. 4. No presumption of legitimacy or illegitimacy 
 
Rule 132 Presentation of Evidence 
 
A. Examination of Witness 
 
Sec. 1. Examination to be done in open court 
People v. Go, G.R. Nos. 130714 and 139634, 140845-46, December 27, 2002 
San Luis v. Rojas, G.R. No. 159127, March 3, 2008 
Santamaria v. Cleary, G.R. Nos. 197122 &197161, June 15, 2016 
People v. Servano, G.R. Nos. 143002-03, July 17, 2003 
 
Rule on Examination of a Child Witness, A.M. No. 004-07-SC, December 15, 2000 
 
Sec. 2. Proceedings to be recorded 
 
Sec. 3. Rights and obligations of a witness 
Lee v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 177861, July 13, 2010 
 
Sec. 4. Order in the examination of an individual witness 
 
Sec. 5. Direct examination 
Judicial Affidavit Rule 
 
Sec. 6. Cross-examination; its purpose and extent 
People v. Ortillas y Gamlanga, G.R. No. 137666, May 20, 2004 
People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001 
People v. Estibal y Calungsag, G.R. No. 208749, November 26, 2014 
 
Sec. 7. Re-direct examination; its purpose and extent 
 
Sec. 8. Re-cross-examination 
 
Sec. 9. Recalling witness 
People v. Ortillas y Gamlanga, G.R. No. 137666, May 20, 2004 
Zaldivar v. People, G.R. No. 197056 (Resolution), March 2, 2016 
People v. Leodones, G.R. No. 138735, November 22, 2000 
 
Sec. 10. Leading and misleading questions 
Dulla v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123164, February 18, 2000 
Rule on Examination of a Child Witness, A.M. No. 004-07-SC, December 15, 2000 
 
Sec. 11. Impeachment of adverse party’s witness 
Civil Service Commission v. Belagan, G.R. No. 132164, October 19, 2004 
 
Sec. 12. Party may not impeach his own witness 
Gomez v. Gomez-Samson, G.R. No. 156284, February 6, 2007 
Ng Meng Tam v. China Banking Corp., G.R. No. 214054, August 5, 2015 
 
Sec. 13. How witness impeached by evidence of inconsistent statements 
People v. Doca, G.R. No. 126781, September 13, 2000 
People v. Sambahon y Nueva, G.R. No. 182789, August 3, 2010 
People v. Bajada y Bautista, G.R. No. 180507, November 20, 2008 
People v. Castillano, G.R. No. 139412, April 2, 2003 
 
Sec. 14. Evidence of good character of witness 
 
Sec. 15. Exclusion and separation of witnesses 
People v. Sandal, G.R. Nos. 32394, 32395, September 5, 1930 
Design  Sources  International,  Inc.  v.  Eristingcol,  G.R.  No.  193966,  February  19, 
2014 
 
Sec. 16. When witness may refer to memorandum 
Borromeo v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-31342, L-31740, April 7, 1976 
Canque v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 96202, April 13, 1999 
People v. Plasencia y Desamparado, G.R. No. 90198, November 7, 1995 
 
Sec.  17.  When  part  of  transaction,  writing  or  record  given  in  evidence,  the 
remainder admissible 
People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001 
People v. Kempis, G.R. No. 97169, May 10, 1993 
Chan v. Chan, G.R. No. 179786, July 24, 2013 
 
Sec. 18. Right to inspect writing shown to witness 
 
B. Authentication and Proof of Documents 
Sec. 19. Classes of documents 
Patula v. People, G.R. No. 164457, April 11, 2012 
Salas v. Sta. Mesa Market Corp., G.R. No. 157766, July 12, 2007 
Republic v. Spouses Gimenez, G.R. No. 174673, January 11, 2016 
Iwasawa v. Gangan, G.R. No. 204169, September 11, 2013 
Heirs  of  Ochoa  v.  G  &  S  Transport  Corp.,  G.R.  No.  170071,  ​170125  (Resolution), 
July 16, 2012 
 
Sec. 20. Proof of private document 
Patula v. People, G.R. No. 164457, April 11, 2012 
Malayan  Insurance  Co.,  Inc.  v.  Philippine  Nails  &  Wires  Corp.,  G.R.  No. 138084, 
April 10, 2002 
Dycoco v. Orina, G.R. No. 184843, July 30, 2010 
 
Sec. 21. When evidence by authenticity of private document not necessary 
Aldemita v. Silva, G.R. No. 166403 
 
Sec. 22. How genuineness of handwriting proved 
Progressive  Trade  &  Service  Enterprises  v.  Antonio,  G.R.  No. 179502, September 
18, 2009 
Raz v. Intermediate Appellate Court, G.R. No. 73010, April 27, 1990 
 
Sec. 23. Public documents as evidence 
Reyes v. Sotero, G.R. No. 167405, February 16, 2006 
Republic v. Galeno, G.R. No. 215009, January 23, 2017 
Teoco  v.  Metropolitan  Bank  and  Trust  Company,  G.R.  No. 162333, December 23, 
2008 
 
Sec. 24. Proof of official record 
Nedlloyd  Lijnen  B.V.  Rotterdam v. Glow Laks Enterprises, Ltd., G.R. No. 156330, 
November 19, 2014 
Manufacturers  Hanover  Trust  Co.  v.  Guerrero,  G.R.  No.  136804,  February  19, 
2003 
Heirs of Spouses Arcilla v. Teodoro, G.R. No. 162886, [August 11, 2008 
 
Sec. 25. What attestation of copy must state 
Willamette Iron & Steel Works v. Muzzal, G.R. No. 42538, May 21, 1935 
Nedlloyd  Lijnen  B.V.  Rotterdam v. Glow Laks Enterprises, Ltd., G.R. No. 156330, 
November 19, 2014 
Sobejana-Condon v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 198742, August 10, 2012 
 
Sec. 26. Irremovability of public record 
 
Sec. 27. Public record of a private document 
Salas v. Sta. Mesa Market Corp., G.R. No. 157766, July 12, 2007 
 
Sec. 28. Proof of lack of record 
Sevilla v. Cardenas, G.R. No. 167684, July 31, 2006 
Abbas v. Abbas, G.R. No. 183896, January 30, 2013 
Kho v. Republic, G.R. No. 187462, June 1, 2016 
Vitangcol v. People, G.R. No. 207406, January 13, 2016 
 
Sec. 29. How judicial record impeached 
Yucuanseh  Drug  Co.,  Inc.,  et  al.,  v. National Labor Union, G.R. No. L-9900, April 
30, 1957 
 
Sec. 30. Proof of notarial documents 
Destreza v. Riñoza-Plazo, G.R. No. 176863, October 30, 2009 
Gutierrez v. Mendoza-Plaza, G.R. No. 185477, December 4, 2009 
 
Sec. 31. Alterations in document, how to explain 
Cabotaje v. Pudunan, G.R. No. 134712, August 13, 2004 
Republic v. Fernandez, G.R. No. 175493, March 25, 2015 
Spouses Cirelos v. Spouses Hernandez, G.R. No. 146523 
 
Sec. 32. Seal 
 
Sec. 33. Documentary evidence in an unofficial language 
People v. Tomaquin, G.R. No. 133188, July 23, 2004 
Pisueña v. Unating, G.R. No. 132803, August 31, 1999 
People v. Siojo, G.R. No. 41746, March 27, 1935 
 
C. Offer and Objection 
 
Sec. 34. Offer of Evidence 
Ala-Martin v. Sultan, G.R. No. 117512, October 2, 2001 
Parel v. Prudencio, G.R. No. 146556, April 19, 2006 
Westmont  Investment  Corporation  v.  Francia,  Jr.,  G.R.  No.  194128,  December  7, 
2011 
Republic v. Go, G.R. No. 168288, January 25, 2017 
 
Sec. 35. When to make offer 
People v. Vargas, G.R. No. 122765, October 13, 2003 
People v. Dequito, G.R. No. 132544, May 12, 2000 
Rodson Philippines, Inc., v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141857, June 9, 2004 
 
 
 
Sec. 36. Objection 
People v. Mendoza, G.R. No. 180501, December 24, 2008 
Chan v. Chan, G.R. No. 179786, July 24, 2013 
People v. Boras, G.R. No. 127495, December 22, 2000 
 
Sec. 37. When repetition of objection unnecessary 
 
Sec. 38. Ruling 
Report  on  the  Judicial  Audit  Conducted  in RTC Branches 29, 56 & 57, Libmanan, 
Camarines Sur, A.M. No. 98-1-11-RTC, October 7, 1999 
 
Sec. 39. Striking out answer 
Gochan v. Gochan, G.R. No. 143089, February 27, 2003 
 
Sec. 40. Tender of excluded evidence 
Yu v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 154115, November 29, 2005 
Fortune Tobacco Corporation v. CIR, G.R. No. 192024, July 1, 2015 
Catacutan v. People, G.R. No. 175991, August 31, 2011 
 
Rule 133 Weight and Sufficiency of Evidence 
 
Sec. 1. Preponderance of evidence 
Ogawa v. Menigishi, G.R. No. 193089, July 9, 2012 
Spouses Sevilla v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150284, November 22, 2010 
Ong v. Yap, G.R. No. 146797, February 18, 2005 
 
Sec. 2. Proof beyond reasonable doubt 
Amanquiton v. People, G.R. No. 186080, August 14, 2009 
Mahawan v. People, G.R. No. 176609, December 18, 2008 
San Mateo v. People, G.R. No. 200090, March 6, 2013 
 
Sec. 3. Extrajudicial confession, not sufficient ground for conviction 
People v. Licayan y Sucano, G.R. No. 144422, February 28, 2002 
 
Sec. 4. Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient 
People v. Abdulah, G.R. No. 182518, January 20, 2009 
Espineli v. People, G.R. No. 179535, June 9, 2014 
 
Sec. 5. Substantial evidence 
Office of the Ombudsman v. Zaldarriaga, G.R. No. 175349, June 22, 2010 
 
Sec. 6. Power of the court to stop further evidence 
Go v. Looyuko, G.R. No. 147923, 147962, 154035, October 26, 2007 
 
Sec. 7. Evidence on motion 
Parel v. Prudencio, G.R. No. 146556, April 19, 2006 
 
Rule on DNA Evidence 
People v. Umanito, G.R. No. 172607, October 26, 2007 
Herrera v. Alba, G.R. No. 148220, June 15, 2005 
Estate of Rogelio G. Ong v. Diaz, G.R. No. 171713, December 17, 2007 
Lejano v. People, G.R. No. 176389, December 14, 2010