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TOWN PLANNING
TOWN PLANNING

TOWN PLANNING

TOWN PLANNING VS ARCHITECTURE

Town planning expresses the life of an era

The architecture reveals its sprit.

GENERAL

Arrangements of various components or units of a town in such a way that the town as such attains the significance of a living organism.

Demands active imagination and sharp common sense of the understanding of various needs of the society occupying or likely to occupy the town.

A science as well as an art too

science – consists in collecting, correlating and analysing the facts about a town.

Art – arranging the components of a town in such a way that the final results is in the form of a beautiful, convenient, economical and efficient unit.

Science and art cannot sit apart when a new town is being designed or when an excising town is being remodelled.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

STANDARD – fixed or an established rule

MORM – authoritative standard

REGULATION – an order prescribed

BYE – LAW – the law of a local authority

LAW – the rules of state or community

GENERAL

IN URBAN AREA – Municipal corporation

IN RURAL AREA – Gram Panchayat or Nagar Panchayat

acts as local body to control building construction activity by defining building bye laws.

FLOOR SPACE INDEX
FLOOR SPACE INDEX

FLOOR SPACE INDEX

The ratio of the total floor area inclusive of walls of all the floors to the area of the land on which the building stands is known as the floor space index or F.S.I

In some cities it is also known as the floor area ratio or F.A.R.

The value of F.S.I and F.A.R is determined by the local authority and it may be different for different areas and for different buildings in town.

EVOLUTION OF PLANNING
EVOLUTION OF PLANNING

EVOLUTION OF PLANNING

The works of an archaeologist show how the ancient cities were planned.

The primitive men used to stay in tribes and they formed groups for mutual protection for carrying out business activities and for maintaining a social life.

The location of towns was also selected by giving some consideration such as ease of defense, climatic conditions, business facilities, etc.

was also selected by giving some consideration such as ease of defense, climatic conditions, business facilities,
was also selected by giving some consideration such as ease of defense, climatic conditions, business facilities,
was also selected by giving some consideration such as ease of defense, climatic conditions, business facilities,
■ As such, cities are as old as civilization as seen from the verbal connection
■ As such, cities are as old as civilization as seen from the verbal connection between the
words 'city' and 'civilization'.
■ These two words have emerged together with city furnishing the structural framework
through which civilization functions. By `civilization', we basically mean an urban civilization.
■ There were obviously human groups before that period. But they were initially nomadic, then
agricultural and finally evolved into an urban society.
(civilization - the process by which a society or place reaches an advanced stage of social
development and organization)

The towns of the modern time have to be designed for problems which did not exist in the ancient times.

Such conditions may be enumerated as air pollution, water pollution, telephones, motors, electricity, etc.

The study of ancient towns, however, helps considerably in solving the complicated problems of town planning even of today.

study of ancient towns, however, helps considerably in solving the complicated problems of town planning even

The two illustrations of ancient towns are worth mentioning.

Kahun in Egypt was conceived and built for a specific purpose before 2500 B.C.

It was designed to accommodate workmen and officials engaged in the construction of the pyramid at Illahun.

B.C. ■ It was designed to accommodate workmen and officials engaged in the construction of the
B.C. ■ It was designed to accommodate workmen and officials engaged in the construction of the

The other notable example is from ancient India in the valley of the river Indus in Sind, now in Pakistan and located 480 km north-west of Karachi.

is from ancient India in the valley of the river Indus in Sind, now in Pakistan
is from ancient India in the valley of the river Indus in Sind, now in Pakistan

In the year 1922, the ruins of the city of Mohanjo-Daro were discovered by a British archaeologist Sir John Marshall when he observed the villagers digging up heads of pottery fragments from their fields.

The name Mohanjo-Daro means the mound of the dead and it is regarded as the cradle on Buddhism of the subcontinent.

It is understood that it was the most planned and developed city with an important trading center in the Indus Valley around 2600 B.C.

Its population is estimated as 40000 to 60000 living off an agricultural economy. The arrangements for houses, water supply and drainage systems in this ancient town were supposed to be of very high standard.

The rooms were large and well ventilated and baths were attached to the rooms.

As the city stands today, it is divided into two mounds, one measuring 1183 m x 546 m and the other measuring 364 m x 273 m.

The city also contained a huge public bath which in excellence and solidity of construction cannot be improved upon by any modern builder.

It provided a social center exhibiting the precision, craftsmanship and imagination of the ancient builder.

There is nothing on record to show the demise of this outstanding and unparalleled ancient city. There are indications to show that it was gradually abandoned possibly because of a changing climate or as per another prevalent theory, the people of town fled to escape the hordes of Aryan nomads who launched an invasion of the subcontinent from central Asia in about 1700.

OBJECTS OF TOWN PLANNING
OBJECTS OF TOWN PLANNING

OBJECTS OF TOWN PLANNING

The four essential objects or ideals of any town planning scheme are:

Object of beauty

Object of convenience

Object of environment

Object of health.

Object of beauty:

The object of beauty is achieved by taking the most possible advantages of the natural conditions surrounding the town and also by giving architectural finishes to the various components of the town.

It also includes the preservation of trees, natural greenery, architectural control on public as well as semi-public buildings, ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques, buildings of cultural and historical significance, etc.

ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques, buildings of cultural and historical significance, etc .
ancient architectural buildings, temples, churches, mosques, buildings of cultural and historical significance, etc .

Object of convenience:

The object of convenience is understood in the form of various economic, social and recreational amenities to be given to the public.

These amenities include cheap power and electricity, proper sites for industrial units, transport facilities, adequate water supply, easy disposal of sewage and industrial wastes, facilities to commercial units, etc.

The recreational amenities include open spaces, parks, town halls, playgrounds, cinema houses, community centers, stadiums, etc.

amenities include open spaces, parks, town halls, playgrounds, cinema houses, community centers, stadiums, etc.
amenities include open spaces, parks, town halls, playgrounds, cinema houses, community centers, stadiums, etc.

Object of environment:

 

The object of environment is important in the sense that environment should be molded in such a way that man can go about his normal activities with the least amount of strain.

The complex problems of the modern society such as tiresome travel to work, long hours of work, limited time spent within the community, etc. have gradually led towards serious mal- adjustments between the human being and the type of life he had to live.

These mal-adjustments have tended to destroy the vitality of urban living and the town planning is mainly concerned with bringing about a better relation between man and his environment.

living and the town planning is mainly concerned with bringing about a better relation between man
living and the town planning is mainly concerned with bringing about a better relation between man
living and the town planning is mainly concerned with bringing about a better relation between man

Object of health:

The object of health is accommodated in a town planning scheme by making right use of

land for right purpose, by providing parks and playgrounds for the public, by maintaining

the pollution of various forms to the lowest possible degree, etc.

It is achieved by dividing the land into zones such as residential, commercial, etc. and by avoiding the encroachment of one zone upon the smooth and orderly development of the town in future.

It is, however, necessary for the town planner to maintain a proper balance between the four objects mentioned above and not to give emphasis on any one of them at a disadvantage of the others.

between the four objects mentioned above and not to give emphasis on any one of them
between the four objects mentioned above and not to give emphasis on any one of them
between the four objects mentioned above and not to give emphasis on any one of them
TOWN PLANNING SURVEY
TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

The surveys are carried out by looking for facts already recorded by other investigators and authorities and by original field works on the spot.

The latter may be necessary because an item has never been studied before or because facts and figures need to be brought up-to-date.

The surveys establish ultimately the present state of the town and indicate the measures for its improvements.

■ The surveys establish ultimately the present state of the town and indicate the measures for
■ The surveys establish ultimately the present state of the town and indicate the measures for

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

It may be mentioned that the surveys do not necessarily mean the work carried out usually by a land surveyor, namely, measurement of distances, levels and topography. The chief subjects of surveys for the town planning are as follows:

The people, their interests and occupations and how they follow them;

The land and buildings and how they serve their interests.

The data collected in surveys are properly analyzed in relation to the area under consideration and they are recorded on maps, charts, schedules and sometimes an models.

The term civil survey is sometimes used to refer the planning surveys carried out for re- planning of an existing town.

The term civil survey is sometimes used to refer the planning surveys carried out for re-
The term civil survey is sometimes used to refer the planning surveys carried out for re-

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

The pioneering work with respect to the civic survey was carried out by Patrick Geddes (1854-1932). He carried out the civic survey of Edinburgh and prepared reports on Indian towns and villages.

It is said that statistics is an invaluable tool in the hands of a town planner. It is defined as the collection, tabulation and presentation of quantitative data.

The town planner, of course, is not expected to be an expert in statistics. But at the same time, he must have an elementary knowledge of statistics so that he is able to find out when the data will be useful, their scope and limitations.

The town planner, as such, is very much concerned with prediction i.e., obtaining the desired results or preventing the undesirable ones and the data supplied by statistics help him in a great way to achieve the main aim of town planning.

the undesirable ones and the data supplied by statistics help him in a great way to

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

It must be remembered that a planning survey does not start just of its own accord. It has to be organized with meticulous care from beginning to end and various processes concerned with such a survey are to be suitably collected, processed, arranged and interpreted without bias and with integrity, honestly and objectively.

Thus, the essential ingredient of a purposeful planning survey is to arrange the facts of investigation in the best possible scientific manner.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

NECESSITY OF SURVEY

The two main advantages of a fully documented and vividly illustrated survey are as follows:

The survey draws attention to the inter relation between various complicated activities of a town life.

The survey stresses the local requirements and appropriate treatment to be given socially, conveniently and artistically. It works as diagnosis before treatment of the disease.

Thus, the role played by survey in the science of town planning is as follows:

To evaluate the effects of development;

To present detailed reasoned reports;

To provide the necessary understanding before decisions for development are made; and

To study the situation objectively and factually.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

COLLECTION OF DATA

Following four surveys are carried out to collect data and other relevant information, required in the process of town planning:

Functional survey

Social survey

Territorial survey

Vital survey.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(1) Functional survey:

The functional aspects of a town life are studied under this survey. The items which are to be included consist of means of communication, conditions of industries and commerce, implementation of the plan and financial aspects of the scheme. The type of information collected in the functional survey can be enlisted as follows:

Roads including history of roads, traffic survey, details of width of roads and tree planting;

Railways with positions of level-crossings, passenger stations and goods sheds;

Airports and seaports;

Waterways and canals;

routes of services by bus, train, ferry and suburban railway;

Facilities provided for access to the town;

Local industries, their classification and location, availability of raw materials and type of labor employed;

Mines and their location;

Conditions of commercial activity; and

Probable cost of planning scheme, sources of raising funds, preparing schedule of taxes and chalking out a line of implementation of the scheme

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(2) Social survey:

The social aspects of a town life are studied under this survey. The items which are to be included consist of community structure, history, architecture, health conditions, housing and public services.

The type of information collected in the social survey can be enlisted:

Ancient ruins;

Architectural character of the locality including local usages;

History of growth from the study of old maps;

Conditions favorable for preservation of wild life and spots of natural beauty;

Birth rates, death rates and charts of diseases;

Residential areas including historical studies, types of buildings, slums and suburban development;

Historical buildings and public buildings, their location and classification;

Parks and playgrounds, their size and number in relation to the residential areas; and

Public services comprising of water supply, sewerage, drainage, electricity, telephone, street lighting, cemeteries and fire protection.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(3) Territorial survey:

The physical aspects of a territory are studied under this survey. The items which are to be included consist of physical features, agricultural, forests, climatic conditions and types of soil.

The type of information collected in the territorial survey can be enlisted as follows:

Geology showing arrangements of underlying rocks and method responsible for formation of topography;

Contours of the land surface showing both the actual heights and variations of surface;

rivers, oceans, streams and lakes;

Climatic conditions including temperature range, rainfall and direction and intensity of winds;

Types of soil including areas of first class agricultural soil;

Forests and other natural vegetation; and

Areas which are low-lying and are likely to submerge.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(4) Vital survey:

The population aspects of the town under consideration are studied under this survey. The items which are to be included consist of actual population, future population, growth of town, density of population and occupations of people.

The type of information collected in the vital survey can be enlisted as follows:

History of the past growth of population;

Characteristics of the present population;

Factors which may influence the future rate of growth of the town such as migration, decentralization, development of new local industries, etc.;

Density of population.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

TYPES OF SURVEYS

The various surveys conducted for town planning schemes can broadly be divided into the following four types:

Preliminary survey

Regional survey

National survey

Civic survey.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(1) Preliminary survey:

The preliminary survey is in the form of restricted inquiries made for the town planning schemes. The data collected in the preliminary survey are of a fairly general nature and it is the usual practice to conduct the preliminary survey prior to national, regional or civic surveys.

The main object of the preliminary survey is to decide approximately the boundary of area to be planned and to find out the problems requiring further attention. The preliminary survey ascertains the features to be emphasized in planning so as to promote economic stability. The topics which are usually covered in the preliminary survey are as follows:

Electric power: It includes the study of the sources and distribution of power and location of power supply units.

General amenities: It includes the study of civic art, parks, playgrounds, etc.

Highways: The conditions of the existing roads with respect to their construction and maintenance problems are studied.

Housing: It includes the study of the existing housing conditions with respect to lighting, ventilation, sanitation, conveniences and amenities.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

Industries: The industrial development including the arrangement and classification of various industries, location and distribution of the manufacturing units, etc. are considered.

Land use: The density and character of structures, divisions and uses of land, etc. are studied.

Railways: The existing routes and volume of goods traffic together with the future requirements with the growth of town are considered.

Water supply and sewerage: The existing facilities as well as the future requirements are studied.

Waterways: It includes the study of the highest water level, yearly and seasonal variations, navigation possibilities, etc.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(2) National survey:

A study of national resources and potentialities gives a broad vision for the requirements of town planning schemes. The policies and procedures adopted by nation as a whole affect considerably the proposals of town planning schemes. For instance, if it is decided on a national level that industries should be decentralized, it should be seen while re-planning big cities that there are no additional industries developing in the town. The topics which are usually covered in the national survey are as follows:

Administration: The aspects of land ownership and general administration of the country are considered.

Agriculture: It includes the study of type of agricultural soil, the crop patterns and number of crops per year.

Communication facilities: The existing modes of transport such as roads, railways, waterways and air routes are studied.

Economic development: The overall situation of economic conditions of the nation including availability of raw materials and labour force, types and location of industries, etc. are considered.

Geography: The geological conditions, the extent of sea coast, etc. are considered.

Natural resources: The availability of natural resources in the form of oil, minerals, gas, water, etc. is studied.

Urban settlement: It includes the study of distribution and density of population.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(3) Regional survey:

The regional survey is conducted on a slightly bigger scale as compared to the civic survey. The purpose of regional survey and civic survey is the same, namely, to investigate the economical, physical and social conditions of the area to be covered up under the town planning schemes.

The investigations made under the regional survey are of general nature. It is quite evident that the town to be planned should fit into the conditions prevailing in the region. The topics to be covered in the regional survey are more or less the same as those of the civic survey.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(4) Civic survey:

The civic or town survey is conducted with special reference to the conditions prevailing in and around the town to be planned. The topics Which are usually covered in the civic survey are as follows:

Communication amenities: The means of communication such as roads, railways, airways and waterways are studied together with their inter-relationship. A study of the characteristics of traffic and its density is also made. The study of amount of money and time spent in journey to work is utilized for segregation of traffic, resort to decentralization and recentralization, provision of other means of communication, etc.

Contour: The study of contours of the area helps in deciding the gradients of roads, location of waterworks and sewage plants, etc. The information regarding contours of the area is also utilized in the location of public buildings which require commanding sites and of airports which require a leveled ground.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

Existing land uses and land values: It includes the study of agricultural lands, residential and commercial areas, parks, open spaces, location of airports, etc. The study of land values is useful to get an idea of the compensation required to be paid to private owners for the acquisition of land for public purposes. It also helps in deciding the amount of betterment charges and in getting an overall picture of the financial implications or liabilities in planning a town.

Historical background: It includes the study of general historical development of town, present policy of administration, physical and social aspects of the area, etc.

Housing: The characteristics of houses, distribution and relation of people to houses, etc. are studied.

Industries: The character, distribution, types and special requirements of the local industries are studied.

Population: It includes the study of the present and future population to be served by the town planning scheme, family structure, density of population, migration tendencies, etc.

Preservation of natural features: The buildings, open spaces and spots of natural beauty, which are to be preserved, are considered.

Public buildings: It includes the study of buildings to be used by the common people.

Public health: A study is made of the general health of inhabitants, death rate, causes of special diseases, etc.

Public services: A study of the public services such as water supply, sewerage, telephone, gas, electricity, etc. is made.

Topography: The topography of the area is studied with reference to climatic conditions, locations of rivers and streams, etc.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

USES OF SURVEYS

The data and information collected during the survey work are useful in the following respects:

To give the town planner some basis for his thinking and working.

To provide the relevant information regarding the community to be served by the town planning scheme.

To suggest the means for developing public opinion and appreciation in favor of the town planning scheme.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

METHODS ADOPTED TO COLLECT DATA

The data and information of various surveys are collected partly by the field work and partly by analyzing the reports prepared by other bodies.

For this purpose, the youth organizations, social workers, service organizations and similar other voluntary bodies can be contacted with advantage to collect the statistical data of the surveys.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(1) Collect the data through questionnaire form: A questionnaire form may be prepared and information may be collected by house to house investigation. Alternatively, the questionnaire may be inserted in a local newspaper or journal of any organization or it may be sent out to interested parties and returned by post.

The survey is speedier and cheap and it is possible to have an extensive coverage at a low total cost. The questions should be simple and self-explanatory and as far as possible, ambiguity should be avoided.

The element of non-response should be reduced to a minimum by taking suitable measures. For instance, a forwarding letter indicating the purpose of survey accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope will encourage the respondent to reply immediately. The questionnaire should be standardized and it should be short, presented in a pleasing manner and avoid the duplication of questions. If there is too much non-response, second, third and fourth copies of the questionnaire can be despatched in the form of reminders.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(2) Collect the data through interviews: The interviews may be arranged with individuals or organizations having special knowledge in specific fields. The interviews will vary substantially according to the type of person or organization being interviewed. The most frequent form of conducting an interview is by personal contact. But in advanced countries, it can be conducted over telephones. The personal contact enables the purpose of the survey to be explained fully and questions can be framed to suit the knowledge of the person being interviewed. However, the interviews are costly because of time and travelling expenses involved in the process.

(3) Collect the data through specialists: The specialists may be employed in some cases to supply the information on topics relating to their work.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

(4) Collect the data through various records: The records and reports maintained by the government offices, police department, municipal offices, revenue department, etc. can be studied and analyzed.

(5) Collect the data through town planner: The town planner himself carries out surveys and collects the necessary information on spot examination with the help of his staff. The observation can be carried out for many subjects such as physical potential of land for building purposes, generation of traffic, etc. The observation and recording of data in a field note-book are carefully carried out by the town planner. It is not merely a casual inspection, but the objects are viewed critically and accurately and all the details are fully recorded without leaving any aspect to memory.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

 

DRAWINGS

The data and information collected in survey work are assembled and illustrated on maps, drawings, charts and diagrams. The preparation of drawings helps in the following two ways:

 

The task of the town planner of designing the future town becomes easier.

The final proposals of the town planner are to be accepted by people in

general and by the authorities in particular. The representation of such proposals on drawings assists in easy understanding of the ideas of the town planner.

The maps and drawings may be prepared in convenient sizes and standard scales, colors and symbols may be framed to have uniformity in the work. The number and type of drawings to be prepared will depend upon the nature of work and data collected. In general, the following drawings are prepared:

Contour map showing contours at suitable vertical intervals of say 2 m to 3 m.

Land use map showing the existing uses of land and broad features of the town such as parks, built-up areas, open spaces, etc.

Net population density map showing density of population per hectare.

Program map of town showing development in first five years and also subsequent developments.

Town map showing proposals of different zones.

TOWN PLANNING SURVEY

REPORT

The drawings are accompanied by a detailed report on the proposed town planning scheme and if necessary, the models of some specific proposals included in the scheme are prepared to express the ideas of the town planner. The report contains the arguments in favour of the proposed scheme and it mentions the advantages and results of the proposed scheme.

The contents of the report prove useful to the authorities to give their approval and also to develop public opinion in favour of the proposed scheme. The implementation of the scheme starts after the report is accepted by the concerned authorities.

RESIDENTIAL ZONE
RESIDENTIAL ZONE

RESIDENTIAL ZONE

RESIDENTIAL ZONE I

The main zone of the city covering the largest area.

It includes residential, commercial, and mixed land use.

The buildings in this zone can range from single dwelling units per plot to high rise buildings.

RESIDENTIAL ZONE II

Permits land uses similar to residential zone 1 , but at a lower density

RESIDENTIAL ZONE III

Permits only detached dwelling units having minimum area of 1000 m 2