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CHAPTER THREE

Unbound Pavement Materials

1
Unbound Pavement
Materials
• The choice of pavement material is largely
depends on the type and cost of natural
materials locally available.
• A thorough assessment of the local
resources in road making materials is
essential to select the most economical
pavement.

2
Uses of unbound pavement
materials
• Base course

• Sub base course

• Wearing course (For gravel roads)

• Selected fill (Capping layer)

3
Uses of unbound pavement
materials

4
Aggregate Processing

• Excavation
• Transportation
• Crushing
• Sizing

5
Excavation
* Natural sands and gravels
- Underwater sources
+ Rivers & lakes
+ Barge-mounted dredges, draglines,
scoop, conveyors, or pumps
+ Relatively clean
- Land sources
+ Gravel or sand pits
+ Bucket loader

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Excavation

7
Excavation

* Crushed stone and rock


- Rock depths < 50 ft., overburden washed
out during processing

- Rock depths > 50 ft., remove overburden


+ Soil stripped with bulldozers
and scrapers

- Blasting required
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Excavation

NCAT 9
Crushing

NCAT 10
Crushing
River Gravel Partially Crushed
River Gravel

NCAT 11
Transportation

NCAT 12
Transportation

NCAT 13
Transportation

14
Sizing

15
Stockpiling
* Prevent segregation and contamination
* Good stockpiling = uniform gradations
- Short drop distances
- Minimize moving
- Don't use "single cone" method
- Separate stockpiles

16
Stockpiling

17
Aggregate Properties

Toughness
Soundness
Gradation
Deleterious Materials

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Tests on Aggregates
• Gradation tests

• Atterberg limit tests(SL, LL, PL, PI)

• Compaction tests

• CBR test

• Losangeles Abrasion

• Aggregate crushing value

• Flakiness index test

• Aggregate impact test

• Soundness Test

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Definitions
* Coarse Aggregate
- Retained on 4.75 mm (No. 4) ASTM D692
- Retained on 2.38 mm (No. 8) Asphalt Institute
- Retained on 2.00 mm (No. 10) HMA Book

* Fine Aggregate.
- Passing 4.75 mm (No. 4) ASTM D1073
- Passing 2.38 mm (No. 8) Asphalt Institute

* Mineral Filler
- At least 70% Pass. 0.075 mm ASTM D242

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Toughness
* Los Angeles Abrasion (AASHTO T96, ASTM C131):
Resistance of coarse agg to abrasion and
mechanical degradation during handling,
construction and use

* Aggregate at standard gradation subjected to


damage by rolling with prescribed number of steel
balls in large drum for a given number of rotations

* Result expressed as % changes in original weight

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LA Abrasion Test

- Approx. 10% loss for extremely hard igneous rocks


- Approx. 60% loss for soft limestones and sandstones
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Soundness
* Estimates resistance to weathering .

* Simulates freeze/thaw action by successively wetting


and drying aggregate in sodium sulfate or magnesium
sulfate solution
+ One immersion and drying is considered one
cycle

* Result is total percent loss over various sieve intervals


for a prescribed number of cycles
+ Max. loss values typically range from
10 to 20%per 5 cycles
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Soundness

24
Soundness

Before After

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Gradations

• Aggregate Gradation
– The distribution of particle sizes expressed as
a percent of total weight.
– Determined by sieve analysis

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Steps in Gradation Analysis

• Part 1 - Washed sieve analysis


– Dry aggregate and determine mass
– Wash and decant water through 0.075
mm sieve until water is clear
– Dry aggregate to a constant mass

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Washed Sieve

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Steps in Gradation Analysis

Part 2 - Mechanical sieve analysis


– Place dry aggregate in standard stack of
sieves
– Place sieve stack in mechanical shaker
– Determine mass of aggregate retained on
each sieve

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Mechanical Sieve

Individual Sieve Stack of Sieves


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Mechanical Sieve

Stack in
Mechanical
Shaker

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Gradations - Computation
Sieve Mass Cumulative
Retained Mass Retained % Retained % Passing

9.5 0.0
4.75 6.5
2.36 127.4
1.18 103.4
0.60 72.8
0.30 64.2
0.15 60.0
0.075 83.0
Pan 22.4
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Gradations - Computing

Cum. Wt Retained
% Retained = * 100
Original Dry Wt.

% Passing = [ 1 - Cum. Wt Retained


Original Dry Wt.
] * 100

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Gradations - Computation
Sieve Mass Cumulative
Retained Mass Retained % Retained % Passing

9.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0


4.75 6.5 6.5 1.2 98.9
2.36 127.4 133.9 24.8 75.2
1.18 103.4 237.3 44.0 56.0
0.60 72.8 310.1 57.5 42.6
0.30 64.2 374.3 69.4 30.6
0.15 60.0 434.3 80.5 19.5
0.075 83.0 517.3 95.8 4.2
Pan 22.4 539.7 100.0 0.0
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Questions - ?

35
THIS IS THE END!!!

THANK YOU FOR YOUR


TOLERANCE

NCAT 36

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