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ECE 146

Transmission Lines and Antenna Systems

7 – Element Yagi-Uda Antenna

SUBMITTED BY:

CARRASCA, GERALD PHILLIP C.

BENZON, JASMIN LEAH

JARA, DAVE

SUBMITTED TO:

ENGR. FAYE SIMON, ECE


INSTRUCTOR

JULY 17, 2018


Engr. Faye Simon, ECE
Instructor I

Mariano Marcos State University


College Of Engineering
Department of Electronics Engineering
Batac City, Ilocos Norte

To Engr. Faye Simon:

We are submitting our report entitled “7-Element Yagi Antenna” and our antenna
design as a partial fulfillment of the ECE 146 course requirement.

The main purpose of this report is to apply our knowledge of antennas specifically
the Yagi-Uda array to create a Yagi antenna wherein the dipole will serve as its
driven element.

In this regard, we would like to extend our gratitude for giving us this project which
equipped us in designing and making an antenna.

We hope that this report will meet your approval.

Respectfully yours,

ECE 146

Carrasca, Gerald Phillip C.


Benzon, Jasmin Leah
Jara, Dave
Theories and Principles
A Yagi array, commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna, is a directional
antenna consisting of a driven element (typically a dipole or folded dipole) and
additional parasitic elements (usually a so-called directors and one or more
reflector). In this antenna assigned to the group, it can be seen that there are five
directors, one feed element which is the folded dipole and also a reflector which is
comprises the 7-element Yagi antenna.

Yagi antennas are directional along the axis perpendicular to the dipole in the
plane of the elements, from the reflector toward the driven element and the
director(s). Typical spacing’s between elements vary from about 1/10 to 1/4 of a
wavelength, depending on the specific design. The lengths of the directors are
smaller than that of the driven element, which is smaller than that of the reflector(s)
according to an elaborate design procedure. These elements are usually parallel in
one plane, supported on a single crossbar known as a boom.

The bandwidth of a Yagi antenna refers to the frequency range over which its
directional gain and impedance match are preserved to within a stated criterion. The
Yagi array in its basic form is very narrowband, with its performance already
compromised at frequencies just a few percent above or below its design frequency.
However using larger diameter conductors, among other techniques, the bandwidth
can be substantially extended.

The driven element of a Yagi is the equivalent of a center-fed, half-wave


dipole antenna. Parallel to the driven element, and approximately 0.2 to 0.5
wavelength on either side of it, are straight rods or wires called reflectors and
directors. A reflector is placed behind the driven element and is slightly longer than
1/2 wavelength; a director is placed in front of the driven element and is slightly
shorter than 1/2 wavelength. A typical Yagi has one reflector and one or more
directors. The antenna propagates electromagnetic field energy in the direction
running from the driven element toward the director(s), and is most sensitive to
incoming electromagnetic field energy in this same direction.
The Yagi antenna not only has a unidirectional radiation and response pattern,
but it concentrates the radiation and response. The more directors a Yagi has, the
greater the so-called forward gain. As more directors are added to a Yagi, it
becomes longer. Some Yagi antennas have as many as 10 or even 12 directors in
addition to the driven element and one reflector. Long Yagi’s are rarely used below
50 MHz, because at these frequencies the structure becomes physically unwieldy.

Figure 1: Basic Elements of a Yagi Antenna

The Yagi antenna consists of a single 'feed' or 'driven' element, typically a


dipole or a folded dipole antenna. This is the only member of the above structure
that is actually excited (a source voltage or current applied). The rest of the elements
are parasitic - they reflect or help to transmit the energy in a particular direction.
The length of the feed element is given in Figure 1 as F. The feed antenna is almost
always the second from the end, as shown in Figure 1. This feed antenna is often
altered in size to make it resonant in the presence of the parasitic elements
(typically, 0.45-0.48 wavelengths long for a dipole antenna).

The element to the left of the feed element in Figure 1 is the reflector. The
length of this element is given as R and the distance between the feed and the
reflector is SR. The reflector element is typically slightly longer than the feed
element. There is typically only one reflector; adding more reflectors improves
performance very slightly. This element is important in determining the front-to-
back ratio of the antenna.
Having the reflector slightly longer than resonant serves two purposes. The
first is that the larger the element is, the better of a physical reflector it becomes.

Secondly, if the reflector is longer than its resonant length, the impedance of
the reflector will be inductive. Hence, the current on the reflector lags the voltage
induced on the reflector. The director elements (those to the right of the feed in
Figure 1) will be shorter than resonant, making them capacitive, so that the current
leads the voltage. This will cause a phase distribution to occur across the elements,
simulating the phase progression of a plane wave across the array of elements. This
leads to the array being designated as a travelling wave antenna. By choosing the
lengths in this manner, the Yagi-Uda antenna becomes an end-fire array - the
radiation is along the +y-axis as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 2: Example of a 7-Element Yagi-Uda with Folded Dipole

It can be seen on figure 2 an example of a 7-element yagi-uda with a folded


dipole as a driven element. It consists of 5 directors, a reflector and a driven element
which is a folded dipole. The path of the forward direction is in the path where the
directors are placed.
Design Considerations and Descriptions
The design of the antenna is limited to an operating frequency of 55.25MHz up
to 525.25MHz. The operating frequency of the antenna is computed to be 243MHz,
while the wavelength of the antenna is 1.23 m. The length of the folded dipole is
computed by getting half of the wavelength of the antenna which is 61.7cm, while the
length of the antenna reflector is 67.9 cm.

The length of the first director is 55 cm, the second director is 52.8 cm, the
third director is 50 cm, and the fourth director is 47.3 cm and lastly the fifth director
which is 44.5 cm. The group had observed a normal spacing of 0.1λ which is 12.345
cm.
List of television stations by region

The following list shows known television stations and TV relay transmitters in the
Philippines. They are listed by region in numerical order.

Table1.Region I (Ilocos Region)(Ilocos Norte)

Company Call Sign Channel Location


TV5 DWTE 2 Talingaan, Laoag City, Ilocos Norte
GMA DZUL 5 N/A
ABS-CBN DWRD 7 Laoag City, Ilocos Norte (C.A.P. Building)
Intercontinental DWCS 13 Laoag City, Ilocos Norte
Broadcasting Corporation (Defunct)
(IBC) Defunct

(ABS-CBN Sports and Action) DWLC 23 Laoag City, Ilocos Norte (C.A.P. Building)
formerly Studio 23

Reference: “Philippines Media and telecoms landscape guide.pdf” ,August 2012

Table 2. Over the Air TV Channel Frequencies

Television Channel Frequency Frequency Spectrum


AIR 2 55.25 Mhz VHF-LO

AIR 5 77.25 Mhz VHF-LO

AIR 7 175.25 Mhz VHF-HI

AIR 13 211.25 Mhz VHF-HI

AIR 23 525.25 Mhz UHF

Reference: “http://www.chem.hawaii.edu/uham/catvfreq.html 2/7”


Table 3. For Ilocos Norte Set Up
TV Channel Frequencies (VHF)

FREQUENCY RANGE CENTER FREQUENCY OPERATING TV STATION


FREQUENCY
54-60MHz 57 MHz 55.25 MHz ABC CH. 2

75.5-81.5MHz 78.5 MHz 77.25 MHz GMA CH. 5

174-180MHz 177 MHz 175.25 MHz ABS-CBN CH. 7

186-192MHz 189 MHz 187.25 MHz RPN CH. 9

198-204MHz 201 MHz 199.25 MHz QTV CH. 11

210-216MHz 213 MHz 211.25 MHz IBC CH. 13

TV Channel Frequencies (UHF)

512-518MHz 515 MHz 513.25 MHz SBN CH. 21

524-530MHz 527 MHz 525.25 MHz (ABS-CBN Sports and Action)


STUDIO 23
Average 243 MHz

Reference:”https://www.pinoyexchange.com/discussion/282430/operating-frequency-of-
vhf-uhf-channels”
3D RENDERING OF THE ANTENNA

Design Calculations and Limitations

A. OPERATING FREQUENCY

fc =(55.25 MHz +77.25 MHz+175.25 MHz +187.25 MHz+199.25 MHz


+211.25 MHz+513.25 MHz+525.25 MHz)/8
fc = 243 MHz
B. WAVELENGTH
Using the formula to get the wavelength

c 3x108 m/s
λ= =
fc 243 Mhz
λ= 1.23 m
C. FOLDED DIPOLE LENGTH

λ 1.23 m
lfolded dipole = = =0.61728 m
2 2

lfolded dipole = 61.728 cm

D. REFLECTOR LENGTH

lreflector =0.55λ=0.55*1.23 m

lreflector = 67.90123 cm
E. LENGTHS OF DIRECTORS

Directors:

ldir1 =0.45λ=0.45*1.23 m

ldir1 = 55.5 cm

ldir2 =.95ldir1 = 0.95(55.5)=0.5277777778 m

ldir2 = 52.8 cm

ldir3 =.90ldir1 =0.90(55.5)=0.5 m

ldir3 = 50 cm

ldir4 =.85ldir1 = 0.85(55.5)=0.4722222222 m

ldir4 = 47.3 cm

ldir5 =.80ldir1 =0.80(55.5)=0.4444444444 m

ldir5 = 44.5 cm

F. SPACING

S=0.1λ=0.1*1.23 m

S= 12.345 cm
Antenna Diagram
Pictures