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SURFACE

 

REAF.

VEHICLE

VEHICLE

VEHICLE J435 DEC2007

J435

DEC2007

 

STANDARD

Issued

1946-10

 

Reaffirmed

2007-12

Superseding J435 OCT2002

 

(R) Automotive Steel Castings

1.

Scope—This SAE Standard defines the specifications for steel castings used in the automotive and allied industries.

2.

References

2.1

Applicable Publications—The following publications form a part of the standard to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise indicated the latest revision of SAE publications shall apply.

2.1.1

ASTM P UBLICATIONS —Available from ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959

ASTM A 781/A 781M—Standard Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use ASTM A 370—Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ASTM A 802/A 802M—Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Visual Examination ASTM A 488—Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Welding, Qualifications of Procedures and Personnel ASTM A 781—Standard Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use ASTM E 1030—Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings ASTM E 446—Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (51 mm) in Thickness

2.1.2

MSS PUBLICATIONS—Available from Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc., 127 Park Street, N.E., Vienna, Virginia 22180

MSS SP-55—Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components – Visual Method

3.

General Conditions for Delivery

3.1

Material furnished to this specification shall conform to the requirements of specifications ASTM A781/A781M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the order.

4.

Chemical Composition

4.1

The composition shall comply with the requirements of Table 1.

 

SAE Technical Standards Board Rules provide that: “This report is published by SAE to advance the state of technical and engineering sciences. The use of this report is entirely voluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.”

SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be reaffirmed, revised, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions.

Copyright © 2007 SAE International All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE.

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SAE J435 Reaffirmed DEC2007

   

Properties (2)

Mechanical

HBW

187 max

187 max

131–187

170–229

207–255

163–207

187–241

217–248

248–311

311–363

363–415

 

Unless otherwise indicated single values are minima. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted to a maximum

 

TABLE 1—CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL TEST REQUIREMENTS FROM SEPARATELY CAST TEST BARS

 

Mechanical Properties (2) R in A

%

30

35

24

15

35

40

35

30

22

21

Mechanical

Properties (2)

El

%

22

24

16

10

22

20

17

14

9

6

Mechanical

Properties (2)

Strength

Yield

(ksi)

(30)

(35)

(45)

(70)

(50)

(60)

(85)

(95)

(125)

(145)

Mechanical

Properties (2)

Strength

Yield

MPa

205

240

310

485

345

415

585

655

860

1000

Mechanical

Properties (2)

Strength

Tensile

(ksi)

(60)

(65)

(85)

(100)

(80)

(90)

(105)

(120)

(150)

(175)

Mechanical

Properties (2)

Strength

Tensile

MPa

415

450

585

690

550

620

725

830

1035

1205

Compo-

sition, (1)

(wt%)

S

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

0.045

Compo-

sition, (1)

(wt%)

P

0.40

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

0.040

Compo-

sition, (1)

(wt%)

Si

0.60

0.80

0.80

0.80

0.80

Compo-

sition, (1)

(wt%)

Mn

0.50–0.90

0.75 (3)

0.70 (3)

0.50–0.90

0.50–0.90

Composi-

tion, (1)

(wt%)

C

0.12

0.25

0.30

0.40–0.50

0.40–0.50

Single values are maxima.

   

Grade

Old

0022

0025

0030

0050A

0050B

080

090

0105

0120

0150

0175

of 1%.

Grade

New

0000

415

450

585

690

550

620

725

830

1035

1205

1.

2.

3.

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SAE J435 Reaffirmed DEC2007

4.2

When not specified in Table 1 the content of carbon, manganese, silicon, and alloying elements may, by agreement, be prescribed by the purchaser. If not specified, the content may be selected by the manufacturer to obtain the required mechanical properties or hardenability.

5.

Heat Treatment—All castings shall be supplied in the heat treated condition. The heat treatment procedure may be specified by the purchaser in a written agreement with the supplier. Unless otherwise specified, the supplier may choose to heat treat the castings by one or more of the following processes; annealing, normalizing, normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering.

In the event of a change in the heat treatment procedure the requirements of Section 6 must be met.

6.

Mechanical Properties

6.1

Mechanical testing from separately cast test bars shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM A370.

The mechanical properties shall comply with the requirements of Table 1. The test bars shall be heat treated in production furnaces. Test bars shall be heat treated to the same procedure as the castings they represent.

6.2

Product Testing—Subject to agreement between the purchaser and supplier, test bars may be taken from the castings. The location and the required mechanical properties are subject to agreement between the purchaser and supplier.

7.

Frequency of Testing

7.1

Following the satisfactory achievement of the required mechanical properties of ten consecutive heats from any one grade, succeeding heats from the same grades may be qualified by hardness testing providing they fall within the range of compositions of the original 10 heats. The castings in each heat will be accepted by hardness testing of one test bar from each heat.

If the purchaser wishes to substitute complete mechanical testing then supplementary requirement 10.1 should be specified.

7.2

Retests—If any specimen shows defective machining, or exhibits flaws, it may be discarded and another substituted from the same heat.

8.

Inspection

8.1

Minor discontinuities—The surface of the casting shall be free of adhering sand, scale, cracks and hot tears as determined by visual examination. Other surface discontinuities shall meet the visual acceptance standards specified in the order. Practice ASTM A 802/A 802M or other visual standards such as MSS SP-55 may be used to define acceptable surface discontinuities and finish. Unacceptable visual surface discontinuities shall be removed and their removal verified by visual examination of the resultant cavities.

8.2

Peening, plugging and impregnating of castings are not allowed.

8.3

Marking—The manufacturer’s name or identification mark and the pattern number shall be cast or stamped on all castings. When further specified, the heat numbers or serial numbers shall be marked on the individual castings.

8.4

Inspection by the Purchaser—The manufacturer shall afford the purchaser's inspector all reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy him that the material is being produced and supplied in accordance with this specification. Foundry inspection by the purchaser shall not interfere with the manufacturer’s operations`. All tests and inspections (except product analysis) shall be made at the place of manufacture unless otherwise agreed to.

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SAE J435 Reaffirmed DEC2007

8.5

Rejection and Rehearing—Requirements for rejections and rehearing shall be agreed between the purchaser and supplier.

9.

Welding—Welding may be carried out by the producer. The welder and procedure must be qualified to the requirements of ASTM A 488. Welds shall be subject to the same inspection standards as the casting.

10.

Supplementary Requirements—The following supplementary requirements may be specified at the time of the inquiry and order.

10.1

The castings in each heat will be accepted from one mechanical test specimen.

10.2

Limits for unspecified elements and the methods of analysis for them shall be as agreed upon by the supplier and purchaser.

10.3

Details of the following supplementary requirements may be found in ASTM A781/A781M.

10.3.1

PROOF TESTING

10.3.2

DESTRUCTIVE TESTS

10.3.3

RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION

10.3.4

ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION

10.3.5

MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION

The acceptance standards for radiography, ultrasonic, magnetic particle examination, and destructive testing shall be agreed upon by the purchaser and supplier at the time of the enquiry and order.

11.

Notes

11.1

Marginal Indicia—The change bar (l) located in the left margin is for the convenience of the user in locating areas where revisions have been made to the previous issue of the report. An (R) symbol to the left of the document title indicates a complete revision of the report.

PREPARED BY THE SAE IRON AND STEEL TECHNICAL COMMITTEE DIVISION 9— AUTOMOTIVE IRON AND STEEL CASTINGS

REAFFIRMED BY THE SAE AUTOMOTIVE IRON AND STEEL CASTINGS COMMITTEE

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SAE J435 Reaffirmed DEC2007

APPENDIX A

A BRIEF GUIDE ON THE USE OF STEEL CASTING SPECIFICATIONS

A.1

Introduction—A steel casting like any other manufactured item, is purchased to fill a predetermined role. The necessary attributes of the casting such as strength, toughness, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, soundness and dimensional tolerances are dictated by the user. These characteristics are based on the conditions which will be encountered in service. These requirements must be clearly and accurately stated with nothing taken for granted.

These specifications can be found in a number of places, e.g., ASTM, ASME, ISO, SAE, and proprietary sources.

It is very important not to over specify as this may result in higher costs and longer lead times. It is equally wrong to under specify, leaving requirements vague or too broad will usually lead to the foundry supplying castings to a different quality level than that expected by the user. For example, stating that the castings shall be radiographed in accordance with ASTM E 1030 with acceptance levels stated in ASTM E 446 is not helpful. It is good that ASTM standards have been referenced but the acceptance standard has not been defined. This situation at best can lead to delays in determining from the customer which acceptance level he requires and at worst can lead the foundry to supply castings which may have been required at severity level 2 but may have been supplied at level 4. It is important that the term “commercial quality” not be used, it tends to be vague and will only lead to problems.

A.2

General—The specifications issued by ASTM, ASME, ISO, and SAE will contain such requirements as;

a. Chemical composition

b. Mechanical properties

c. Physical properties

d. Processes

e. Procedures

f. Testing and examination requirements

g. Surface roughness and integrity

h. Internal soundness

ASTM and ISO provide the most complete coverage of these requirements for steel castings where the specifications from other organizations may be used in combination with ASTM or ISO to provide some particular attributes for particular markets.

A.3

Conflicting Requirements—One of the most troubling situations that may arise is that of conflicting requirements. Some of the most common instances are;

a. The minimum tensile properties of the material specification and the hardness range given on the drawing do not correspond.

b. The material specification, the casting drawing and/or the purchase order have incompatible requirements.

c. The drawing revision number in the inquiry is not same as that referenced in the purchase order.

d. The enquiry and the purchase order have different NDE or other processing requirements.

e. Acceptance standards are not clearly defined.

f. A third-party inspector invokes requirements differing from those furnished to the foundry by the casting buyer.

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SAE J435 Reaffirmed DEC2007

Rationale—This entire document has been revised and upgraded to the current industry standards.

Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard—Not applicable.

Application—This SAE Standard defines the specifications for steel castings used in the automotive and allied industries.

Reference Section

ASTM A 781/A 781M—Standard Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use

ASTM A 370—Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

ASTM A 802/A 802M—Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Surface Acceptance Standards, Visual Examination

ASTM A 488—Standard Practice for Steel Castings, Welding, Qualifications of Procedures and Personnel

ASTM A 781—Standard Specification for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use

ASTM E 1030—Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings

ASTM E 446—Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (51 mm) in Thickness

MSS SP-55—Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components – Visual Method

Developed by the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee Division 9—Automotive Iron and Steel Castings

Sponsored by the SAE Iron and Steel Technical Committee