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CAMCO

Subsurface
Chemical
Injection
Systems
Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Operation of Chemical Injection Systems 2

Basic Chemical Injection Systems (Schematics) 3

Chemical Injection Valves 4


Valve Force Balance Equations 4
Forces on Valve (Schematics) 5
BKLK-2 and RCB Chemical Injection Valves 6
BKCI-2 and RCI-2 Chemical Injection Valves 7
RLC-3, LK-3 and LKH-3 Chemical Injection Valves 8

Cameo Side Pocket Mandrels for Chemical Injection 9


KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG and KBUGE Side Pocket Mandrels 10
KBG, KBGU and KBGE Side Pocket Mandrels 12
MMG and MMGE Side Pocket Mandrels 14
MMRG and MMRGE Side Pocket Mandrels 16

HSP-l-CI Series Packers 18

Injection Line 19

Injection Line Fittings 20

Injection Line Banding Kits 20

Injection Line Protectors 20


Subsurface chemical injection systems are designed methods which can hinder well production. Batch
to reduce the effects of corrosive produced fluids treatment can create unnecessary unloading
in the subsurface and surface flow conduits and problems, formation damage, wasted "soak" time
related equipment; or reduce paraffin, salt and and production loss. The Cameo chemical injection
hydrate formations. Cameo chemical injection system safely targets required areas of treatment
valves and side pocket mandrels provide subsurface and enhances production while protecting
control of the injected chemicals as well as a flow equipment in the well and on the surface.
path from the injection conduit to the produced
The specialized components of a complete
fluids conduit. Chemicals may be injected either
subsurface chemical injection system include: a
continuously or intermittently by a pump on the
surface chemical pump package complete with the
surface. Several methods are available to the
necessary controls, an injection line extending to
producer. Chemicals may be injected directly into
the depth of the chemical valve and mandrel
the casing/tubing annulus (open injection) through
(closed and combination systems only), a Cameo
the chemical injection valve and into the production
side pocket mandrel, a wireline retrievable chemi
stream; chemicals may be injected down a separate
cal injection valve and latch, and a packer.
injection line (closed injection) which is attached
to a side pocket mandrel and run to the surface; Many well bore configurations are available to the
or a combination, which utilizes the casing/tubing producer. Some of the most commonly used well-
annulus for communication to one mandrel and a bore designs as well as each of the components of
separate injection line run to a second side pocket a Cameo system are discussed herein.
mandrel.

The Cameo continuous injection system is preferred


over conventional batch or tubing displacement

-1-
Operation of Chemical Injection Systems

The three basic types of subsurface chemical annulus for other uses and is mandatory in those
injection systems are the open injection system, wells that require high chemical injection pressures.
closed injection system and combination
Illustration C shows the combination injection
injection system.
system which utilizes both open and closed
Illustration A shows the open injection system injection systems. The combination injection
which utilizes the casing/tubing annulus as the system provides two separate injection points,
injection conduit. The injection chemical enters the allowing chemicals to flow down an injection line
side pocket mandrel directly from the casing through the injection valve and into the flow stream
annulus, flows through the chemical injection while simultaneously allowing chemicals to be
valve, which is latched into the mandrel pocket, injected down the tubing/casing annulus, through
and into the flow stream. the lower chemical injection valve and packer.
Injection below the packer places chemicals on the
Illustration B shows the closed injection system
lower end of the packer, the tail pipe, and the
which utilizes a separate injection line attached
casing as well as up the entire production string.
directly to the side pocket mandrel and is strapped
to the outside of the production tubing to the In all three systems, the chemical volumes,
surface. Injection chemical flows down the injection injection cycles and the injection pressures are
line, through the chemical injection valves and into regulated at the surface by a chemical pump and
the flow stream. This system frees up the casing associated control equipment.

-2-
Basic Chemical Injection Systems

Illustration A Illustration B Illustration C


Open Injection System Closed Injection System Combination Open/Closed System

-3-
Chemical Injection Valves

Cameo manufactures two basic types of chemical is forced upward and off the valve seat, opening
injection valves: a spring-loaded, differential type the valve.
and a nitrogen-charged type. Both feature premium
Tubing sensitivity is not as severe with nitrogen-
materials and tungsten carbide balls and seats.
charged valves. The constant hydrostatic head
The spring-loaded, differential pressure operated pressure works to overcome the preset dome
chemical injection valves are extremely sensitive charge, thereby forcing the valve seat upward,
to changes in tubing to annulus differential opening the valve. The area effected by tubing
pressure. They are actuated by differential pressure pressure is approximately 10 times smaller (based
acting across the valve seat area. These valves have on the 3/16" port) than that effected by the
two closing forces and two opening forces. The hydrostatic head and surface injection pressure. The
closing forces are the valve's spring force coupled single closing force is provided by the dome charge
with the tubing pressure acting on the port area. pressure acting on the entire effective area of the
The opening forces are a combination of the bellows. In comparison, the charged dome design
hydrostatic head pressure of the injection fluid and counteracts hydrostatic head pressure, making it
the applied injection pressure acting on the port different from the spring-loaded valves where head
area. When this force exceeds that of the preset pressure and tubing pressure work against each
valve spring compression, the ball of the stem tip other on equal areas.

^\

The force balance equation The force balance equation


for spring-loaded valves: for nitrogen-charged valves:

Fs + (Pi) (Ap) = (Pe) <Ap) + (Ps) (Ap) Pbt (Ab) = (Pc + P.) <Ab - Ap) + (Pt) (Ap)

Where: Where:

Fs = Spring force, pounds Pbt = Dome pressure required for operation


Pt = Flowing tubing pressure at valve depth, at depth, psig
psig Pc = Hydrostatic head pressure of the chemi
Pc = Hydrostatic pressure of chemical injec cal injection fluids at valve depth,
tion fluids at valve depth, psig psig
Ps = Surface injection pressure, psig Ps = Surface injection pressure, psig
Ap = Area of valve port, in.2 Pt = Pressure in tubing, psig
At = Effective dome area, in.2
Ap = Area of the valve port, in.2

-4-
Forces on Valve

3 Dome-

-Spring

Bellow;-

p _1_
I
Seal

I I
Pc + Ps

Check Valve-

Spring Loaded Nitrogen Charged

-5-
BKLK-2 and RCB Chemical Injection Valves

The Cameo BKLK-2 and RCB are retrievable,


nitrogen-charged chemical injection valves which
control chemicals injected into the production fluid
at valve depth. A nitrogen-charged bellows pro
vides the force necessary to maintain the valves in
a normally closed position. The BKLK-2 and RCB
valves contain multi-ply Monel® bellows used for
low- to medium-pressure applications. With careful
consideration to completion design and well
parameters, BKLK-2 and RCB valves can be used in
open, closed or combination type chemical
injection systems. Both valves contain a spring-
loaded reverse flow check valve and floating seat.
Port sizes are %" and JX6".

BKLK-2 RCB

-6-
BKCI-2 and RCI-2 Chemical Injection Valves

The Cameo BKCI-2 and RCI-2 are retrievable,


nitrogen-charged chemical injection valves which
control chemicals injected into the production fluid
at valve depth. A nitrogen-charged high perfor
mance, metallurgically advanced piston seal
assembly provides the force necessary to maintain
the valves in a normally closed position. The BKCI-2
and RCI-2 are used for medium to high pressure
applications. Design features of the valves make
them especially beneficial for closed injection
systems where lower chemical volumes are used.
They should not be applied to open injection
systems. Both valves contain a spring-loaded
reverse flow check valve and an all-tungsten
carbide floating seat. Port sizes are \" and \b".

ng Data lor BKCI-2 and RCI-2 Ch.

BKCI-2

-7-
RLC-3, LK-3 and LKH-3 Chemical Injection Valves

The Cameo RLC-3, LK-3 and LKH-3 are retrievable,


spring-loaded chemical injection valves which
control chemicals injected into the production fluid
at valve depth. An Inconel® spring provides the
force necessary to maintain these valves in a
normally closed position. All three valves contain
an integral reverse flow check valve and crossover
seat. With careful consideration to completion
design and well parameters, RLC-3, LK-3 and LKH-3
valves can be used in open, closed or combination
type chemical injection systems. Port sizes are Ys"
and %«". The LKH-3 (not shown) is identical to the
LK-3, but is manufactured from premium metallurgy
and elastomers for use in environments where high
temperatures and pressures are applicable.

111

o*fi o»« t»'» fe<ommended mon \ to open <al>e« fa

if1

I,

RLC-3 LK-3

-8-
Cameo Side Pocket Mandrels for Chemical Injection

Cameo G series side pocket mandrels are among Design Variations


the most sophisticated and highly versatile man
The numeral 2 indicates that the mandrel
drels available for chemical injection applications.
has a slightly reduced O.D. and a fully
Referred to as the G series, these mandrels incor
open I.D. Most mandrels with this designa
porate several innovative design features which
tion have a reduced test pressure.
include an orienting sleeve, tool discriminator and
an integrally forged receiver pocket. The numeral 3 indicates that special con
sideration should be given to thread
Mandrels that can be used for chemical injection
include KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG, KBUGE, KBG, KBGU, selection. The complete line of standard

KBGE, MMG, AAMGE, MAARG and AAMRGE series. end connections may not be applicable,

These mandrels have eccentric swages on both or the mandrel may be specifically de

ends and can be furnished with a variety of signed for heavy-weight connections.

standard or premium threads for installation as part The numeral 4 indicates that the ends of
of the tubing string. These mandrels have a single the mandrel are lengthened to accommo
pocket to accept retrievable side pocket devices.
date the remachining of end connections.
The pocket of KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG, KBUGE, KBG,
KBGU and KBGE series mandrels accepts 1" O.D. The numeral 5 indicates that the mandrel
devices. The pocket of the MMG, MMGE, MMRG has integral guard devices to protect
and MMRGE series mandrels accepts l'/2" O.D. chemical injection conduits being run
devices. The pockets of all G series mandrels allow simultaneously with the mandrel.
room for the operation of running tools, pulling
The numeral 7 indicates that the pocket
tools and Cameo O series kickover tools which are
assembly on the mandrel has a special
used to install and retrieve side pocket devices by
profile which reduces or eliminates
standard wireline methods.
crevices in the lateral weld joint at the
The KBG, KBGU, KBGE, MMRG and MMRGE series body pipe. It also provides clearance for
mandrels are constructed of round pipe in order machining operations under the pocket
to achieve higher test pressures. The KBMG, along the lateral seam, if necessary, to
KBMGE, KBUG, KBUGE, MMG and MMGE series facilitate plastic coating.
mandrels are constructed in the traditional Cameo
LTS LTS indicates that the mandrel has an
oval design.
integral connection, typically '/8" NPT box,
All of the mandrels listed above are available with that accepts an injection conduit extending
additional features and design variations which from the surface wellhead connection.
specialize them for particular chemical injection Specifically designed for chemical
applications. These features and design variations injection, LTS mandrels are used when two
are designated by a letter or numeral suffix which or more fluids being injected into the well
indicates specific applications. In addition. Cameo must be kept separate until they are
can furnish mandrel components, including commingled in the flow stream. This type
injection line, fittings, banding kits and line of installation leaves the annulus free for
protectors. other production uses.

-9-
KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG and KBUGE Side Pocket Mandrels

The KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG and KBUGE series side


pocket mandrels are single-pocket mandrels that
accept 1" O.D. side pocket devices. These mandrels
are oval shaped mandrels and are used in chemical
injection applications. Some of the KBUG and
KBUGE series mandrels have reduced O.D.s and
I.D.s to permit installation in dual string completions
or heavy-weight casing. The 3ft" O.D. KBUG
mandrels have reduced O.D.s and fully open I.D.s.

KBMGE and KBUGE series mandrels have no ports


in the pocket for communication with the tubing.
Instead, these mandrels have an exhaust port at the
bottom of the pocket. This port extends downward
into the casing annulus through a ft" pipe con
nected to the top of the dual or bypass packer in
order to inject chemicals below the packer.

KBMG, KBMGE, KBUG and KBUGE series mandrels


are available with additional variations which are
discussed on page 9.

KBMG KBMGE KBMG-LTS

-10-
Test pressures listed are for mandrels made from AISI 4130 low-alloy steel heat-lreated for normal or corrosive environments. These pressures
may be reduced due to end connection limitations.
The dimension given is the diameter across the control line protectors on the minor diameter.

-11-
KBG, KBGU and KBGE Side Pocket Mandrels

The KBG, KBGU and KBGE series side pocket


mandrels are single-pocket mandrels that accept
1" O.D. side pocket devices. These mandrels are
used in chemical injection applications and are
manufactured from round pipe for superior strength
and increased pressure capability.

The KBG and KBGU series mandrels have similar


configurations; however, all KBGU series mandrels
have a reduced O.D., and most have a reduced
I.D., to permit installation in dual-string comple
tions or heavy-weight casing.

KBGE series mandrels have no ports in the pocket


for communication with the tubing. Instead, these
mandrels have an exhaust port at the bottom of the
pocket. This port extends downward into the casing
annulus through a '/2" pipe connected to the top
of the dual or bypass packer in order to inject
chemicals below the packer.

KBG, KBGU and KBGE series mandrels are available


with additional design variations which are dis
cussed on page 9.

KBG KBGE
0

Test pressures listed are for mandrels made from AISI 4130 low-alloy steel heal-treated for normal or corrosive environments.
These pressures may be reduced due to end connection limitations.
The dimension given is the diameter across the control line protectors on the minor diameter.

-13-
MMG and MMGE Side Pocket Mandrels

The MMG and MMGE series side pocket mandrels


are single-pocket mandrels that accept 1%" O.D.
side pocket devices. These mandrels are oval
shaped and are used in chemical injection
applications. Some MMG and MMGE mandrels
have reduced I.D.s for compatibility with heavy
weight tubular connections.

MMGE series mandrels have no ports in the pocket


for communication with the tubing. Instead, these
mandrels have an exhaust port at the bottom of the
pocket. This port extends downward into the casing
annulus through a %" pipe connected to the top
of the dual or bypass packer in order to inject
chemicals below the packer.

MMG and MMGE mandrels are available with


additional design variations which are discussed on
page 9.

MMG MMGE
Engineering Data for MMG and MMGE Series Side Pocket Mandrels

* Test pressures listed are for mandrels made from AISI 4130 low-alloy steel heat-treated for normal or corrosive environments. These
pressures may be reduced due to end connection limitations.
* * The dimension given is the diameter across the control line protectors on the minor diameter.
'** Use spacer bar 15819 with the pulling tool and all OM series kickover tools above.

-15-
MMRG and MMRGE Side Pocket Mandrels

The AAAARG and AAAARGE series side pocket mandrels


are single-pocket mandrels that accept 1%" O.D.
side pocket devices. These mandrels are used in
chemical injection applications and are
manufactured from round pipe for superior strength
and increased pressure capacity. Some AAMRG and
AAAARGE mandrels have reduced I.D.s for
compatibility with heavy-weight tubular connec
tions.

MMRGE series mandrels have no ports in the pocket


for communication with the tubing. Instead, these
mandrels have an exhaust port at the bottom of the
pocket. This port extends downward into the casing
annulus through a l/z" pipe connected to the top
of the dual or bypass packer in order to inject
chemicals below the packer.

MMRG and MMRGE mandrels are available with


additional design variations which are discussed on
page 9.

MMRG MMRGE
* Assemblies shown ore for use in corrosive environments. For assemblies with identical specifications, but for use in non-corrosive
environments, please consult your local Cameo representative.
* * Test pressures listed are for mandrels made from AISI 4130 low-alloy sleel heat-treated for normal or corrosive environments.
These pressures may be reduced due to end connection limitations.
' * * Use spacer bar 15819 with the pulling tool and all OM series kickover tools above.

-17-
HSP-l-CI Series Packers

Cameo HSP-l-CI series packers are single string,


permanent, hydraulic set packers used in single or
multi-packer, deep, high temperature (with special
trim), high pressure installations. These packers can
be converted to temporary or permanent bridge
plugs and are used when chemical injection below
a permanent packer is desired. They can also be
used in acidizing and fracturing applications.

HSP-l-CI packers utilize many advanced features


including dual pistons, true hydraulic set design,
integral metal expander rings and a three-piece
dual durometer sealing element assembly.

In addition, the HSP-l-CI packer will self-tighten


in the event there is a tubing pressure increase
during production. The packer is not sensitive to
setting depth and may be spudded through tight
spots without fear of setting. Moreover, a wellhead
may be installed before the packer is set, allowing
safe control and circulation of drilling and
completion fluids up or down the tubing or
annulus.

Engineering Data for HSP-l-CI Series Packers

Stinger

Hsp-i-a

.18-
Injection Line

Cameo injection line is used in closed and


combination chemical injection systems as an
injection conduit to connect an LTS type mandrel
and a surface injection pump.

Cameo injection line is manufactured from


T-316/T-316L stainless steel, 400 Monel® or Incoloy®
825. Injection line made of T-316/T-316L stainless
steel is suitable for sweet to moderately corrosive
environments. Line made of 400 Monel is suitable
for moderate to highly corrosive environments. Line
made of Incoloy 825 is suitable for severely
corrosive environments and high working
pressures. Injection line is available with welded
or seamless construction. Depending on wall
thickness, tubing O.D., and material construction,
injection line is rated for 5,000 to 15,000 psi
working pressure. Injection line is available in
.250", .375" and .500" O.D., and with wall thick
nesses of .035", .049" and .065". Injection Line

NOTE: Assembly numbers available upon request.

-19-
Injection Line Fittings

Cameo injection line fittings are quality fittings


used to connect the injection conduit to the
wellhead and the ITS type side pocket mandrel.
These fittings are available in a variety of
compatible tubing sizes and are rated to 15,000 psi
working pressure.

Fitting Kit

Injection Line Banding Kits

Cameo injection line banding kits are used to


attach injection line to the production tubing and
Cameo side pocket mandrel. Banding keeps the
injection line from snagging and also reduces
tensile loading on the lines and wellhead fitting.

Banding kits are manufactured of quality 316


stainless steel or MoneI® and are available in .500"
or .625" sizes. Kits consist of a 100 ft. roll of banding
material, one (1) box of 100 buckles and a banding
tool.

Injection Line Protectors

Cameo injection line protectors are used to


centralize the production tubing and clamp control
lines to the tubing. Protectors also help protect the
tubing from crushing, abrasion and tension. This is
especially true over pipe upsets, pipe couplings and
in deviated holes where injection line strain is most
likely to occur. Depending on requirements, line
protectors are available in all steel or rubber with
a steel skeleton. Both provide an outstanding grip
on injection lines, supporting injection line weight
when mandrels are run to great depths. Steel Skeleton

Cameo injection line protectors can be used with


single or dual control line, single or dual encap Ail-Metal
sulated line, and provide access for submergible
pump power cable.

-20-
Cameo Products & Services Company
P. 0. Box 14484
Houston, Texas 77221
Telephone: (713)747-4000
Fax: (713) 747-6751
Telex: 775413 & 166117

©COPYRIGHT, 1990, CAMCO PRODUCTS & SERVICES COMPANY