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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

A STUDY ON SOME SLIMULANT PLANTS USED BY CHIN


TRIBES IN THE NORTHERN CHIN STATE, MYANMAR

Kyaw Kyaw Lwin*

ABSTRACT
A study on plants used by Chin tribes who lived in Hakha and Tedim Townships from
the Northern Chin State was carried out within the scope of Ethnobotany during
2013-2014. A total number of ( 8 ) species of ( 8 ) genera belonging to ( 6 ) families
used by Chin tribes were collected from the study area. In the present study, totally (6)
kinds of stimulant plants used by Chin tribes are involved. The stimulant plants are
distinguished into following two categories: beverage plants and smoking plants were
recorded. Therefore, the use of the source common plants and parts and the use of
traditional preparations are also presented using photographs in this study.

Keywords: Stimulant plants, Hakha and Tedim Township, Northern Chin State,
Myanmar

INTRODUCTION
Man‘s history is not completed without a look at the role of plants looking at
the use of plant because man has to survive by using plants for his basic requirements
such as food, clothing and shelter and they also use them for ornamentation, religious
ceremonies and health care. Human searched plants and their parts that could be
released their illness and suffering from his early history to the present time. Human
survival can not still be imagined without plants. The study of the relationship and
interaction between plants and people is called ethnobotany.
Human being survives by using the material from his natural environment
since human being has evolved on the earth. The plant plays in one of the supporting
roles on the survival of man from prehistoric time to the present day.
Since the prehistoric time, man always depends upon the plants for his food,
shelter and health. So the relationship between man and plants is as old as history of
mankind and indigenous knowledge about the plants is as old as human civilization
(Pei, 1995).
There are many aspects of Ethnobotany, including the ways that people name
and classify plants, the values placed on them, their uses and their management. It
reaches across the natural and social sciences. Plants have always been central
significance to human welfare. Plants provide people food, fuel and medicine, as well
as materials for construction and the manufacture of crafts and many other products
(Saklani and Jain, 1994).
In broad terms, ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and
people. The two major parts of ethnobotany are encapsulated in the word itself:
―ethno‖, the study of people, and ―botany,‖ the study of plants. Arrayed between these
two points labeled ―ethno‖ and ―botany‖ lies a spectrum of interests ranging from

*
Dr. Lecturer, Department of Botany, Kalay University
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archaeological investigations of ancient civilizations to the bioengineering of new


crops. However, the field is limited on both sides. On the botanical side of the field,
few ethnobotanical studies are concerned with plants that have no connection to
people. On the ethno side, most studies are concerned with the ways indigenous
people use and view plants. And those uses and those views can provide deep insights
into the human condition (Balick and Cox 1996).
Therefore, the present study emphasizes on the traditional uses of plants such
as stimulant plants of Chin tribes lived in Northern Chin State with in the scope of
―plants as basis for human material culture‖ which is the subdiscipline of
ethnobotany.

LITERATURE REVIEW
'Ethno' is a popular prefix in these days, because it is a short way of saying
that's the way other people look at the world. When used before the name of an
academic discipline such as botany or pharmacology, it implies that researchers are
exploring local people's perception of cultural and scientific knowledge (Martin, 1995).
Ehtnobotany is the study of the interaction between plants and people with a
particular emphasis on traditional tribal cultures. Ethnobotany is a branch of botany,
the study of plants and is closely related to cultural anthropology, the study of human
societies. An important branch of ethnobotany called economic botany focuses on the
commercial use of plants especially in industrialized societies (Ososki et al., 2001).
Ethnobotany is the study of how people of a particular culture and region
make of use of indigenous plants. Ethnobotanists explore how plants are used for such
things as food, shelter, medicine, clothing, hunting and religious ceremonies.
Ethnobotany has its roots in botany, the study of plants. Botany, in turn, originated in
part from an interest in finding plants to help fight illness. In fact, medicine and
botany have always had close ties. Many of today‘s drugs have been derived from
plant sources. Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal and toxic products from
natural plant sources (Veilleux and King, 1996).
The grain is very nutritious, with a high percentage of carbohydrate, fats and
proteins. It is used for making various alcoholic beverages. The glucose is also
manufactured from the grain. Vegetables from a large and diverse commodity group.
They are considered a distinct group, but largely because of the way in which they are
grown and their produce is used. Vegetables are usually cultivated intensively in
"gardens" and consequently are part of horticulture (Siemonsma and Piluek, 1994).
An edible oil is extracted from the rice-germ. Another type of oil known as rice-oil
is extracted from the husks but this is not edible due to its high content of free acids.
A drink rather like beer carrbe made from fermented rice but by distilling the latter,
alcohol is produced. Rice-flour is extensively used in the cosmetic industry as a basis for
face-powder (Chiej, 1988).
The rice mixture is put into the tall metallic distilling cylinder, called mo tom
lao. Distilling needs constant, full attention; that‘s why Mrs. Mo spends a good part of
the day keeping wash. The mo tom lao is placed over the distilling process. Into the
bottom part, the mo, goes the fermented rice. Above the mo is placed the mo han
which is filled with cold water to condense the alcohol vapor. The mo han has a
concave shape to ensure that the condensed alcohol flows down to the center before
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dripping onto a sloping pan (pa fa) that leads to the dispensing tube (Nomh tua). The
condensed alcohol flows through the nomh tua into a container. As the cold water in
the mo han heats up, it is discarded and replaced with new, cold water from the well.
This is done with a buel, a water scoop made of the combination of bamboo and half
the shell of a mak nam thow, a forest gourd commomly used in the region as hardy
ladies (Delang, 2008).
The juice acts as an insect repellent and neutralizes the poison of their bites
and stings; it is an excellent glue and it also enables holes to be made cleanly in glass.
It was used during the First World War by the French for its antiseptic properties. The
cloves have always been regarded as a source of strength. Chickens will lay more
eggs when garlic is mixed with their food. When storing fruit, a few cloves of garlic
sprinkled among it will delay rotting. It is also thought to have an anticancerous
action. A decaying tooth will hurt less it packed with garlic pulp until treatment can
be obtained. A little rubbed behind the ear will alleviate pulp introduced into the
ear will ease rheumatic otalgia (Chiej, 1988).
Most of the world‘s grapes are made into wine, the use of the fresh and the
dried fruit coming second and third in importance. Grape juice is another product. In
South-East Asia only the use as table grape is important, althrough some wine is
produced in Thailand and wine grape are being evaluated in the drier parts of North
and North-East Thailand (Coronel and Verheij, 1992).
Rubus ellipticus is a shrub found in the Western ghats and the Khasia hills.
The fruits are edible (Pandey, 1999).
Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum were dried, made into tobacco and used
universally in cigarette, bidicigar, pipers, hukkah as well as for chewing and snuffing.
In medicine as a sedative and antispasmodic (Sharma, 1993).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Field study and trip have been done to some villages where Chin tribes lives
in Hakha and Tedim Townships during 2013-2014. The information regarding to
different species of plant and ethnobotanical knowledge are collected by interviewing
with Chin families or individually. The local names and scientific names are checked
by Hutchinson (1967) and Kress et al. (2003).
Plant identification was carried out by literature namely Hooker (1875-1885),
Backer (1965-1968). The ethnobotanical information is recorded with semi-structured
questionnaire from the local people lived in some village tracts of Hakha and Tedim
Townships in the Northern Chin State. In data collection, semi-structured
questionnaire as described by Creswell (2003) was used.
RESULTS
The plants reveal their important roles in every point of view for human
society. Having stimulating properties of some plant species are used a daily around
the world. Based on general use, the stimulant plants may be distinguished into
following three categories.
(1) Beverage plants : Beverages were prepared from different plant parts such as
fruits, flowers, stems, seeds or leaves.
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(2) Masticatory plants : the stimulating properties are obtained by chewing plant
parts.
(3) Smoking plants: its dried and processed leaves are used for smoking.

1. Beverage Plants
1.1. Wine
Wine is a alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit juice. The
natural chemical balance of fruits is such that they can ferment without the addition of
sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting of crushing
fruits using various types of yeast which consume the sugar found in the fruits and
convert them into alcohol. Wine is a popular and important beverage.
Fruits and flowers should be sorted to remove decayed fruit and flowers and
washed to remove dirt and chemical residue. The next step is to grind then into pulp
by hand or other kinds of machines. The juices are mixed with sugar, yeast, pectin
enzyme powder and water and is stored in a drum or tank for a short duration. The
duration of fermentation depends on the kind of wine to be made as well as on the
varieties of fruits and flowers. In light bodied wines this phase can last three or four
days- a sufficient time in order to extract color and some tannin- whereas in full
bodied wines this time can also have a duration from one week to one month. Finally,
wine were obtained ready for drink. Wine is used in religious ceremonies.
The fruits commonly used for making wine were strawberry
(Fragaria ananassa), Pin-hme (Passiflora edulis), apple (Pyrus malus), Subwe
Sumwe(Rubus ellipticus) and grapes (Vitis vinifera). The flowers of Taung-zalat-ni
(Rhododendron arboretum ) were also used for making traditional wine.
The source common plants, parts used and traditional preparations and uses
were described.
1. Fragaria ananassa Duchesne
Family - Rosaceae
English Name - Strawberry
Local Name - Strawberry
Part used - Ripe fruits
Traditional preparations - Strawberry wine making ingredients : 5 viss
strawberry, 2 viss sugar, 1 tea spoon wine yeast, ½ tea spoon pectin enzyme powder
and 3 gallons of water.
2. Pyrus malus L.
Family - Rosaceae
English Name - Apple
Local Name - Pan-thi
Part used - Ripe fruits
Traditional preparations - Apple wine making ingredients : 3 viss apple fruits, 1
viss sugar, 6 bottle water, 1 tea spoon wine yeast and ½ tea spoon pectin enzyme powder.
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3. Rhododendron arboreum Sm.


Family - Ericaceae
English Name - Unknown
Local Name - Taung-zalat-ni
Part used - Flowers
Traditional preparations - Taung-zalat-ni wine making ingredients : 100 flowers,
3 viss sugar, 1 tea spoon wine yeast, ½ tea spoon pectin enzyme powder and 3 gallon
water.
4. Rubus ellipticus Smith.
Family - Rosaceae
English Name - Unknown
Local Name - Subwe Sumwe
Part used - Ripe fruits
Traditional preparations - The ripe fruits are boiled for 5 minuts. It is made for
cold at 30 minutes. Then, the liquid must be put into a bottle and a gallon etc. It is
more delicious if sugar is added in it. After that wine can be drunk.
5. Vitis vinifera L.
Family - Vitaceae
English name - Grape
Local Name - Sa-pyit
Part used - Ripe fruits
Traditional preparations - Grape wine making ingredients : 5 viss grapes, 3 viss
sugar, 1 tea spoon wine yeast, ½ tea spoon pectin enzyme powder and 3 gallons of water.

A B C

Habit of Vitis vinifera L. Passion fruit wine Grape wine

D E F

Apple wine Subwe Sumwe wine Taung-zalat-ni wine


Figure 1. Stage of the production of Chin traditional wine
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1.2. Rice-wine (Khaung-ye) (Traditional intoxicating brew)


1.2.1. Oryza sativa L.
Family - Gramineae
English Name - Rice
Local Name - Saba
Part used - Grain
Traditional preparations and uses -
Maize (Zea mays), Ziphu-thi (Phyllanthus emblica) and rice (Oryza sativa) were soaked
with water for 3 to 4 days and then yeast was added and fermented for one week. After that
Khaung-ye can be drink. Some put bamboo pipe in the middle of the pot and drink it and
some syphoned and drink it which is called as ―Zupi‖ by Zomi Chin tribes.

A B C

Habit of Oryza sativa L. Dryin Powder yeast

D E F

Khaung-ye Khaung-ye Drinking Khaung-ye


Figure 2. Stage of the production of Chin traditional Khaung-ye
1.3. Chin rice whiskey
Chin rice whiskey are made by rice. First, rice are soaked water in together with yeast
for to 3 - 4 days. After that the mixture was yeast put into the metallic distilling pot.
Distilling needs constant, full attention. The pot is placed over the fire. Above the pot is
placed the cold water pot which is filled with cold water to condense the alcohol vapor. The
cold water pot has a concave shape to ensure that the condensed alcohol flows down to the
center before dripping onto a sloping pan that leads to the dispensing tube (plastic pipe). Cloth
is placed between cold water pot and distilling pot. The condensed alcohol flows through tube
into a container (bottle). As the cold water in the cold water pot heats up, it is discarded and
replaced with new, cold water from the well about 5-10 times. Finally, chin rice whiskey were
obtained ready to good use. Chin rice whiskey is known as ZuHang for Zomi Chin tribes.
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A B C

Drying Solid yeast Rice fermenting

D E F

Preparing slope pan Cloth, placed between Distilling the rice


cold water pot and whiskey
distilling pot
Figure 3. Stage of the production of Chin traditional rice whiskey
2. Smoking plants
2.1. Nicotiana tabacum L.
Family - Solanaceae
English Name - Tabacco
Local Name - Say-ywet-gyi
Part used - Leaves
Traditional preparations and uses -
1. Smoking pipe
Smoking pipe constructed with 4 parts dried gourd bottle (Lagebaria siceraria), a
piece of wood used as a connector, an earthen pot which has two holes and a pipe
were made by bamboo. First, tobacco leaves is put into a double-holed earthen pot
and burn. When a person smoke at the end of pipe, because the smoke comes through
water to the smoker's mouth, the water in the dried gourd bottle shakes and makes a
noise. Either the young or the old, the females or the males use the pipe to smoke as
the traditional custom of the chin tribes.
2. Cheroots or Cigarette
Local people smoke cheroots (Hsey-bo-let). Cheroots or cigarette are made by
tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and paper. The leaves are dried in the sun and
crushed into small pieces. After that, crushed tobacco is put on the paper and then
rolled it into small size and ready to be smoked.
3. The production of the tobacco liquid
To produce tobacco liquid, the following materials will be needed
(a) 1 liter of plastic bottle
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(b) large water pipe (4 cm in diameter) and small water pipe(1 cm in diameter)
(c) a piece of wood
(d) a long bronze pipe and 2 short bronze pipes and
(e) a earthen pot
Preparation of tobacco liquid
The leaves of tobacco must be dried in the sun. The task of tobacco liquid usually
takes place in the good running stream. The 500 cc of stream water is put into 1 liter plastic
bottle. The one end of small one plastic pipe is connected with the large plastic pipe. The
other end of the small one is equipped with bronze pipe which is also fitted in a piece of
wood used as a connector. In fact, the connector is a piece of wood which the long bronze
pipe is fixed its below part. The earthen pot was put on a piece of wood by joining with the
short bronze pipe.
Procedure to produce tobacco liquid
First, the dry tobacco leaves are put into the pot and burnt them. While the
smoke of tobacco and the water in the bucket mingle, the large pipe which joins with
the stream sucks both the air and the smoke. Finally, the tobacco liquid appears. The
ash of tobacco leaves can be used in washing and cleaning the pot, the bucket and
others. The five viss of tobacco leaves produces fifteen liters of tobacco liquids
(15 bottle). If a person keeps the liquid of tobacco leaves in the his mouth, it is
believed that the teeth can be strong. This liquid can be used to release the cough.

A B C

Habit of Nicotiana Dry tobacco leaves Tobacco picket


tabacum L.

D E F

The young boy is smoking The older man is smoking The older woman is
cheroots cheroots smoking pipe
Figure 4. Chin traditional smoking cheroots and smoking pipe used as tobacco leaves
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A B C

Dry tobacco Plastic bottle Earthen pot

D E F

Connector Production ofthe tobacco Tobacco liquid


liquid
Figure 5. Stage of the production of tobacco liquid

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION


Many people, especially live in villages and small towns, rely on wild collected
plants for food, construction materials, medicine and many other purposes. Today there is
often a decreases in the availability of wild plant resources, related to increased human
populations and effect of multiple land use. Ethnobotanical surveys can help local
communities define their needs for plant resources were clearly.
The intimate interrelationship between the human beings and plants has always
intrigued making and has compelled scientists to deal with it as an interdisplinary subject
involving not only the botanical and social as pacts which is now understood as
Ethnobotany (Saklani and Jain, 1994).
In this study, ethnic group of chin people mostly live in hilly regions. It was
reported by Chin comprises (53) different ethnic groups in Myanmar (Min Naing, 2000).
The present study emphasized on the relationship between plants and Chin tribes were
mostly resided in Hakha and Tedim Townships of Chin State.
The present work focuses on ethnobotanical value of plants used by Chin tribes
were described with botanical name, local name and parts used.
Tobacco, usually smoked, was widely used in Northern America (Heiser, 2006).
Chin tribes used this leaves only cheroots also tobacco liquid for treatment of cough, acting
teeth and teeth strong.
It was recorded that five different kinds of traditional fermented wine such as rice
sticky rice, millet grains, corn and banana. Guests are customarily invited to drink this
fermented wine similar to the Bamar and the Shan inviting the guests to a cup of hot, green
tea. This fermented wine is an important and a chin woman preparing jars of fermented
wine (Min Naing, 2000). In the present study area, Khaung-ye a traditional alcoholic
beverage was made from rice and traditional wine were made from the fermented juice of
grapes, apple, pineapple, strawberry, Subwe Sumwe fruits and the flowers of Taung-zalat-
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ni. Khaung-ye were the most popular drinks in the traditional chin dance festivals Delang
(2008) reported that traditional rice whiskey production in Northern Lao and the basic
process of Lao rice whiskey was the same with studied area but in fermentation chilli was
added in Laotian‘s alcohol process. Traditional wine made from flowers of Rhododendron
arboretum was not found literatures.
In study area, Khaung-ye a traditional alcoholic beverage is made from
rice (Oryza sativa) and also traditional wine is made from the fermented juice of grapes
(Vitis vinifera), Subwe Sumwe (Rubus ellipticus). Khaung-ye was the most popular liqueur
for the traditional Zomi Chin dancing festivals. Delang (2008) reported that traditional rice
whiskey production in Northern Lao and the basic process of Lao rice whiskey is the same
as this study area but in chilli is added in Laotian‘s alcohol process.
It can be concluded that Chin people live in forest and its surrounding areas are
knowledgeable to use plants for their daily needs such as food, constructions, fuel wood,
medicines and for many other purposes. Therefore it is need to reduce the extraction forest
resources for the conservation of forest. To conserve the forest it is suggest to introduce the
agro-forest system not only for sustainable use of forest but also for the development of
socio-economy of Chin tribes. The hill tribe people indeed an important cultural resources
and their knowledge can be valuable for conserving what remains of Chin tribe's cultural
heritage.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr Khin Thida Soe, Professor and Head, Department of
Botany, Kalay University for providing her advices and necessary research facilities in the field of study. I
would like to thank to Dr May Kyawt Khaing, Professor, Department of Botany, University of Kalay for his
valuable suggestion in this research paper.

REFERENCES
Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C., (1968), Flora of Java (Spermatophytes Only). I-IIII.
N. V. P. Noordhoff , Groningen.
Balick, M. J. and Cox, P.A., (1996), Plant, People and Culture: The Science of Ethnobotany. Scientific
American Library, New York.
Chiej, R., (1988), The MacDonald encyclopoedia of medicinal plants. Plant resources of South-East
Asis. Macdonald Orbis, London.
Coronel, R.E. and Verheij, E.W.M., (1992), Edible fruit and nuts. Plant resources of South-East Asia.
No.2. Bogor Indonesia.
Creswell, J. W., (2003), Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches. 2nd
Edition, SAGE Publications, London.
Delang, C.O., (2008), "Keeping the Spirit Alive: Rice whiskey production in Northern Lao P.D.R.",
Ethnobotany Research & Application. available at http://www. ethnobotanyjournal.
org/vol6/i 1547-3465-06-459. pdf.
Heiser, C.B. Jr., (2006), "Ethnobotany and Economic Botany of the North American Flora", Flora of
North America, 1, p. 199-206.
Hooker, J.D., (1875-1885), The Flora of British India. L. Reeve & Co. Ltd. London, vol. I-VII.
Hutchinson, J., (1967), Key to the families of flowering plants of the world. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
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Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. and Daw Yin Yin Kyi, (2003), A Checklist of the trees, shrubs,
herbs and climbers of Myanmar. National Museum of Natural History, Washington,
DC, U.S.A.
Martin, G. J., (1995), Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Chapman & Hall, UK.
Min Naing, (2000), National Ethnic groups of Myanmar. Myanmar Book Centre Co., Ltd, Yangon,
Myanmar.
Ososki, A. L., Lohr, P., Reiff, M., Balick, M. J., Kronenberg, F., Fugh-Berman, A., Connor, B. O.,
(2002), " Ethnobotanical literature survey of medicinal plants in the Dominican
Republic used for women‘s health conditions ", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79,
p. 285–298.
Pandey, B.P., (1999), Taxonomy of Angiosperms for University students. S. Chand and Company
Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi.
Pei, S., (1995), "Ethnobotany and sustainable use of plant resource in the HKH mountain region,
planning workshop on Ethnobotany and its application to conservation and Punjab,
Pakistan", Biol. Conser., 63(3), p. 205-210.
Saklani, A. and Jain, S. K., (1994), Cross-cultural ethnobotany of northeast India. Deep publications,
New Delhi, India.
Sharma, O. P., (1993), Plant Taxonomy. Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, p.
482.
Siemonsma, J.S. and Piluek, K., (1994), Vegetables. PROSEA, Bogor, Indonesia.
Veilleux, C. and King, S.R., (1996), An introduction to ethnobotany. Linda Morganstein, editor.
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PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER SAMPLES FROM


KALAY UNIVERSITY AND KHAI-KAM TOWNSHIP, SAGAING
REGION

Than Than Aye 1, Ni Ni Win2, Nwe Ni Hlaing3, Myint Myint Khine4

ABSTRACT
The present work deals with some physicochemical properties of water
samples from three different streams near Za-lat-ni Hostel and Bandula Hostel in
Kalay University and Kyauk-ta-lone stream in Khai-Kam (cdkifurf;) Township and
artesian water from Bandula Hostel in Kalay University, Kalay Township, Sagaing
Region.Some Physicochemical parameters such as BOD by using incubation method,
TDS and TSS by gravimetric method, COD, total hardness and total alkalinity by
titrimetric methods and chloride content by Mohr‘s method were determined. In the
research, the temperatures, 29.6 ºC, 29.4 ºC, 29ºC and 30ºCand pH, 7.39, 7.85, 8.00
and 7.83 were found to be nearly the same for four different water samples which are
consistent in WHO standard values. According to the results of hardness (33.6 mg/L
for stream water near Za-lat-ni, 46.2 mg/L for stream water near Za-lat-ni and
54.6 mg/L for water from Kyauk-ta-lone stream ), the water of three different streams
may be soft.And 138.6 mg/L for artesian water from Bandula Hostel it was found that
Bandula Hostel artesian water was moderately hard. Besides, the values of TDS,
TSS, total alkalinity, BOD, COD and Chloride were found to be in accord with the
WHO standard value (2015).

Keywords: Physicochemical parameter, WHO, Stream water, artesian water


1
2 INTRODUCTION
Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plants and
animals must have water to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on
earth. Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses for water.
Surface water refers to water found on the surface of the earth. Lakes, rivers, streams
and wetlands are all examples of surface water (Website 1). Protecting the quality and
quantity of our SURFACE WATER now and for the future use is a goal of Drinking
Water Source Protection under the ―Clean Water Act‖. Groundwater refers to all the
water occupying the voids, pores and fissures within geological formations, which
originated from atmospheric precipitation either directly by rainfall infiltration or
indirectly from rivers, lakes or canals (Website 2). Water quality refers to the
chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water (Johnson, et
al. 1997). It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one
or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used
by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most
common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety
of human contact and drinking water. Various types of impurities present in water can

1
Associate Professor, Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
2
Demonstrator, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
3
Demonstrator, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
4
Professor ( Head ), Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
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be determined by water analysis (Website 3). Safe sources are important, but it is only
with improved hygiene, better water storage and handling, improved sanitation and in
some cases, household water treatment, that the quality of water consumed by people
can be assured. An increasing body of evidence is showing that water quality
interventions have a greater impact on diarrhoea incidence than previously thought,
especially when interventions are applied at the household level (or point-of-use) and
combined with improved water handling and storage (Clasen et al, 2007).In
recognition of the growing importance of ensuring safe water in programming for
children, the 2006 global UNICEF strategy paper (UNICEF water, sanitation and
hygiene strategies for 2006-2015) stresses the importance of water quality in its
sectoral programmes. The examination of water may be divided into three classes
such as physical examination, chemical examination and microbiological
examination. The physical examination consists of (i) colour (ii) odour test (iii)
temperature test and (iv) total solids (TS) (vi) total dissolved solids (TDS) (vii) total
suspended solids (TSS) (v) conductivity test. The chemical test consists of (i) pH, (ii)
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), (iii) chemical oxygen demand (COD), (iv)
dissolved oxygen (DO), (v) total hardness (TH), (vi) heavy metals, (vii) nitrogen and
its compounds (viii) chlorides. The microbiology examination of water includes both
bacteriology and biology examination.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Sample Collection
In this research work, water samples were collected from four different places
(stream near Za-lat-ni Hostel, stream near Bandula Hostel, artesian water of Bandula
Hostel in Kalay University and Kyauk-ta-lone stream in Khai Kam (cdkifurf;) Township,
Sagaing Region). The water samples were collected by mean of a water sampler. The
places collected samples were shown in Figure 1.
Determination of Temperature
The temperatures of water samples were immediately measured by using
thermometer. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of pH
The pH values of water samples were determined by pH meter. Experimental
data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of Total Dissolved Solids
20 mL of filtrated water samples were added in dry and clean porcelain
crucibles and then were put into the oven and dried for 4 hours at 95º C. After this, it
was weighed until the constant weighed. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of Total Suspended Solids
100 mL of each water samples was filtered with filter papers and removed the
filter paper. These filter papers were dried in the oven at 32º C for one and half hour.
And then, it was weighed until the constant weight was obtained. Experimental data
are listed in Table 1.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

A B

C D

Figure 1. Water samples collected from (A) stream near Za-lat-ni hostel in Kalay
University, ( B ) stream near Bandula hostel in Kalay University, (C)
artesian water of Bandula hostel in Kalay University, (D) Kyauk-ta-lone
stream in Khai-Kam( cdkifurf; ) Township

Determination of Temperature
The temperatures of water samples were immediately measured by using
thermometer. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of pH
The pH values of water samples were determined by pH meter. Experimental
data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of Total Dissolved Solids
20 mL of filtrated water samples were added in dry and clean porcelain
crucibles and then were put into the oven and dried for 4 hours at 95º C. After this, it
was weighed until the constant weighed. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.
Determination of Total Suspended Solids
100 mL of each water samples was filtered with filter papers and removed the
filter paper. These filter papers were dried in the oven at 32º C for one and half hour.
And then, it was weighed until the constant weight was obtained. Experimental data
are listed in Table 1.
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Determination of Total Hardness by EDTA Titrimetric Method


Preparation of solutions
0.0084 M EDTA solution
10 mL of 0.01 M calcium carbonate solution was pipetted into a conical flask
and 2 drops of indicator were added. This solution was titrated with (approximately
0.01 M) EDTA solution. The concentration of EDTA solution was found to be
0.0084 M.
0.01 M Standard Calcium Carbonate Solution
Calcium carbonate (0.2503g) was placed in conical flask and 1:1 hydrochloric
acid solution was added to the CaCO3powder until all of the powder was dissolved.
Then 50 mL of distilled water was added and boiled for a few minutes to expel CO 2
gas. The solution was cooled, a few drops of methyl orange indicator were added, and
the colour was adjusted to orange with 1:1 hydrochloric acid or concentrated
ammonia solution. Then the solution was diluted to make the volume of 250 mL with
distilled water. This standard solution (1 mL) is equivalent to 1 mg of CaCO3.
Procedure
10 mL of water sample was pipetted into a conical flask. 1 mL of pH 10 buffer
solution (NH4Cl) and 3 drops of EBT indicator were added to the flask. The mixture
was then titrated with 0.084 M EDTA solution until the colour changed from wine red
to blue. The procedure was repeated two more times to obtain the average value.
Experimental data are listed in Table 1.

Determination of Total Alkalinity by Titrimetric Method


Preparation of Solutions
0.0196 M Sulphuric Acid Solution
Approximately 2 M stock sulphuric acid solution was prepared by adding
slowly 11.1 mL of sulphuric acid to 10 mL of distilled water and the volume was
made up to 100 mL in a volumetric flask. 1 mL of the resulting solution was added to
distilled water in a 100 mL volumetric flask and the volume was made up to the
mark.10 mL solution of 0.01 M sodium carbonate solution (0.1063 g dissolved in
distilled water and the volume was made up to 100 mL on a volumetric flask) was
pipetted into a conical flask and one drop of methyl orange was added. The solution
was titrated with the above approximately 0.02 M sulphuric acid solution. From the
titrant volume, the concentration of sulphuric acid solution was found to be 0.0196 M.
Procedure
10 mL of water sample was pipetted into a conical flask and 2 drops of
phenolphthalein indicator were added. This solution was titrated with sulphuric acid
solution until the colour changed from pink to colourless. This titration was noted as
"P" mL titrant volume used for phenolphthalein alkalinity. And then 2 drops of
methyl orange were added and the titration was continued until the colour turned from
yellow to orange. The total volume of titrant was noted as "t" and used for both
titrations. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.
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Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand


Preparation of Solutions
Manganese (II) Sulphate Solution
Manganese (II) sulphate (14.56 g) was dissolved in 40 mL of distilled water in
a beaker.
0.025 M Sodium Thiosulphate Solution
Sodium thiosulphate (3.12 g) was dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water and
the volume was made up to 500 mL in volumetric flask. A 10 mL solution of 0.02M
potassium iodide 0.223g (oven dried at 120 ºC) was dissolved in distilled water and
the volume made up to 250 mL was pipetted into the conical flask and 1mL of dilute
sulphuric acid was added. The solution was titrated with 0.025 M sodium thiosulphate
solution, using 2 mL of starch solution before the end point. From the titrant volume,
the concentration of sodium thiosulphate was found to be 0.025 M.
Alkaline Iodide- Azide Solution
Sodium hydroxide (31.25 g) and potassium iodide (9.375 g) were dissolved in
62.5mL of distilled water in a beaker. Sodium azide (0.625 g) was dissolved in 2.5
mL of distilled water and then added to above solution.
Procedure
Water samples were filled into 250 mL two glass bottles. 50 mL of water
sample was pipetted into a conical flask and 2 mL of manganese (II) sulphate
solution, 2 mL of alkaline iodide – azide solution and 2 mL of concentrated sulphuric
acid were added. The solution was titrated with sodium thiosulphate solution using 2
mL of starch indicator solution until the colour changed from blue to colourless. The
other bottle was stopped and incubated at 20º C for 5 days. After 5 days, this solution
was titrated with standard sodium thiosulphate solution using starch indicator solution
until the colour changed from blue colour to colourless. Finally, the difference
between the initial DO content and DO after incubating for 5 days were obtained.
Experimental data are listed in Table 1.

Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand


Preparation of Solutions
0.2 M Sodium Thiosulphate Solution
Sodium thiosulphate (6.24 g) was dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water.
Approximately 2M Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric acid (5.55 mL) was added slowly in 50 mL of distilled water and
heated until a clear solution was obtained.
Approximately 5% potassium Iodide Solution
Potassium iodide (5g) was dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water.
0.02 M Potassium Permanganate Solution
Potassium permanganate (0.158 g) was dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water
in a beaker.
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Starch Indicator Solution


0.5 g of starch was dissolved in 50 mL of distilled water in a beaker and
heated until a clear solution was obtained.
Procedure
50 mL of water sample was pipetted into a conical flask and 2 mL of
potassium permanganate solution was added. Then the flask was placed on a water
bath for about 30 minutes and cooled for 10 minutes. 2 mL of potassium iodide
solution and 2 mL of sulphuric acid solution were added to above solution. The
solution was titrated with standard sodium thiosulphate solution to obtain pale yellow
colour. Then, 1 mL of starch indicator solution was added to this solution to form blue
colour. The solution was titrated with standard sodium thiosulphate solution until the
colour changed from blue to colourless. The blank titration was carried out using
distilled water above the procedure. Finally, COD was calculated. Experimental data
are listed in Table 1.

Determination of Chloride
Preparation of Solutions
0.01 M Sodium Chloride Solution
Sodium chloride (0.056 g) was dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water in a
volumetric flask.
5% Potassium Chromate Solution
Potassium chromate (5g) was dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water in a
volumetric flask.
0.0125 M Silver Nitrate Solution
Silver nitrate (2.125g) was dissolved in 500 mL of distilled water to give an
approximately 0.1M solution. This solution (10 mL) was pipetted into a volumetric
flask and the volume made up to 100 mL. A (10 mL) solution of 0.01M sodium
chloride was pipetted into a conical flask and 2 drops of potassium chromate solution
were added. It was titrated with approximately 0.01M silver nitrate solution until a
brick-red colour was obtained. From this titration results, the concentration of silver
nitrate was found to be 0.0125M.
Procedure
Water sample (100 mL) was added into a conical flask and 2 drops of
potassium chromate solution were added. The solution was titrated with 0.0125M
silver nitrate solution until a brick-red colour being obtained. A reagent blank was
prepared and titrated as outline above. Experimental data are listed in Table 1.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Temperature and pH
The measured temperature and pH values of the collected water samples are
nearly same and the observed values of temperature and pH values were found within
the range of W.H.O standard value.
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Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS)


Total dissolved solids and Total suspended solids of the collected water
samples observed were very much less than W.H.O standard value.
Total Hardness
By observing total hardness of water samples, it was found that stream water
samples near Za-lat-ni Hostel, Bandula Hostel and Kyauk-ta-lone are soft while
Bandula hostel artesian well water is moderately hard. The total hardness values of
fpur different sites are ranged in WHO standard value, therefore, it is safe for people
using these water.
Total Alkalinity
The total alkalinity values of the collected water samples were found less than
W.H.O standard value.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
The results of BOD were found within the range of W.H.O standard value.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
The measured COD values of the collected water sample were found less than
W.H.O standard value. Thus, the water quality is acceptable.
Table 1. Comparison of Physicochemical Parameters' Values Obtained from the
Analysis of the Collected Water Samples of Four Different Sites (Kalay
University and Khai-Kam Township) and WHO standard
Sample location sites

Physicochemical Stream Stream Bandula Kyauk- WHO Standard


No.
Parameters near Za-lat- near Hostel ta-lone value (2015)
ni Hostel Bandula artesian stream
Hostel water
1 Temperature 29.6º C 29.4º C 30.0 º C 29.0º C < 35º C

2 pH 7.39 7.85 7.83 8.00 6.5-8.5

Total dissolved 55.0 45.0 50.0 60.0


3 500 mg/L
solids mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
Total suspended 50.0 43.0 49.0 58.0
4 150 mg/L
solids mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
< 75 ( soft )
75-150
33.6 46.2 138.6 54.6 (Moderately hard)
5 Total hardness
mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L 150-300( Hard )
> 300 mg/L
(very hard )
76.8 86.44 76.83 48.02
6 Total alkalinity 200-500mg/L
mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
Biochemical 3.8 4.5 4.0 4.2
7 4-6mg/L
oxygen demand mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
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Chemical 5.90 6.67 3.75 3.90


8 5 mg/L
oxygen demand mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
10 10 12 10
9 Chloride 10mg/L
mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L
WHO = Water Quality Standard of World Health Organization for Surface Water.

CONCLUSION

Water samples from four different sites (streams near Za-lat-ni Hostel, stream
near Bandula Hostel, artesian water of Bandula Hostel in Kalay University and
Kyauk-ta-lone stream in Khai Kam (cdkifurf;) Township) were collected.
Physicochemical properties of water samples such as temperature, pH, total dissolved
solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total hardness, total alkalinity,
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chloride
content were determined by conventional methods. According to results, it was found
that the observed values were in accord with the range of WHO standard values. So,
the water samples can be used for agriculture and washing.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express the deepest gratitude to Dr Than Win, (Rector, Kalay
University), and Dr Myint Swe (Pro-rector, Kalay Universtiy).

REFERENCES

Clasen, T., and Schmidt, W-P., (2007), "Interventions to improve water quality for preventing
diarrhoea: systematic review and meta-analysis", British Medical Journal, 334
(7597), p. 782.
Johnson, D.L., Ambrose, S. H., Bassett, T. J., Bowen., M. L., Crummey, D. E., Isaacson, J. S., Johnson,
D. N., Lamb, P., Saul, M., and Winter-Nelson, A.E., (1997), "Meanings of
environmental terms." Journal of Environmental Quality, 26, p. 581-589.

3 WEBSITES
1. www.pollutionprobe.org/puboications/primer.htm
2. http://www.academicjournals.org/IJWREE
3. http://en.wikipedia. org /wiki/Wikipedia:
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND


ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES EXTRACT OF
Clerodendrum colebrookianum WALP.

Zaw Min Thu1, Man Lun Niang2, Si Si Thet3, Nwet Nwet Win4

ABSTRACT
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. is popularly known as "Phat-Khar" in Chin
state, North West region of Myanmar. The leaves of this plant are mostly consumed
as vegetable by boiling. The focus of this research was a preliminary phytochemical
analysis and antioxidant potential of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of
this plant. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using the standard phytochemical
assay. The results of the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence
of alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. In vitro antioxidant
property of the ethanol extract was analysed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The
extract showed potent radical scavenging activity.
Keywords: Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp., antioxidant activity,
phytochemical analysis, Chin State, Myanmar.

INTRODUCTION
Natural products and their derivatives have been recognized for many years as
a source of therapeutic agents and of structural diversity (Lahlou, 2013). Natural
products are often structurally complex compounds that possess a well-defined spatial
orientation. Those chemical compounds evolved to interact efficiently with their
biological targets; therefore, they occupy a biologically relevant chemical space and
represent validated starting points for drug discovery (Luesch and Montaser, 2011). It
is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that 80% of the developing
countries population depends on plant derived medicines which have its own
advantages like i.e. low or no adverse effects, poses minimum environmental hazards,
easily available and affordable (Gossell et al., 2006). Polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins
and other bioactive substances of herbal origin display various biological roles,
including antioxidant potential, free radical scavenging ability, anti-inflammatory,
anti-diabetic, anticarcinogenic activities (Miller, 1996). Recently, there is an
increasing interest in antioxidants, particulary in those intended to prevent the
presumed deleterious effects of free radicals in the human body, and to prevent the
deterioration of fats and other constituents of foodstuffs. Thus, many eyes drifted
towards evaluating the natural antioxidants of plant origin for their respective
efficacies which, on the other hand, showed lesser or no side effects (Das et al.,
2013).
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. (Synonymous to Clerodendrum
glandulosum Coleb.), is called "Phat-Khar" locally in Myanmar. This plant belongs to

1
Assistant Lecturer, Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
2
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
3
Assistant Lecturer, Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
4
Lecturer, Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

the family Verbenaceae. Globally the species of Clerodendrum genus are distributed
in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri
Lanka and Vietnam. Jadeja et al. (2011) has also been reported that C.
colebrookianum extract has been demonstrated to have a role in enhancing
experimentally induced insulin resistance and hypertension. In addition to
hypertension, the species have also been used against other ailments like abdominal
pain (Kalita and Phukan, 2010), anthelmintic (Jaian and Saklani, 1992), antidote
(Changkija, 1999), blood purifier (Sajem and Gosai, 2010), colics in infants (Sharma
et al., 2001), cough (Jain and Saklani, 1992), diabetes (Sajem and Gosai, 2010; Das
and sharma, 2003, Tamuli and Saikia, 2004), diarrhoea (Jain and Saklani, 1992), and
gastric disorders (Gupa, 2006). Previous phytochemical investigation of this plant
have been reported to be a source of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, carbohydrates,
tannin, diterpenes, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids (Mahesh et al., 2015). The
present study is an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant potential as well as
phytochemical constituents present in ethanol and aqueous extracts obtained from the
leaves of C. colebrookianum.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Reagent solvents, purchased from commercial stores in Yangon, were used for
extraction and TLC chromatographic separations. For TLC, 0.25 mm silica gel
(GF254, Merck), aluminium-supported plates were used. Constituents were visualized
under UV light (254 and 365 nm). The absorbance was measured at 517 nm using a
UVmini-1240 spectrophotometer.

Plant Materials
The leaves of C. colebrookianum were collected from their natural habitats in
Chin State (Myanmar) and a voucher specimen (ZMT-7180) was deposited in the
Department of Chemistry, Kalay University, Myanmar. The collected leaves were
allowed to dry for one week in well ventilated shade. By using a grinder (mixer) the
dried plant material was pulverized into fine powder.

Figure 1. Clerodendrum colebrookianum


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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Preparation of extract
Fifty gram of the powder material was extracted exhaustively at room
temperature by maceration with 1000 ml of ethanol for one day with frequent
agitation. The extraction was carried out three consecutive times. The ethanol extract
was then filtered and concentrated by rotatory evaporator under reduced pressure; the
temperature maintained at 40-45 ºC. The sticky greenish substances which were
obtained was suspended in ethyl acetate and stored at 25 ºC until further use for the
phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties. About 10 g of dried sample was
refluxed with 400 ml of distilled water for 3 hours. The aqueous extract was then
filtered and used for phytochemical analysis.
Phytochemical analysis by test tube method
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics,
glycosides, tannins, terpenes, steroids and saponins in the extracts were carried out
using standard methods as describe in Table-1 (Tiwari et al., 2011).
Phytochemical analysis by TLC method
Leave extract of C. colebrookianum was subjected to thin layer
chromatography as per conventional one dimensional ascending method using silica
gel plate (GF254, Merck). Different solvent systems were tried to achieve a good
resolution. The solvent petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (3:2) was used and the run TLC
plates were dried. The developed chromatograms was first inspected under short wave
UV-254 nm and long wave UV-365 nm light and sprayed with various detecting
reagents such as Dragendorff‘s reagent for alkaloid test, Liebermann-Burchardt
reagent for steroids and terpenoids, NH3 vapour and 1% AlCl3 for flavonoids and 5%
FeCl3 solution for phenolic compounds (Sasidharan et al., 2011).

Antioxidant activity
DPPH radical scavenging assay
The free radical scavenging capacity of the C. colebrookianum leaves
ethanolic extract was determined using DPPH according to the method of Blois
(Blois, 1958). 14.2 mg of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH*) in ethanol (200
ml) was thoroughly prepared and to this 1.5 ml of solution, 1.5 ml of the extracts at
different concentration (1000-12.5 μg/ml) was added. This reaction mixture was
incubated for 30 min and measured at 517 nm, which represented the discoloration.
Ascorbic acid was used as the reference. All tests were performed in duplicate. The
DPPH* radical scavenging capacity was calculated and expressed aspercent inhibition
using the following equation:
I %= (Absorbance of control–Absorbance of test/Absorbance of control) x100
The IC50 antioxidant activity values were calculated from the regression
equation.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The preliminary phytochemical screening tests may be useful in the detection
of the bioactive principles and subsequently may lead to the drug discovery and
development. Further, these tests facilitate their quantitative estimation and qualitative
23
University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

separation of pharmacologically active chemical compounds. In the present


investigation, preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanol and aqueous extract
of C. colebrookianum was carried out to detect the active constituents such as
alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannin, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic
compounds by means of test tube and TLC methods. Almost all major groups of
phytochemicals were found to be present in the sample as evidenced by the various
chemicals analyses as detailed out in the Table-1.
Table 1. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of
C. colebrookianum Walp.
No. Test for Test Name Reagents Observation Inference*
1. Flavonoids Shinoda test Mg ribbon + conc. No pink or red -
HCl colour
2. Alkaloids Dragendorff's test Bismuth nitrate, Orange +
glacial acetic acid, coloration
potassium iodide
3. Phenolic Braemer's test 10% alcoholic ferric Dark blue or +
chloride greenish grey
4. Glycosides Lead acetate test 10% Lead acetate Flocculent white +
precipitate
5. Tannins Gelatin test 1% gelatin solution No white -
+ NaCl precipitate
6. Saponins Foam test Distilled water No frothing -
7. Steroids Liebermann- Acetic anhydride + Dark green +
Burchardt test conc: sulphuric acid colour
8. Terpenoids Liebermann- Acetic anhydride + Dark green +
Burchardt test conc: sulphuric acid colour
* - absent, + present
Their presence were further strengthened by TLC profiling of ethanol extract
of this plant which showed different bands representing various constituents (Figure
2). Several TLC analysis of ethanol extract of C. colebrookianum on treatment with
various chemicals were studied. It was found that the extracts contained alkaloids,
phenols, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids.

Inspected Visible Visible


UV-365 Visible UV-365
under
10% 10 %
Chemical
AlCl3 Dragendorff Ethanolic 5 % FeCl3 H2SO4
reagent
KOH
Figure 2. TLC Profiles of Ethanol Extract of C. colebrookianum after treating
with various Chemical Reagents
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

In this study, free radical scavenging activities of C. colebrookianum leaves


ethanolic extract and standard ascorbic acid were determined by using DPPH method.
The effect of antioxidants on DPPH is thought to be due to their hydrogen donating
activity. As DPPH is considered as the lipophilic radical, it readily accept electron
from the antioxidant compound and converts its colour from violet to yellow which is
detected at 517 nm. The result obtained in the study indicates that the extract
exhibited good radical savenging activity (IC50 78.42 μg/ml) but was to a lesser extent
compared to standard ascorbic acid (IC50 11.78 μg/ml).
IC50 mg/ml
100
Ascorbic
Sample
0

Figure 3. DPPH radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract and ascrobic acid

CONCLUSION
To conclude, it was understood from the present study that the extract of C.
colebrookianum contained many phytochemicals as revealed by phytochemical
studies and TLC analysis. The phytochemical analysis of the ethanol and aqueous
extracts from the leaves of C. colebrookianum showed that it contained alkaloids,
phenols, glycosides, steroids and terpenoids. As the IC 50 value of ethanol extract were
found to be 78.42 μg/ml, exhibiting potent DPPH scavenging activity. The present
work corroborated very well with similar studies in C. colebrookianum. The results
encourage the use of leaves extracts for functional food and medicinal application.
This study was only a preliminary one as the mere presence of any compound is not
sufficient a reason for the discovery of potent new drugs. The research work on the
chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the principal
component present in the extract will be interesting for developing it as a drug for
therapeutic application.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express their profound gratitude to Prof. Dr. Than Win (Rector,
Kalay University), Dr. Myint Swe (Pro-rector, Kalay University), Dr. Myint Myint Khine (Professor
and Head, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University) and Dr. Than Than Khaing (Professor,
Department of Chemistry, Kalay University) for their kind permission to conduct this research work
and provision of research facilities.

REFERENCES
Blois, M.S., (1958), ―Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical‖, Nature, 181,
p. 1199-1200.
Changkija, S., (1999), ―Folk medicinal plants of the Nagas in India‖, Asian Folk. Stud., 58, p. 205-230.
Das, A., Chaduhuri, D., Ghate, N.B., Chatterjee, A. and Mandal, N., (2013), ―Comparative assessment
of phytochemicals and antioxidant potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. leaf from North-east India‖, Int J Pharm
Pharm Sci, 5, p. 420-427.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Das, A.K. and Sharma, G.D., (2003), ―Ethnomedicinal uses of plants by Manpuri and Barman
communities of Cachar district, Assam‖, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 27, p. 421-429.
Gossell, -W.M., Simon, O.R. and West, M.E., (2006), ―The past and present use of plants for
medicine‖, West Indian Medicinal, 55, p. 217-218.
Gupa, V., (2006), ―Traditional medicinal plants of the Bangnis of East Kameng district, Arunachal
Pradesh‖, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 30, p. 310-319.
Jadeja, R.N., Thounaojam, M.C. and Ramani, U.V., (2011), ―Anti-obesity potential of Clerodendrum
glandulosum Coleb. leaf aqueous extract‖, J. Ethnopharmacol, 135, p. 338-343.
Jain, S.K. and Saklani, A., (1992), ―Cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies in northeast India‖,
Ethnobotany, 4, p. 25-38.
Kalita, D. and Phukan, B., (2010), ―Some ethnomedicines used by the Tai Ahom of Disbrugard District,
Assam, India‖, Indian J. Nat. Prod. Res., 1, p. 507-511.
Lahlou, M., (2013), ―The success of natural products in drug discovery‖, Pharmacology & Pharmacy,
4, p. 17-31.
Luesch, H. and Montaser, R., (2011), ―Marine natural products: a new wave of drugs?‖, Future Med.
Chem., 3, p. 1475-1489.
Mahesh, M., Preeenon, B., Lalthanzama, V., Somashekar, R., Ravi, S.B.E., Benaka, P.S.B., Richard,
S.A. and Dhananjaya, B.L., (2015), ―The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the
leaves extracts of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. (Fam: Verbenaceae) ‖, Int. J.
Pharm. Sci., 7, p. 96-99.
Miller, A.L., (1996), ―Antioxidant flavonoids: structure, function and clinical usage‖, Altern Med Rev,
1, p. 103-111.
Sajem, A.L. and Gosai, K., (2010), ―Ethnobotanical investigations among the Lushai tribes of North
Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India‖, Indian J. Tradit. Know., 9, p. 108-
113.
Sharma, H.K., Chhangte, L. and Dolui, A.K., (2001), ―Traditional medicinal plants in Mizoram, India‖,
Fitoterapia, 72, p. 146-161.
Tamuli, P. and Saikia, R., (2004), ―Ethno-medico-botany of the Zeme tribe of North Cachar Hills
district of Assam‖, Indian J. Tradit. Know., 3, p. 430-436.
Tiwari, P., Kumar, B., Kaur, M., Kaur, G. and Kaur, H., (2011), ―Phytochemical screening and
extraction: A Review‖, Int. Pharm. Sci., 1, p. 98-106.
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CHEMOTAXONOMIC STUDY ON Clausena excavate (PYIN-DAW-THEIN)


AND Murraya koenigii (PYINDAW-THEIN)

Nwe Ni Thin1, Wai Yan Htun1, Myint Myint Khine2

ABSTRACT
The aim of this project deals with the the chemotaxonomic investigations on
the leaves of two medicinal plants: Clausena excavata and Murraya koenigii.
According to the phytochemical investigation by Test Tube method and TLC method,
all plants contain phenolic compounds, coumarins, essential oils, terpenes, steroids
and glycosides as major constituents whereas alkaloids, tannins and saponins are
found to be absent. The results of chemotaxonomic study revealed that the selected
species of both plants responded positively for phenols, glycosides, coumarins,
essential oils, terpenes and steroids and also showed synergistic chemical constituents.
Keywords: Clausena excavata, Murraya koenigii, chemotaxonomic, phenolic
compounds, glycosides

INTRODUCTION
Natural Products are produced by all organisms but are mostly known from
plants, insects, fungi, algae and prokaryotes. All of these organisms coexist in
ecosystems and interact with each other in various ways in which chemistry plays a
major role. Many natural products are biologically active and have been used for
thousands of years as traditional medicines and as natural poisons. Plants are the
major contributors of natural products. Over the years, many approaches evolved
towards the taxonomy of plants. These include morphological classification,
anatomical classification and chemotaxonomic classification. The first two can be
grouped under traditional classifications whereas the third one is modern approach to
classify the plants. In plants, the more popular families that have been studied through
chemotaxonomy are Malvaceae, Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, Polygonaceae, and
Solanaceae. The findings of chemotaxonomic studies are helpful to taxonomist,
phytochemists and pharmacologists to solve selected taxonomical problems (Singh,
2016). The Rutaceae family is one of the largest plant family with approximately 150
genera and 1,500 species, distributed largely in tropical and subtropical parts of the
world. The Rutaceae family is known throughout the world for its citrus fruits such as
oranges, lemons and grape fruit. Essential oils obtained from the leaves and fruit peel
of various species of Rutaceae family especially from the genus Clausena, Citrus and
Murraya are popularly used in medicine and perfumery (Jain, 2012).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Plant Materials
Fresh leaves of Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and Murraya Koenigii
(Pyin Daw Thein) collected from Kalay University campus in July, 2015.

1
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
2
Professor, Dr, Department of Chemistry, Kalay University
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Clausena excavata Murraya koenigii


Figure 1. Selected medicinal plants
Chemicals and Reagents
Chemicals used were petroleum-ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol from BDH
and also locally from the commercial chemical stores in Yangon. Silicagel GF254
precoated aluminum sheets (20 cm x 20 cm) (Merck Ltd., Japan) are used for TLC
screening.
The reagents used for colour reaction tests were Dragendroff‘s, Mayer‘s,
Wagner‘s, 5% H2SO4, 5% FeCl3, 10% ethanolic KOH, 1% AlCl3, 10% lead acetate,
gelatin.

Preliminary Screening of Plant Secondary metabolites by Test Tube Method

Test for Alkaloid


The air-dried powder (50 g) was boiled with 1% hydrochloric acid for about
10 minutes and allowed to cool and it was filtered. The filtrate was divided into four
portions and tested with Mayer's reagent, Dragendorff's reagent, sodium picrate
solution, Wagener's reagent respectively. Observation was made to see if treatment
with alkaloid reagents finished alkaloidal precipitate. (Tin Wa., 1972; Trease and
Evans, 1980).
Test for Flavonoids
The powdered sample (50 g) was extracted with 100 mL ethanol and
filtered. Hydrochloric acid (concentrated), 5-10 drops was added to the filtrate (5
mL). A few pieces of magnesium ribbon were added to the above mixture.
Appearance of reddish-pink colour indicated the presence of flavanoids. (Tin Wa,
1972., Marini-Bettolo et al., 1981).
Test for Glycosides
The powdered sample (50 g) was boiled with distilled water (100 ml) for
about 10 minus and filtered after cooling at room temperature. 5 mL of filtrate was
treated with 10% Lead acetate solution. Observation was made to see if the solution
turned turbid with white precipitates which indicated the presence of glycosides.
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Test for Phenolic Compounds


The powdered sample (50 g) was extracted with EtOH (100 mL 3) for 3
days and then filtered. 5 mL of filtrate was treated with a few drops of 1% of FeCl 3
and K3Fe (CN)6 solutions. Appearance of a deep green colour indicated the present of
phenolic compounds.
Test for Saponins
A small amount of powder sample was introduced into a test tube and some
distilled water was added. Then the mixture was vigorously shaken for a few minutes
to see if the forthing took place. Appearance of forthing indicated the presence of
saponins. (Trease and Evans, 1980; Marini-Bettolo et al., 1981).
Test for Steroids
The powdered sample (50 g) was extracted with EtOH (100mL 3) for 3
days and the solvent was removed by distillation under reduced pressure. Acetic
anhydride (3 drops) was added and the mixture was manually shaken for 1 min. Then
a few drops of conc. H2SO4 acid was carefully added and shaken. Observation was
made to see if the solution turned to blue colour which indicated the presence of
steroid (Tin Wa, 1972; Marini-Bettolo et al., 1981).
Test for Tannins
3 or 4 drops of 10% NaCl solution were added to the ethanolic extract of plant
material, followed by filtration. About 3 ml of the filtrate was transferred to test tube
and added 2-3 drops of 1% gelatin solution. Observation was made to see if
precipitates were formed (Trease and Evans, 1980).
Test for Terpenoids
The dried powdered sample (50 g) was extracted with ethanol EtOH (100
mL 3) for 3 days and filtered. The solution was added with acetic anhydride (2 cm 3),
followed by concentrated sulphuric acid (1 cm3). Red or pink colouration indicated
the presence of terpenoids. (Tin Wa, 1972).

Preliminary Screening of Plant Secondary Metabolites by TLC Method


50 g of dried powder samples of selected plants were weighed and placed in a
conical flask. 100 cm3 of EtOH was added into the flask and the flask was stoppered
with a cock. The samples were allowed to macerate for 24 hrs. The flask was then
placed on a shaker, shaken continuously for 6 hours and the suspension allowed to
stand for 18 hours. The contents were filtered. Evaporation of filtrate provides EtOH
extract.
Each EtOH extracts of leaves of selected plants were subjected to TLC
analysis using different solvent systems. The TLC analysis of each extract with some
visualizing agents such as Dragendorff‘s reagent for alkaloid test, Liebermann-
Burchard reagent for steroids and terpenoids, NH3 vapour and 1% AlCl3 for
flavonoids and 5% FeCl3 solution for phenolic compounds, 10% ethanolic KOH
solution for coumarins were carried out. The developed chromatograms were firstly
checked under UV 254 nm and 365 nm light. The behaviors on TLC are summarized
in Table 1.
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1% Aluminium Chloride Reagent


The TLC plate was sprayed with 5-10 mL of 1% aluminium chloride in
ethanol. The formation of the bright fluorescences in long wave UV light indicated
the presence of flavonoids.
Dragendorff's Reagent
The TLC plate was sprayed with 5-10 mL of the reagent (solution (a): 0.85
g bismuth nitrate in 10 mL glacial acetic acid and 40 mL water under heating.
Solution (b): 8 g KI in 30 mL water. Stock solution (a) and (b) are mixed 1:1). The
formation of orange spot indicated the presence of alkaloids, hetrocyclic nitrogen
compounds.
10% Ethanolic KOH Reagent
The TLC plate was sprayed with 5-10 mL of reagent. The formation of
colour zones (vis) and fluorescent zones in UV-365 nm were observed for the
presence of anthraquinones and coumarins.
5% Ferric Chloride Reagent
The TLC plate was sprayed with 5-10 mL of 5% ferric chloride. The
formation of colour zones in visible were observed for the present of phenolic
compounds.
5% Sulphuric acid Reagent
The TLC plate was sprayed with 5-10 mL of 10% sulphuric acid reagent
and then heated for 5-6 mins at 110C. The formation of colour zones in the visible
region indicated the presence of steroids and terpenoids.

Chemotaxonomic Study on Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and


Murraya koenigii (Pyin Daw Thein) by TLC Method
Chemotaxonomy is concerned with the application of chemical characters to
problems of classification and phylogeny the special value of the chemotaxonomic
approaches can be seen when chemical characters correlate well with data obtained
from preliminary screening of secondary metabolites. In order to know the
chemotaxonomy of Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and Murraya koenigii (Pyin
Daw Thein), 50 g of ethanolic extracts of both plants were subjected to precoated
silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates and chromatography was performed in Petroleum ether
various solvent systems with increasing polarity. The developed chromatograms were
checked under UV 254 and 365 nm light and sprayed with colour reagents to classify
the type of compounds present in both plants. Rf values of fractions were determined.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Preliminary Screening of Plant Secondary metabolites by Test Tube Method
Phytochemical investigation was carried out to know the types of phytoorganic
constituents present in leaves of Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and Murraya
koenigii (Pyin Daw Thein). These results were summarized in Figure 2 and Table 1.
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According to these results, steroids, essential oils, terpenoids, glycosides, and


phenolic compounds were found to be present in ethanolic extracts of both selected
plants whereas alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and tannins were absent in plant
samples.

Preliminary Screening of Plant Secondary Metabolites by TLC Method


Each ethanol extracts from all plant samples were analyzed by TLC and
phytochemical screening was performed by using detecting reagents. It was found that
all ethanol extracts exhibited the positive results with 5% sulphuric acid, 5% iron (III)
chloride, and 10% ethanolic KOH. These results, shown in Table 2, indicated the
presence of steroids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and coumarins in plant extracts.

Chemotaxonomic Study on Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and Murraya


koenigii (Pyin Daw Thein) by TLC Method
Chemotaxonomic principles are considered and some examples are provided
to show the importance of chemical evidence in taxonomic revision (Ankanna, 2012).
The system of chemotaxonomic classification relies on the chemical similarity of
taxon, it is based on the existence of relationship between constituents and among the
plants. The results revealed that the selected species of Pyindaw Thein responded
positively for phenols, glycosides, coumarins, essential oils, terpenes and steroids and
also showed synergistic chemical constituents.

Figure 2. Preliminary screening of plant secondary metabolites by Test Tube


method
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Table 1. Preliminary Phytochemical Test on Plant Extracts by Test Tube Method

No Test Extract Test Reagent Observation Remark

I II

Dragendroff‘s
1. Alkaloids EtOH Orange ppt - -
reagent

Mayer reagent White ppt - -

Wagner reagent Brown ppt - -

Sodium picrate Yellow ppt - -

No Pink
Mg
colour
2. Flavonoids EtOH ribbon,conc.HCl - -
No Yellow
10 %NH3
colour

Phenolic 5 % FeCl3  Brown/ black


3. EtOH + +
compounds K3 Fe(CN)6 colour

4. Saponins H2O H2O No Frothing - -

10%
5. Tannins H2O NoWhite ppt - -
NaCl,1%Gelatin

6. glycosides H2O 10% Lead acetate White ppt + +

+ = present; - = absence
I = Clausena excavata and II = Murraya koenigii
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After spraying with 5% After spraying Under UV lamp (254


EtOH H2SO4 and heated 110C with nm)
extract 5% FeCl

I I I I I I I I
I I I I

After spraying with After spraying with 10%


1% AlCl and check ethanolic KOH and check
3
under Under
Before spraying UV 354 nm lamp UV 354 nm lamp
coumari
n

I = Clausena excavata and II = Murraya koenigii


Figure 3. Preliminary screening of plant Secondary metabolites by TLC method
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Table 2. Preliminary Phytochemical Test on Plant Extracts by TLC Method

Remark
No Test Extract Test Reagent Observation
I II

Dragendroff‘s
1. Alkaloids EtOH Orange spot - -
reagent

No brighter
2. Flavonoids EtOH 1%AlCl3 - -
fluoresence

Brown/ black
3. Phenolic compounds EtOH 5 % FeCl3 + +
colour

Coumarins& 10%ethanolic brighter


4. EtOH + +
Anthraquinones KOH fluoresence

Steroids, essential oils Various colour


5. EtOH 5%H2SO4 + +
and terpenes zones

+ = present; - = absence
I = Clausena excavata and II = Murraya koenigii

CONCLUSION
From the overall assessment of the present work concerning with the
chemotaxonomic investigations on the leaves of two medicinal plants: Clausena
excavata and Murraya koenigii, the following inferences could be deduced.
According to the phytochemical investigation, all plants contain phenolic
compounds, coumarins, essential oils, terpenes, steroids and glycosides as major
constituents whereas alkaloids, tannins and saponins are found to be absent.
The results of chemotaxonomic study revealed that the selected species of
Pyindaw Thein responded positively for phenols, glycosides, coumarins, essential
oils, terpenes and steroids and also showed synergistic chemical constituents.
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We wish also to express our profound indebtedness and forever thanks to our supervisor, Dr
Myint Myint Khine, Professor (Head), Department of Chemistry, Kalay University, for her close
supervision, precious suggestions and invaluable advice.
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REFERENCES
Jain, V., Momin, M., Laddha, K., (2012), ―Murraya Koenigii: An Updated Review‖, International
Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine, 2 (4), p. 607-627.
Marini-Bettolo, G. B., Nicolettic, M. and Patamia, M., (1981), ―Plant Screening by Chemical and
Chromatographic Procedures under Field Condition‖, Journal of Chromatography,
231, p. 121-123.
Singh, R., (2016), ―Chemotaxonomy: A Tool for Plant Classification‖, Journal of Medicinal Plants
Studies, 4 (2), p. 90-93.
Tin Wa, (1972), ―Phytochemical Screening: Methods and Procedures‖, Phytochemical Bulletin of
Botanical Society of America, Inc., 5 (3), p. 4-10.
Trease, G. E. and Evans, W. C., (1980), Pharmacognosy. London: Bpottis Woode, Ballantynehtal Ltd.,
p. 518.
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GEOLOGY OF THE FALAM MUDSTONE MICRITE


FORMATION EXPOSED IN NAT-TA-GA TAUNG, TIDDIM
TOWNSHIP, CHIN STATE
Tun Tun Min 1, Mang Sian Lam Mung2, Zam Khan Mang3

ABSTRACT
The research area is situated about 16 miles east of Tiddim Township, Chin
State. It covers a surface area of about 96 square miles. Falam Mudstone Micrite
Formation of the study area is composed of grey to black colour mudstone and silty
mudstone with sandstone turbidites and fine-grained sandstones. In the limestones,
fauna are characterized by abundant species ; Globotruncana stuarti stuartiformis,
Globotruncana stuarti elevata, Globotruncana arca, Globotruncana renzi,
Globotruncana gansseri, Globotruncana lapparenti, Globotruncana stuarti stuarti,
Heterohelix globusa, Heterohelix planata, Heterohelix reussi and Pseudotextularia
elegans. On the basis of Globotruncana foraminifera, and stratigraphic position, this
formation can be assigned as Upper Cretaceous. The modal composition and
nomenclature of representative samples of sandstone of the study area is greywacke
and lithic wacke. Microscopically, limestones of the Falam Mudstone Micrite
Formation can be classified as foraminiferal-bearing mudstone and foraminiferal
wackestone to packstone. Theizang Thrust separates the Pane Chaung Group to the
east and the Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation to the west.

Key words: Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation, Globotruncana foraminifera,


Theizang Thrust, Pane Chaung Group

INTRODUCTION
The research area is situated about 16 miles (24 kilometers) east of Tiddim.
The area is bounded by the latitude 23° 14' 41'' to 23° 26' 30''N and the longitude 93°
54' to 94° 00' E. It lies in UTM map sheet No.2393 15 and 2393 16 composite.

Figure 1. Location map of the study area (Source: Garmin map source 6.1).

1
Dr, lecturer, Geology Department, Kalay University
2
Demonstrator, Geology Department, Kalay University
3
Demonstrator, Geology Department, Kalay University
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It extends about 24 kilometers from north to south and 10 kilometers from east
to west. So, it covers a surface area of about 240 square kilometers. It can be
approached from the Kalay-Letpanchaung-Kim Lai Road by any automobile in all
seasons. The location map of the study area is shown in Fig (1).

Purpose of study
Investigation has been carried out for the following purposes:
1. to prepare a fairly detailed geological map of the study area,
2. to describe the stratigraphy of rock units exposed in the area,
3. to investigate the detailed petrography of sedimentary rocks in this area, and
4. to interpret the major and minor geological structures of the area.

Physiography
The study area is fairly rugged mountainous region. Nat-ta-ga Taung is
bounded by alluvial plains and Mwe Taung in the east and is attached with high
mountains in the west. The topography of this area is generally low-lying in the
eastern part, but it is higher and fairly rugged in the west. Most parts of the area are
mountainous and the highest peak has 1300 m above the sea level. Landsat image of
the study area and its environs is as shown in Fig. (2). The 3D Perspective view of the
study area is shown in Fig. (3).
The drainage pattern of the area is coarse dendritic to subdendritic patterns,
especially at Nat-ta-ga Taung. In this area, Nat-ta-ga Chaung and Pa-la-ta Chaung are
the prominent streams flowing in all seasons. In this area, vegetation is related to the
underlying bedrocks.

Figure 2. Landsat image showing the Physiography of the study area and its environs.
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Figure 3. 3D perspective view showing the prominent topographic feature and


location of the study area.

Regional Geologic Setting


The Chin Hills are composed of a metamorphic basement overlain by the
Triassic Pane Chaung Group turbidites and Cretaceous shales and limestones. Chin
flysch are classified into formation and groups as Falam-Mudstone Micrite Formation
and Pane Chaung Group (U.N., 1979). Falam-Mudstone Micrite Formation is
composed of grey to black colour mudstone and silty mudstone with sandstone
turbidites and fine-grained sandstones. Pane Chaung Group is made up of turbidites
and fine-grained sandstones, mudstone and carbonaceous mudstone, and rare thin
grey to black and locally crystalline limestones. The regional geologic setting of the
study area is shown in Fig. (4).
Theizang Thrust is traversed through the northwestern part of the study area.
Older age of Pane Chaung Group was assumed to be thrust westwards onto the Upper
Cretaceous Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation. Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation
is folded and locally affected by westward direct thrust in Chin Hills. The Cretaceous
system of Chin Hills can be subdivided into three distinct lithostratigraphic units;
Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation (Campanian-Maastrichian), which is followed by
the Early Tertiary (Paleocene - Middle Eocene) Chunsung Mudstone Turbidite
Formation and the Upper Eocene Kennedy sandstone formation.

Figure 4. Regional geologic setting of the study area and its environs.
(Source: MGS 2014)
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Rock unit distribution


The sedimentary rocks crop out in the westernmost and eastern part of the
area. The geological map of the study area is shown in Fig. (5).

Geological Map of the Na- ta- ga Taung, Tiddim Township

Biotite Schist

Figure 5. Geological map of the study area (modified after Vum Son., 1971, U.N.,
1979).

Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation


Nomenclature
Theobald (1873) named Negrais Group in Cape Negrais, Arakan Yoma and
the rocks west of Mindon in Thayetmyo District. It was also proposed ―Falam
Mudstone Micrite Formation by Brunnschweiller (1966) and is regarded as Upper
Cretaceous on basis of Globotruncana bearing limestone of Lungrang Klang Hill.
Beds of Cretaceous age have been recognized in the Western Ranges by Aung Khin
and Kyaw Win (1969) and Win Swe (1976) (in Hang Khan Lian, 1983), which are
bedded argillaceous sequence with a few thin bands of Globotrancana limestone and
argillaceous sandstone.
The name ―Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation‖ is also proposed by Kyi Htun
(1976), Mitchell and Zaw Pe (1977) (in Hang Khan Lian, 1983). However, this
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formation is named after Falam where the lithologies are easily recognized around
Falam Township.

Distribution
The type section of this formation is well exposed from about 5 miles before
Tai Nyen on the Kalay-Tiddim motor car road, Falam-Tiddim motor car road and the
Kalay-Haka road. It is wide spread in the north and northwestern portion of the study
area. This formation is forming as a deeply rugged mountain mass with 'V' shaped
valley.

Lithology
This formation is remarkably monotonous throughout the area. It is mainly
composed of grey to black colour shale, mudstone and silty mudstone with sandstone
turbidites (Fig. 6 & 7). The dipping of the beds in this formation is generally eastward
and nearly vertical (Fig. 8). The beds are highly jointed, highly deformed and very
friable in nature. The sandstones are mostly fine-grained and some are calcareous and
carbonaceous. The mudstones are massive and highly tectonized into sheared
mudstone (Fig. 9). Fine-grained micritic limestones are present as beds and lenses
near the eastern margin of the formation in the study area (Fig. 10 & 11). Cream,
grey, white or pink coloured limestones with stylolite seams. The limestones are
commonly include small planktonic foraminifera visible in hand specimen. Contacts
between the limestones and mudstone are sharp and clear stratigraphic characters in
stream section.

Fauna, Age and Correlation


Brunnschweiler (1966) and other geologist previously described the
occurrences of fossiliferous micritic limestone which contain foraminfera of Upper
Cretaceous (Cenomanian age). The fauna of these limestones are characterized by the
abundant species; Globotruncana stuarti stuartiformis, Globotruncana stuarti elevata,
Globotruncana arca, Globotruncana renzi, Globotruncana gansseri, Globotruncana
lapparenti, Globotruncana stuarti stuarti, Heterohelix globusa, Heterohelix planata,
Heterohelix reussi and Pseudotextularia elegans (Fig.12).

Figure 6. Black shale of Falam mudstone Figure 7. Dark grey colour, highly jointed,
micrite formation exposed at the flank of massive sandstone in Falam mudstone
Nat-ta-ga Chaung (23° 24' 07.6'' N & 93° micrite formation along the flank of Nat-ta -
56 ' 38.9''E). ga Chaung (23° 24' 15.4'' N & 93° 57' 30.6''E).
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Figure 8. Medium-bedded, grey-colour Figure 9. Grey colour shear mudstone in


sandstone in Falam mudstone micrite Falam mudstone micrite formation exposed
formation exposed along the Nat-ta-ga along the flank of Nat-ta-ga Chaung (23°
Chaung, 24' 02.4'' N & 93° 57' 40.6''E).

Figure 10. Pink and grey coloured Figure 11. Steeply inclined, grey to pink
limestone in Falam mudstone micrite colour, limestone beds in Falam mudstone
formation exposed Nat-ta-ga Taung. micrite formation of the study area.
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Figure 12. (a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h) Photomicrographs showing Globotruncana sp. in Falam


mudstone micrite formation of the Nat-ta-ga Taung.
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Based on the fauna association, the age of this formation may be assigned to
Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) age. As the micritic limestone is
interbedded with turbidites and mudstones, it can be resembly assumed that the
formation is largely and entirely of Campanian age. The Falam Mudstone Micrite
Formation can be correlated with part of the flysch sequence in the Naga Hill
described by Brunnschweiler (1966). The limestone of this formation is similar to
Nayputaung limestone of Nayputaung hill, 1 km S of ‗mile 70‘ on the road leading to
Taunggoat Pass.

Petrography of Sedimentary Rocks


A total of 20 sandstone samples from Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation of
the study area were cut into thin sections and they were examined under a petrological
microscope to obtain modal composition and a variety of other petrographical
features.

Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation


Sandstone
Megascopic study
The sandstones are mostly medium to thick-bedded, light grey colour and
some are calcareous and carbonaceous.

Microscopic study
The Falam sandstones vary from fine- to coarse-grained and from poorly- to
well-sorted with heterogeneous roundness of grains. The most common detrital grains
are quartz, feldspars, and rock fragments. Mica occurred as minor and non-opaque
heavy minerals are found as minor accessories.
Quartz is the most abundant constituent ranging from 45% to 62% of the total
rock components, predominantly occurring as monocrystalline either with undulatory
or non-undulatory extinction. The contact boundaries of the monocrystalline quartz
are dominantly long, concavo-convex and point contacts; sutured contacts are also
found. Polycrystalline quartz constitutes 1% to 11% of the total rock component and
4% in average. Boundary between the crystals of polycrystalline quartz may be
straight or sutured. Monocrystalline (Qm) and polycrystalline (Qp) quartz occur
throughout the sandstones of the Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation, in which
monocrystaline has higher percentage than polycrystalline quartz.
Next of feldspars are the important constituent among the detrital framework
grains of sandstone. Feldspars constitute 6 % to 15% with an average 11 % of the
total rock components. Feldspars are present in the form of potassium (K) and
plagioclase feldspar. Potassium feldspar has been found as orthoclase. Albite is the
most representative of the plagioclase feldspar and recognized by its parallel twinning
(Fig 13).
Lithic grains are found to be the next abundant to feldspar among the detrital
components. The range of total lithic grains is 5% to 18% with an average 10 %.
Lithic sedimentary grains are dominantly siltstone fragments. Chert fragment is next
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to siltstone rock fragments. Chert fragments are recognizable and distinguished by its
very fine-grained texture. Chert rock fragments are microcrystalline and
cryptocrystalline.
Mica constitutes 1.3% to 7% of the detrital components with an average 4%.
Biotite is found to be more abundant than muscovite. Mica flakes mostly appear to
have been deformed and disrupted between the quartz grains due to compaction (Fig
14).
Detrital heavy minerals are found as 1% of the total rock constituents as
insignifant detrital grains. Sandstones of the Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation are
typically cemented by overgrowth of quartz, chert and calcite.
The modal mineral composition and nomenclature of representative samples
of sandstone of the Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation is greywacke and lithic wacke
according to Pettijohn‘s classification (1975).

L
L
Lv
F
L
Q Muscovite
F L

F Q

F
Q L
0.5 mm 0.5 mm

Figure 13. Detrital grains of plagioclase Figure 14. Fine-grained lithwacke with
feldspar (F) Exhibiting polysynthetic twin feldspar (F), quartz (Q), muscovite and
with quartz (Q) and lithic grains (L) in lithic grains (L) (X.N).
Lithwacke (X.N).

Limestone
The size of the Mesozoic limestone blocks can be as large as 7 km or more,
although some of the large blocks may consist of tectonically juxtaposed smaller
blocks. The Cretaceous pelagic limestones must have been originally overlain by
flysch sediments, however, due to later strong deformation, the carbonates now occur
as blocks in the sheared greywacke and shale of the flysch.
More than 25 thin sections were prepared from the collected limestone
samples and for identification of the fauna; polarizing petrographic microscope were
also used. The classification of the limestone of the Falam Mudstone Micrite
Formation was based on Dunham (1962) and Folk (1962. These limestones can be
classified as, foraminifer-bearing mudstone, foraminiferal wackestone to packstone.
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Foraminifer-bearing mudstone
Megascopically, light grey to grey, cream, pink colour, medium to thick-
bedded, foraminifera bearing limestone with calcite veins occupies the Nat ta ga
Taung.
Microscopically, this mudstone facies is mainly made up of micrite and less
than 10% of bioclasts. These bioclasts are mainly planktonic forminifers and other
broken fossil fragments (Fig 15). The skeletal grains encompass smaller planktonics
(Globotruncana) and rare larger foraminifera. Carbonate mud are mainly present in
this facies. Therefore the rocks of microfacies can be named as foraminifer-bearing
mudstone. (Dunham, 1962).

0.5 mm

Figure 15. Photomicrograph showing mudstone of the Falam mudstone micrite


formation (X.N).

Foraminiferal wackestone to packstone


Carbonate rocks of this type, which have a mud-supported structure, crop out
in the Nat-ta-ga Taung.
Under microscopic study, this microfacies consist 25-55 percent of skeletal
grains, which are planktonic foraminifers (Fig 16A). These foraminifers are filled
with sparite and are embedded in the fine micrite matrix. The size varies from 0.5mm
to 1mm. Oriented foramiiferas are concentrated in some thin sections, indicating a
possible origin are gravity flow (Fig 16B). The foraminifers are unevenly distributed
in some thin section.
In this microfacies foraminifra of bioclasts are the major component of the
total rock volume. Bioclasts and micritc are commonly occurred in this microfacies.
Thus, the rock can be named as foraminiferal wackestone to packstone. (Dunhan,
1962)
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0.5 mm B 0.5 mm
A

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
General trend of the exposed rock units
In the study area, two lithostratigraphic units; namely the Pane Chaung Group
and the Falam Mudstone Micrite Formation are well exposed. The attitude of
overlying Pane Chaung Group runs nearly N-S and NNW-SSE and generally dip
eastward with an angle of 60º to 80º. The main structural features are folds, faults, and
joints and minor anticlines and synclines throughout the Pane Chaung Group.
This thrust fault was named as Theizang Thrust by Mitchell et al. (1977),
(Hang Khan Lian, 1983). This name may be derived from Theizang Taung (3307′)
where trace of this thrust passes (Fig 17). The sequences of the Pane Chaung Group
are generally dipping eastward. The existence of thrust is evidenced by the discordant
nature of the two units, steep dipping of the opposite sequences and different
lithologies of the underlying and overlying units along the fault trace. Near the thrust
plane, the slickensides, fault gouge and features of brecciation can be found (Fig.18
A-B)

Figure 17. Theizang thrust marks the boundary between the rocks of the Pane Chaung
Group in the east and the rocks of the Falam mudstone micrite formation
in the west.
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A B

Figure 18. (A) Slickenslide occured near the Theizang thrust plane. (B) Breccia of the
Falam mudstone micrite formation of the study area found near the thrust.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION


The study area is situated about 9 miles west of kalemyo. The area is
bounded by the latitude 23o12'41" to 23o 26' 30" N and the longitude 93 o 54' to 94o 00'
E. So, it covers a surface area of about 96 square miles (240 square kilometer). Falam
Mudstone Micrite Formation is mainly composed of grey to black colour shale,
mudstone and silty mudstone with sandstone turbidites. The size of the Mesozoic
limestone blocks can be as large as 7 km or more, although some of the large blocks
may consist of tectonically juxtaposed smaller blocks. The fauna of fossiliferous
micritic limestones are characterized by the abundant species; Globotruncana stuarti
stuartiformis, Globotruncana stuarti elevata, Globotruncana arca, Globotruncana
renzi, Globotruncana gansseri, Globotruncana lapparenti, Globotruncana stuarti
stuarti, Heterohelix globusa, Heterohelix planata, Heterohelix reussi and
Pseudotextularia elegans. The Cretaceous pelagic limestones must have been
originally overlain by flysch sediments, however, due to later strong deformation, the
carbonates now occur as blocks in the sheared greywacke and shale of the flysch. In
northwestern part of the area, thrust fault marks the boundary between the rocks of the
Pane Chaung Group in the east and the rocks of the Falam Mudstone-Micrite
Formation in the west.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are so grateful to Professor Dr. Yin Yin Latt, Head of Department of Geology, Kalay
University, for his kind of permission to do this research paper. We also thank to Dr. Maung Maung,
Pro-rector of Loikaw University for his reading manuscript and giving suggestion. Our special thanks
are extended to all colleagues from the Department of Geology, Kalay University who participated in
field trips throughout the preparation of this work and gave much assistance in various ways.
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REFERENCES
Brunnschweiler, R. O., (1966), "On the Geology of the Indo-Burma Ranges", Journal of Geological
Society of Australia, 13, p.137-194.
Chen, X., Wang, C., Kuhnt, W., Holbourn, A., Huang,Y., and Ma, C., (2011), "Lithofacies, microfacies
and depositional environments of Upper Cretaceous Oceanic red beds (Chuangde
Formation) in southern Tibet", Sedimentary Geology, 235, p. 100–110.
Hang Khan Lian, (1983), Regional geology and landslide problems along Kale-Tiddim-Falam road,
M.Sc. Thesis, Unpub., Yangon.
Myanmar Geosciences Society, (2014), "Geological map of Myanmar (1: 2,250,000)".
Pettijohn, F.J., (1975), Sedimentary rocks. 3rd Edition, Haper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Theobald, W., (1873), "The Geology of Pegu: Men". Geol. Surv. India, 10, p. 198-359.
U. N., (1979), "Geology and exploration geochemisty of part of the Northern and Southern Chin Hills
and Arakan Yoma, Western Burma", Techincal Report. 4, New York.
Vum Son, (1971), "The geology and mineralization of the ultrabasic complex of Bhopivum (Chin
Hills)". GSEC, Report with map 1:50000 121/71/1.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Table 3. Chemotaxonomic Study on Clausena excavata (Pyindaw Thein) and Murraya koenigii (Pyin Daw Thein) by TLC Method

Solvent Rf UV 10%ethanolic 1%AlCl3


Fraction 5% FeCl3 5%H2SO4 Remark
system I II 254 365 KOH/UV365 /UV365
1 0.84 - - - brown
2 0.69 0.69 dark - dark blue
3 0.59 - dark - dark blue
4 - 0.56 dark - dark blue
PE:EA
(5:1) 5 0.44 0.44 dark - brown
6 0.38 - dark red brown
7 0.21 0.21 dark dark green/d.green
8 0.13 0.13 dark - dark blue Chlorophill,
9 0.09 0.09 dark - dark blue Fats,
1 0.90 0.90 dark dark dark blue dark dark steroids,
2 0.84 0.84 dark dark dark blue dark dark terpenoids,
PE:EA phenolic
blue brighter blue blue
(1:1) 3 0.50 - - compounds,
fluoresence fluoresence fluoresence
4 0.22 0.22 dark dark dark blue red dark coumarins
5 0.16 0.16 dark dark dark blue dark dark
1 0.93 0.93 dark red/red brown/brown red/red red/red
blue brighter blue blue
2 0.56 - - -
PE:E fluoresence fluoresence fluoresence
(1:3) 3 0.26 - dark red brown red red
4 0.13 - dark - brown - -
5 0.06 - dark - blue - -
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Thaungdut Old City


Tin Maung Htwe1

ABSTRACT
The old cities namely Saekaw and Gormonna came into existence at the Thaungdut
old city site during the Pyu period (from 5th century BC to 9th century AD). Then,
Thaungdut old city was built during the reign of king Anawyatha (AD 1044-1077).
Thaungdut old city continued to exist until Nyaung Yan period (AD 1600-1752). The
aim and purpose of my paper is to reveal the history of Thaungdut old city to fulfill as
part of Myanmar History at North Western part of Myanmar.
Key wards: City plan, Brick, City wall, Buddha Image and Sitan

Methodology
Field survey research and library research are used in this paper.

INTRODUCTION
This paper attempts to study and reveals the history of Thaungdut old city. In
preparing, this paper reliance has been made on field survey research and library
research. Sources and materials used in this paper are epigraphic evidences or
archaeological evidences as primary data, reliable work and secondary data. Besides,
field survey on the study area and its environment are also made by the author
himself. In this paper, I try to identify the founding date of Thaungdut old city as well
as to reveal the history of Thaungdut old city as much as possible by making field
survey research.
The aim of this paper is to reveal the history of Thaungdut old city as part of
Myanmar history.
Thaungdut old city is situated at Myothit about 28 miles northeast of the
present day Tamu town, Sagaing Region. It is also located at the northwestern part of
Union of Republic of Myanmar as well as at the plain (valley) between Yu creek,
Yoma mountain called by the Myanmar or Malain mountain called by the Cassay and
Manipur province of Republic of India in the west and Minthemin and Payataung

1
Dr, Associate Professor, Department of History, Kalay University
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mountain ranges in the east. It is situated at the point of 24 30' 40.98" N and 94 31'
14.48" E.1(See Map)

The Present Condition of City wall of Thaungdut Old City and its Town Plan

According to field survey, Taungdut old city has one wall with two moats;
water moat and Swamp moat. Although the city wall of Thaungdut seemed to be
originally the kind of brick wall with earthen reinforcement, only the earthen wall can
be found or traced at present. The city wall is still visible on the ground except that
some parts are reduced to ground level because of damage by human beings. At
present, according to field survey, the city wall is about 5' in height and about 20' in
breadth and also for two moats, each is about 15' in width and 6' in depth.2 (See
photo-1) Within the Thaundut old city site, there are also two famous pagoda namely
Gormonna (Photo 2) and Payagyi (Photo 3). Although local people said that these
pagodas are the historic pagodas of Thaungdut old city, the architectural type and
style of them belonged to modern age. As far as my exploration concerning the
Thaungdut old city site, there are no remains of ancient monuments which were
contemporary with Thaungdut old city. While the length of southern wall is about
0.48 mile, the northern wall is about 0.62 mile. Besides, while the length of eastern
wall is about 1.10 mile, the length of western wall is about 1.2 miles. The
circumference of the Thaungdut old city is about 3.5 miles. Its town plan is almost a
square in shape with the corner on the southeast and northeast a bit rounded.3 (See
aerial photo and Drawing map)

1
Tin Maung Htwe, Dr, Field Survey Notes on Thaungdut old city site (from 1-12-2013 to 31-1-
2013)(Henceforth as Field Survey Notes on Thaungdut old city site)
2
Field Survey Notes on Thaungtud old city site.
3
Ibid
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Archaeological Finds or Historical Evidences at Thaungdut Old City Site

Within the Thaungdut old city site, there are ruin pagoda mounds and one ruin
structure mound measuring 50'x60' on the southwestern part. A large number of
broken bricks with finger marks can be traced at the ruin structure mound during the
term of field survey. Unfortunately only even a complete size of these bricks cannot
be found. Among them, one broken brick has to be taken a photo as an example. Its
measurement is about ?x8"x2½"(Photo 4). By some sources, the finger marked bricks
seem to be belonged to the Pyu period (from 5 th century BC to 9th century AD)1. If
this ruin structure mound is systematically excavated, people can study and observe
its purpose and what kind of structure it is. Besides, the evidences concerning
Thaungdut old city will be got for scholars and researchers. During the term of field
survey, I have a chance to study and observe the chance finds that are four Buddha
icons made of alabaster and cement. They were found in shrine of pagoda and are
now kept in Payagyi monastery. In the art style, the posture of Buddha icons is the
same except one seated on the double lotus throne. It is carved or depicted single
Buddha seated in Bhūmisparsa mudra with his right leg overlapped on left in
Paryankasana on the lotus throne. The face of the Buddha is composed of broad
forehead, big eyes and eyebrows, and plumb cheeks with thorn of jack fruit. The
plantain bud or cylinder or flame in shape is decorated above the Ushnisha as nimbus.
The facial expression seems to be like Myanmarized feature. The expression of the
Buddha face is serene with downcast gaze. The icon has massive body and is not
proportionate. The thick robe covers both shoulders and is decorative than those of
Pyu period (from 5th century BC to 9th century AD)and Bagan period (from 9th
century AD to 13th century AD). According to the art style, these Buddha images
belonged to NyaungYan period (AD 1600-1752).2 (See Photo 5)

1
Generally, the culture of finger marked bricks flourished during the Pyu Period (from 5th century B.C
to 9th century A.D). The size of these bricks are from 20"x10 ½"x 3 ½" to 17 ½"x 8 ½"x 1 ¼". (Tin
Maung Htwe, Dr. Field Survey Notes on Visnu old city form 1-3-1999 to 1-4-1999 and Tin Maung
Htwe, Dr, Field Survey Notes on Srikshetra old city from 1-8-2011 to 1-9-2011) (Henceforth as Tin
Maung Htwe, 1999 and 2011)
2
Tin Maung Htwe, Dr, Study on Architecture of Stupa and Art of Buddha Images of Nyaung Yan
Period (A.D 1600-1752) of Kyar-Pin Village, Min-Kin Township, Sagaing Region, (The best paper
Award winning Paper in the Arts at Kalay University, 2012) PP,4-5 (Henceforth as Architecture of
Stupa and Art of Buddha Images of Nyaung Yan Period) (Henceforth as Tin Maung Htwe, 2012)
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Comparative Study on the Result of Field Survey Research and Literary Sources

It is necessary to study comparatively between the result of field survey


research and literary sources. Firstly, it is necessary to study the name of Thaungdut.
The name "Thaungdut" is derived from Shan word "Soung Swat", meaning the good
cultivated land with two harvests within one year. 1 The name Thaungdut, Soung Swat
in Shan is reasonable for mentioned old city because the area including the Thaungdut
old city site is very good for cultivation. 2 Besides, it is no doubt that Thaungdut was
under the rule of Shan Sawbwas as the subordinate town of Myanmar kings since the
ancient time. Because Kabaw Chaung ( Kabaw valley) including Thaungdut old city
was one of the territory of Myanmar Empire during the reign of Anawyatha
{(Aniruddha (AD 1044-1077)} according to some sources.3 Concerning with
Thaungdut old city, two Thaungdut Myo Sitans can be collected and copied from
local people; one dated Myanmar Era (ME) 1126 (AD 1764) 4 and another dated
Myanmar Era (ME) 1145 (AD 1784). 5 The facts mentioned by two Sitans are the
same and therefore only Thaungdut Myo Sitan dated Myanmar Era (ME) 1126 (AD
1764) is used as data to reveal the history of Thaungdut in this paper. The statement
of Thaungdut old city (ThaungdutMyoSitan) dated Myanmar Era (ME) 1126 (AD
1764) mentions, after the lord Buddha entered Parinivana, while the king Azartathat
ruled over Rajagyo, a certain town namely Saekaw in Shan was established at the
Thaungdut old city site. The parameter of this town wall was 900 Ta (1 Ta= 10.5
feet) with 9 gates. During the Buddhist Era (BE)218 (326 BC) when the Third Sangha
Council was convinced, while the king Sridhamma Asoka ruled over Pataliputra, the
next town namely Gormonna was rebuilt at the Thaungdut old city site after Saekaw.
Then, during the Myanmar Era (ME) 377 (AD 1015), a new town was re-established,

1
Toe Hla, Dr, Report on research of Kabaw Chaung (in Myanmar), Ministry of Education, 30.4.1993,
P,6 (Hence forth as Toe Hla, 1993)
2
Field Survey Notes on Thaungtud old city site
3
Kala, U, Mahayazawindawgyi Vol I (Edited by Saya Pwa), Burma Research Society, Yangon,
Hantharwadi Press, 1960, p-204 (Henceforth as Mahayazawindawgyi Vol 1)
4
It appeared during the region of King Hsinbyushin (Medu) (A.D 1763-1776) of Konnbaung period
(A.D 1752-1885)
5
It appeared during the region of King Bodawpaya (Badon) (A.D 1782-1819) of Konnbaung period
(A.D 1752-1885)
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populating 10000 people including soldiers during the reign of king Anawratha
{Anirudda ( AD 1044-1077)}. Because of populating 10000 people, this town was
named as Thaungdut (Populating 10000 people means "Tit Taung Pyu" in Myanmar).
Since then, Thaungdut came into existence until Anaukphetlunmin 1 and Tharlunmin2.
These kings made Thaungdut city prosperous. Besides, the hereditary post of Sawbwa
to administer Thaungdut was permitted to be those from the lineage of Sawbwa who
ruled Thaungdut during the reign of king Anawratha.3
According to mentioned facts of the Sitan, the first old city namely Saekaw
was built at the Thaungdut old city site after the lord Buddha entered Parinibana.
Then the second old city namely Gormonna was established at the Thaungdut old city
site during 326 BC. The name "Gormmona" is derived from Shan word, meaning a
town with all cultivated lands owned by only one person. 4 Therefore, it is assumed
that the old cities with the Shan names came into existence at the Thaungdut old city
site since very ancient time before the Bagan period (from 9 th century AD to 13th
century AD). During the term of field survey, a ruin structure mound with a large
number of broken finger marked bricks have been traced and discovered. The finger
marked bricks belonged to Pyu period (from 5th century BC to 9th century AD)
according to some sources5. However these broken finger marked bricks are surface
finds. So, they are less valuable than those from systematic excavation in historical
and archaeological evidences. However, they are able to use as historical evidences to
reveal the history of Thaungdut old city. Therefore, the story of old cities described by
Thaungdut Myo Sitan corresponds with the evidence come out from field survey.
According to mentioned facts, it is deduced the old cities with Shan names might have
been come into existence at Thaungdut old city site during the Pyu period (from 5 th
century BC to 9th century AD) but they were Saekaw city and Gormonna city and not
Thaunddut city. Moreover if this mentioned ruin structure mound is systematically
excavated, the evidences concerning with Thaungdut old city will be got to reveal the
history of Thaungdut old city confirmly. By Thaungdut Sitan, during the reign of king

1
Mahadhamaraja (A.D 1605-1628)
2
Srisudhammarajamahadhipati (A.D 1629-1648)
3
Thaungdut Myo Sitan dated ME 1126(A.D 1764), Parabaik, Kwan Taung headman Collection
4
Toe Hla, 1993, P-5
5
Tin Maung Htwe, 1999 and 2011
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Anawratha, Thaungdut old city was built in AD 1015. According to above mentioned
fact, there is a difference for ruling date of king Anawyatha. The date mentioned by
Sitan is AD 1015 and the date described by the inscriptions and the reliable sources is
AD 1044 to 1077 for the ruling date of king Anawyatha. Therefore, the gap of ruling
date for Anawyatha is 29 years. In other word, it is remarked the date mentioned by
the Sitan is 29 years earlier than the real ruling date. Nevertheless, according to
Thaungdut Myo Sitan, it is deduced that Thaungdut old city came into existence
during the reign of king Anawyatha (AD 1044-1077) because the Kabaw valley
including Thaingdut old city was one of the territory of Myanmar Empire under the
rule of king Anawyatha in accordance with some sources1. By the Sitan, since Bagan
period (from 9th century AD to 13th century AD), Thaungdut old city came into
existence and then continued to exist until Anaukphetlunmin and Tharlunmin. These
kings belonged to Nyaung Yan period (AD 1600-1752). They made Thaungdut
prosperous. Here, the facts described by Sitan correspond with the evidence come out
from field survey. Because four Buddha images of Nyaung Yan period have been
traced as chance finds during the term of field survey. These Buddha images found in
the shrine indicate that the pagodas were built during the Nyaung Yan period.
Reasonably, only if the towns or villages became prosperous, the pagodas will be
built with some objects and Buddha images in the shrine. Therefore, it is deduced that
Thaungdut old city became prosperous during the Nyaung Yan period (AD 1600-
1752).2
Besides, according to Royal Edict by king Min Ye Kyaw Htin (AD 1673-
1698), Thaungdut old city was mentioned as a subordinate town in the list of
administrative provinces of Myanmar kingdom. 3 During his reign, the Manipuri
invaded the Thaungdut city and therefore, he sent Myanmar army to subdue the
Manipuri but was defeated.4 In accordance with the mentioned facts, although
Thaungdut old city became famous and prosperous during the Nyaung Yan period, it
was often under the trouble condition due to the raid by the Manipuri or Cassay.
During the Konnbaung period (AD 1752-1885), Thaungdut old city was included in

1
Mahayazawindawgyi Vol I , p-204
2
Field Survey Notes on Thaungtud old city site
3
Than Tun, Dr (Edited), The Royal Order of Burma Vol I, Kyoto, Center for South east Asia, Kyoto
University, 1983, P-199.
4
Hmananmahayazawundawgyi Vol III, Mandalay, Mya Zaw Press, 1962 (1325 ME), PP-301-319.
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Mauriyatai,1 one of the administrative divisions of Myanmar Empire. Thaungdut old


city was situated between Myanmar and Manipuri2. Thus, it had to fear the Manipuri
or Cassay on the one hand and it dared not stand against the influence of Myanmar
Empire on the other. Besides, because of existing on the border of Myanmar and
Manipur, it was peaceful when Myanmar-Manipura relation was on good terms and it
became disorder when Myanmar-Manipura relation became hostile. Therefore, it
played an important role in military affairs as well as foreign affairs of Myanmar
kings. Besides, it was the first fort of northwestern part of Myanmar under the
Myanmar kings. In 1758, while Alongmintaya (AD 1752-1760) marched into
Manipura, Saw Khan Ho, Sawbwa of Thaungdut, joined with the Manipuri because
he had no strong force to defend against the invasion of the Manipuri. Besides, he
asked for help from the Capital (central government) to defend against the invasion of
Manipuri but no assistance arrived in this critical moment. In 1759, after annexing
Manipura, Alongmintaya burnt down the city of Thaungdut which accepted Manipura
influence. Then, Thaungdut Sawbwa came out of the hiding place and surrendered
before Alongmintaya, appealing why he joined with the Manipuri together with the
reasonable reasons. However, Alongmintaya did not give him the right to rule and his
eldest son, Kyamai Saw Sar was appointed as Sawbwa of new Thaungdut city which
was built at Maulu. According to mentioned facts, Thaungdut old city was destroyed
in 1759 and then the new Thaungdut city was established at Maulu 3 during the
Konnbaung period (AD 1752-1885). This new Thaungdut city still exists as a big
village on the eastern bank of Chindwin River in Homlin Township, Sagaing Region.
The name of this village is now called as Thaungdut like its original name.

CONCLUSION
According to mentioned facts, old cities namely Saekaw and Gormonna came
into existence at the Thaungdut old city site during the Pyu period (from 5 th century
BC to 9th century AD). Then, Thaungdut old city was built during the reign of king
Anawyatha (AD 1044-1077). Thaungdut old city continued to exist until Nyaung Yan
period (AD 1600-1752). During the Nyaung Yan period, Thaungdut became
prosperous but it was often under the trouble condition due to raid by the Cassay or
Manipuri. Thaungdut city played an important role in military affairs as well as

1
Toe Hla, 1995, P-168.
2
Field Survey Notes on Thaungdut old city site
3
Thaungdut Myo Sitan dated Myanmar Era (ME) 1136 (AD 1774), Parabaik, Kwan Taung headman
Collection.
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foreign affairs of Myanmar kings. Besides, it was the first fort of northwestern part of
Myanmar under the Myanmar kings. In 1759, Thaungdut old city was destroyed by
king Alongmintaya (A.D 1752-1760) and then new Thaungdut city was built at
Maulu. This new Thaungdut still exists as a big village on the eastern bank of
Chindwin River in Homlin Township, Sagaing Region. The name of this village is
now called as Thaungdut like its original name.

Map (A) Location of Thaung dut old city

Map (B) Location of Thaung dut old city


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Aerial Photo of Thaungdut old city

Drawing Map of Thaungdut old city

Photo 1 (a) Northern city wall of Thaungdut with moat


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Photo 1(b) Eastern city wall of Thaungdut with moat

Photo 1 (c) Western city-wall of Thaungdut with mont

Photo 1 (d) Southern City could of Thaungdut


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Photo 2 Garmonna Pagoda within the Thaungdut old city site

Photo 3 Poyagyi Pagoda within the Thaungdut old city site

Photo 4 Broken finger marked brich at the ruin structure mound Thaungdut old
city site
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Photo 4 (a) Alabaster Buddha Image kept in Payagyi monastery

Photo 4 (b) Alabaster Buddha Image kept in Payagyi monastery

Photo 4 (c) Stucco Buddha Image kept in Payagyi monastery


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Photo 4 (d) Stucco Buddha Image kept in Payagyi monastery

REFERENCES
Hmananmahayazawundawgyi Vol III, Mandalay, Mya Zaw Press, 1962 (1325 ME), PP-301-319.
Kala, U, Mahayazawindawgyi Vol I (Edited by Saya Pwa), Burma Research Society, Yangon,
Hantharwadi Press, 1960
Than Tun, Dr (Edited), The Royal Order of Burma Vol I, Kyoto, Center for South east Asia, Kyoto
University, 1983
Thaungdut Myo Sitan dated ME 1126(A.D 1764), Parabaik, Kwan Taung headman Collection
Thaungdut Myo Sitan dated Myanmar Era (ME) 1136 (AD 1774), Parabaik, Kwan Taung headman
Collection.
Tin Maung Htwe, Dr. Field Survey Notes on Visnu old city form 1-3-1999 to 1-4-1999 and Tin Maung
Htwe, Dr, Field Survey Notes on Srikshetra old city from 1-8-2011 to 1-9-2011
Tin Maung Htwe, Dr, Study on Architecture of Stupa and Art of Buddha Images of Nyaung Yan Period
(A.D 1600-1752) of Kyar-Pin Village, Min-Kin Township, Sagaing Region, (The
best paper Award winning Paper in the Arts at Kalay University, 2012)
Tin Maung Htwe, Dr, Field Survey Notes on Thaungdut old city site (from 1-12-2013 to 31-1-2013)
Toe Hla, Dr, Report on research of Kabaw Chaung (in Myanmar), Ministry of Education, 30.4.1993
62
University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

HAMILTONIAN STRUCTURE OF THE DYNAMICAL INTERACTION OF


A TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIGID CIRCULAR CYLINDER AND A POINT
VORTEX

San Win Oo1

ABSTRACT
In this paper, Hamiltonian structure of the dynamically interaction of a two
dimensional rigid cylinder of arbitrary shape and circular cylinder shape are studied.
Then the Poisson brackets for the two cases are also described. Finally using the
symmetry and reduction of the dynamics for N = 1, the reduced Hamiltonian vector
field is presented.
Keywords: Hamiltonian Structure, Poisson Brackets, symmetry and reduction
5
6 INTRODUCTION
The Hamiltonian structure of a two-dimensional rigid cylinder that interacts
dynamically with N point vortices external to it is studied. Reduced Hamiltonian
vector field using the symmetry and reduction of the dynamics for the case N=1 is
presented.

Equations of Motion of a Two-Dimensional Rigid Cylinder of Arbitrary Shape


Dynamically Interacting with N Point Vortices
The equations of motion of a two-dimensional rigid cylinder of arbitrary shape
dynamically interacting with N point vortices for the two cases are presented.
The case of vortex strengths that sum to zero (  k  0 )
The equations of motion of a two-dimensional rigid cylinder of arbitrary
(smooth) shape dynamically interacting with N point vortices, when the vortex
strengths sum to zero and the circulation around the cylinder is zero can be written as
d 
    L  0,
 dt  (1)
dA
 V  L  0, (2)
dt
 dI   W 
k  k   Ik  V   J   , k  1, 2, ,N (3)
 dt    Ik 
where V is the velocity of the body centre of mass,  is the body rotational velocity,
L and A are the linear and angular momenta of the system, respectively given by

1
Assistance Lecturer, Dr, Department of Mathematics, Kalay University
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

L V p


   M    , (4)
A   
where
p   k Ik  kˆ   I  (nˆ  u v )ds (5)
B

1 1
and 
2
  k Ik , Ik kˆ  
2 B
2
(nˆ  u v )ds. (6)

. . x

CM
.
. .
X
O

Figure 1. Two-dimensional rigid cylinder of arbitrary shape dynamically interacting with N


point vortices external to it.

The case of vortex strengths that do not sum to zero (  k  0 )


In this case, (1), (2) and (3) get slightly modified by the presence of additional
terms in the equation for the linear momentum L.The equations of motion when the
vortex strengths do not sum to zero but the circulation around the cylinder still zero
can be expressed as
d  ˆ
    L   k  V, (7)
 dt 
dA
 V  L  0, (8)
dt
 dI   W 
k  k   Ik  V   J   , k  1, 2, ,N, (9)
 dt    Ik 
where    k . L and A are given by
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

L V p


   M    , (10)
A   
where
p   k Ik  kˆ   I  (nˆ  u v )ds    k  a  kˆ (11)
B

and


1
2

1
k Ik , Ik kˆ  
2 B
2
(nˆ  u v )ds 
1
2
  k  a  ( a  k).
ˆ (12)

In the two cases, M is a 3  3 symmetric mass tensor that depends only on the
body shape and mass given by
c 0 0
M  0 c 0  ,
0 0 I 

where c is the mass plus added mass, I is the principle moment of inertia tensor.
I is the position vector of a point (with 2  I, I ), I k is the position vector of
the kth point vortex in the body-fixed frame and J is the matrix such as
 0 1
J .
 1 0 
The contour integrals are around the body boundary B and nˆ denotes the
unit normal. u v denotes the divergence-free, body-parallel component of the total
velocity field and is the sum of the velocity field due to the N external vortices and
the velocity field due to the image velocity. The contour integrals depend only on the
shape of the body, strength and position of the vortices in the body-fixed frame.
W is the Kirchhoff-Routh function generalized to moving boundaries and
given by
W  Ik , V(t), (t)    k B  Ik , V(t), (t)   WG  I k  (13)

1
where WG (Ik )   k  jG(Ik , I j ) 
2
 k2 g(Ik , Ik ).
k, j(k  j)

In (13),  B is the stream function of the Kirchhoff flow associated with the
motion of the body. For arbitrary shape, it can be written as
B  Ik , V(t), (t)   V(t) (I k )  (t)  (I k )

  (Ik ), (Ik )), (V(t), (t)  . (14)

The fields (Ik ) (of 2-vectors) and (Ik ) (of 1-vector) depend only on the
shape of the body.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

G is a Green‘s function satisfying appropriate boundary conditions and of the


form
1
G(Ik , I j )  g(Ik , I j )  log (x k  x j ) 2  (y k  y j ) 2  , (15)
4  
and g is harmonic everywhere in the fluid domain. G and g also depend on the body
shape and are symmetric.

Hamiltonian Structure for the Case of Arbitrary Shapes

Proposition
For the dynamically interacting system of a two-dimensional rigid cylinder,
with zero circulation around it, and N point vortices external to it, the following
relations hold irrespective of the shape of cylinder and the sum of the strengths of the
vortices:
 
  k (Ik ),  k (Ik )     I  (nˆ  u v )ds,  12  2
(nˆ  u v )ds  .

(16)
 B B 
Poisson brackets for the system of Hamiltonian structure for arbitrary shapes
Consider the Hamiltonian of the system (1), (2) and (3) in the canonical
variables L, A and Ik (k = 1, 2, …, N) as the following form
1
H  WG (Ik )  ( V, )T M( V, )
2
1
 WG (Ik )  ( L  p, A   )T (M 1)T MM 1( L  p, A   )
2
1 T
 WG (Ik )  ( L, A)  ( p,  )  M 1 ( L, A)  ( p,  ) 
2
1
  WG (Ik )  ( L, A)T M 1 ( L, A)  ( p,  )T M 1 ( p,  )
2
2( p,  )T M 1 ( L, A) 

 WG (Ik )  ( p,  )T M 1( p,  )  M 1( L, A)  . (17)


 
This Hamiltonian H is the kinetic energy of the body + fluid system minus
infinite contributions. These contributions arise due to two standard reasons (i) the
singular nature of the velocity field of the point vortices and (ii) the fact that the flow
domain is unbounded. The contribution arising due to (ii) is absent if   0.

Proposition
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

The system of the equations (1), (2) and (3) with Hamiltonian function (17) is
a Poisson vector field on the space P  se(2)*  (R 2N \ (  BN ))  Pb  Pv equipped
with the following Poisson bracket. For F,G : P  R define

F, GP  F Pb
,G P
b

Lie-Poisson

 F P ,G P
v v

point vortex
.

Therefore, if p(t)   (t), Ik (t)   P is an integral curve of the system, where


(t)  ( L(t), A(t)), then
N
dF df
 p F,   F, ad H      k F, J 1 k (H  k ) .
*
dt dt k 1

Proof:
The Lie-Poisson equation on se (2)*, the dual of the Lie algebra of the
Euclidean group on the plane SE (2), are given by
d
 ad*H  ,   g* , H   g
dt
for the Hamiltonian H and where
ad*( ˆ ,) (,s)  ( s, J ,  ˆ s).

Making the identification   (,s)  (A, L),

H H
ad*( H  A, H  L) (A, L)  ( L, J , JL).
L A
We can see that
H
 , (18)
A
H
 V, (19)
L

and get ad*( H  A, H  L) (A, L)  (V  L,   L),

which proves the Lie-Poisson part of the theorem.


Now we show that (3) are canonical point vortex,
H WG   p    1 1
  ,  M ( p,  )  M ( L, A) 
 Ik  Ik   Ik  Ik  
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WG   p  
  ,  (V, )
 Ik   Ik  Ik 
WG  0  k  k x k 
   (V, )
 Ik   k 0  k yk 


 Ik
 k ((I k ), (I k )  , (V, ) .

Using (13) and (14), it follows that


H W
J  J   k V   k  Ik ,
 Ik  Ik
and that (3) is of the form
dIk H
k  J , k  1, 2,..., N.
dt  Ik

Equations of Motion of a Two-Dimensional Rigid Circular Cylinder of Radius R


Dynamically Interacting with N Point Vortices
Now the equations of motion of a circular cylinder of radius R interacting
dynamically with N point vortices in the plane whose strengths sum to zero
  k  0 are considered.The Kirchhoff-Routh function W for the case of circular
cylinder is
W  Ik , V(t)    k B  Ik , V   WG  Ik , V  , (20)
where
1
WG (Ik , V)    k  j G(I k , I j ) 
2
  k2 g(I k , I k ).
k, j(k  j)

Y
y

. .
x
CM .
. .
O X

Figure 2. N point vortices dynamically interacting with a two-dimensional rigid


circular cylinder
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Note that  B is independent of  since the rotation of the circular cylinder


has no effect on the fluid. Conversely, the fluid also has no effect on  since the
pressure forces act through the centre of the cylinder. Therefore, the equations of
d
motion should give  0 and this can indeed be confirmed.
dt
The function G and g for a circular cylinder can be calculated using the
classical circle theorem of Miline-Thomson. This gives a simple representation of the
image vorticity in terms of two point vortices (one of the same strength but opposite
sign at the inverse point and the other of the same strength and sign at the centre of
the circle) for each point vortex outside the circle. Thus W for the case of a circular
cylinder is given by (20) with
 y x 
 B (Ik , V)  R 2  2 k 2 , 2 k 2  , V , (21)
x y x y
 k k k k 
  2
  
2 
1   R 2xk R 2 yk 
g(Ik , Ik )  log(x k  y k )  log  x k  2
2 2
   y k  2 
4        
  k k


1  R2 
  log 1  2  (22)
2  
 k 


log  x k  x j    yk  y j 
1 2 2
G(Ik , I j )  g(I k , I j )  
4  
  2 2
  2  
2
1  R x R y
log(x 2k  y k2 )  log   x k  2    y k  2  
j j

4  
 j 
   
j  
   
2 

 log  x k  x j    yk  y j 
2
 (23)
 
2
where k 2  Ik  x k2  yk2 . Evaluating the mass matrix M shows that all off-diagonal
terms vanish and further the first two diagonal terms are the same and are each equal
to the mass plus added mass of the system, denoted by c  m  R 2 . Therefore,
L  cV  p, A  .

Thus the freely interacting system of a rigid circular cylinder of radius R in an


incompressible, inviscid fluid, and N point vortices whose strengths sum to zero and
are external to it, is governed by the following system of equations as
dL
 0, (24)
dt
dA
 V  L  0, (25)
dt
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

dIk H
k  J , k  1, 2,..., N, (26)
dt  Ik
where
N N  x y 
L  cV    k Ik  kˆ  R 2  kˆ   k  2 k 2 , 2 k 2  . (27)
x y x y
k 1 k 1  k k k k 

Poisson brackets for the system of Hamiltonian structure for a circular cylinder
of radius R
The appropriate Hamiltonian function for this case as

1 1 N 1 N
H(L, Ik )  W(L, I k )  L, L     k  L  I k   kˆ    2k I k , I k
2c c  k 1 2 k 1

N
R4 N
Ik N
Ik 
  k  j Ik , I j   k ,  k . (28)
2 Ik , Ik k 1 Ik , Ik 
k 1 j( jk) k 1 

Proposition
The system of the equations (24), (25), and (26) with Hamiltonian function (28) is a
Poisson vector field on the space P  se(2)*  (R 2N \ (  B))  Pb  Pv equipped with
the following Poisson bracket. For F,G  C (P), define
F, GP  F Pb
,G P
b

Lie-Poisson

 F P ,G P
v v
point vortex
.

Therefore if p(t)   (t), Ik (t)   P is an integral curve of the system, where


(t)  ( L(t), A(t)), then
N
dF dp
 p F,   F, ad H      k F, J 1 k (H  k ) .
*
dt dt k 1

Proof:
The Lie-Poisson equations on se (2)* are given by
d
 ad*H  ,   g* , H   g
dt
for the Hamiltonian H. In this problem the operator ad* takes the form
 H H 
ad*( H  A, H  L) (A, L)    L, J , JL  .
 L A 
We can see that
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H H
 0,  V,
A L
and we should have
H H
V  L  L, J , 0 JL
L A

so that

ad*( H  A, H  L) (A, L)   V  L, 0  .

For the case of N point vortices whose strengths do not sum to zero, the
equations of motion are
dL
 V x k , (29)
dt
dIk H
k  J , k = 1, ..., N (30)
dt  Ik
The above system (29) and (30), in the variables L and I k (k = 1, ..., N), is
Hamiltonian with respect to the following Poisson bracket on the state space P

F,G  F Pb
,G P
b
Lie-Poisson

 F P ,G P
b b
 2cocycle

 F P ,G P
v v
point vortex
.

The second component bracket which arise only in the case  k  0 and is
given by

F 
 F G G F 
,G P    .
Pb 2cocycle  L y Lx L y Lx 
 
b

Symmetry and Reduction of the Dynamics for N = 1


Consider the point vortex case (N = 1). In this case (29) and (30) represent a
 
T
four dimensional system. Let X  Lx , L y , x1, y1 , where L x , L y and x1, y1 are the
components of L and I1 respectively.
The Hamiltonian function and the Poisson brackets now assume the following
form

12 1 1 2 2
H  L , I1   log a   L , L  a L  1 I1, k  1 a 2 I1  (31)
4 c  2 2 
where a  I1 , R   1  R
2

I  2 , and
1
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 F G F G  1  F G F G 
F , G : 1    

 , respectively.
 L y L x L x L y  1  x1 y1 y1 x1 
Note that 0  a  1 .
The system (29) and (30) can be rewritten in the form of a four-dimensional
control free system
dX
 f X
dt

 
T
where X  Lx , L y , x1, y1 , the control-free vector field

 1 H 
f  X    V   k ,  J  .Thus
   I 
 1 1 

f  X    f1  X  , f 2  X  , f3  X  , f 4  X  
T

T
 H H 1 H 1 H 
  1 , 1 , ,  ,
 L y L x 1 y1 1 x1 

is given by
H 1
f1  X   1
L y

c

L y  1x1a  (32)

H 1
f 2  X   1   L x  1y1a  (33)
L x c
1 H
f3  X  
1 y1


R2

x 1 
 L x 2  y2  2 L x y
1 y 1 1

1 y1

    L x  1y1a  2  a 
1
I1 
4 c 2 a  c

and
1 H
f4  X   
1 x1


  2
 

R 2  L y y1  x1  2 L x x1y1 1 x1  1
2


 L y  1x1a  2  a  . 
I1  2 a  c
4 c
 

Note that since I1 > R > 0 , the vector field is C on P.

S1 - symmetry and momentum maps


The Hamiltonian function H and the Poisson bracket are invariant under the
following diagonal action of the rotation group S1 on P such that
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A .  L , I1    A . L , A . I1  , (34)

where A  SO (2) and A : P  P denotes the S1 action of element A  SO (2) .

The diagonal S1 action admits a momentum map, JS1 : P  g*  R*  R , the


infinitesimal generator, P  X  , of the action should be a Hamiltonian vector field
relative to the bracket and the Hamiltonian defined by the R-valued momentum map.
The infinitesimal generator is easily computed as


P  X   L y , Lx ,  y1, x1 
and the momentum map as

1 L 
2
JS1  X    .
2
 1 I1
2  1 
 
Sympletic reduction

Let us introduce polar coordinates r  p ,  , q ,  where


2
p L 2 ,
q  I1
2

2 and writing a  1  R 2  2q  . 
The unreduced vector field transform as
dp 22
f1  r     1 a pq cos      (35)
dt c

d 1  1 q 
f2  r      a sin       (36)
dt c  1 p 
dq 2
f3  r     a pq cos     
dt c
d  p  R2  
f4  r     2  a  sin       1 2  1 a  2  a   .
dt  q 8q a c 
The momentum map in terms of p and q is

1 L  p
2
JS1  X    
2
 1 I1  1q   . (37)
2  1  1
 

Choose  p ,  ,  as coordinates for JS11    where  and  are angle


coordinates in the physical plane of the vectors L and I respectively.
The inclusion map i : JS11     P is given, using polar coordinates for P, by

i  p ,  ,    p, 1 1  p 1    ,  , θ  .

Since P is also a sympletic manifold with sympletic form given by


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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

1
 d  dp  1dq  d ,
1

the inclusion map defines a presympletic form on JS11    by pullback:

1
i*    dp  d  dp  d  .
1

The symmetry group that acts on JS11    is also S1 since it is Abelian (i.e the
coadjoint isotropy group is the full group). The projection map  : JS11     P
where

P  JS11    S1

is given in coordinates by   p ,  ,    p ,   where     .

The sympletic form  on P defined by

i*  *  ,

is then given by
1
   dp  d  .
1
Then, we obtain the reduced Hamiltonian h : P  R by restriction of (30) as

12  b  1 p 1 b2 
h   p,    log    p b sin   , (38)
4  2p  c  p 4 p 
     

where b  2p  12R 2 and p  p  1 . Note the following inequalities,

12 R 2 b
p > >0 , b > 0, 0 <  1. (39)
2 2p

Reduced Hamiltonian vector field


The Hamiltonian vector field on P is obtained as

dp h 
 1
dt 
1 p
 b cos  (40)
c p

d h 
 1
dt p
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15R 2 1  p p 12 R 2  p p    4R 4 


         sin   1  2  1 2  . (41)
4bp c  p p 2p  p p   c  4p 
  
(40) and (41) express the Hamiltonian structure for the reduced Hamiltonian vector
field h  .

CONCLUSION
For the case N=1, the symmetry reduced spaces and Hamiltonian vector field h  are
obtained by using the techniques of symplectic reduction. It is found that the
Hamiltonian system is symmetric under a diagonal action of S1 and has an associated
conserved momentum map. The four-dimensional Hamiltonian structure in the case
N=1 is reduced the dimension by using the inclusion map and projection map defining
the symplectic form  on the space P .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my special gratitude to Dr Khin Sann Kyi, Professor and Daw Aye
Aye Thein, Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, Kalay University for their advice and warm support
everything I need.I am deeply thankful to my supervisor Dr Mya Oo, Director General (Retired),
Department of Higher Education (Upper Myanmar),co-supervisor Dr Ohn Mar, Professor, Head of
Department, Department of Mathematics, University of Mandalay, for their guidance and
encouragement to do this research paper.Finally, I also thanks to my teachers throughout my life who
have given me vast knowledge.

REFERENCES
Lin, C. C., (1941), ―On the Motion of Vortices in Two Dimensions- I and II‖, Proc. Nalt. Acad. Sci.,
27, p. 570-575.
Shashikanth, B. N., Marsden, J. E., Burdick, J. W. and Kelly, S. D., (2002), ―The Hamiltonian Structure
of a Two-dimensional Rigid Circular Cylinder Interacting Dynamically with N Point
Vortices‖, Phys. Fluids, 14, p. 1214-1227.
Shashikanth, B. N., (2005), ―Poission Brackets for the Dynamically Interacting System of a Two
Dimensional Rigid Cylinder and Point Vortices: The Case of Arbitrary Smooth
Cylinder Shapes‖, Regular and Chaotic Dynamics, 10, p. 1-14.
Shashikanth, B. N., (2007), ―Symmetry Reduction and Control of the Dynamics of a Two-dimensional
Rigid Circular Cylinder and a Point Vortex: Vortex Capture and Scattering‖,
European Journal of Control, 13, p. 641-657.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

WRITING STYLE OF "BOOK SHELF AND MYSELF"


BY SAYA ZAW GYI

Lwin Mar Oo1

ABSTRACT
This paper studies the prose "Bookshelf and myself" From the point of view of
writing style by SayaZawGyi. Combining the value of literature and language,it is hoped that
his writing style can be partially noticed.

INTRODUCTION
This paper aims to analyze the connection between Myanmar language and
Literature, how they exist together and explore the aspect of vocabulary, sentence,
grammar and writing style.

AIMS
This paper also aims to improve four language skills and provide creative
thinking for foreigners and Myanmar Students.

FACTS AND METHODOLOGY


Based on SayaZawGyi's book collection, Volume I, the following books are
studied-
- " The nature and the art of prose,"
- " The Pursuit of Literature,"
- "Chronicle of Myanmar sentence construction".
-
SUMMARY
Printing press appeared in Myanmar in 1900. In this prose, the author
presented how book worms keep the bookshelves in their houses, how the writer
himself was afraid of approaching the bookshelves when he was young, at that time.
Whenever he couldn't read out properly, he was punished by the teachers and he
began to fear it. He was extremely afraid of it when he opened
Shinmaharahtathara'sKoe Khan Pyo, how he was asked to get knowledge whenever
he saw puppet, how the song "Yin Khat Pan" in a couple of puppet performed, how
his uncle took out the book from the shelf has feared when he told him about it, he no
longer feared from the time on, how he visualized the life of atmosphere after reading
ShinOketamakyaw "Tawlar", Shinmaharahthathara's "Koe Khan Pyo" and U
PonNya's "Satdan Sin Min's" Novel, how he become fond of the bookshelf, how he

1
Professor, Dr. , Head of Department, Department of Myanmar, Kalay University
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noticed the atmosphere when he read well literature, how he contemplated himself,
how he felt sympathy not only for himself but also for others.

What the writing style is


In a language, writing style is a particular language usage found in literature
writing. Various experts define the meaning of writing in different ways. According to
K.T. Wales, style defines obvious manners either at writing or at speaking. Some use
writing style which is full of superfluous writing, some amusing writing style, others
use choppy writing, thus there are various writing style in aesthetic or non-aesthetic
writing in a language.
Writing style plays an important role in Myanmar language and literature. Mg
Khin Min (Danuphyu) defines "style is a way of speaking and writing".
Therefore, it can be said that writing style is a manner of writing by the writers
on his own style to be acceptable to his own feeling, opinion and ideas, using his
language and his speaking style.

Style of word usage


A good command of language and word order are the main aspects of a good
prose. Writing styles of the writers differ from each other, depending on the style of
word usage. Concerning with this, Mg Khin Min (Danaphyu) said, "The study of
using a word is how and where those words are used. How and why does the nature of
word create it? It must be considered first?
The writer has used, in his prose, adverbial words, modified and general words
to be fruitful. At this age, bookworms used to keep book shelves after buying and
reading the books they like. He wrote as the following; "The books are kept orderly
and carefully on their book shelves".
In this prose, the usage of adverbials which shows functional words such as
"Ta Yo tathay", " Ah si ah yi." Prefixes "ta" and "ah" are used instead of the verbs
"Yothay" and "Si Yi." In doing so, the state of mind of the readers who respect and
value their books, become more obvious.
Besides, in compound nouns "household, bookshelf" in comparing "shelf" and
"book shelf," shelf is the general word and bookshelf is modifying word, in "wall
book shelf" and "house hold book shelf," wall book shelf is the general word and
household book shelf is the modifying word. As the writer has used the general and
modifying words repeatedly, the readers can visualize how the book shelf is
displayed. Myanmar culture and customs are seen as the books kept orderly as a shelf
on the wall at homes.
These words are described in stages as the following,
- shelf
- Book shelf
- Wall book shelf
- House hold book shelf
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Moreover, when he was young and the writer asked to watch U PhueNyo's
Puppet, his presents told him it was to get knowledge and not for fun.
The following sentence says like that-the role he has to act should be watched
not merely for pleasure but for study. In the words "Pyawyayone," "Shwinyayone,"
"Yone" has the function of the verb "Pyaw and Shwin". In the words "Pyawyayone,"
"ShwinYaYone," "KyeeAutKyaung" "PyawYaYone" :"ShwinYaYone" including
"yone" is the degree of the verb "kyee".
The adverb "Yone" is used to be emphasized to study the puppet, not merely
to see.
" PyawYaYone, ShwinYaYoneThar
PyawYaYonehmya, Shwinyayonehmya
Pyaw lout yone, Shwin lout yone
Pyaw lout yonethar, Shwin lout yonethar."
Besides, "Thar" and "Le'," are particles modifying noun, and "Thabaw" shows
the function of the noun and the writer's persuasion. The word "a," particle modifying
verb is the meaning of the chance to see the puppet. The word "Aut," particle
modifying verb, implies the meaning of "should" perform information it we see the
puppet. For the writer has written with the combination of adverb and non particle
modifying, the leaders' thinking and appreciation are adapted simultaneously with the
exact meaning.

The style of sentence construction


In a prose, the sentence level is the most primary of four stages, words,
sentence, paragraph and text. In spoken or written, at least one sentence is completed
to be perfect. In written, a sentence is systematically constructed grammatical facts
such as subject, verb, object to be vivid its meaning. Thus, the study of sentence
construction is a part of the act of writing style.
U PhyaMaungTin said that the source of language is sentence formation and
the importance of verb is a sentence is connecting a language by each other.
When we read a well-written prose, we become to realize the outside or real
situation in life and free from greed, anger and pride.
The writer writes it as the following:
"The wisemen say,
We can relieve ourselves by realizing our greediness, anger and pride."
SayaZawGyi mentioned like this.
If someone wants to know his idea, a language must be used. The source of
language is sentence and so language is the beginning of sentence should be said.
Sentence means meaningful phrase. A sentence has two features, subject and verb.
Subject is a thing or a person that is being discussed, described or dealth with. Verb is
a word or a group of words that expression action, an event or a state. In Myanmar
language, subject is sometimes omitted unless their meaning changes. In sentence
construction, verb is more important than subject-verb is the main source of sentence.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

A Good writing style


A good writing style appears from the writer's clever craftsmanship in his/ her
prose. A good sentence construction makes the writer's purpose to be more effective
and smoother his style. Mg Khin Min (Danuphyu) said that a good sentence
construction can be called all parts in a sentence are written appropriately in a
sentence. And the writer has created the long sentences by using noun, adjectives,
verbs and adverbs systematically.
In the prose, the writer has written about greediness, anger, pride and myself
three times in the sentence. And then, he also used the words greediness, anger, pride
twice as a compound noun and phrasal verb. The compound noun and verb is used
three times. His writing style is systematic and explains about what he would like to
express by using long sentences. Besides, he used the verbs "worry, happy" change
into nouns by using suffixes. Then, he used such words "care, is, get", combine with
phrasal verb, be careful, maybe, can get. By writing this style was can notice what he
would like to explain. The word "can" means "ability" and "permission". Above verbs
are used as what we emphasize to tell about.
To write long sentence in the prose, the writer used "if, as"…etc. The writer
divided some sentences like these, "if a person who is aware of his anger, if a person
who keeps his anger and pride he then controls his behaviour.

Style of speaking
The writer used spoken language in some parts of his prose. And he also
explained about a puppet address (U PhueNyo) concerns with the month "April" as a
clown (Aung Bar Lay) talking about one another.
"Hi… Aung Ba Lay and MyatChel"
"Yeah"
"This song is about star actress who performed the festival held in "April."
We'll test your ability who is called "Aung Ba Lay Gyi".
"Young ability is just like gold."
"If friendly we say "Theingi" mean "gold" and "Yin Khat" means "brooch"
which is gold in market".
"A stupid man Aung Ba Lay, don't talk monserve".
In this prose, the usage of sentences are simple such as "yes, hi, aw, no",
concerning with phrasal verbs. And then "ya" in Myanmar means opportunity or
chance. "Pa" in Myanmar means concerning with culture. "Bi" means "sure" and
"haw" means wonderful. "Kae'….Kae' "means encourage. "A Not" means "Say
politely and warmly welcome. (accent used in Upper Myanmar).
And then the writer used some words concerning with place (Nan-Taw in
Myanmar) to emphasize his prose. eg- crown prince, princess and prince, a person
who wears velvet and guard in a place. Therefore, a person who serve his duty to take
care of crown prince and princess.he is also responsible for this society and he must
have experience. The writer explained his prose simple words and it is easy to
understand prose simple words and it is easy to understand for the readers. In this
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prose, the writer used simple words about the abilities of Aung Ba Lay Gyi and the
actress.

ASSESSMENT
In this paper, the main source and facts are based on some books written by
SayaZawGyi and his writing style is simple and easy to understand for the readers.
Therefore, we get a lot of knowledge after reading his books. In this prose, the writer
used appropriate words and simple sentences to explain words he'd like to make know
for the readers. It can be said that SayaZawGyi's books are useful for many readers.

CONCLUSION
In this paper, those who appreciate literature can see the style based on the
situational words usage and sentences, the sentimental and reasonable writing. The
effectives of written and spoken language can also be seen as the value of language.
Moreover, the writers clever sentence construction to conform with both language and
literature can also be seen respectfully.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to Rector Prof Dr. Than Win (Kalay University) and pro
Rector Prof Dr. Myint Swe (Kalay University for their guidance and advice to simple this research
paper. Then I would like to express my gratitude for staff from Myanmar Department.

REFERENCES
Khin Min, Maung, Denuphyu. (1995), Various Style. Cherry Magazine, 46, p. 35-37.
Khin Min, Maung, Danuphyu. (2004), Theory and Practice on Prose. Yangon, Myanadar Press.
Khin Min, Maung, Danuphyu. (1997), Crawling in the literacy Ocean. Yangon.Armanthis Press
Zawgyi (1993), The Bookshelf and myself. Anthology of Saya Zawgyi's literary writings, 1, Yangon,
Sapaloutha Press.
Wales, K., (2001), A Dictionary of Stylistics. 2nd Edition, Longman Group, UK. Co., ltd.
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om; aus;awmifndK (1402- 1423) tkyfpd;k onfh umvtxd aexkdifcJhMuonf/ ¤if;wkdY
onf at'D1420cefYwGif e,fajrrNidrrf oufjzpfrIaMumifh taemufzuf awmifwef;rsm;
qDokdY pwifajymif;a&TUvmcJMh uonf/ tkypf w k pfpkonf jrpfomjrpf (rPdy&l )twkdi;f
qefwufí &Gmrsm;wnfaxmif aexkdifchMJ uonf/ a&S;OD;pGm ,ck zvrf;NrdKU taemuf
bufwGif 5rkdicf efYtuGm? qGefxvm(Sum Thla) &GmteD;wGif&daS om vkdifvGef;ausmuf*l
a'ookdY a&muf&Sdtajccs aexkdifcJhMuonf/ a&S;OD;a&muf&Sdvmolrsm;rSm xGef;ckid f (Thuan
Khai) ESihfnDtpfukdrsm; jzpfMuonf/ xkdnDtpfukdrsm;rSvnf;aumif; tjcm;
xyfraH &muf&SdvmMuolrsm;rSvnf;aumif; rsdK;EG,fqufrsm; yGm;rsm;vmcJ&h m rsufarSmuf
acwfwGif zvrf;csif;rsdK;EG,fpkaygif;(11)pk &SdaMumif;awGU&Sd&onf/ 2
,if;wkYrd Sm
1
csif;orkdif;&SmazGjyKpka&;aumfrwD? 2001? 9/
2
csif;orkdif;&SmazGa&;aumfrwD? 2001? 15/
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(1) qdrf (Sim) rsdK;EG,fpk


(2) avSmifefusJtkd (vkdifZkd;) Hlawn Ceu (Laizo) rsdK;EG,fpk
(3) Zma[mif (Zahau) rsdK;EG,fpk
(4) wm&Tef; (Tlai Sun) rsdK;EG,fpk
(5) ZefeD,yf (Zangiat) rsdK;EG,fpk
(6) cGmqdrf (Khual Sim) rsdK;EG,fpk
(7) aigef (Ngawn) rsdK;EG,fpk
(8) [Gmvfidk (Hual Ngo) rsdK;EG,fpk
(9) vJifoJ (Lente) rsdK;EG,fpk
(10) oaygif; (Ta Pawng) rsdK;EG,fpk
(11) vkH;a[mh (Lung Hawh) rsdK;EG,fpk 1

wkdYjzpfygonf/

2/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;avhvmcsuf
zvrf;csif;bmompum;ukd avhvmwifjy&mwGif pum;oHzGJUrItqifh (phonological
level)? pum;vkH;zGJUrItqifh (morophological level) [lí tqifh(2)qifh? tykdif; (2)ykdi;f
cGJjcm;í avhvm wifjyygrnf/

2? 1/ pum;oHzGJUrItqifh phonological level


zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ pum;oHzGJUykHtqifhukd avhvmwifjy&mwGif oH&if;rsm;
(phonemes) ESifh 0PÖzJUG ykHrsm; (structural patterns of syllable ) [lí tykdif; (2)ykdif;
cGJjcm;í avhvmwifjyygrnf/

2? 1? 1/ oH&if;rsm; phonemes
oH&if;qkdonfrSm bmompum;wpfck\ pum;vkH;wpfvkH;ESifw h pfvkH;ukd uGJjym;atmif
cGJjcm;EkdifprG ;f &Sdaom toHtpdwftykdif;uav;rsm; jzpfonf/ oH&if;\oabmukd
o'´aA'ynm&SifwkdYu
]]bmompum;wpfcktwGi;f &Sd ao;i,faom toHtpdwftydkif;
uav;rsm;onf (1)o'´aA't& qifwlrIvnf;&Srd nf (2)jzpfEdik f&m

1
wmefqGif;vsef;aygifESift
h rsm;? 2006? 2/
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e,fjcm;rI vnf;&Srd nfqkdvQif ,if;toH tpdwftykdif;uav;rsm;^


toHrdom;pk^ toHtpkta0;onf oH&if;jzpfonf}} 1
[kzGifhqkdowfrSwfMuygonf/ urÇmay:&Sd rnfonfhbmompum;wGifrqkd o&oH&if;ESifh
Asnf;oH&if;[lí ESprf sdK;&Sd&m zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd oH&if;rsm;ukd avhvm
wifjy&mwGifvnf; o&oH&if;rsm; (vowel phonemes) ESifAh snf;oH&if;rsm; (consonant
phonemes) [lí ESpy f dik f;cGjJ cm; wifjyrnf jzpfygonf/

2? 1? 1? 1/ o&oH&if;rsm; vowel phonemes


zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif o&oH&if; (20)vkH;&SdaMumif; awGU&onf/ ,if;wkdYrSm o&
oefYoefY pure vowel (6)vkH;? o&wGJESpcf k diphthong (11) vkH;? o&okH;ckwGJ triphthong
(2) vkH;? rMwm0ufo& (1)vkH; wkdYjzpfMuygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd o&oefYoefY (6)vkH;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf a&;xkH; toHxGuf
 tm; ^  tD; 
 atm   tkd; 
 tJ   tl;  
wdkYjzpfMuygonf/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd o&ESpfcw k GJ (11) vkH;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf a&;xkH; toHxGuf
 tkdif; (,d) ^  tJ(,d) 
 atm (,d)   tJ(0k) 
  atmif; (,d)   tD;(,) 
 tD;(,dkY) ^  tl;(0) 
 tD;(0k)   tl;(,d) 
 tkd;(,d)  
wdkYjzpfMuygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd o&okH;ckwGJ (2)vkH;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf
 tD;(,dkif) ^
 tGdKif; 
wkdY jzpfMuygonf/

1
xGef;jrifh? OD;? 2007(rwfv)? 165/
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zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd rMwm0ufo& (1)vkH;rSm


a&;xkH; toHxGuf
 t ^
jzpfygonf/
2? 1? 1? 2/ Asnf;oH&if;rsm; consonant phonemes
zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif Asnf;oH&if; (30)vkH; &SdaMumif;awGU&Sd&onf/ ,if;wkYdrmS
vkH;csif;Asnf; (16)vkH;ESihf Asnf;wGJ(14)vkH;wkdY jzpfMuygonf/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd
vkH;csif;Asnf; (16) vkH;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf a&;xk;H toHxGuf
 bf ^  ef 
 usf   yf ^
 'f   &f 
  zSf ^  pf 
 [f   of ^
 uf  . wf 
  vf ^  ASf 
 rf   Zf ^  
wkdY jzpfMuygonf/ Asnf;wGJ (14) vkH;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf a&;xkH; toHxGuf
 vSf ^  cf ^
 rSf   zf 
 ESf   oSf 
  ½Sf ^ 
. xf ^
 if   o’f 
 iSf   o’S f 
  vf ^  &f[f 
wkdYjzpfMuygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd Asnf;oH&if;(30)vkH;wkdYwGif Asnf;ESihf Asnf;
wkdYonf tpAsnf;tjzpftokH;rjyKEkdifbJ tqkH;Asnf;tjzpfom tokH;jyKEkdifaMumif; awGU&
onf/ usefAsnf; (28)vkH;wkdYonf tpAsnf;tjzpf tokH;jyKEkdifMuonf/ ,if;wkdYteufrS
Asnf;wkdYomvQif tqkH;Asnf;tjzpf tokH;
jyKEkdifaMumif; awGU&ygonf/
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2? 1? 2 / 0PÖzJUG ykHrsm; structural patterns of syllable


0PÖ (syllable) [laom bmomaA',lepfESifh ywfoufí ynm&SifwkdYu
]]0PÖqdkonfrSm o&oH&if;wpfvkH;wnf; odkYr[kwf Asnf;ESihfo&
oH&if;wkYd wGJxm;aom pum;oHtpdwftykdi;f wpfck? okdYr[kwf tpdwf
tykdif;rsm;ukd ac:qkdonf/}} 1
[lí t"dymÜ ,fziG fhqkdMuygonf/ bmompum;wpfcu k kd tokH;jyK&mwGif t"dymÜ ,f
azmfaqmifEdik fa&;twGuf em;jzihfMum;Ekdifavmufaom toHav;rsm;ukd zefwD;ajymqkd
Mu&onf/ xkdem;jzihf Mum;Ekdifavmufaom toHuav;wpfoHukd 0PÖ[kowfrSwfjcif;
jzpfonf/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif toHzGJUpnf;yk?H okdYr[kwf 0PÖzJUG pnf;ykH (4) rsdK;
&SdaMumif; awGU&onf/ ,if;wkdYrSm
(1) o&wpfcw k nf;jzihf zGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpH ( ovo syllable pattern)
(2) (Asnf; + o&) jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpH ( cvo syllable pattern)
(3) (o& + Asnf;) jzihf zGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk H ( ovc syllable pattern)
(4) (Asnf; + o& + Asnf;) jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖypkH H (cvc syllable pattern)
wkdY jzpfMuygonf/

2? 1? 2? 1/ o&wpfcw k nf;jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpH (ovo syllable patterns)


zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd o&wpfckwnf;jzihf zGJUpnf;xm;aom 0PÖypkH rH sm;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
A tm; ^ ol\
 t ^ onf? \ (Bud,m0dbwf)
 tD; ^ uRefawmfwkdY
 atmif ^ atmf (onf)
 tkdif;(,d) ^ vIH (onf)
 atmf ^ .....yg (apckdif;0dbwf)
 tGD ^ acG;
 tdef ^ pm; (onf)
ponfwkdY jzpfygonf/

1
jrefrmpmXme? (ckESpfryg)? 117/
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2? 1? 2? 2/ (Asnf; + o&) jzifhzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpHrsm; (cvo syllable pattrens)


zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif (Asnf; + o&) jzihfzGJUpnf;xm;aom 0PÖyHpk Hrsm;ukdvnf;
awGU&Sd&onf/ þ0PÖzGJUykHwGif 0PÖ\tpae&müAsnf;&Sí d 0PÖ\tv,fae&mü o&
&SdNyD; 0PÖ\ tqkH;ae&mwGif tvGwf (okn) jzpfaeaom ykHpHrsdK;jzpfonf/ cvo syllable
pattrern [k ac:Muygonf/

om"u
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 usm ^ pm
 rJ ^ qdwf
 uD ^ OD;csdK
 rkd ^ owdkYorD;
 odk ^ xkdif (onf)
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 ol; ^ okd;
 ausm ^ EGm;
 El; ^ tar
 yg; ^ taz
 vm; ^ ,l (onf)
 em; ^ ukduf (onf)
 &m; ^ vm (onf)
 ZJ ^ ysif; (onf)
 yJ ^ ay; (onf)
 oJ ^ ao; (onf)
 vJ ^ qdk; (onf)
 bkd ^ a[mif (onf)
 qdk ^ wuf (onf)
 usdK; ^ tarGqufcH (onf)
 yl; ^ o,f (onf)
 zSL; ^ em; (onf)
 oD ^ a&
 ay: ^ atmf (onf)
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 usD ^ qm;


 udef; ^ uRefawmf
 umh ^ uRefawmf\
 emh ^ oif\
 o’L; ^ vJ (onf)
 azm ^ ta&cGH
 oSL; ^ a[majym (onf)

2? 1? 2? 3/ (o& + Asnf;)jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpHrsm; (ovo syllable patterns)


zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif (o& + Asnf;) jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk Hrsm;ukdvnf; awGU&Sd
&onf/ þ0PÖyHpk HwGif 0PÖ\tpae&mü tvGwf (okn) jzpfaeí tv,fae&mü
o&&SdNyD; tqkH;ae&mü Asnf;&Sad omzGUJ pnf;ykH jzpfonf/ ovc syllable pattern [kac:
Muygonf/
om"u
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 tm;&f ^ Muuf
 tmof ^ &dwf (onf)
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 tJvf ^ cg;
 tJrf ^ uif (onf)
 tD;ef ^ tdrf
 tD;of ^ tdyf (onf)
 tdk&f ^ vnfacsmif;
 tlrf ^ bl;oD;
 tl&f ^ rD;½SdLU (onf)
 atmef ^ toH
 atmrf ^ &ifbwf
 tDef ^ uRefawmfwkdYukd
 tmef ^ ol? olwkdY
 tm;[f ^ okdY (a&SU½I&mjy0dbwf)
 tmuf ^ atmf (onf)
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 tmvf ^ ief (onf)


 tJ&f ^ csufjyKwf (onf)
 tD&f ^ vnfrsdK
 tkdyf ^ 0yf (onf)
 tkdef ^ zGihf (onf)
 atmof ^ jcif;
 atmuf ^ zrf;rd (onf)

2? 1? 2? 4/ (Asnf;+o&+Asnf;) jzifhzGJUpnf;aom0PÖykHpHrsm;(cvc syllable pattrens)


zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif (Asnf; + o& + Asnf;) jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk Hrsm;
ukdvnf; awGUEkdifonf/ þ0PÖykHpHwGif 0PÖ\tpae&mü Asnf;? tv,fae&mü o&?
tqkH;ae&mü Asnf;wkdY&Sdaom zGJUpnf;ykHjzpfonf/ cvc syllable pattren [k ac:Muyg
onf/
om"u
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 bD;[f ^ acsmif;Munfh (onf)
 Zkd[f ^ Munfh (onf)
 bl[f ^ xrif;
 aum[f ^ udkufzJh (onf)
 a&m[f ^ rD;Nrd§Kuf (onf)
 usmuf ^ cGet f m;BuD; (onf)
 usJUuf ^ tyifayguf (onf)
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dyÜm,f
 vJhuf ^ upm; (onf)
 usD;uf ^ udkufjzwf (onf)
 aASmhuf ^ 0uf
 bl;uf ^ wJ
 a[muf ^ cGm (onf)
 vm;vf ^ olBuD;
 Zm;vf ^ vG,ftdwf
 bJvf ^ tkd;
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
. wD;vf ^ epf (onf)
 ZD;vf ^ ocGm;oD;
 ½l;vf ^ a>r
 ausmvf ^ em; (onf)
 &mrf ^ ,majr
 ykd;rf ^ ayGUzuf (onf)
 [l;rf ^ qkyfukdif (onf)
 abmrf ^ yvkdif;
zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ pum;oHzGJUykHtqifhwGif 0PÖwnfaqmufryI Hpk Hrsm;udk
avhvmaomtcg o&wpfckwnf;jzihf zGJUpnf;onfh0PÖykHpH (ovo syllable pattern) rsdK;
tvGefenf;yg;aMumif; awGU&onf/ Asnf; + o& jzihfzUG Jpnf;xm;aom 0PÖyHpk H (cvo
syllable pattren) rsdK;ESihf o& + Asnf; jzifhzGJUpnf;xm;aom 0PÖyHkpH (ovc syllable
pattern) rsdK;wdkYrSm toifhtwifh&SdNyD; Asnf; + o& +Asnf; jzifhzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpH (cvc
syllable pattern) rsdK;rSm trsm;qkH;jzpfaMumif; awGU&Sd&ygonf/

2? 2/ pum;vkH;zGJUrItqifh morphological level


2? 2? 1/ pum;vkH;zGJUykHrsm; morphology
pum;vkH;[laom toHtpdwftydkif;onf bmompum;wpfckwGif tcsuftcsmusaom
tpdwftydkif;wpfck jzpfonf/ wpfenf;tm;jzihf bmomaA',lepfrsm;wGif t"duusaom
,lepfwpfc[ k k qkdEkdifonf/ pum;vkH;[laom bmomaA',lepfukd bmomaA'ynm&Sif
wkdYu
]]pum;vkH;qkdonfrSm oD;jcm;vGwfvyfpmG &yfwnfEkdifaomtao;qk;H
½kyfoD; jzpfonf}} 1
[k owfrSwfMuygonf/
pum;vkH;onf ½kyf&if;xufBuD;aom bmomaA',lepf jzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh
pum;vkH;zGJUrIukd avhvm&mwGif ½kyf&if;rsm;zGJUpyfrIukd avhvmygonf/ ½kyf&if;rsm; yg0if
zGJUpyfrItay:tajccHí pum;vkH;trsdK;tpm; cGJjcm;aomtcg pum;½kd; (simple word)?
pum;a&m (complex word)ESifh pum;aygif; (compound word)[lí okH;rsdK;cGJjcm;Ekdif
onf/ ,if;ok;H rsdK;teuf zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif pum;½kd;ESifh pum;aygif;[lí
pum;vkH;trsdK;tpm; ESprf sdK;&SdaMumif; awGU&Sd&ygonf/

1
xGef;jrifh? OD;? 2007(azazmf0g&D)? 319/
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2? 2? 1? 1/ pum;½kd;rsm; simple words


pum;½kd;qdkonfrmS ½kyfoD;½ky&f if; free morpheme wpfcw k nf;jzifh zGJUwnfaeaom
pum;vkH;rsdK; jzpfygonf/ ½kyfoD;½ky&f if;qkdonfrSm teuft"dyÜm,fukd azmfaqmifEdik fí
pum;vkH;tjzpf oD;jcm;&yfwnfEkdiaf om toHpkyifjzpfonf/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd
½kyfoD;½kyf&if;wpfcpk Djzihf zGJUwnfaeaom pum;½kd;rsm;rSm
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 tD ^ uRefawmhukd
 tGD ^ acG;
  ol; ^ okd;
 ausm ^ EGm;
 tm&f ^ Muuf
 tD;ef ^ tdrf
 Zdk;[f ^ Munfh (onf)
 oJ ^ ao; (onf)
 &m; ^ vm (onf)
 abmrf ^ yvkdif;
 a'g&f ^ aps;qkid f
 aZmif ^ arsmuf
 o’dK&f ^ uRef;opf
 o’eS f ^ ocØsKif;
 qm;bJuf ^ ,kef
 qm;AIdrf ^ 0uf0H
 azmof ^ Ekwf (onf)
 vSL;if ^ pnfum; (onf)
 vDifclyf ^ arSmufxm; (onf)
 vSm;qmuf ^ oDqkd (onf)
 'D;if ^ rwfwyf&yf (onf)
 zJvf ^ cGJjcrf; (onf)
 arSmrf ^ ikH (onf)
a&;xkH; toHxGuf t"dymÜ ,f
 igef ^ a&; (onf)
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 o’mef; ^ ajy; (onf)


 oSLyf ^ 0Suf (onf)
 o’LS ef; ^ vkduf (onf)
ponfwkdY jzpfygonf/

2? 2? 1? 2/ pum;aygif;rsm; compound words


pum;aygif;qkdonfrSm ½kyfoD;½ky&f if;ESpcf ?k okdYr[kwf ESpcf kxufykdaom ½kyfoD;rsm;jzihf
aygif;pyfzGJUpnf;xm;aom pum;vkH;rsdK; jzpfygonf/ zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif
½kyfoD;½ky&f if; (2)ckjzihf aygif;pyfzJUG pnf;xm;aom pum;aygif;rsm;ukdvnf;aumif;?
½kyfoD;½ky&f if; (3)ckjzihf aygif;pyfzGJUpnf;xm;aom pum;aygif;rsm;ukdvnf;aumif;
awGU&Sd&ygonf/ ½kyfoD;½ky&f if; (2)ckjzihf aygif;pyfzGJUpnf; xm;aom pum;aygif;wkdYwGif
vnf; emrf½kyf&if;(noun morpheme)ESpcf ak ygif;pyfaom pum;aygif;? emrf½kyf&if;wpfck
ESifh Bud,m½ky&f if; (verb morpheme) wpfcak ygif;pyfaom pum;aygif; [líESpfrsdK;
awGU&Sd&ygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd (emrf½ky&f if; + emrf½kyf&if;) ykHpjH zihf aygif;pyfzJUG pnf;
xm;aom pum;aygif;rsm;rSm
a&;xkH;  =    
toHxGuf AId;ufqm;  = AId;ufqm;
pdwfjzmteuf = 0uf + tom;
pum;aygif;teuf = 0ufom;

a&;xkH;  =  


toHxGuf tm&fqm;  = tm&fqm;
pdwfjzmteuf = Muuf + tom;
pum;aygif;teuf = Muufom;

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf usD;&f[foD;= usD;&f[f oD;
pdwfjzmteuf = prf;acsmif; + a&
pum;aygif;teuf = prf;a&

a&;xkH;  =  


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toHxGuf oDaoSmvf  = oDaoSmvf


pdwfjzmteuf = a& + bl;
pum;aygif;teuf = a&bl;

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf tD;efcg;ef  = tD;efcg;ef
pdwfjzmteuf = tdrf + tcef;
pum;aygif;teuf = tdrcf ef;
ponfwkdYjzpfygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;&Sd emrf½kyf&if;wpfcEk iS fh Bud,m½ky&f if;wpfcw
k kdY aygif;pyf
zGJUpnf;xm;aom pum;aygif;rsm;rSm
a&;xkH;  = 
toHxGuf oD;vD;uf  = oD;vD;uf
pdwfjzmteuf = a& + jynfhvQH (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = a&vQH (onf)? a&BuD; (onf)

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf ausmoJ = ausmoJ 
pdwfjzmteuf = EGm; + ao; (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = EGm;uav;? EGm;aygufp

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf rD;em  = rD;em
pdwfjzmteuf = vl + zsm;em (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = vlem

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf oD;'kid f = oD;'kdif
pdwfjzmteuf = a& + at; (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = a&at;
a&;xkH;  = 
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toHxGuf ql;&fAId;&f[f = ql;&f  AId;&f[f 


pdwfjzmteuf = ykdufuGef + ypfcs (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = uGefypf (onf)

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf rD;'D;uf  = rD;  'D;uf
pdwfjzmteuf = vl + rSefuef (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = ajzmifhrwfrSefuefol

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf oDvSL;rf  = oD  vSL;rf
pdwfjzmteuf = a& + yl (onf)
pum;aygif;teuf = a&aEG;
ponfwkdYjzpfygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;wGif ½kyo f D;½ky&f if;(3)ckjzifh aygif;pyfzJUG pnf;xm;aom
pum;aygif; rsdK;udkvnf; awGU½dS&ygonf/ ½kyfoD;½ky&f if;(3)ckjzifh aygif;pyfzJUG pnf;xm;
aom pum;aygif;rsdK;wGif (emrf½kyfoD; + Bud,m½kyo f D; + emrf½kyfoD;)yHkpjH zifh aygif;pyf
avh½SdaMumif; awGY½&Sd ygonf/ om"u
a&;xkH;  =
toHxGuf o’mif;atmifyg;= o’mif;atmifyg;
pdwfjzmteuf = awmif + atmf(onf) + a,musfm;
pum;aygif;teuf = awmifay:rSatmfaoma,musfm;? ½Gmaqmf

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf eD[dktDyg;&f= eD[dktDyg;&f
pdwfjzmteuf = ae + vSnfh (onf)+ yef;
pum;aygif;teuf = aebufodkYvSnfhaomyef;? aeMumyef;

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf 'l;ifo’SSL;efol= 'l;ifo’L;ef
S ol 
pdwfjzmteuf = aemuf + vdkuf (onf) + wpfOD;
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pum;aygif;teuf = aemufvkdufwpfOD;? wynfh

a&;xkH;  = 


toHxGuf vdko’dK;yg;
S = vkdo’dK;yg;
S
pdwfjzmteuf = awmif,m + vkyf (onf) + a,musfm;
pum;aygif;teuf = awmif,mvkyfola,musfm;?
awmif,morm;
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zGJUpnf;xm;aom pum;aygif;rsdK;toHk;rsm;NyD; ½kyfoD;½kyf&if;(3)ckjzifh zGJUpnf;xm;aom
pum;aygif;rsdK; toHk;enf;aMumif; awGU½Sd&ygonf/

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csif;wkid ;f &if;om;rsdK;EG,fpk (11)pk½Sdonfhteuf qdrf(sim) rsdK;EG,fpk? avSmefusJtkd (Hlawn
Ceu) rsdK;EG,fpk? Zma[mif(Zahau) rsdK;EG,fpkwdkYonf zvrf;pum;udk rdcifbmom
pum;tjzpf ajymqdkMuNyD; usefrsdK;EG,fpkwdkYrmS rdrw d dk\
Y a'oEÅ&pum;udk rdcifbmom
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awGY&onf/
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tokH;rsm;aom bmompum;[k qkdEkdifygonf/ Asnf;oHtrsm;pkonf jrefrm Asnf;oHrsm;
ESifw
h lnDNyD; tokH;jyKykHwGif uGmjcm;onf/ jrefrmpum;oHrsm;wGif Asnf;oHqkH;aom
pum;oHenf;yg;aomfvnf; zvrf;csif; pum;oHrsm;wGif Asnf;oHqkH;aom pum;oHrsm;
pGm&Sad Mumif; awGU&onf/ zvrf;csif; bmompum;&Sd Asnf;oHrsm;wGif bf usf
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tokH;jyKEkdifNyD; vfESihf[Asnf;wkdYrSm tqkH;Asnf;tjzpfom tokH;jyKEkdifMuonf/
[fufvf rfefyf&fofif[laom Asnf; (9)vkH;rSmrl
tpAsnf;tjzpfa&m tqkH;Asnf;tjzpfyg tokH;jyKEkdifaMumif; awGU&ygonf/ 
zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ 0PÖzJUG pnf;rIwGif urÇmYbmompum;trsm;wGif
awGU&avh&daS om 0PÖzJUG ykHpH (structural pattern of syllable) av;rsdK;vkH; tokH;jyKaMumif;
awGU&onf/ o&wpfck wnf;jzihfzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk H(ovo syllable pattern)rSm
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tvGefenf;yg;onf/ Asnf;+o& jzifh zGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk H(cvo syllable pattern) ESifh


o&+Asnf; jzifhzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖyHpk H (ovc syllable pattern) wkdYrSm toifhtwifh&SdNyD;
Asnf; + o& + Asnf; jzifhzGJUpnf;aom 0PÖykHpH (cvc syllable pattern)rSm tokH;trsm;
qkH;jzpfaMumif; awGU&Sd&ygonf/
zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ pum;vkH;zGJUrIpepf (morophology) wGif ½kyfoD;
½kyf&if;wpfck wnf;jzihf zGJUpnf;aom pum;½kd; (Simple word) trsdK;tpm;ESihf wpfck
xufykdaom ½kyfoD;½kyf&if; trsm;jzihfzGJUpnf;aom pum;aygif; (compound word)wkdYukd
tokH;rsm;NyD; ½kyfoD;½ky&f if;ESifh ½kyfrSD;½ky&f if;wkYd aygif;pyfzJUG pnf;xm;aom (complex
word) trsdK;tpm;ukd tokH;enf;yg;aMumif; awGU&onf/ pum;aygif;rsm;wGiv f nf;
½kyfoD;½ky&f if; (2)ck jzihfzGUJpnf;aom pum;aygif;rsdK;rSm tokH;rsm;NyD; (2)ckxufykdaom
½kyfoD;½ky&f if;rsm;jzihf zGJUpnf;aom pum;aygif;rsdK;ukd tokH;enf;yg;aMumif; awGU&Sd&yg
onf/

ed*kH;
þpmwrf;wGif csif;jynfe,fajrmufykdif;a'oü aexkdifMuaom zvrf;csif;wkid ;f &if;om;
wk\ dY bmompum;zGJUpnf;ykHukd o'´aA'½Iaxmif?h bmomaA'½Iaxmifw h kdYrS avhvm
wifjycJhygonf/ wifjy&mwGif zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ tajccHu@rsm;jzpfaom
pum;oHzGJUykHtqifh (phonological level) ESifh pum;vkH;zGJUykHtqifh (morphhological level)
wkdYukdom avhvmwifjyEkdifcJhygonf/ 0guszGJUykHtqifh (syntactic level) ukdwifjy
Ekdijf cif;r&SdcJhyg/ þpmwrf;yg okawoe&v'frsm;onf zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ o'´g
ukd azmfxkwf&mwGif wpfpkHwpf&maom taxmuftyHhjyKEkdiv f drfhrnf[k ,kHMunfarQmfvifh
ygonf/ usef&daS eao;aom zvrf;csif;bmompum;\ 0guszGJUykHtqifhukd qufvuf
avhvm azmfxkwfoGm;Mu&efvnf; qE´jyKtyfygonf/

awGUqkHar;jref;onfhyk*¾dKvfrsm;
1/ a'gufwmqvdkif;&D,mef;AJvf? ygarmu©(Nidr;f )? ocFsmXme? uav;wuúokdvf/
2/ armifqef;vS,fxef;(aigefcsif;rsdK;EG,f)? zkdifaZmvf&Gm? zvrf;NrdKUe,f/
3/ rbGJUEkdifqke;f (ZefeD,yfcsif;rsdK;EG,f)? aMumifuGm&Gm? zvrf;NrdKUe,f/
4/ rAsufESJrfxsef; (aigefcsif;rsdK;EG,f)? bJavG;&Gm? zvrf;NrdKUe,f/
5/ riGefe,fbGJU (ZefeD,yfcsif;rsdK;EG,f)? wa&m&foef;&Gm? zvrf;NrdKUe,f/
6/ rZdef;e,fyg&f (aigefcsif;rsdK;EG,f)? zvrf;NrdKU/
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usrf;ukd;pm&if;
csif;orkdif;&SmazGjyKpka&;aumfrwD/ (2001) / csif;vlrsdK;rsm;\ orkdif;jzpfpOfESihf½kd;&m
,Ofaus;rI"avhxkH;pHrsm;tusOf;/ &efukef? ELC atmhzfquf/
wmefqGif;vsef;aygifEiS hftrsm;/ (2006) /zvrf;rsdK;EG,fpkrsm;ESihf zvrf;NrdKUe,ftwGif;rS
e,fcsJUqefYusifawmfvSefrIrsm;/uav;wuúokdvf?orkdif;r[m0dZÆmbGJUt
wGufwifoGif;aomusrf;/
xGef;jrifh? OD;/ (2007- azazmf0g&D) / bmomaA'/ &efukef? &mjynfhpmtkyfwkduf/
xGef;jrifh? OD;/ (2007- rwfv) / o'´aA'/ &efukef? &mjynfhpmtkyfwkduf/
jrefrmpmXme/ (ckEpS rf yg) / r-3109 bmomaA'? o'´aA'(2)ykdYcscsuf/ &efuke?f
ta0;oif wuúokdvf/
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A STUDY ON THE SIGNIFICANCES OF THE


PATICCASAMUPPĀDA DOCTRINE
Myint Myint Kywe1
ABSTRACT
In this study, the membrane active substances secreted by both gram- In the
Mahānidāna Sutta of the Mahāvagga of Suttanta Piṭaka, the Buddha preached
Paṭiccasamuppāda at the request of the Venerable Ānanda. The Paṭiccasamuppāda is
an extraordinary discourse. Thus there are virtues in this doctrine. There are
Paṭiccasamuppāda as the conditioning dhamma to attain Buddha-hood,
Paṭiccasamuppāda as Dhamma on which Buddha constantly Pondered, profoundity of
the Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta, A Doctrine of Liberation from Apāya and Saṃsāra,
Paṭiccasamuppāda as a means of realization of dhamma, Paṭiccasamuppāda being a
hard to comprehend dhamma, Paṭiccasamuppāda being hard to preach others,
Paṭiccasamuppāda being a dhamma like to the great ocean, Paṭiccasamuppāda as
dhamma dispelling wrong views, Paṭiccasamuppāda as dhamma of virtuous world
lings, inspiring firm faith and non-conversion to other faiths dhamma coming to be a
Cūlasotapānna. Therefore Paṭiccasamuppāda is a dhamma which should be learned
and practiced.
Keywords: Paṭiccasamuppāda, Saṃsāra, Pubbenivāsa, Dibbacakkhu, Āsvakkhaya,
Nibbāna

INTRODUCTION
According to the Buddhists, Paṭiccsamuppāda is fundamental and important
not only in the field of Suttanta, but also in that of Abhidhamma. In accordance with
the exposition of commentators that rum: ―Catusacca vinimutto dhamma nāma
natthi‖, all the doctrines preached by the Buddha are always involved with the Four
Noble Truths. The essence of the Four Noble Truths is comprehended as the relation
between cause and effect. In other words, it is the relation between duds and their
results which is the basic concepts for Buddhists. If the cause and effect is expanded
in extensive way, it generally refers to the Four Noble Truths, or Paṭiccsamuppāda,
Paṭṭhāna. Never the less, in this paper, only the significant qualities of
Paṭiccsamuppāda are intended to be dealt with references to Pāḷi literature.

Meaning and character of Paṭiccasamuppāda


In the Mahānidāna Sutta in the Mahāvagga of Suttanta Piṭaka, the Buddha
preached Paṭiccasamuppāda at the request of the Venerable Ānanda. The
Paṭiccasamuppāda is an extraordinary discourse. Thus there are virtues in this
doctrine. In describing the virtues of Paṭiccasamuppāda, first acquaintance must be
made with the meanings of two Pāli words; Paṭiccasamuppāda and
Paṭiccasamuppa-anna. Paṭiccasamuppāda is defined as:
Aññamaññaṃ paṭicca samaṃ sahaca paccayuppanna dhamme uppādetīti
paṭiccasamuppādo.2 'It is called Paṭiccasamuppāda because the factors such as
avijjā, mutually dependent, uniformly and simultaneously cause the arising of
resultant factors such as saṅkhāra etc.'

1
Dr, Associate Professor, Department of Oriental Studies, Kalay University
2
Vism. A. II, 152.
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According to this exposition, Paṭiccasamuppāda is the conditioning factors


for the resultant material and mental phenomena. The conditioning factors get the
name of definitely Paṭiccasamuppāda whereas the resultant physical and mental
phenomena get the name of Paṭiccasamuppāda unavoidably because of cause and
effect relationship. As factors are called causes because they produce effects, every
cause cannot be separated from its effect. That is why Paṭiccasamuppāda is
considered as the Doctrine of relationship between Cause and Effect.
Paṭiccasamuppāda is the resultant factors dependent upon the causal factors.
Avijjādayo tāva dhammā paṭiccasamuppādoti veditabbā.1'The causal factors such as
avijjā (ignorance) should be known firstly as the causal factors.'Jarāmaraṇādayo
pana Paṭiccasamuppannā dhammāti ved- itabbā.2'The resultant factors such as jarā
(ageing) and maraṇa (death) should be known as Paṭiccasamuppāda.'
According to this exposition, Paṭiccasamuppāda means the causal factors such
as avijjā. Paṭiccasamuppāda denotes the meaning of the resultant factors such as jāti-
maraṇa. Therefore it is noted that the causal factors are Paṭiccasamuppāda and then
the resultant factors are Paṭiccasamuppāda.
Although joined together in some usages the word Paṭiccasamuppāda and the
word Paṭiccasamuppānna are combined the word Paṭiccasamuppāda is usually
eliminated by the method of "Ekasesa" (one) omitting and thus only the word
Paṭiccasamuppada remains. Thus Paṭiccasamuppāda now conveys two meanings, the
causal factors as well as the resultant effects.

Paṭiccasamuppāda as the conditioning dhamma to attain Buddha-hood


Paṭiccasamuppāda was the dhamma which helped Siddhattha to become a
Buddha. The Bodhisatta strived practising austerities for the duration of six years. On
the day of becoming Buddha, the Bodhisatta while sitting at the foot of Bodhi tree,
repulsed successively the force of Devaputtamāra before the sunset. In the first watch
of the night the Bodhisatta gained "Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa" (knowledge of
remembrance of one's former states of existence) which enable to see the life's
continuity through previous existences by penetrating the darkness of ignorance. In
the second watch of the night he attained Dibbacakkhu ñāṇa (knowledge of divine).
In the last watch of the night with reference to the compassion to the living beings,
Paccayakāre ñāṇaṃ otāretvā taṃ anuloma paṭiloma vasena sammasanto
aruṇuggamanavelāyasammā sambodhiṃ abhisaṃbujjhitvā3 ...'Bearing in mind the
knowledge of Paṭiccasamuppāda and pondering on it in the natural order, "anuloma"
as well as in the reverse order, "paṭiloma". At the crack of dawn he attained the
"Sammāsambodhi ñāṇa" (knowledge of perfectly enlightened) and "Sabbaññūta
ñāṇa" (knowledge of omniscience and became fully Enlightened Buddha.'
By looking at this momentous event, Paṭiccasamuppāda was the dhamma on
which the Buddha contemplated before He became an Enlightened Buddha. Only
after contemplating the Paṭiccasamuppāda He became an Enlightened Buddha.

1
Vism. A. II, 148.
2
Ibid.
3
Dhp. A, 180.
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Therefore, Paṭiccasamuppāda is closely associated with the attainment of


Buddhahood.

Paṭiccasamuppāda as dhamma on which Buddha constantly pondered


After attaining Buddhahood, the Buddha stayed for forty-nine days at seven
places around the Bodhi tree, spending seven days at each place. Each place is called
Ekasattāha, and so there were seven places those are called Sattasattāha. The first
place Pallaṅka Sattāha the Buddha remained seated on the Aparājita (throne enjoying
the blissful peace of phalasamāpatti for the seven whole days). During the three
watches of the night the Buddha repeatedly contemplated Paṭicasamuppāda in the
natural order and reverse order.1
Bodhisatta became Buddha at the foot of Bodhi tree near the bank of the Nerañjarā
River in the Uruvela forest. The Buddha stayed cross legged on the throne for seven
days enjoying vimuttisukha, the bliss of emancipation. Seven days after becoming
Buddha, the Buddha retired from the bliss of emancipation. In the first watch of the
night the Buddha reflected on Paṭiccasamuppāda in the ascending order. In the
second watch of the night the Buddha reflected on Paṭiccasamuppāda in the
descending order. In the last watch of the night the Buddha repeatedly reflected on
Paṭiccasamuppāda in both the ascending and descending orders.2
Paṭiccasamuppāda was preached again and again in many places in
Mahānidāna the Sutta of the Mahāvagga in Dīgha Nikāya, SammāDiṭṭhi Sutta and
Mahā-taṇhāsakhaya Sutta of Majjhima Nikāya, in Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta,
Buddhavagga, Nidānavagga Saṃyatta of Saṃyuttanikāya, now and then. Therefore,
Paṭiccasamuppāda was the doctrine on which the Buddha reflected through His life.

Profoundity of the Paṭiccasamuppāda Sutta


Paṭiccasamuppāda is an intellectually profound doctrine. It seems to be
having the appearance of deep. It was the time when the Buddha was residing at a
small village called Kammāsadhamma in the country of Kuru. The Venerable
Ānanda, taking a seat at an appropriate place, made obeisance to the Buddha and
supplicated,
Acchariyaṃ bhante, abbhutaṃ bhante, yāvagambhīrā cāyaṃ bhante
paṭiccasamuppādo gambhīrāvabhāso ca, atha ca pana me uttānakuttānako viya
khāyati.3 'Venerable Sir, it is astounding! It is absurd! The doctrine of Paṭiccasa
muppāda is very profound and deep. It has the appearance of deep profundity. Yet
your disciple's intellect, it seems to be shallow'. 4
When the Venerable Ānanda supplicated to the Buddha as stated above, the
Buddha did not accept and forbade as follows:
Mā hevaṃ Ānanda avaca Mā hevaṃ Ānanda avaca. Gambhīro cāyaṃ Ānanda
paṭiccasamuppādo gambhīr-āvabhāso ca. Etassa Ānanda dhammassa ananubodhā
1
Vin. III, 1.
2
Khu. I, 77-9.
3
D. II, 47.
4
D. II, (Myan), 51.
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appaṭivedhā evamayaṃ pajātantā kulakajāta kulagan-ṭhikajātā muñca pabbajabhūtā


apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ saṃsāraṃ nātivattati.1
'Ānanda, say not thus. Ānanda, say not thus. The Paṭiccasamuppāda is
profound and has the nature of profundity. Ānanda, because of incomprehension,
because of lack of insight knowledge, the sentient beings are confused like a tangled
skein, a nest of weaver bird, or a tuft saecharum grass. Being so, they cannot escape
from the miserable states of apāya and the saṃsarā.'2
The Buddha pointed out to the Venerable Ānanda two points not knowing
Paṭiccasamuppāda appropriately and not knowing Paṭiccasamuppāda by insight
knowledge. Not appropriately is known "Ananubodhā" in Pāḷi and not knowing with
insight knowledge is "Appativedhā" in Pāḷi.
By observing Paṭiccasamuppāda on these points, it is known to be a profound
doctrine as well as having the appearance of deep doctrine.

A Doctrine of Liberation from Apāya and Saṃsāra


Because of not appropriate knowing of Paṭiccasamuppāda through
"ñātapariññā" and not know penetrative through "tiraṇapariññā" and
"pahānapariññā", the sentient beings cannot escape from the four apāyas and
Saṃsārā. The appropriate knowing of Paṭiccasamuppāda through ñātapariññā,
tīraṇapariññā and pahānapariññā lead the knower to emancipation. Therefore,
Paṭiccasamuppāda is a doctrine which closes the doors to the apāya states and a
doctrine leading to emancipation from Saṃsāra.
Paṭiccasamuppāda as a means of realization of dhamma
It was the time when the Buddha was residing at Jetavana Monastery in the
city of Sāvatthi in the Kingdom of Kosala. The Venerable Sāriputta had to preach
dhamma on behalf of the Buddha. The Venerable Sāriputta's dhamma was on the
Four Noble Truths. They are the Truth of Dukkha, "Dukkha-Saccā"; the Truth of the
Cause of Dukkha, "Dukkha-Samudaya-Saccā", the Truth of Cessation of Dukkha,
"Dukkha-Nirodha-Saccā", and the truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of
Dukkha, "Dukkha-Nirodhagāmini Paḷipadā-Saccā". The Venerable Sāriputta
preached the doctrine comparing the Four Noble Truths to great footprints of an
elephant. It was authenticated as the Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta in the Mūlapaṇṇāsa
of the Majjhima Nikāya at the Saṅgāyanā. In preaching so, Paṭiccasamuppāda, also
was preached in connection. The Venerable Sāriputta pointed out an extraordinary
aphorism thus:
Yo Paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati, so dhammaṃ passati, Yo dhammaṃ passati
so Paṭiccasamuppādaṃ passati.3He who knows the Paṭiccasamuppāda knows the
dhamma. He who knows the dhamma knows the Paṭiccasamuppāda).
Venerable Sāriputta preached the stated guidance two times in the
Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta. By reflecting this Paṭiccasamuppāda doctrine, everyone
can attain realization of dhamma, the dhamma of Truths.'

1
D. II, 47.
2
D. II, (Myan), 51.
3
M.I, 248-9.
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Paṭiccasamuppāda being a hard to comprehend dhamma


The Paṭiccasamuppāda doctrine is so profound that it is hard to comprehend.
Therefore, Veneralbe Mahābuddhaghosa presented in his Visuddhimagga as follows:
Saccaṃ satto paṭisandhi, paccayākārameva ca; duddasā caturodhammā, desetuṃ ca
sudukkarā.1The four truths, sentient beings, rebirth, and the Paṭiccasamuppāda are
the four things which are difficult to comprehend and also hard to preach.
Venerable Mahābuddhaghosa expounded in detail the Paṭiccasamuppāda in
compiling the commentary on the Visuddhimagga and the Vibhaṅga Aṭṭhakathā, one
of the seven Abhidhamma texts. In compiling the commentary, he referred to the
above mentioned gāthā. In the Paṭiccasamuppāda kathā of Paññābhūmi niddesa in
the Visuddhimagga, Mahābuddhaghosa quoted the gāthas of the ancient teachers by
raising a question:
Yathāhu porāṇā 'What did the ancient teachers say?' He also simply
admitted in the Sammohavinodanī thus: Tenāhu porāṇā 'Thus the ancient teachers
have said'
By observing these sayings, the gāthā beginning with "Saccaṃ satto" was not
the gātha composed by Venerable Mahābuddhgosa. It was the gāthā said by the
ancient teachers. In this gāthā, Paṭiccasamuppāda is included as one of dhammas
which are difficult to comprehend and hard to teach others to understand.
The Paṭiccasamuppāda is constituted of twelve factors beginning with "avijjā"
(ignorance) and ending with "jarā-maraṇa" (ageing and death). These factors are
organized with eight kinds, two original dhammas, the two truths (saccā) and, four
layers. That is why it is difficult to comprehend. Venerable Mahābuddhaghosa
himself stated thus:
Pakatiyāpi ca dukkarāva Paṭiccasamuppādassa atthasa -ṃvaṇṇanā.2
'Explaining even the meaning of Paṭiccasamuppāda is naturally hard to expound.'

Paṭiccasamuppāda being hard to preach others


Paṭiccasamuppāda is, as Venerable Mahābuddhaghosa grumbled, is hard to
expound. It is difficult to understand clearly in one's intellectual capacity. Even if it is
understood in one's intellectual capacity, it is difficult to explain it so that it is
understood by others. The Buddha said,
Na kho Ānanda sukarā paresaṃ dhammaṃ desetuṃ.3 'Ānanda, it is quite
difficult to explain it to others.' Therefore, the Paṭiccasamuppāda is the dhamma
which is not easy to teach others to understand it.

1
Vism. A. II, 153.
2
Vism. II,153.
3
Ibid
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Paṭiccasamuppāda being a dhamma like to the great gcean


The Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma is like the great ocean. Just as the great ocean
is expanse and deep, the Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma is also immensely wide and
deep,
Aññatara āgamādhi gamappattehi na sukarā Paṭicca -samuppādassattha
vaṇṇanā.1 Apart from the persons who have understood the Buddhist Scripture and
attained the Path and Fruition, other persons will not be able to explain the meaning of
Paṭiccasamuppāda.' as commentated by the Venerable Mahābuddhaghosa in the
following way:
In addition, he illustrates: Vatthukāmo ahaṃ ajja, paccayā kāravaṇṇānaṃ.
patiḷḷhaṃ nādhigacchāmi, ajjho gāḷova sāgaraṃ.2'I, who expound the
Paṭiccasamuppāda, am now in un-durable like a person who has gone into the ocean
by observing this statement.'
It is prominent that the Paṭiccasamuppada is deep and profound like the great
ocean.

Paṭiccasamuppāda as dhamma dispelling wrong views


It is of no advantage to know many recipes without knowing the symptoms of
diseases. It is only beneficial when one knows the symptoms of diseases to apply the
right recipe. Likewise he who knows the central point of Paṭiccasamuppāda called
the nectar should know the symptoms of the disease called "kilesa" (defilements). The
characteristics of the diseases called kilesa in brief are of two kinds "Diṭṭhi" (false
view) and "vicikicchā" (perplexity).
The knowledge of Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma is able to dispel the sore of
diṭṭhi and vicikicchā. The belief in kamma and its result is partially included in the
knowledge understanding Paṭiccasamuppāda. Knowledge of Paṭiccasamuppāda will
enable one to overcome the two wrong views. The Ledī Sayadaw said in his
Paṭiccasamuppāda dīpanī that if Paṭiccasamuppāda is unknown, one will have to live
along with wrong views and that Paṭiccasamuppāda is the dhamma which dispels the
wrong views.3
Purimena sassatādī na, mabhāvo pacchimena ca padenaUcchedādivighāto,
dvayena paridipito ñāyo.4'The first 'paṭicca' shows the non-existence of sassatavāda,
etc. The next word 'samuppāda' shows the dispelling destruction of ucchedavāda, etc.
The combination of the two words shows the majjhimapaṭipadā the middle way of
practice as stated in the Visuddhimagga.'
The belief that the atta or ego of an individual exists without decay, stands
although the body has decayed is the Sassatavāda.The belief that there is no cause for
wealth and poverty and that they appear of their own accord is called Ahetukavāda.
The belief that the living beings become nothing on being dead is called
Ucchedavāda.
1
Ibid
2
Vism. II,154.
3
P.D, 1-2.
4
Vism. II, 125.
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The view that there is no result of kusala kamma and akusala kamma is called
Natthikavāda. There is neither kusala no akusala even though one may commit
killing, stealing, robbing, etc. There is no kusala kamma even though one may
perform charity, avoidance of killing, etc. This belief is called Akiriyavāda.
All the above beliefs, Sassatavāda, Ahetukavāda, Ucchedavāda, Natthikavāda
and Akiriyavāda are included in micchādiṭṭhi ‗wrong views‘ according to
Buddhism.The Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma is able to dispel these kinds of wrong
views. Therefore Paṭiccasamuppāda is the dhama which dispels the wrong views.1

Paṭiccasamuppāda as dhamma of virtuous wordings


The puthujjana or worldling is of two kinds: "andhaputhujjana" (blind
worldlings) and "kalyāṇaputhujjana" (virtuous worldlings). The worldlings with blind
eye of paññā are called andhaputhujjanas. The worldlings with good eye of paññā are
called kalyāṇaputhujjanas. The natures of these worlds are explained in the
Sīlakkhandha-vagga Aṭṭhakathā as follows:
Yassa khandhadhātu āyatanādīsu uggaha paripucchana savanadhāraṇa
paccavekkhaṇāni natthi, ayaṃ andhaputh -ujjano. Yassa tāni atthi, so
kalyāṇaputhujjano.2The worldlings who lack learning, questioning, discussing,
listening, learning by rote, refect of dhammas such as khandha, āyatana, dhātu are
those with blind-eye of paññā. The worldlings who are engaged in learning,
questioning, listening of the dhammas such as khandha, āyatana and dhātu etc. are
kalayāṇaputhujjanas.'
On studying the Paṭiccasamuppāda, it is found the dhammas which indicates
the principles of truth such as khandha, āyatana, dhātu. Therefore he who
understands Paṭiccasamuppāda understands khandha, āyatana, dhātu, etc. He who
understands khandha, āyatana, dhātu, etc. can be called to be kalyāṇaputhujjana.
Therefore he who knows Paṭiccasamuppāda is also a kalyāṇaputhujjana.

Dhamma inspiring firm faith and non-conversion to other faiths one should
be called a Buddhist only when he is virtuous in Dasavatthuka kammassakatā
sammādiṭṭhi-ñāṇa and practices Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma. Dasavatthuka
sammāDiṭṭhi, there are:
(1) atthi dinnaṃ - giving away in charity bear fruit,
(2) atthi yiṭṭhaṃ - spending as liberal gift first is beneficial,
(3) atthi hutaṃ - great offering is beneficial,
(4) sukatadukkaḷānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko - There exist resultsfor ten kinds of
wholesome actions and demerits for ten kinds of unwholesome actions,
(5) atthi ayaṃ loko - There is this present life world of human beings,
(6) atthi paro loko - There are the existences here after,

1
Vism. IV, (Myan), 19-20.
2
D. A. I, 59.
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(7) atthi mātā - There is merit for looking after and supporting the mother or
committing offence against demerit of tending the mother,
(8) atthi pitā - There is merit for looking after and supporting father or committing
offence against demerit of tending the father,
(9) atthi sattā opapātikā - There are living beings are spontancously reborn,
(10) atthi loke samaṇa brāhamaṇa Sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ
parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedenti.1 There are monks,
Brahmins, Buddha, Pacceka Buddha, and ariyapuggalas (noble persons) who
have done good practice know this present left and preach in this very life and in
the life after death.
Paṭiccasamuppāda is the dhamma that should be known and borne in mind the
life hereafter so that one will not be converted to other religious faith.The dhamma
that should be penetrative known so that one will not be perturbed by other religious
faiths in every existence until Nibbāna is attained, is the Four Noble Truths.2
Paṭiccasamuppāda is a dhamma that cannot only convert a person to become a
Buddhist, but also firmly establishes one as a Buddhist who will not be swayed by
other religious faiths.

Dhamma coming to be a Cūlasotāpānna


The Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma enables the learner, listener and practicer to
become a sotāpaṇṇa. Iminā pana ñāṇena samannāgato vipassako Buddhasāsane
laddhassāso laddha patiḷḷho niyatagatiko Cūḷasotāpanno nāma hoti.3 The Yogī who
practices insight-meditation and is replete with Kaṅkhāvitaraṇañāṇa (knowledge of
overcoming doubts) also called Yathābhūta has a firm transition as he has acquired
relief and support. Such a person is called Cūlasotapānna.'
Venerable Mahābuddhaghosa indicates such benefits in the exposition of
Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī. The purity of knowledge by overcoming doubts in the three periods
of time is called Kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi. It is a synonymous word for Paccayapari-
ggahañāṇa which is the thorough knowledge of the causes of physical and mental
formations. The knowledge of the existence of mind and body is called
Dhammaṭṭhitiñāṇa. The knowledge of realities is called Yathābhāta-ñāṇa and the
knowledge of immutable right view is called Sammūdassanañāṇa.4
Therefore, the Venerable Sāriputta preached in the Paṭisambhidā-magga as:
Yañca yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇaṃ yañca sammādassanaṃ Yathābhūtaṃ-ñānaṃ,
sammadassana-ñāṇa, kaṅkhāvitaraṇa- ñāṇa etc. are the same in meaning but different
in words.5
The relief in Buddha's Sāsanā is ariya fruition and the support is ariya path.
The yogis who are learning, practicing and developing Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma

1
Uttam, 156.
2
Ibid, 160.
3
Vism. II, 240.
4
Vism. II, 239.
5
Ps, 258.
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are already established at morality although they have not attained the Path and
Fruition. Thus they are like persons who have got relief and support. Therefore,
Paṭiccasamuppāda is the dhamma that enables the yogis to get established at the
noble dhamma.
The Paṭiccasamuppāda enables one to have firm transition. Such a person is
called Cūlasotāpanna. The insight practising yogi with purity not less than
kaṅkhāvitaraṇavisuddhi is replete in purity of sīla, purity of samādhi (concentration)
and morality purity of paññā (knowledge). It is like transition to a pleasant existence.
Thus such a person is called Cūasotāpanna. Therefore Paticcasamuppāda is a
dhamma that enables one to attain firm transition to sugati, a pleasant existence and to
become a Cūḷasotāpanna which is like Mahāsotāpanna in nature.1

CONCLUSION
The Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma fits in with the life cycle of human existence.
It also fits in with the life cycle of all beings. It shows the physical and mental
phenomena of life events. This was the dhamma which was repeatedly contemplated
by the Buddha. By observing the virtues of Paṭiccasamuppāda dhamma, it is found to
be a deep and profound dhamma. Therefore Paṭiccasamuppāda is a dhamma which
should be learned and practiced.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank to the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Education,
Myanmar, for giving me the opportunity to do this research. My deepest gratitude is expressed to Dr.
Than Win, Rector, Kalay University, for his encouragement, kind guidance, and kind help to do this
research. I wish to thank Dr. Myint Swe, Pro-Rectors, Kalay University and all staffs for their helpful
advice, precious suggestions and provision of research facilities at the Department of Oriental Studies,
Kalay University.

REFERENCES
Canonical (The State Buddha Sāsanā Council‘s Version)
1. Khuddhaka Pātha, Udāna 2001
2. Dhammapada Aṭṭhakathā (Paṭhamo Bāgho) 1958
3. Mahāvagga Pāḷi (Dīgha Nikāya) 1995
4. Majjhima Nikāya Mūlapaṇṇāsa Pāḷi 1956
5. Mahāvagga Aṭṭhakathā (Dīgha Nikāya) 1958
6. Paṭisambhidāmagga Pāḷi 1997
7. Visuddhimagga Aṭṭhakathā 1957
Mahāvagga (Myan), U Maung Maung Lay, Hantharwardy press Yangon, 1995
Paṭiccasamuppādadīpanī, Ledi, Sayadaw, Hansavati Press, Yangon, 1957
Uttamapurisadīpanī, Ledi, Sayadaw Ledi, Myanmar Pyi Press, Yangon, 1987
Visuddhimagga (Myan), Mahāsī sayadaw Vol.II, IV, Sarpepoundkue, Press, Yangon, 1971

1
Vism. IV, (Myan), 294-5.
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A STUDY OF PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT


AS CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES

Mary Aung1

ABSTRACT
The objective of this research paper is to solve the problem that why
philosophical thought can be regarded as a cultural universal. This research paper
attempts to show sound, valid and argumentative evidences as premises to prove that
philosophical thought is indispensable in each and every culture. The descriptive
method and the reflective method are to be used in this research. This research used
the conception ―If there is a society there is a culture, and if there is a culture, there
must be philosophy‖ as the research principle. The result of this research will enhance
the significant the role of philosophy in individual society as well as in global
community.
Keywords; custom, belief, attitude, symbol, morality

INRODUCTION
Culture is different from nature in the sense that it is the creation of human
being and an indispensable part of a society. In the world, every society has its own
their culture. Culture means cultivation or training. Culture is transmitted through
language, material objects, ritual, intuitions and art, from one generation to another.
There are different levels of culture; while a society has its distinct way of life,
distinct customs, beliefs and language: it is still a part of the whole human race.
Cultural universals are anything that is part of every culture. In the concept of
culture, there are two kinds of categories such as material culture and non-material
culture. Most of easterners emphasize man than in his physical world. One of the
basic characteristics of Eastern culture is the religious value or faith in unseen reality;
the Easterners emphasize the aesthetic component in their way of thinking. Western
knowledge in any field is based on the purely empirical component in it, it is final and
it is based upon the theoretical component.
Man‘s ability to create and live within a cultural world and to accumulate
knowledge rests on his ability to create and manipulate symbols. The ability to
respond to sign is common to animals and man, but only man employs symbols.
Language is a signally system which operates with symbolic vocal sound,
which is used by a group of people for the purpose of communication. Myth is a
complex cultural phenomenon that can be approached from a number of viewpoints.
In general a narrative that describes and portrays in symbolic language the origin of
the basic elements and assumptions of culture.

1
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, Kalay University
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A STUDY OF PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT


AS CULTURAL PERSPECTIVES

The word culture is derived from the Latin word ―cultus‖ which means
cultivation or training. The term is sometimes used to include all of the creation
expressions of man in all fields of human endeavor. Therefore in its broadest sense,
culture means cultivated behavior that is totality of man‘s learned accumulated
experience which is socially transmitted.
Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people,
defined by everything. The sum of attitudes, customs and beliefs are that distinguishes
one group of a people from another. Culture is transmitted, through language, material
objects, ritual, institutions, and art, from one generation to the next.
Culture means the ways of life of a people, including their attitudes, values,
beliefs, art, science, modes of perception, and habit of thought and activity. Cultural
features of forms are often too pervasive to be readily noticed from within. Culture of
a society implies its general ways of life. Professor E.B Tylor wrote, culture is that
concept whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, custom and other
capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The nature of
philosophy of culture refers to the total life style of people, including all of the ideas,
knowledge, behaviours and material objects that they share.
Dev.Rag.Bali defined culture as follows in ―Introduction to Philosophy‖
―Culture of a society implies its general way of life. A society is an
organized group of individuals, for systematic living, for an organized
system of mutual relationship and for peace and happiness, different
societies of the world have evolved their own different cultures. Culture
thus implies a general behavior pattern of society. It is an organized group
of learned responses characteristics of a particular.‖
Philosophy of culture is a systematic study of man‘s life from the
philosophical point of view. Culture is an indispensable part of a society. Every
society has its own culture. The meaning of culture is so wide and complex.
Philosophers, anthropologists, sociologists, scientists, artists, historians have given
different views of culture from their own standpoints.
Philosophy of Culture is a branch of philosophy that studies the essence and
meaning of culture. The term was first used in the early 19th century by the German
romanticist A. Muller. Philosophy of culture must be distinguished both from
philosophy of history in as much as the process by which mankind creates culture
does not match the pace of historical evolution—and from sociology of culture, which
is the study of culture within a given system of social relations.
In modern times, questions of philosophy of culture and cultural criticism have
been explored in particular by G. Vico, J. J. Rousseau, F. Schiller (with his concept of
―naive‖ and ―sentimental‖ poetry as the two phases of cultural development), J. G.
Herder, and the Romanticists of Jena (with their idea of the uniqueness of individual
national cultures and their concept of distinct historical stages of cultural
development). Philosophy of culture narrowly defined as a philosophical conception
of the various stages of evolving human culture can be said to date back to F.
Nietzsche and in part to the Russian Slavophiles. Some scholars hold that culture is an
advanced development of the human powers. It is the development of the body, mind,
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and spirit by training and experience. It may be said that culture is an evidence of
intellectual development of arts, religion, and habit.
Sometimes the word culture is used synonymously with society, community or
group. It means that a culture refers to a group of people who lives similar lives. It is
also applied to the artistic or creative products of a group.
As mention above, culture has been defined from various perspectives by the
different scholars. According to anthropologists, culture means:
(1) The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes and habitual behavior
patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society.
(2) The complex whole which include knowledge, belief, art, morals, law,
custom, and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member
of society.
(3) All the historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit,
rational, irrational, and non-rational, which exist at any given time as
potential guides for the behavior of men.
One of sociologists, Claxton claims that, culture is the whole complex of
distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a
society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the
fundamental rights of human being, value systems, traditional and belief.
Regarding culture, some Western philosophers also tried to illustrate the
concept of culture from their standpoints. But most of the philosophers agree that
culture involves all the ways and condition of living created by human beings.
John Stuart Mill states that culture should claim psychological unity of man,
and pay attention to the discovery of new ideas as the most powerful forces in human
development. Anthropologists and philosophers had paid great attention to the
intellectual aspect of culture. A French philosopher Auguste Comte differentiates
three stages in the development of human thought. They are theological or animistic,
a metaphysical, and a positive scientific stages. Culture is in the form of development
of thought.
A prominent philosopher of culture Ernst Cassirer states that a sustained
philosophical critique of thought forms involved in language, myth and knowledge.
So there are different views of culture. But it can be seen that most of the
philosophers agree that the concept of culture is connected with the changing history,
society, thoughts, nationality, rationality, religion, art, morality, and civilization. In
fact culture involves all ways and conditions of living created by human beings. It
reflects its ways of life and general attitudes towards the world.
According to D.R Bali, culture can be classified into (1) customs and tradition
(2) religion and religious practices (3) language and literature (4) art and artistic
activities (5) religious and social festivals and, (6) social norms imply norms of
behavior in a society.
Custom is an important element or culture in a society. All customs have a
functional explanation in a society. If such explanation is impossible, a custom stops
to have cultural significance. So custom of society is said to be an important element
of culture.
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Religion is also an important component of culture. It is considered to be


necessary for the guidance and control of human beings. Religion is clearly a
universal aspect of behavior. Everyone knows that culture includes the elaborate set
of beliefs. So religion supports a great benefit for the development of a moral basis of
human being.
The task of language is also important in the development of cultural life.
Language is a communication tool between the people, nations and societies. It
implies various signs and symbols which have linguistic meaning. It was invented and
used since the early times of the human history. If there is no language, there will be
no social relationships among the countries in the world. Language is a social
phenomenon. Therefore, it is an indispensable aspect of culture.
Art is also important in the rise of society and culture. Art is very wide and it
includes painting, sculpture, literature, music, architecture, drama, dancing and
folktales etc. Art can give spiritual value and spiritual unity. Spiritual value is a source
of peace and calmness and happiness for life and community. Therefore, art can be
regarded as a significant feature in a culture.
All the social and religious festivals can be regarded as the part of culture.
Religious and social festivals are celebrated with joy and solemnity. They are part of
the traditional cultural heritage; they must be observed and protected.
Morality and ethics are concerned with human behavior and conduct. They are
also related with values. Morals are concerned with the distinction between right and
wrong, good and bad. Like religion, morality is one of the fundamental components of
culture. It may be said that if morality is destroyed, the life of human being and its
culture will be collapsed.
The nature of philosophy of culture refers to the total life style of a people,
including all of the ideas, knowledge, behaviours and material objects that they share.

Cultural Generalities, Cultural Particularities and Cultural Universalities


In studying human diversity in time and space, anthropologists distinguish
among the universal, the generalized, and the particular. Certain biological,
psychological, social, and cultural features are universal, found in every culture.
Others are merely generalities, common to several but not all human groups. Still
other traits are particularities, unique to cultural traditions.
Cultural generalities include features that are common to several, not all
human groups. Generality practices, belief, and the like may be held commonly by
more than one culture, but not be universal; these are called ―generalities‖. (E.g.
religions are cultural generalities.) Generalities are culture traits that occur in many
societies but not all of them. They might be prevalent, but not everyone sees them as
acceptable and necessary.
Cultural particularities are features that are unique to certain cultural tradition.
A cultural particularity is a trait or feature of culture that is not generalized or
widespread; rather, it is confined to a single place, culture, or society. Yet because of
cultural diffusion, which has accelerated through modern transportation and
communication systems, traits that once were limited in their distribution have
become more wide-spread. Traits that are useful, that have the capacity to please large
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audiences, and that don‘t clash with cultural values of potential adopters are more
likely to diffuse than others.
Cultural universality anything that every culture whole, but varies from culture
to culture. In all human societies, culture organizes social life and depends on social
interactions for its expression and continuation. Everyone cannot live beyond the
process of universality.
Man has two essential abilities these are rationality and emotionality which
differentiate him from non-human beings. Man is active, he loves his life, and he want
to exist. For his existence, he needs basically three things namely food, clothing and
shelter. Then he has to work these basic needs. He has to associate with others in
order to protect his existence and to obtain what he needs for his livelihood. So, he
constitutes the material life of the society. If so, we may say that what- ever there is a
society, there is a culture.
For man, nature is his primary environment and culture is his second
environment. Man‘s first environment alone does not have the capacity to fulfill all
his fundamental needs both physical and mental. Thus, he has to create a second
environment consisting of artifacts, organizing cooperative groups and varies kinds of
norms and values, through the use of his two abilities.
There are different levels of culture; while a society has its distinct way of life,
distinct customs, beliefs and language; it is still a part of the entire human race.
Culture has to develop at different levels, in a family and community on the one hand,
and as a part of wider human family on the other. A man of culture identifies himself
with the interest and values of the whole humanity and behaves as a guardian of
values.
Man is inconceivable without culture; the two terms correlated and these have
become increasingly clear, although it may not have been stated in a sufficiently
distinct and definite form. Culture is not only an expression and production of man in
the form of objective culture and the medium or environment he creates around
himself and inside which alone he can lead a human life. It is also the condition
something essential of things human, the external and as it were, objectified aspect of
man‘s being and for that reason, on essential part of man.
Symbols are shares within particular cultural practices, that is, symbols are
bound by the meaning they have in a particular context. A symbol is something that
is used to represent or stand for something else. A symbol may resemble (look like)
the category that it represents. On the other hand, it might not resemble that it
symbolizes or stands for (e.g. a lion being used as a symbol of courage). Symbol
can be said as the vehicle or medium of all knowledge and experience. Human
intelligence is distinguished by the fact that only man has ability to symbolize.
Language is an important component of culture. It is through language, that
the other components- beliefs, values, and norms are stored, communicated and
absorbed. Language permitted our permitted our primitive ancestors to store
knowledge and transmit it to new generation. Language is political, economic,
ecclesiastic, military organization, no codes of etiquette or ethics, no laws; no science,
theology or literature, no games or music. So language functions are very important
in culture. It is not just a neutral device to represent or symbolize the flow of
experience, but it also furnishes the categories and divisions of experience. Language
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is an important component of culture because it is through language that the other


components- beliefs, values, and norms are stored communicated and absorbed.
Man‘s ability to create and live within a cultural world and to accumulate
knowledge rests on his ability to create and manipulate symbols. The ability to
respond to sign is common to animals and man, but only man employs symbols. All
of culture is based on man‘s symbolizing ability. The use of symbols makes the
perpetuation of culture possible.

Philosophical Thought as Cultural Universalities


Philosophy employs reason and logic to view all things in a comprehensive
manner. If man lives by instincts and emotions alone, he can‘t rise himself above the
ordinary intelligence of the lower animals. But, man possesses rational faculties to
think, to criticize, and to evaluate things which are important for him. The chief
difference between man and animal is the existence of philosophy or the use of
reason. Man has a sense of rationality to make developments or progress in beliefs,
understanding and thought. He can refine crude, primitive beliefs by means of his
critical reasoning powers. Man‘s reasoning power can give all sorts of speculative
metaphysics. Thus, there are diverse philosophical views according to the various
types of philosophical system.
Human being and non-human beings live together with in the world. Among
them, human being is the highest consciousness. They live in a group and organize
society. And then they have culture. Culture is different from nature in the sense that
it is the creation of man. The anthropologists say that ―mankind is one but cultures are
many‖. Therefore, the cultural diversity emerges according to the diverse mentality
and behavior of a people in respective cultures. One of the main tasks of cultural
philosophy is to suggest the possible existence of a psyche that is present in all
cultures in the world.
According to the diversity of mentality and behavioral of the people in
respective culture are emerged by the cultural diversity. There is the cultural universal
or universal phenomenon of each and every culture that can become a common
ground on which all societies in the world can stand together as cultural equals. Every
culture is built up of behavioral norms or customs. ―Cultural Universal‖ means
phenomenon or universal element that is commonly accepted by the people in each
and every culture. ―There are many cultural elements or phenomena which may be
regarded as cultural universal, such as, folklore, religious, faith, mythological thought,
implicit philosophical thinking etc. These are cultural products of human‘s beings.
As mention, culture is the creation of human beings. There are two levels of
creativity. Firstly, the artifacts are created and secondly, the diverse mentalities are
created. Concerning these two levels, there are two kinds of cultural phenomena.
They are tangible or material culture and intangible or non-material culture. The
tangible culture can be studied by the physical evidences such as stone implements,
ancient monuments, primitive work of art and craft. The intangible culture can be
studied by customs, beliefs, religious faiths, political thoughts, myth and legends and
so on.
Intangible cultural heritage means the practices, representations, expressions,
knowledge, skills as well as the instruments, objects, artifacts and cultural spaces
associated there with that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals
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recognize as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage,


transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and
groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history,
and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for
cultural diversity and human creativity.
American philosopher F.S.C Northrop, who studied the ways of acquiring
human knowledge which differ according to the culture of Western man and Eastern
man. Western people are more interested in the external world than man‘s inner self.
According to Northrop, ―Confronted with himself and nature, Western man arrive
observation and scientific hypothesis at a theoretical conception of the character of
these two factors‖. Thus, Western culture is specifically scientific in character.
People in the East are interested more in man than in his physical world. They
have invented in method called ―mediation‖ through which they can have the vision
of the true nature of human life. Eastern scholars said that ―All the living faiths of
mankind had their origin in Asia: Confucianism and Taosm in China; Hinduism,
Buddhism and Sikhism in India; Zoroastriansm in Iran; Judaism and Christianity in
Palestine, and Islam in Arabia‖. The basic characteristic of Eastern culture is the
religious value of faith in unseen reality. Thus, Eastern culture is fundamentally
religious in character.
Eastern culture can be divided in two kinds, Buddhist culture and Myanmar
culture. Buddhist culture consists of Buddhist literature and works of art. Myanmar
culture, whether in the forms of expression or in the Myanmar way of living, is
Buddhism. Buddhism has moulded the thought of Myanmar people, given the
substance and the channels for their ideas, and affected their attitude to life and to the
material world. Myanmar way of living and thinking, Buddhism has provided the
outlets of expression in Myanmar art, architecture, sculpture, and literature. Physical
embodiments or visible expression of the cultural urge rarely have secular vehicle in
Myanmar; pagoda, temples, monasteries have been fruitful soil for the most lavish
works of art, sculpture and carving.
Culture is a huge topic of study for sociologists. Culture exists anywhere
humans exist, and no two cultures are exactly the same. We have started talking about
culture in another lesson and discussed its combination of elements that, together,
form a people‘s unique way of life. In this lesson, we are going to take a closer look at
those elements, specifically symbols, languages, values and norms. These elements
look different across cultures, and many change with time as a society evolves.
Culture combines many elements to create a unique way of living for different people.
Aristotle says that Life is a gift of nature but a beautiful living is a gift of
wisdom. Philosophy for Life is a bold call for the practice of philosophy in our
everyday lives. Philosopher and writer Rupert Read explores a series of important and
often provocative contemporary political and cultural issues from a philosophical
perspective, arguing that philosophy is not a body of doctrine, but a practice, a
vantage point from which life should be analyzed and, more importantly, acted upon.
Philosophy for Life is a personal journey that explores four key areas of
society today: Politics, Religion, Art, and the Environment. Taking tangible examples
from modern politics, from climate change to the war on terror, and culture, from
Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings film trilogy to the poetry of T.S. Eliot, Read shows
that philosophy is already an active part of today's world. This captivating and
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timely book offers a philosophical response to some of the key questions facing
today's society and encourages us to use philosophy as a kind of therapy. Philosophy
for Life shows that we can improve our perspective on the world and our place in it
by doing philosophy every day.

CONCLUSION
Culture refers to accumulative deposit of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes,
hierarchies and religion passed down through generation to generation by a group of
people. Therefore, we may say that culture is a fundamental element in the study of
humanity.
If a nation cannot preserve its culture, it will become extinct from the state of
the world. This being so, culture is apart that is extricable intertwined with the society
of the identity of a nation or race or community. However, some cultures are no
longer going along with the society and they were in need to be changed in order that
they are accepted and harmonized with the present civilization.
The aim of philosophy is to shape not only one‘s way of thinking but also
one‘s way of life. Cultural philosophy is a systematic study of man‘s life from
philosophical point of view. Man is inconceivable without culture. Culture exists
anywhere human exists. Wherever there is a society, there is a culture; and wherever
there is a culture, there is a philosophical thought, whether implicit or explicit. This
philosophical thought will shape one‘s way of life. Therefore, a conclusion can be
drawn that philosophical thought is a cultural universality and culture is a universal
category of mankind.

REFERENCES
Bali, D.R., (1996), Introduction to Philosophy. Revised Edition, New Delhi, Starling Publishers.
Bartram Morris, (1961), Philosophical Aspects of Culture. The Antioch Press, United State of America.

Benedict, R., (1960), Patterns of Culture. Published in England by Routledge of Kegan Paul Ltd.
Cassirer, E., (1970), An Essay on Man. Bantam Books, New Haven.
Geertz, (1975), The Interpretation of Culture. London, Fontana.
Keesing, F. M., (1958), Cultural anthropology. New York: Hlot. Rinehart Winston.
Kottak, Conrol Phillip, (2006), Cultural Anthropology. 11th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc.
Rosenthal, M. and Yudin, P., (1967), A Dictionary of Philosophy. Moscow: Progress Publisher.
Unesco, (1988-1997), Culture and Development World Decade for Cultural Development. Paris:
Unesco.
Urban, W.M., (1961), Language and Reality. The MaeMillan Company, New York.
World encyclopedia, (1995), Culture Illustrated. 1st Edition, London, Resder‘s digest Association
Limited.
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MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN WATER


OF MAHA LET-SAY-KAN (NOBLE HAND-WASH LAKE), NEAR
MAWLEIK TOWNSHIP, SAGAING REGION, MYANMAR

Thinn Kyu1, Si Thu Oo2

ABSTRACT
The present work was aimed to estimate the radon concentration of water
sample from Maha Let-Say- Kan in Mawleik Township, Sagaing Region, Myanmar.
The LR-115 Cellulose Nitrate Solid State Nuclear Detector was used to detect the
alpha tracks. The calculated results showed that the range of radon concentration of
water samples is from 162.121±0.219 Bqm-3 to 174.821±0.179 Bqm-3.

Keywords: radon, alpha tracks, LR-115

INTRODUCTION
Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive element present in trace amounts
throughout the earth‘s crust. The decay of uranium leads to radon in the environment,
solid, ground water, oil and gas deposits. This way, it contributes the largest fraction
of the natural radiation dose to population, and therefore tracking its concentration is
fundamental for radiation protection 222Rn, one of three isotopes of radon 219Rn
(actinon), 220Rn (thoron) and 222Rn (radon) is an α-emitter that decays with a half-life
of 3.82 days into a series of radon progeny. Radon (222Rn), the decay product of
thorium, sometimes called thorn, has a half-life of 54.5 seconds and emits an alpha
particle in its decay to polonium (216Po). Radioactive decay chain of uranium was
shown in Fig. (1). The exposure of population to high concentration of radon and its
daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional
changes and the occurrence of lung cancer.
In the present work, the estimation of radon concentration emanated from
water, collected from Maha Let-Say Kan, Sagaing Region, Myanmar, has been
reported. The aim of this study is the possible health risk assessments in the area. The
sample collection area has been shown in Fig. (2).As a geographical unit, Maha Let-
Say Kan is situated in Myanmar‘s North West between 233728 northern latitude
and 941427 east latitude.

1
Lecturer, Dr, Department of Physics, Kalay University
2
Assistant Lecturer, Department of Physics, Kalay University
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Figure 1. Natural Decay Series

Figure 2. Water Samples Collection Area


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EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
For the present work, the names of water samples and their collected places
were shown in Table (1).For the measurement of radon concentration, we have used
can technique. A known can LR-115 type II plastic track detectors, were fixed on the
bottom of the lid of each can with tape such that, sensitive side of the detector faced
the specimen. The cans were tightlyclosed from the top and sealed as shown in Figure
(3). It plastic track detectors (1cm × 1cm), plastic can with diameter (6.4), height (9.6)
cm. The photographs of the alpha track for water samples are shown in Figure (4) to
Figure (6).
The exposure time of the detectors was 100 days. At the end of the exposure time, the
detectors were removed and subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5 N NaOH
solution at 60 ˚C for 45 min. The detectors were washed and dried. The track
produced by the alpha particle, were observed and counted under an optical
microscope at 4×. Calibration factor for the LR-115 detectors was 0.05016 track cm-2
day-1 = 1 Bqm-3. This calibration factor adopted for the used LR-115 type II in the
current study was obtained after inter-laboratory comparison exercise carried out at
the national level by the Environment Assessment Division of Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC), Mumbia, and is also being used by other workers.
Alpha Track Density
The alpha track density of solid state nuclear track detector is the number of net alpha
track per unit area.
Track Density (track cm-2 day-1) = -------(1)

Radon Concentration (Bqm-3) = -------(2)


Annual Effective Dose (m Sv yr-1) = Radon Concentration × 0.0712 m Sv yr-1.

Table 1. The Names of Water Samples and their Collected Place

Sr.No Sample Name Collected Places

1 W1 Water sample from the south of lake


2 W2 Water sample from the north of lake
3 W3 Water sample from the west of lake
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Lid of Can

LR-115 type II
plastic track
detectors
9.6 cm

Plastic
Can

Water
sample
6.4 cm

Figure 3. The Measurement of Alpha Track by Using Can Technique

Figure 4. Photomicrograph of Alpha Tracks in Water Sample W1


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Figure 5. Photomicrograph of Alpha Tracks in Water Sample W2

Figure 6. Photomicrograph of Alpha Tracks in Water Sample W3

RESUTLS AND DISCUSSION


The calculated values of radon concentration varied from 162.121±0.219 Bqm -3
to 174.821±0.179 Bqm-3 emanated from water samples collected from different
location of Lat-Say Kan based upon this data (Table 2). It can be seen from the results
that, the radon concentration varies in various samples. It is due to the fact that, the
water samples collected from different places may have different uranium contents.
The average number of alpha tracks and track density of water samples were
mentioned in Table (3). The radon concentration and effective dose of water samples
were shown in Table (2). The comparison graph of radon concentration of water
samples were shown in Figure (7). The comparison graph of annual effective dose of
water samples were shown in Figure (8).The comparison graph of alpha track
densities for water samples were shown in Figure (9).
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Table 2. Radon Concentration and Annual Effective Dose of Water Samples

Name of Annual Effective Dose


Sr.No Radon Concentration (Bqm-3)
sample (m Sv yr-1)
1 W1 174.821±0.179 3.007±0.003
2 W2 167.821±0.179 2.876±0.003
3 W3 162.821±0.219 2.788±0.004

180
Radon Concentration(Bqm-3)

175

170

165

160

155
W1 W2 W3

Figure 7. The comparison graph of radon concentration of water samples

3.05
Annual Effective Dose (m Sv yr-1)

3
2.95
2.9
2.85
2.8
2.75
2.7
2.65
W1 W2 W3

Figure 8. The Comparison Graph of the Annual Effective Dose of Water Samples

Table 3. The Average Alpha Tracks and Track Densities of Water Samples
Sr.No Name of Average Number of Net Alpha Track Density
sample Alpha Track (track cm-1 day-1)
1 W1 68.88±0.072 8.769±0.009
2 W2 65.88±0.107 8.387±0.009
3 W3 63.821±0.083 8.132±0.011
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alpha track densithy


8.8
8.6
8.4
8.2
8
7.8
W1 W2 W3

Figure 9. The Comparison Graph of the Alpha Track Densities of Water Samples

CONCLUSION
The following conclusion can be drawn from present investigations. The
possible radon concentration due to three water samples has been measured. Although
the sample (W1) the water has the highest radon concentration compared with the
other water samples, the annual effective dose in that sample(W1) the water is much
lower than ICRP limited level. The value of annual effective dose of Radiological
Protection Publication (ICRP) is 5 m Sv yr-1 (ICRP, 1993). The low level of radon in
three kinds of water samples typically does not cause health hazards to users. The
annual effect effective dose in the water is much lower than ICRP limited level.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author acknowledge the support provided by Dr. Than Win (Rector, Kalay University of
Higher Education, Myanmar), Dr. Kyaw Zaw (Professor, Head of Department of Physics, Kalay
University, Myanmar) and Dr. Phoe Kyi ( Professor, Department of Physics, Kalay University,
Myanmar) for the completion of this work. Thanks to all of the Physics Association of Kalay
University for their helpful discussions.

REFERENCES
Tsoulfanidis, N., (1995), Measurement and Detection of Radiation. 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis Ltd,
London.
Fleisher, P.L., Price, P.B. and Walker, R.M. (1975) Nuclear Tracks in Solid. California.

WEBSITES
1. http://www.nj.nov/edu/radontes.html
2. http://www.epa.gov/radon/healthrisks.html.
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION VARIATIONS


IN WATER OF RIH LAKE, TEDIM TOWNSHIP, CHIN STATE,
MYANMAR

Si Thu Oo1, Thinn Kyu2


ABSTRACT
The aim of this research is to measure the radon ( 222Rn) concentration in
water samples from Rih Lake in Tedim Township, Chin State, Myanmar. The
measurements were done by analyzing the water samples of Rih lake during, collected
three seasons (rainy, winter and summer seasons), using can techniques. The LR-115
Cellulose Nitrate Solid State Nuclear Detector was used to detect the alpha tracks. The
calculated results show that the ranges of radon concentration of water samples are
from 153.947±0.315 Bqm-3 to 170.295±0.199 Bqm-3.

Keywords: radon, alpha tracks, LR-115


7
8 INTRODUCTION
Radon is a chemically inert gas. It‘s a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that
occurs naturally in most soils, rocks, materials building and water. Radon is
historically called radium emanation. There are three isotopes of radon occurring
naturally 222Rn, 220Rn and 219Rn. These isotopes are direct product decay of radium.
222
Rn is the important isotope; it‘s occurring from the radioactive decay of uranium
series 238U and has a half-life (3.82 days). The second isotope is220Rn, from daughter
decay of thorium series 232Th, it has a half-life (55.6 sec). While the third isotope
219
Rn is not important in the evaluation of the health effects which arise from radon
inhalation because it is rare in the environment ( 219Rn is the part of decay chain of
235
U, a relatively no abundant isotope) and has an extremely short half-life (4
seconds). Radon decays into a series of short-lived radioisotopes (often called as
radon daughters) that can inhale.
Radon and its daughters are the second most important cause of lung cancer
(after smoking) in many countries. It is estimated to range from 3% to 14% of all lung
cancers, depending on the average radon level in the area. Radon and its short-lived
decay products are the most important contributors to human exposure to alpha parties
from natural sources; this contribution represents 50% of the average annual dose
from natural background.
In this research, the estimation of radon concentration emanated from water,
collected from Rih lake, Chin state, Myanmar, has been reported. The aim of this
study is possible health risk assessments in this area. As a geographical unit, Rih lake
is situated in Myanmar north west between 23 2027 northern latitude and 93 237
east latitude.

1
Assistant Lecturer, Dr, Department of Physics, Kalay University
2
Lecturer, Department of Physics, Kalay University
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Figure 1 . Natural decay series

Figure 2. Water samples collection area


EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
124
University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

For the present work, the names of water samples and their collected places
were shown in Table (1). For the measurement of radon concentration, we have used
can technique. A known can LR-115 type II plastic track detectors, were fixed on the
bottom of the lid of each can with tape such that, sensitive side of the detector faced
the specimen. The cans were tightlyclosed from the top and sealed as shown in Figure
(3). It plastic track detectors (1cm × 1cm), plastic can with diameter (6.4), height (9.6)
cm. The photographs of the alpha track for water samples are shown in Figure (4) to
Figure (6).
The exposure time of the detectors was 100 days. At the end of the exposure
time, the detectors were removed and subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5 N
NaOH solution at 60 ˚C for 45 min. The detectors were washed and dried. The track
produced by the alpha particle, were observed and counted under an optical
microscope at 4×. Calibration factor for the LR-115 detectors was 0.05016 track cm-2
day-1 = 1 Bqm-3. This calibration factor adopted for the used LR-115 type II in the
current study was obtained after inter-laboratory comparison exercise carried out at
the national level by the Environment Assessment Division of Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre (BARC), Mumbia, and is also being used by other workers.

Alpha Track Density


The alpha track density of solid state nuclear track detector is the number of
net alpha track per unit area.
Track Density (track cm-2 day-1) = -------(1)

Radon Concentration (Bqm-3) = -------(2)


Annual Effective Dose (m Sv yr-1) = Radon Concentration × 0.0712 m Sv yr-1.

Table 1. The Names of Water Samples and Their Collected Season

Sr.No Sample name Collected season

1 W1 Winter

2 W2 Summer
3 W3 Rainy
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Lid of Can

LR-115 type II
plastic track
detectors
9.6 cm

Plastic
Can

Water
sample
6.4 cm

Figure 3. The measurement of alpha track by using Can technique

Figure 4. Photomicrograph of alpha tracks in water sample W1


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Figure 5. Photomicrograph of alpha tracks in water sample W2

Figure 6. Photomicrograph of alpha tracks in water sample W3


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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The calculated values of radon concentration varied from 153.947±0.315 Bqm -3 to
170.295±0.199 Bqm-3emanated from water samples collected from different seasons
of Rih Lake based upon this data Table (2). It can be seen from the results that, the
radon concentration varies in various samples. It is due to the fact that, the water
samples collected from different seasons may have different uranium contents.
The average number of alpha tracks and track density of water samples were
mentioned in Table (3). The radon concentration and effective dose of water samples
are shown in Table (2).The comparison graph of radon concentration of water
samples were shown in Figure (7). The comparison graph of annual effective dose of
water samples were shown in Figure (8).The comparison graph of alpha track
densities for water samples were shown in Figure (9).
Table 2. Radon Concentration and Annual Effective Dose of Water Samples
Sr.No Name of Radon Concentration Annual Effective Dose
sample (Bqm-3) (m Sv yr-1)
1 W1 153.947±0.314 2.648±0.005
2 W2 159.821±0.219 2.738±0.003
3 W3 170.821±0.199 2.929±0.003

175
Radon Concentration(Bqm-

170
165
160
3)

155
150
145
W1 W2 W3

Figure 7. The comparison graph of radon concentration of water samples

3
Annual Effective Dose (m Sv

2.95
2.9
2.85
2.8
yr-1)

2.75
2.7
2.65
2.6
2.55
2.5
W1 W2 W3

Figure 8. The comparison graph of the annual effective dose of water samples
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

Table 3. The Average Alpha Tracks and Densities of Water Samples


Sr.No Name of Average Number of Net Alpha Track Density
sample Alpha Track (track cm-1 day-1)
1 W1 60.66±0.097 7.722±0.016
2 W2 62.72±0.089 7.985±0.011
3 W3 67.821±0.08 8.542±0.010

8.8
alpha track densithy

8.6
8.4
8.2
8
7.8
7.6
7.4
7.2
W1 W2 W3

Figure 9. The comparison graph of the alpha track densities of water samples

CONCLUSION
The following conclusion can be drawn from present investigations. The
possible radon concentration due to three water samples has been measured.
Although the sample (W3) the water has the highest radon concentration compared
with the other water samples, the annual effective dose in that sample(W 3) the water
is much lower than ICRP limited level. The value of annual effective dose of
Radiological Protection Publication (ICRP) is 5 m Sv yr -1 (ICRP, 1993). The low
level of radon in three kinds of water samples typically does not cause health hazards
to users. The annual effect effective dose in the water is much lower than ICRP
limited level.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author acknowledge the support provided by Dr. Than Win (Rector, Kalay University of
Higher Education, Myanmar), Dr. Kyaw Zaw (Professor, Head of Department of Physics, Kalay
University, Myanmar) and and Dr. Phoe Kyi ( Professor, Department of Physics, Kalay University,
Myanmar) for the completion of this work. Thanks to all of the Physics Association of Kalay University
for their helpful discussions.
REFERENCES
Tsoulfanidis, N., (1995), Measurement and Detection of Radiation. 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis Ltd,
London.
Fleisher, P.L., Price, P.B. and Walker, R.M. (1975) Nuclear Tracks in Solid. California.
WEBSITES
3. http://www.nj.nov/edu/radontes.html
4. http://www.epa.gov/radon/healthrisks.html.
129
University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

OCCURRENCE OF SOME MOSQUITOES IN KALAY


UNIVERSITY CAMPUS, MYANMAR
Htay Htay Kyi 1
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a total of five genera including nine species of
mosquitoes recorded from Kalay University Campus, during November 2015 to
February 2016. All mosquito species were identified and described in this research
work. General characters of adult female mosquitoes were described in it. During this
study, Aedes aegypti, Ae albopictus, Culex sitiens, Cu. vishnui, Cu. gelidus,
Cu.quinquefasciatus, Armigeres subalbatus, Mansonia annulifera, and Anopheles
nigerrimus were recorded in it.
Keyword: Mosquito, Kalay University Campus

INTRODUCTION
Mosquitoes are small insects belonging to the family Culicidae of order
Diptera. They have two wings, but unlike other flies, mosquito wings have scales.
Mosquitoes have mouthparts adapted for piercing skin of animals and plants. Female
mosquitoes‘ mouthparts form a long piercing-sucking proboscis. Both male and
female mosquitoes are nectar feeders, but females of many species are also capable of
drinking blood from many mammals. A male mosquito‘s principal food is nectar or
similar suger source. Males differ from females by having feathery antennae and
mouthparts not suitable for piercing skin.
There are three types of mosquitoes harming to man. They are Aedes, Culex
and Anopheles mosquitoes. Aedes mosquitoes are painful and persistent biters. They
search for a blood meal early in the morning, at dusk and into the evening. Some are
diurnal especially on cloudy days and in shaded areas. Aedes mosquitoes are strong
fliers and are known to fly many miles from their breeding sources. Aedes aegypti is
one of the world‘s most widely distributed mosquitoes and is of considerable medical
importance as a vector of dengue and yellow fever (Service, 1992).
Kalay University Campus is located in upper Sagaing Region, foothill of Chin
State. Manipur River its source from Manipur highland in India and flows through the
Chin Hills from West to East ward and finally drains into the Myittha River. Kalay
University Campus is located in near the streams and paddy fields. Thus, the
condition is good in breeding places for the mosquitoes which are vectors for
diseases.
Therefore we took this opportunity to focus on the mosquitoes in Kalay
University Campus.
The present study was carried out with the following objectives.
- To record the species composition of mosquitoes in Kalay University
Campus.
- To seek the incidence of medical important mosquito species in the study
area.

1
Lecturer, Department of Zoology, Kalay University
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University Research Journal, Vol.7, No.1, 2017

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Study area
Kalay University Campus is situated approximately 8 miles of Kalaymyo,
Sagaing Region and a total land area of 1.558 km 2.

Study period
The study period was conducted from November 2015 to February 2016.

Study method
The present study was done by collection of adult mosquitoes on direct human
bait from inside and outside house in the morning, daytime and at night. The present
study was done by laboratory examination.

Indoor and Outdoor Human Bait Collection


The bait sat on any suitable stool with bare legs and was supplied with a
torch and a test tube. A test tube can be used to collect mosquitoes by the following
method. When a mosquito was seen resting, the mouth of the test tube was held
directly over the mosquito. When the mosquito is disturbed, it will fly into the tube.
When this occurs, the mouth of the tube was closed with index finger or thumb. The
plug was pushed down until the mosquito was trapped in the bottom 2cm of the tube.
A second mosquito was collected as described above and a second plug was inserted
to trap it in the next 2cm of the tube. In this way, several mosquitoes may be collected
in one test tube. A apace about 1 to 2 cm should be left between the plugs so that the
mosquitoes are not crushed.

Identification of collected species


The identification of collected species was made according to Reuben (1994),
Rattanarithikul and Panthusiri (1994) and Nakamura and Zaw Win (2006).

Equipment used for adult mosquito collections


1. Torch light Use for collection of adult mosquitoes in dark
place.
2. 10x hand lens Magnification of 10x hand lens was used for
identification of adult mosquitoes.
3. Test tube For adult mosquitoes collection from resting or
biting.
4. Plastic cup It was used for holding mosquitoes in large
numbers.
5. Stereoscopic microscope For detail identification of adult mosquitoes.
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Map of the Study Site (Source: Google Earth 2016)


Systematic position of studies species
Phylum - Arthropoda
Class - Insecta
Order - Diptera
Suborder - Nematocera
Superfamily - Culicoidea
Family - Culicidae
Genus - Aedes
Species - Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)
Species - Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894)
Genus - Culex
Species - Cx. sitiens Sirvanakarn, 1976
Cx. vishnui Sirvanakarn,1976
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Cx. gelidus Theobald, 1901


Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823)
Genus - Armigeres
Species - Ar. subalbatus Coquilletidia, 1898
Genus - Mansonia
Species - M. annulifera Theobald, 1901
Genus - Anopheles
Species - An. nigerrimus Giles, 1900

General character of adult female culicine mosquitoes

Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) Plate 1 (A)


Clypeus was dark brown with lateral patches of white scales; snout-like,
smoothly convex on dorsal side. Proboscis dark brown slender and flexible; labellum
brown. Palpi dark brown, covered with short dark bristles. Thorax brown, scutellum
tri-lobed, uniformly convex, each lobe bear conspicuous patch of flat white scales and
a cluster of six or seven black bristles, scutum with lyre-shaped white marking, two
semi-lunar white areas on shoulder.Wings veins covered by outstanding dark, narrow
scales. Leg coxae with conspicuous patches of white scales; femora with pale knee
spot, covered with dark brown scales on upper surface; tibia dark brown; tarsi
completely covered with dark brown scales. Abdomen tergites mainly covered with
brown to blackish-brown scales with narrow basal bands of dull white scales.

Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) Plate 1 (B)


Head cover with flat silvery scales in middle of vertex, clypeus was black
without lateral white scales patches; longer than broad, smoothly convex dorsally.
Proboscis black; covered with short and black bristles; flexible and uniform thickness;
labellum dark brown. Tips of palpi covered with white scales. Thorax black,
scutellum tri-lobed, each covered with flat, broad, snow white scales; scutum with a
long median longitudinal stripe of white scales. Wings veins covered with outstanding
dark, narrow scales. Legs coxae scattered with broad snowy white scales and few
black scales; femora scattered with dark scales on dorsal side, rest covered with white
scales underneath, all have pale knee spots; tibiae without a median white band.
Tergites largely covered with black scales but each segment has basal white
transverse band.

Culex sitiens (Sirvanakarn, 1976) Plate 1 (C)


Vertex had erect light brown scales, clypeus was light brown. Proboscis, dark
brown, covered with pale scales extending proximally from pale ring on ventral
surface, labellum light brown. Palpi, tip covered with pale scales. Thorax brown,
scutum was entirely covered by light brown scales, lower mesepimeral setae were
absent. Wings slightly shorten than abdomen, vein covered by dark brown, did not
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have pale spots. Coxae with conspicuous patches of white scales, anterior surfaces of
fore and mid femora almost completely speckled with pale scales, all knee have spots.
Abdomen, abdominal terga II to IV had basal pale bands and seldom with distinct
apical pale bands, tergite VIII mainly pale scaled.

Culex vishnui (Sirvanakarn, 1976) Plate 1 (D)


Head covered with erect scales of vertex usually entirely brown, sometimes
erect scales in center of vertex slightly pale yellow but not contrasting sharply with
dark erect scales on lateral or posterior lateral area. Proboscis completely dark, with
broad pale ring in the middle. Palpus with a row of very short flattened scale-like
setae on ventral surface. Thorax usually covered with dark brown scales and with
some mixture of pale golden or whitish scales, scutum was covered with dark brown
to black scales, lower mesepimeral setae were absent. Wings as long as abdomen,
veins covered with outstanding dark narrow scales and dark scales, did not have pale
spots. Anterior surfaces of fore and mid femora did not speckled with pale scales,
hind femur usually without distinct pale stripe or with slightly pale stripe not
contrasting with dark scaled area on dorsal surface. Abdominal terga has basal pale
bands and seldom with distinct apical pale bands.

Culex gelidus (Theobald, 1901) Plate 1 (E)


Vertex entirely covered with narrow upright white scales which also extend
forwards between eyes; 4-6 dark bristles surrounding compound eyes which nearly
meet in centre; clypeus was dark brown and snout-like, scale less. Proboscis flexible
and covered with dark brown scales but with a pale band in middle; labellum light
brown. Palpi, all segments covered with dark brown scales except for few pale scales
at tip of terminal segment; also scattered with short, dark bristles. Thorax brown; each
lobe of scutellum bears a patch of broad pale scales apically and dark brown scales
basally; scutum with anterior patch of white scales. Wings, veins covered with
outstanding dark narrow scales. Coxae brown bare of scales; anterior surfaces of fore
and mid femora entirely dark; tibiae brown on antero-dorsal surface but much paler
on venteroposterior surface; First tarsi entirely covered with brown scales. Tergite
entirely covered with pale scales; sternites entirely covered with dark brown and pale
yellowish scales.

Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) Plate 1 (F)


Vertex covered with dark brown upright and paler narrow scales; eyes dark
and very narrowly separated; clypeus was snout-like, longer than broad; dark brown.
Proboscis dark brown; covered with dark brown scales and short bristles; labellum
light brown. Palpi brown, covered all over with short, dark brown bristles scales.
Thorax brown; scutellum with three distinct groups of dark brown and golden brown
scales; thoracic pleura without distinct striking pattern of dark and pale bands. Wings,
veins covered with dark brown scales. Legs brown, but paler when seen from above
and in front; femora dark brown on anterior and dorsal surfaces; tarsi entirely dark
brown to blackish. Abdominal terga with basal pale markings or bands; tergite
completely covered yellow hairs, also a patch of brown and pale scales in centre of
anterior border; sternites wholly covered with pale scales.
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Armigeres subalbatus (Coquilletidia, 1898) Plate 1 (G)


Vertex covered with broad flat bluish black scales, but centre of vertex with a
patch of broad white scales; clypeus was greyish black, scale less, snout-like in front.
Proboscis, brown covered with bluish black scales, and short dark bristles. Palpi
covered with short brown bristles and dark brown scales. Thorax has black
postspiracular setae, scutellum tri-lobed uniformly convex, each lobe bears a patch of
broad, flat white scales and a cluster of seven or eight dark bristle. Wings veins
covered by narrow, dark scales; dorsal scales on wings veins not broad. Legs
brownish black but pale when seen from back, coxae covered with white scales on
part of outer surface; femora of hind legs entirely covered with white scales on outer
and ventral sides and rest with brownish black scales; tibiae entirely covered with
black scales. Abdomen covered with brownish black to bluish black scales on dorsal
side, pale scales on later sides of tergites. Sternites covered with dark scales apically
and white scale basally.

Mansonia annulifera, (Theobald, 1901) Plate 1 (H)


Vertex evenly scattered with numerous pale upright scales and narrow
yellowish brown scales; eyes have metallic green tinge in live specimens, but turns
black when they are dead and dried; clypeus was light brown. Proboscis pale brown to
yellowish brown; with small, short light brown bristles; labellum light brown. Palp
yellowish brown. Thorax yellowish brown, scutellum tri-lobed, uniformly convex,
middle lobe covered with broad white scales, two lateral lobes with narrow pale
scales. Wings veins speckled and evenly mixed with yellowish brown scales. Legs
yellowish brown with numerous snowy white rings; femora with five snowy white
rings, tibiae with four or five similar rings; legs with white knee spots, scattered with
short, brown bristles. Abdomen tergites mainly covered with brown scales on dorsal
side and completely covered with pale yellowish scales, sternites covered with evenly
mixed brown, pale scales.

General character of adult female anopheline mosquitoes


Anopheles nigerrimus (Giles, 1900) Plate 1 (I)
Clypeus with a patch of dark laterally projecting scales on each side; outer clyped hair
profusely branched, forming a tuft; antennal hair very long, strongly feathered,
situated at about middle of antenna. Proboscis labellum light brown. Palpi with some
narrow pale bands. Thorax, prothoracic hairs simple. Wings pattern darker, more or
less blurred; basal half of costa usually with a few pale scales. Leg, hind femur
without a broad white band; pale bands on hind tarsi. Fourth segment with basal pale
band. A prominent tuft of scales on ventral surface of the abdomen.
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(A) Ae. aegypti (B) Ae. albopictus

(C) Cx. sitiens (D) Cx. vishnui

Plate. 1 Collected Mosquito Species in Kalay University Campus

(E) Cx. gelidus (F) Cx. quinquefasciatus

(G) Ar. subalbatus (H) M. annulifera


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(I) An. nigerrimus


Plate. 1 Continued

DISCUSSION
During the study period, a total of nine mosquito species were recorded in
Kalay University Campus. Most of the recorded species were Culex spp. and followed
by Aedes spp. and Anopheles spp. The mosquitoe species were weekly collected in
this study. Collections were made three times a day (morning, daytime and night). A
total of nine species of mosquito species, falling into five genera under family
Culicidae were identified and described. They were Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, Cx.
gelidus, Cx. quinquefasciatus , Ar. subalbatus, M.annulifera, Ae. aegypti,
Ae. albopictus, An. migerrimus. Some species can tolerate cold weather and adult
can survive throughout cold season in suitable microhabitats.
Altogether of 42 species under Genus Culex were known to occur in Southeast
Asia and ten species of them were distributed in Myanmar (Reuben et al. 1994). In the
present study, four species under Genus Culex were recorded and the medical
importance vectors if them Cx. vishnui and Cx. gelidus, Mansonia annulifera for
Japanese encephalitis, Cx. quinquefasciatus for microfilariasis, Cx. sitiens for
filariasis.
Aedes mosquitoes are known to occur potential vectors of dengue virus
infesting to human specially children. In Southeast Asia, six Aedes species were
recorded and Ae. aegypti and Ae.albopictus were the potential vectors of dengue
verus (Rattanarithikul and Panthusiri, 1994, Rueda, 2004). The mosquito genus
Anopheles carries the malaria parasite. About 40% of the world‘s population may live
in an area that has malaria, mostly in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world,
with around 2 million deaths annually according to the Center for Disease Control.
In the present study, genus Aedes contains two species. They are Ae. aegypti
and Ae. albopictus. Genus Culex contains four species. They are Cx. sitiens, Cx.
vishnui, gelidus Cx. and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Genus Arigeresm contains only one
species Ar. subalbatus and genus Mansonia contains M. annulifera. Genus Anopheles
also contains only species An. nigerrimus too. During the study period, the occurrence
of the recorded mosquito species was highest in November and lowest in December.
The remaining two months, January and February was the same in species number.
In present study maximum number of collected mosquito female species were
Ar. subalbatus, Ae. albopictus. Minimum number of collected mosquito female
species was Anopheles spp. It was found that female adult mosquitoes were increase
in number with during the month of November. Considering the Changes in the
prevalence of mosquito species, it was essential to review the distribution and species
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composition of vector mosquitoes in a particular area for adopting appropriate vector


control measures as stated by Dutta et al. 2010. During the study period in Kalay
University Campus, Ae. aegypti, and Ae. albopictus were found shaded places such
as bushy areas, dwelling, caught in day time. Cx. quinquefasciatus was found on
vegetation and outdoor shelters and Cx. gelidus was found under bushes and dark
shaded places during night time. Culex spp. was also involved in the transmission of
disease.
The present study show that observation on the some mosquitoes in Kalay
University Campus help to decrease the mosquito born disease in community of this
areas. The information given in this study could not claim to be complete but it has
thrown some light on the mosquito fauna of the Kalay University Campus.Occurrence
of the mosquito species in the study area provides database for further research and
public health workers to effective prevention of mosquito borne diseases.Therefore, it
could serve as an information source for later research works.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my profound gratitude to Rector Dr. Than Win, Kalay University for
his permission. I also thanks to Pro-rector Dr. Myint Swe, Kalay University. I deeply grateful to
Professor Dr. Kyi Kyi Soe, Head of Zoology Department, Kalay University, for the support and advice
in writing this paper. I would like to thank Associate Professor Dr. Myint Myint Chit, Zoology
Department, Pathein University, for the help provided in identifying mosquito species in this research
work.

REFERENCES
Bang, Y. H. and Pant, C. P., (1972), "A field trail of Abate lavicide for the Control of Aedes aegypti in
Bangkok, Thailand", Bulletin of World Health Organization, 46, p. 416-425.
Backer, N., Petric, D., Zgomba, M., Boase, C., Dahl, C., Lane, J. and Kaiser, A., (2003), "Mosquitoes
and their control". Kluwer Academic/ Plenum, New York, p. 518.
Dutta, P., Kan, S.A., Kan, A.M., Sharma, C.K., and Mahanta, J., (2010), "Survey of mosquito species
in Nagaland, a hill state of northeast region of India". Journal of Environmental
Biology 31(5), p. 781-785.
Nakamura, M. and Zaw Win., (2006), Illustrated key to the identification of the adult female and full-
grown larvae of anopheles in Myanmar. Vector Borne Disease Control Project, DOH,
MOH, Yangon, Myanmar and Mador infectious disease control project,(Malaria
component), Jica, Myanmar.
Rattanarithikul, R. and Panthusiri, P., (1994), "Illustrated keys to the medically important mosquitoes
of Thiland". Southeast Asia Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 25(1),
p. 34-50.
Reuben, R., Tewari, S.C., Hiriyan, J. and Akiyama, J., (1994), "Illustrated keys to species of Culex
associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae)",
Mosquito Systematics, 26(2), p. 75-96.
Reuda, L. M., (2004), Pictorial keys for the identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
associated with dengue virus transmission. Magnolia Press, Auckland, New Zealand,
p. 60.
Service M.W., (1992), "Importance of ecology in Aedes aegypti control", Southeast Asian Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 23 (4), p.6810688, p.221-226.
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OCCURRENCE OF FISH SPECIES FROM MYITTHA RIVER


SEGMENT BETWEEN OOYIN AND PYINTHAR VILLAGES,
KALAY TOWNSHIP

Nandar Lin1*

ABSTRACT
Species composition and fish fauna in Myittha River segment between Ooyin
and Pyinthar Villages investigated during June 2013 to May 2014, accounted to a total
of 25 species confined to 21 genera and distributed under seven orders, 12 families
were identified and recorded. Among the recorded species, order Cypriniformes
represented the highest number of species composition (40%), followed by
Siluriformes (36%), Perciformes (8%), and Osteoglossiformes, Beloniformes
Synbranchiformes and Tetraodontiformes with (4%) each. Since there are a number of
fish species of economic importance, the river not only supplements the protein
requirement but also gives a place for livelihood of the local people.
Keywords: occurrence, species composition, fishes, Myittha River Segment

INTRODUCTION
Over half of all vertebrates are fishes. As the most diverse and successful
vertebrate group, they provide the evolutionary base for invasion of land by
amphibians. In many ways, amphibians, the first terrestrial vertebrates, can be viewed
as transitional fish out of water. In fact, fishes and amphibians share many similar
features, among the host of obvious differences. Jawed fishes first appeared during the
Silurian Period (438 to 408 million years ago) and along with them came a new mode
of feeding. Later, both the cartilaginous and bony fishes appeared (Raven and
Johnson, 2002).
Inland fish production provides significant contributions to animal protein
supplies in many rural areas. Inland fisheries are most accessible and inexpensive
source of protein for Myanmar people. Rivers provide food and water for the people.
Myanmar has four river systems: they are Ayeyawady, Chindwin, Sittaung and
Thanlwin. The Chindwin is one of the famous rivers in Myanmar. Myittha River is
the largest tributary of Chindwin. It flows south to northwards through the eastern part
of Kalay. Local people who live along the Myittha River depend on fish for their
earning intake. These local fisheries are important for nutrition of some of the poor
peoples.
Ferraris (1997) studied the fishes of Kalay Myoma market during April and
May in 1996. Man Tint Maw et al. (2006) studied in Taxonomic Study of Some
Fishes of Kalay Myoma Market. Myittha River segment supports an important food
source for local people. Therefore, present work has been undertaken with the
following objectives.
- to identify and record the fish species in the study area
- to investigate the species composition of existing fish fauna

1
*Assistant Lecturer, Dr, Zoology Department, Kalay University
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MATERIALS AND METHODS


Study Area
Kalay Township is situated in the southwestern part of Sagaing Region of
Myanmar. It lies between 22˚ 36' and 23˚ 38' N Latitude and 93˚ 57' and 94˚ 16' E
longitudes. Fish specimens for the study were collected from Taung-Oo village.

Study Period
The present study was conducted from June 2013 and May 2014.
Specimen Collection and Preservation
Collection specimens were made on monthly basis and photographs taken
immediately. The fish specimens used during the study period were made by local
fishermen. The fish were preserved in 10% formalin for future use.
Identification of the Fishes
Identification of fish species were made according to Day (1878), Jayaram
(1981), Talwar and Jhingran (1991) and Ferraris (1997), Jayaram (2013). The
classification and nomination of fishes according to Talwar and Jhingran (1991) and
Jayaram (2013). Local names of the studied species were recorded by the local
fishermen.

Location Map of Study Area (Source: Google earth)

Results
A total of 25 species of fish from 21 genera, 12 families and seven orders were
recorded from Myittha River segment during June 2013 to May 2014.

Species Composition and Monthly Occurrence


In this study period, the order Cypriniformes collected with 10 species
belonging to eight genera and distributed among two families followed by the order
Siluriformes with nine species distributed among seven genera and belonging to four
families, followed by the order Perciformes with two species belonging to two genera
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and distributed among two families, and the last orders Osteoglossiformes,
Beloniformes, Synbranchiformes and Tetraodontiformes were recorded one species,
one genera and one family.
Among the seven orders of fishes, order Cypriniformes was the most dominant
in the species composition with 40% followed by order Siluriformes with 36%, order
Perciformes with 8%, and order Osteoglossiformes, Beloniformes, Synbranchiformes
and Tetraodontiformes with 4% in each.
According to monthly recorded data, the highest number of 24 species was
collected in June and the lowest number of nine species was collected in September.
The highest number of 419 individuals was collected in June and the lowest number
of 56 individuals was collected in September. The highest number of 800 individuals
was Mystus cavasius and the lowest number of 10 individuals was Cirrhinus mrigala.
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Table 1. List of Fish Species Collected from Myittha River Segment During June 2013 to May 2014
No Order Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name
1 Osteoglossiformes Notopteridae Notopterus notopterus Grey feather back Nge-phe
2 Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Raiamas guttatus Burmese trout Nga-la-war
Osteobrama belangeri Manipur osteobrama Nga-phe-aung
O. cunma Cunma osteobrama Nga-phant-zup
Chagunius chagunio Chaguni Nga-ta-see
Puntius chola Swamp bark Nga-khon-ma
Cirrhinus mrigala Mrigal Nga-gyin-phyu
Catla catla Bighead-carp Nga-ghaing
Labeo boga Boga labeo Nga-lu
L.rohita Rohu Nga-myint-chin
Cobitidae Botia histrionica Burmese loach Nga-shwe-thwe
3 Siluriformes Bagridae Sperata aor Long whiskered catfish Nga-gyaung
Mystus cavasius Gangetic mystus Nga-zin-yaing-phyu
M. leucophasis Sittang mystus Nga-pet-let
M. vittatus Striped dwarf catfish Nga-zin-yaing
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Table 1. Continued
No Order Family Scientific Name Common Name Local Name
Siluridae Wallago attu Boal Nga-bat
Sisoridae Gagata dolichonema Indian gagata Nga-saw-kyar
Bagarius yarrellii Goonch Nga-maung-ma
Clariidae Clarias batrachus Magur Nga-khu
Heteropneustes fossilis Stinging catfish Nga-gyee
4 Beloniformes Belonidae Xenentodon cancila Freshwater garfish Nga-phaung-yoe
5 Synbranchiformes Mastacembelidae Mastacembelus manipurensis Spiny eel Nga-mwe-doe
6 Perciformes Gobiidae Glossogobius giuris Tank goby Nga-lone
Anabantidae Anabas testudineus Climbing perch Nga-byay-ma
7 Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae Tetraodon cutcutia Ocellated pufferfish Nga-si-pu
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Table 2. Percent Composition of Fish Species in Different Orders in the Present


Study
Species
Sr. Number of Number of Number of composition
Order
No. family genus species
Percentage

1 Osteoglossiformes 1 1 1 4

2 Cypriniformes 2 8 10 40

3 Siluriformes 4 7 9 36

4 Beloniformes 1 1 1 4

5 Synbranchiformes 1 1 1 4

6 Perciformes 2 2 2 8

7 Tetraodontiformes 1 1 1 4

12 21 25 100
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Table 3. Monthly Occurrence of Fish Species from the Study Area During June 2013 to May 2014
No Species June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Total
1 Notopterus notopterus 17 20 0 0 9 4 7 12 8 5 2 5 89
2 Raiamas gattatus 5 2 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 14
3 Osteobrama belangeri 47 38 20 6 15 11 18 22 43 43 50 47 360
4 Osteobrama cunma 21 13 4 0 6 2 9 0 2 0 0 7 64
5 Chagunius chagunio 10 16 1 0 7 12 6 5 1 1 2 2 63
6 Puntius chola 18 21 0 0 37 45 17 0 19 11 24 17 209
7 Cirrhinus mrigala 4 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 10
8 Catla catla 6 1 0 0 0 3 2 2 4 1 0 0 19
9 Labeo boga 49 43 12 0 33 51 37 24 23 9 11 21 313
10 Labeo rohita 1 3 1 0 6 2 0 0 1 0 0 8 22
11 Botia histrionica 2 0 0 0 0 2 6 0 1 3 1 0 15
12 Sperata aor 17 11 2 4 15 18 8 0 2 0 0 7 84
13 Mystus cavasius 73 61 12 21 64 86 41 81 72 100 98 91 800
14 Mystus leucophasis 17 9 5 1 4 13 7 0 31 29 11 18 145
15 Mystus vittatus 40 32 19 9 17 43 12 15 28 14 6 48 283
16 Wallago attu 7 7 1 0 18 31 17 9 11 0 0 1 102
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Table 3. Continued
No Species June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Total
17 Gagata dolichonema 18 14 9 2 5 0 0 7 12 11 9 5 92
18 Bagarius yarrellii 11 12 1 0 0 0 2 9 7 14 10 9 75
19 Clarias batrachus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 5 12
20 Heteropneustes fossilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 7 5 8 25
21 Xenentodon cancila 2 2 3 0 7 4 0 1 1 0 0 0 20
22 Mastacembelus manipurensis 4 6 1 0 0 0 0 3 11 7 10 1 43
23 Parambassis ranga 20 26 11 7 19 24 17 0 0 0 0 11 135
24 Anabas testudineus 17 9 2 5 15 17 11 0 3 0 0 0 79
25 Tetraodon cutcutia 12 10 4 1 18 11 7 0 0 2 16 15 96
Total Individuals 419 357 108 56 300 380 228 195 281 258 259 328 3169
Total Species 24 22 17 9 18 19 20 15 20 16 15 20
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4 cm 3 cm

Notopterus notopterus Raiamas guttatus

3 cm 2 cm

Osteobrama belangeri Osteobrama cunma

3 cm 2 cm

Chagunius chagunio Puntius chola

4 cm 4 cm

Cirrhinus mrigala Catla catla


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2 cm 4 cm

Labeo boga Labeo rohita

2 cm 3 cm

Botia histrionica Sperata aor

3 cm 4 cm

Mystus cavasius Mystus leucophasis

3 cm 3 cm

Mystus vittatus Wallago attu


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2 cm 2 cm

Gagata dolichonema Bagarius yarrellii

4 cm 4 cm

Clarias batrachus Heteropneustes fossilis

3 cm 3 cm

Xenentodon cancila Mastacembelus manipurensis

2 cm 2 cm

Parambassis ranga Anabas testudineus


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2 cm

Tetraodon cutcutia

DISCUSSION
The dominant order was observed in order Cypriniformes. And then the
second dominant order was found in order Siluriformes, followed by the third
dominant order was found in order Perciformes. The lowest species composition was
found in order Osteoglossiformes, Beloniformes, Synbranchiformes and
Tetraodontiformes each.
The study of fish fauna in the Myittha River segment showed that most of the
fish species recorded were widely distributed in this segment and the present
investigation revealed that cyprinid fishes were predominant in the study area. Among
the different families of fishes, it was said that the family Cyprinidae represented the
highest number of fish species in nature.
Throughout the study period, the highest number of 800 individuals was
Mystus cavasius and the lowest number of 10 individuals was Cirrhinus mrigala. So,
Mystus cavasius is the most dominant species in Myittha River segment and this
species was collected in all months during the study period.
However, it was noticed that during 2013-2014, highest number of individuals
was recorded in June in rainy season and also declined in the number of fishes caught
was observed in September in the same rainy season. The reason was that heavy rains
caused the river to overflow twice, inundating some of the villages; so that
catchability declined in the same season; however when the river water stabilized,
catchbility became higher again.
Talwar and Jhingran (1991) reported that, fish are invariable living
components of water bodies. These organisms are important food resource and good
indicators of the ecological health of the waters they inhabit.
Among the recorded fish species, Notopterus notopterus, Cirrhinus mrigala,
Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Sperata aor, and Wallago attu are commercially important
of fish species in this study area. Therefore, the study area provides an important food
source for the livelihood of the locals in the area of Kalay Township.
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CONCLUSION
Nevertheless, rivers provide food and water for the people. Myittha River
segment provides significant contribution to animal proteins requirements in the local
area of Kalay Township.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am deeply indebted to Professor Dr. Naw Dolly Wilbur, Department of Zoology, University
of Mandalay, for her keen interest and enthusiastic supervision throughout the study period. My sincere
thanks are due to Professor Dr. Kyi Kyi Soe, Head of Department of Zoology and Professor Dr. Khin
Swe Yu, Department of Zoology, Kalay University, for going permission to collect data in the field
during the study period.

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