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# Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres.

FILTERS 1

## PASIVE FILTERS OF FIRST AND SECOND

ORDER WITH RLC ELEMENTS
Diego Jimenez Alvernia, IEEE Student Member and Jesús Torres
School of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering
diegojalvernia@gmail.com

B. RC CIRCUIT
I. LOW-PASS FILTER

A. RL CIRCUIT

 Transfer function.

1
 Transfer function 𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑅𝐶
1
𝑆 + 𝑅𝐶
𝑅
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅  Cut-off frequency
𝑆 + 𝐿
1
𝜔𝑐 =
𝑅𝐶
 Cut-off frequency

𝑅
𝜔𝑐 =  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0
𝐿

##  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = 0 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1  Angle

 Angle
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 (𝜔𝑅𝐶)
𝜔𝐿
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( 𝑅
)
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔) 1
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
𝑅 2
𝐿 √𝜔 2 + ( 1 )
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 𝑅 )
𝐿
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 2

 Transfer function
C.RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES 
𝑅
( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅
𝑆 + ( L)

 Cut-off frequency

𝑅𝑒
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿
Where
 Transfer function 𝑅 ∗ 𝑅𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

𝑅  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = 0
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝐿
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
𝑆 + 𝐿
 Cut-off frequency if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
𝐻(𝑗𝜔) = 0
𝑅𝑒
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿 E. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

If 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
𝐻(𝑗𝜔) = 0

##  Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)  Transfer function

1
𝑅 𝑅𝐶
𝐻(𝑠) =
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝐿 1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶
𝑆 + ( )( )
2 𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
√𝜔 2 + ( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 )  Cut-off frequency
𝐿

1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶
𝜔𝑐 = ( )( )
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
D. RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0

𝑅𝐶
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
1
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 1 ( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 ))
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 3

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
F. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
 Angle

𝜋
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 (𝜔𝑅𝐶)
2
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

𝜔
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 1 )
𝑅𝐶

B. RL CIRCUIT
 Transfer function
1
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 +
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
 Cut-off frequency
1
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )

##  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
 Transfer function

𝑆
II. HIGH PASS FILTER 𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅
𝑆 +
𝐿
A. RC CIRCUIT  Cut-off frequency

𝑅
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Angle
 Transfer function
𝜋 𝜔𝐿
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( )
𝑆 2 𝑅
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 + 𝑅𝐶
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Cut-off frequency
1 𝜔
𝜔𝑐 = |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 2
𝑅𝐶 √𝜔2 + ( 𝑅 )
𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 4

 Cut-off frequency
C. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
𝑅 𝑅𝐿
𝜔𝑐 = ( )( )
L 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞

𝑅𝐿
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

## E. RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES

 Transfer function

R
𝑆 ∗ 𝑅+ 𝑅
𝐶
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 +
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
 Cut-off frequency

1  Transfer function
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
𝑆
𝐻(𝑠) =
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞ 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝑆 + 𝐿

R  Cut-off frequency
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

## F. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

 Transfer function

𝑅
𝑆 ∗ ( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =  Transfer function
𝑅 𝑅𝐿
𝑆 + ( L )( 𝑅 + 𝑅 )
𝐿 𝑆
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 𝑅+ 𝑅
𝑆 + (𝑅𝐶 ) ( 𝑅 𝐶 )
𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 5

𝜔0 = √𝜔𝑐1 𝜔𝑐2
 Cut-off frequency
𝑅 𝑅 2 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √( ) + ( )
2𝐿 2𝐿 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 𝑅
𝜔𝑐 = ( ) ( ) 𝛽= ó 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶 𝐿

##  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞  Quality factor (𝑄 )

𝐿
𝑄= √ 2
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1 𝐶𝑅

1 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = 𝜔0 (± + √1+ ( ) )
2𝑄 2𝑄
III. BAND PASS FILTER
B. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
A. SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

 Transfer function
𝑅
𝑆 (𝐿)
𝐻(𝑠) =
 Transfer function 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) + 𝑅𝐶
𝑅
𝑆 (𝐿)
𝐻(𝑠) =  Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0
𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) + 𝑅𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

## |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1  Where 𝜔0 is defined as

1
Where 𝜔0 is defined as 𝜔0 =
1 √𝐿𝐶
𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Angle
𝜔𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = L
𝜔𝑅
𝜋 2 2
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( L
) √ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 ))
2 1 2 𝐿𝐶 L
𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔
𝑅+𝑅
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔) 𝛽𝑢 = 𝐿 𝐿 ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝜔𝑅 𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑜 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = L
2 2 𝑅𝑒
√ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔𝑅 ) 𝛽=
𝐿
; 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐿𝐶 L
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 6

## D. RLC CIRCUIT PARALLEL

 Quality factor (𝑄 )

𝜔0 2
𝑄𝑢 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2𝐿 2𝐿

## C. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL  Transfer function

1
𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) + 𝐿𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as
 Transfer function 1
𝜔0 =
𝑅 𝑅 √𝐿𝐶
𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) ( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =  Angle
𝑅 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) ( ) +
𝐿 𝐿 𝐿𝐶
𝜔𝑅
𝜋 L
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 −1
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛 ( )
2 1 2
𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Where 𝜔0 is defined as 1
𝜔 ( RC)
1 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
𝜔0 = 2 2
√𝐿𝐶 √ ( 1 − 𝜔2) + ( 𝜔 )
𝛽𝑢 = 𝑘𝛽 ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐿𝐶 RC
1
where 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2 𝛽 = RC
𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑜 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝑅 R
𝛽= ;𝑘 =
𝐿 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿  Quality factor (𝑄)
𝛽𝑢 𝛽𝑢 2
- 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( ) 𝑅2𝐶
2 2 𝑄= √
𝐿

1 1 2 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √( ) +( )
2𝑅𝐶 2𝑅𝐶 𝐿𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 7

## E. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL IV. BAND REJECT FILTER

A. RLC SERIES CIRCUIT

 Transfer function

1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝑅
𝑆 ( )( )( )
𝑅𝐶 𝑅 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) ( ) + 
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 𝐿𝐶
 Transfer function
1
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 𝑆 2 + (𝐿𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) +
𝐿 𝐿𝐶
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

## Where 𝜔0 is defined as  Where 𝜔0 is defined as

1 1
𝜔0 = 𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶 √𝐿𝐶

 Angle
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝜔𝑅
𝛽𝑢 = ( ) ( ) ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛 −1
( L )
1 2
also 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2 𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔

1 𝑅  Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
𝛽= → 𝛽𝑢 = ( 1 + )𝛽 1
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 |𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔2 |
 Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔) |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
2 2
𝜔(𝐿)
𝑅 √ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔𝑅 )
𝐿𝐶 L
𝐻(𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔) =
2 2 𝑅
√( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + ( 𝜔( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 ) ) 𝛽= 𝐿
ó 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝐿𝐶 𝐿
𝛽 𝛽 2
 Quality factor (𝑄 ) 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
𝜔𝑜 2 2
𝑄= 𝛽
 Quality factor (𝑄)
𝛽 𝛽 2 𝐿
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( ) 𝑄= √ 2
2 2 𝑅 𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 8

## B. LC SERIES. 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL C. RLC CIRCUIT. LC PARALLEL

 Transfer function
1
𝑆 2 + 𝐿𝐶
 Transfer function 𝐻(𝑠) =
1 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) + 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅𝐿
(𝑆 2 +
)( )  Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞
𝐿𝐶 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅 𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) (𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 ) + 𝐿𝐶 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
𝐿

##  Where Where 𝜔0 is defined as

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞
1
𝜔0 =
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘 √𝐿𝐶

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as 1
1 𝛽=
𝑅𝐶
𝜔0 =  Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠)
√𝐿𝐶
𝑅𝐿
So 𝑘 = 𝑠 2 + 𝜔2
𝑅+ 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑠 2 + 𝛽𝑠 + 𝜔0 2
𝑅𝑒 𝑅𝑅𝐿
- 𝛽= 𝐿
where 𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅+ 𝑅𝐿
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

##  Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠) |𝜔0 2 − 𝜔2 |

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
𝑘(𝑠 2 + 𝜔2 ) √ (𝜔0 2 − 𝜔 2 )2 + (𝜔𝛽)2
𝐻(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 + 𝛽𝑢 𝑠 + 𝜔0 2
𝛽 𝛽 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
𝛽 𝛽 2 2 2
- 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2 2

##  Quality factor (𝑄)

𝑄𝑢 = 𝜔0 𝑅𝐶
 Quality factor (𝑄 )

𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝜔0 L
𝑄= ( )( )
𝑅𝐿 𝑅
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 9

## D. RLC CIRCUIT. LC PARALLEL AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

 Transfer function
1
𝑆2 +
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅 + 𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) ( 𝑅 𝐿 ) + 𝐿𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as
1
𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶
𝜔0
𝛽=
𝑅𝑒 𝐶

𝑅𝑅𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
 Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠)

𝑠 2 + 𝜔2
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑠 2 + 𝛽𝑠 + 𝜔0 2

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

|𝜔0 2 − 𝜔2 |
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
√ (𝜔0 2 − 𝜔 2 )2 + (𝜔𝛽)2

𝛽 𝛽 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2 2

 Quality factor (𝑄 )
𝑄 = 𝜔0 𝑅𝑒 𝐶