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Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres.

FILTERS 1

PASIVE FILTERS OF FIRST AND SECOND


ORDER WITH RLC ELEMENTS
Diego Jimenez Alvernia, IEEE Student Member and Jesús Torres
School of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering
Universidad Industrial de Santander
diegojalvernia@gmail.com

B. RC CIRCUIT
I. LOW-PASS FILTER

A. RL CIRCUIT

 Transfer function.

1
 Transfer function 𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑅𝐶
1
𝑆 + 𝑅𝐶
𝑅
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅  Cut-off frequency
𝑆 + 𝐿
1
𝜔𝑐 =
𝑅𝐶
 Cut-off frequency

𝑅
𝜔𝑐 =  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0
𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = 0 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1  Angle

 Angle
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 (𝜔𝑅𝐶)
𝜔𝐿
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( 𝑅
)
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔) 1
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
𝑅 2
𝐿 √𝜔 2 + ( 1 )
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 𝑅 )
𝐿
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 2

 Transfer function
C.RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES 
𝑅
( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅
𝑆 + ( L)

 Cut-off frequency

𝑅𝑒
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿
Where
 Transfer function 𝑅 ∗ 𝑅𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

𝑅  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = 0
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝐿
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
𝑆 + 𝐿
 Cut-off frequency if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
𝐻(𝑗𝜔) = 0
𝑅𝑒
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿 E. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0

𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

If 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
𝐻(𝑗𝜔) = 0

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)  Transfer function


1
𝑅 𝑅𝐶
𝐻(𝑠) =
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝐿 1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶
𝑆 + ( )( )
2 𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
√𝜔 2 + ( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 )  Cut-off frequency
𝐿

1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶
𝜔𝑐 = ( )( )
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
D. RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0

𝑅𝐶
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
1
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 𝑅𝐶
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 1 ( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 ))
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 3

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
F. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
 Angle

𝜋
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 (𝜔𝑅𝐶)
2
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

𝜔
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
2
√𝜔 2 + ( 1 )
𝑅𝐶

B. RL CIRCUIT
 Transfer function
1
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 +
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
 Cut-off frequency
1
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔=0

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
 Transfer function

𝑆
II. HIGH PASS FILTER 𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅
𝑆 +
𝐿
A. RC CIRCUIT  Cut-off frequency

𝑅
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Angle
 Transfer function
𝜋 𝜔𝐿
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = −𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( )
𝑆 2 𝑅
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 + 𝑅𝐶
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Cut-off frequency
1 𝜔
𝜔𝑐 = |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = 2
𝑅𝐶 √𝜔2 + ( 𝑅 )
𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 4

 Cut-off frequency
C. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
𝑅 𝑅𝐿
𝜔𝑐 = ( )( )
L 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞

𝑅𝐿
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

E. RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES

 Transfer function

R
𝑆 ∗ 𝑅+ 𝑅
𝐶
𝐻(𝑠) =
1
𝑆 +
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
 Cut-off frequency

1  Transfer function
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐶(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 )
𝑆
𝐻(𝑠) =
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞ 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝑆 + 𝐿

R  Cut-off frequency
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝜔𝑐 =
𝐿

D. RL CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL  Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

F. RC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

 Transfer function

𝑅
𝑆 ∗ ( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =  Transfer function
𝑅 𝑅𝐿
𝑆 + ( L )( 𝑅 + 𝑅 )
𝐿 𝑆
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 𝑅+ 𝑅
𝑆 + (𝑅𝐶 ) ( 𝑅 𝐶 )
𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 5

𝜔0 = √𝜔𝑐1 𝜔𝑐2
 Cut-off frequency
𝑅 𝑅 2 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √( ) + ( )
2𝐿 2𝐿 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐶 𝑅
𝜔𝑐 = ( ) ( ) 𝛽= ó 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐶 𝐿

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝑗𝜔 = ∞  Quality factor (𝑄 )


𝐿
𝑄= √ 2
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1 𝐶𝑅

1 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = 𝜔0 (± + √1+ ( ) )
2𝑄 2𝑄
III. BAND PASS FILTER
B. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 SERIES
A. SERIES RLC CIRCUIT

 Transfer function
𝑅
𝑆 (𝐿)
𝐻(𝑠) =
 Transfer function 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) + 𝑅𝐶
𝑅
𝑆 (𝐿)
𝐻(𝑠) =  Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0
𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) + 𝑅𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1  Where 𝜔0 is defined as


1
Where 𝜔0 is defined as 𝜔0 =
1 √𝐿𝐶
𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Angle
𝜔𝑅
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = L
𝜔𝑅
𝜋 2 2
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 ( L
) √ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔(𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 ))
2 1 2 𝐿𝐶 L
𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔
𝑅+𝑅
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔) 𝛽𝑢 = 𝐿 𝐿 ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝜔𝑅 𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑜 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| = L
2 2 𝑅𝑒
√ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔𝑅 ) 𝛽=
𝐿
; 𝑅𝑒 = 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐿𝐶 L
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 6

D. RLC CIRCUIT PARALLEL

 Quality factor (𝑄 )

𝜔0 2
𝑄𝑢 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿

𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2𝐿 2𝐿

C. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL  Transfer function


1
𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) + 𝐿𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as
 Transfer function 1
𝜔0 =
𝑅 𝑅 √𝐿𝐶
𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) ( 𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 )
𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =  Angle
𝑅 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) ( ) +
𝐿 𝐿 𝐿𝐶
𝜔𝑅
𝜋 L
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 −1
𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛 ( )
2 1 2
𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
 Where 𝜔0 is defined as 1
𝜔 ( RC)
1 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
𝜔0 = 2 2
√𝐿𝐶 √ ( 1 − 𝜔2) + ( 𝜔 )
𝛽𝑢 = 𝑘𝛽 ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 𝐿𝐶 RC
1
where 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2 𝛽 = RC
𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑜 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝑅 R
𝛽= ;𝑘 =
𝐿 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿  Quality factor (𝑄)
𝛽𝑢 𝛽𝑢 2
- 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( ) 𝑅2𝐶
2 2 𝑄= √
𝐿

1 1 2 1 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √( ) +( )
2𝑅𝐶 2𝑅𝐶 𝐿𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 7

E. RLC CIRCUIT AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL IV. BAND REJECT FILTER


A. RLC SERIES CIRCUIT

 Transfer function

1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝑅
𝑆 ( )( )( )
𝑅𝐶 𝑅 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) ( ) + 
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 𝐿𝐶
 Transfer function
1
 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 𝜔0 𝑆 2 + (𝐿𝐶 )
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅 1
𝑆2 + 𝑆 ( ) +
𝐿 𝐿𝐶
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

Where 𝜔0 is defined as  Where 𝜔0 is defined as


1 1
𝜔0 = 𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶 √𝐿𝐶

 Angle
1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝜔𝑅
𝛽𝑢 = ( ) ( ) ; 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 𝜃(𝑗𝜔) = − 𝑡𝑎𝑛 −1
( L )
1 2
also 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2 𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔

1 𝑅  Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)
𝛽= → 𝛽𝑢 = ( 1 + )𝛽 1
𝑅𝐶 𝑅𝐿 |𝐿𝐶 − 𝜔2 |
 Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔) |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
2 2
𝜔(𝐿)
𝑅 √ ( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + (𝜔𝑅 )
𝐿𝐶 L
𝐻(𝑠 = 𝑗𝜔) =
2 2 𝑅
√( 1 − 𝜔 2 ) + ( 𝜔( 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 ) ) 𝛽= 𝐿
ó 𝛽 = 𝜔𝑐1 − 𝜔𝑐2
𝐿𝐶 𝐿
𝛽 𝛽 2
 Quality factor (𝑄 ) 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
𝜔𝑜 2 2
𝑄= 𝛽
 Quality factor (𝑄)
𝛽 𝛽 2 𝐿
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 = ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( ) 𝑄= √ 2
2 2 𝑅 𝐶
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 8

B. LC SERIES. 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL C. RLC CIRCUIT. LC PARALLEL

 Transfer function
1
𝑆 2 + 𝐿𝐶
 Transfer function 𝐻(𝑠) =
1 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) + 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅𝐿
(𝑆 2 +
)( )  Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞
𝐿𝐶 𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑅 𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 ( 𝐿 ) (𝑅 + 𝐿𝑅 ) + 𝐿𝐶 |𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1
𝐿

 Where Where 𝜔0 is defined as


 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞
1
𝜔0 =
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑘 √𝐿𝐶

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as 1
1 𝛽=
𝑅𝐶
𝜔0 =  Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠)
√𝐿𝐶
𝑅𝐿
So 𝑘 = 𝑠 2 + 𝜔2
𝑅+ 𝑅𝐿
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑠 2 + 𝛽𝑠 + 𝜔0 2
𝑅𝑒 𝑅𝑅𝐿
- 𝛽= 𝐿
where 𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅+ 𝑅𝐿
 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

 Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠) |𝜔0 2 − 𝜔2 |


|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
𝑘(𝑠 2 + 𝜔2 ) √ (𝜔0 2 − 𝜔 2 )2 + (𝜔𝛽)2
𝐻(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 + 𝛽𝑢 𝑠 + 𝜔0 2
𝛽 𝛽 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
𝛽 𝛽 2 2 2
- 𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2 2

 Quality factor (𝑄)


𝑄𝑢 = 𝜔0 𝑅𝐶
 Quality factor (𝑄 )

𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿 𝜔0 L
𝑄= ( )( )
𝑅𝐿 𝑅
Universidad Industrial de Santander. Diego Jiménez and Jesús Torres. FILTERS 9

D. RLC CIRCUIT. LC PARALLEL AND 𝑅𝑙𝑜𝑎𝑑 PARALLEL

 Transfer function
1
𝑆2 +
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝐿𝐶
1 𝑅 + 𝑅 1
𝑆 2 + 𝑆 (𝑅𝐶 ) ( 𝑅 𝐿 ) + 𝐿𝐶

 Maximum Amplitude if 𝜔 = 0 ó 𝜔 = ∞

|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)|𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1

 Where 𝜔0 is defined as
1
𝜔0 =
√𝐿𝐶
𝜔0
𝛽=
𝑅𝑒 𝐶

𝑅𝑅𝐿
𝑅𝑒 =
𝑅 + 𝑅𝐿
 Rewriting 𝐻(𝑠)

𝑠 2 + 𝜔2
𝐻(𝑠) =
𝑠 2 + 𝛽𝑠 + 𝜔0 2

 Amplitude of 𝐻(𝑗𝜔)

|𝜔0 2 − 𝜔2 |
|𝐻(𝑗𝜔)| =
√ (𝜔0 2 − 𝜔 2 )2 + (𝜔𝛽)2

𝛽 𝛽 2
𝜔𝑐1 ó 𝜔𝑐2 == ± + √𝜔0 2 + ( )
2 2

 Quality factor (𝑄 )
𝑄 = 𝜔0 𝑅𝑒 𝐶