_{U}_{N}_{I}_{T} _{1}_{4}
DESIGN OF STEEL CHIMNEYS
Structure
14.1 Introduction
Objectives
14.2 Types of Steel Chimney
14.2.1 Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
14.2.2 Guyed Steel Chimneys
14.3 Factors
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{4} Design of Steel Plates for Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{5} Design of Joints for Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{6} Design of Flue Openings for Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{7} Fvrces Acting on Steel Chimney
14.7.1 
Vertical Forces 
14.7.2 
Horizontal Forces 
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{8} Bending Moment on Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{9} Bending Stress on Steel Chimney Due to Wind
14.10 Permissible Stresses
14.11 Design of Base Plate
14.12 Design of Anchor Bolts
14.13 Design of Foundation
14.14 Lining for Chimney
14.15 Stability of Steel Chimney
14.16 Design Problems
14.17 Summary
14.18 Answers to SAQs
14.1
INTRODUCTION
Steel Chimneys are frequently known as steel Stacks. The steel chimneys are made of steel plants and supported on foundation. The steel chimneys are cylindrical in shape. To provide larger base and greater stability, and to allow for easy entrance of flue gases, the lower portion of the steel chimney is widened or flared out. The widened section of the chimney at the base reduces the unit stresses in the steel at the base of the chimney. The steel chimneys are constructed for the emission of flue gases to such a height that the gases do not contaminate the surrounding atmosphere. The crosssectional area of the steel chimney is kept large enough to allow the passage of burnt gases. The crosssectional area of the steel chimneys depends on the type and quantity of fuels to be used in plant, available draft for carrying the burnt gases up the chimney. The height of the steel chimney is kept to provide the required draft. "The draft is defined as the difference between the absolute gas pressure at any point in the steel chimney and the ambient atmosphere pressure." The draft depends on the height of the steel chimney above sea level, the type of fuel to be burnt, the type of furnace and the temperature of the burnt gases.
When the gases in a steel chimney are heated, then the gases expand. The hot gases occupy larger volume than before. The weight of the gases per cubic metre becomes less. As a result of this, the unit pressure at the bottom of chimney due to weight of hot gases also becomes less than the unit pressure due to weight of cold air outside the chimney. The difference between two pressures results in the flow of the burnt gases up the chimney. For the purpose of structural design of steel
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
chimney, the height and the diameter of chimney at the top are known. The loads acting on the steel chimney are transferred to the foundation easily by the widened section. The base of the chimney may be made conical or bellmouthed. But the fabrication of bellmouthed base does not have any advantage over the conical base and the fabrication is costly. So, generally the conical base is provided.
The recommended height od flared portion of the chimney is 113rd of the height of the chimney. The ratio of the diameter of the base of the flare to the diameter of the cylindrical portion varies from 514 to 312. The plates in the conical flare should not be thinner than the thickness of the lowest course in the cylindrical portion.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to
distinguish between various types of steel chimneys,
evaluate the forces acting on a steel chimney,
effect of bending moment and bending stress on selfsupporting steel chimneys,
design of flue openings, points and foundations,
obtain expression$ for bending moment, stresses and thickness of plates, and
understand the stability concept of steel chimney
14.2 TYPES OF STEEL CHIMNEY
The slteel chimfieys are of two types:
i) Selfsupporting smeel chimneys
ii) Guyed steel chimbeys
14.2.1 Selfsupporting Steel Chimneys
A selfsupporting steel chimney or stack is made of steel plates and supported on
foundations. When the laterlal forces (wind or seismic forces) are transmitted to the foundation by the cantilevet action of the chimney, then the chimney is known as
selfsupporting. The chimnay together with the foundation remains stable under all working conditions, without any additional support. A selfsupporting chimney is shown in Figure 14.1. The selfsupporting steel chimneys are made upto 10 m diameter and from 50 m to 100 m in height.
14.2.2 Guyed Steel Chimneys
In high steel chimneys, the mild steel wire ropes or guys are attached to transmit
the lateral forces. Such stedl chimneys are known as "guyed steel chimneys." In guyed steel chimneys, all the externally applied loads (wind, seismic force etc.) are
not totally carried by the chimney shell. These attached guys or stays do share these applied loads. These chimneys may be provided with 1, 2, or 3 sets of guys. In each set of guys 3 or 4 m sometimes 6 wires are attached to the collars. A particular type of steel chimney is selected depending on the advantage and disadvantages with referenae to economy.
14.3
tCylindricalportion
I
aor
Breech
(I((I Flue opening
liigure 14.l(a) : Selfsupporting Steel Chimney
Figure 14.l(b) : Guyed Steel Chimneys
FACTORS
Design of Steel Chimneys
A choice between selfsupporting steel chimney and guyed steel chimney is made by considering some of the important factors : Number of units, type of equipment, and type of fuel to be used are considered. In case the chimney to be used for boilers, the surface area, output efficiency, draft requirements etc. are taken into account. The mode of operation of the equipment shall also be considered.
The type of lining is decided knowing the composition of the flue gases. The temperature of the flue gases before entering the chimney and its likely variation are studied. The local statutory regulations, relating to height, dispersion of ash,
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
provision for earthing aviation warning lamps. The quantity of dust and data about the aggressiveness of the flve gases etc. are the factors which should be considered for selecting a type of steel chimney.


14.4 DESIGN OF' STEEL PLATES FOR SELF SUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS
Generally the plate width of 1.5 m is used for chimneys. The thickness of plates should not be less than 6 mm and in upper portions one or two plates should be 8 mm thick as it is subjected to maximum corrosion. The thickness of steel plates in the flared portion should not be less than the thickness at the lowest section of the cylindrical portion. The steel plates are available in thickness of _{2}_{,} _{6}_{,} _{8}_{,} 10, _{1}_{2}_{,} 14, 16 & 20 mm. The saeel plates of chimneys are caulked from the inner side of chimney so they are sheared or planned to proper levelling. The thickness of steel chimney obtained from stress calculations and deflection consideration shall be increased by permitting an allowance for corrosion determined from the considerations of the deslign life of the chimneys and aggressiveness of the flue gases. The steel plates are painted in order to avoid corrosion. The corrosion resistant steel plates may be used in chimneys. Copper bearing steel plates may be used for selfsupporting steel chimney. The allowance for corrosion permitted is decided depending upon the amount of internal corrosion of steel plates. For 10 years of design life the allowance for slight, normal, and exceptional internal corrosion is 2 mm, 3 m$, and 5 mm respectively also for 20 years, the above said steel is 4 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm respectively.
The windward side of steel chimney is subjected to tensile stress due to the combined effect of the qind and the weight of steel chimney. The weight of lining
is omitted in calculating (the maximum tension,
may act on the steel chimney before the lining is done. The maximum wind may also act, when the chimqey is under repair and the lining has been removed for
renewal. The maximum dotal tensile stress on windward side.
since the maximum wind pressure
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,}
o,= permissible stress in tension in steel plates
ql = efficiency of the point on the tension side
Thus the thickness of the steel plates from tension side
The leeward side of the $tee1 chimney is subjected to maximum compressive stress due to the combined effect of wind, weight of steel chimney and weight of lining. The maximum total compressive stress on leeward side.
1 
where, 
oc= 
I 

_{I} 
_{q}_{2}_{=} 

, 
permissible stress in compression in steel plates
efficiency of the joint on the compression side
=1 (:.
q2=100%)
Thus the thickness of the steel plates from compression side
Design of Steel Chimneys
The thickness of the steel plates at various horizontal sections are found. The thickness of steel plates of the flared portion should not be less than the thickness of steel plates in the cylindrical portion. The thickness of steel plates of chimney is kept in excess than what is necessary (in order to protect them from corrosion) by allowance for corrosion, which depends upon the design life of the steel chimney.
14.5 DESIGN OF JOINTS FOR SELFSUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS
Single riveted lap joints are used for vertical seams, and single, double, or triple riveted lap joints are used for the horizontal seams of the upper part or cylindrical portion of the steel chimney i.e. flared portion, butt joints are used in the horizontal seams with the heavy plates. Butt joints are also used in the vertical seams in the bellmouthed flare of large chimney. The recommended types of riveted joints and diameter of rivets necessary for different thickness of plates are given in Table 14.1.
Thickness of Steel Plates
(mm)
Table 14.1
Diameter of Steel
(mm)
_{T}_{y}_{p}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{R}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{J}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
6 
16 
Single riveted lap joint 

1 

810 
18 
Double riveted lap joint 

1216 
22 
Triple riveted lap joint 

Thicker than 16 
24 
Butt joint 
The spacing of the rivets along the caulked edges of plates shall not be greater than 10 times the thickness of plates. The spacing of the rivets shall not be less than 2.5 times the diameter of rivet.
The steel plates more than 16 mm thick and not more than 22 mm thick are subpunched with a punch 5 mm smaller than the nominal diameter of rivet, and reamed to a diameter of 1.5 mm larger than the rivet. The plates thicker than 22 mm are drilled.
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
14.6
DESIGN OF FLUE OPENING FOR SELFSUPPORTING CHIMNEYS
The flue opening is also khown as breech opening. The flue opening is provided for the entrance of flue gases. The flue gases come from furnaces of the boilers.
A flue opening or breech opening is provided in the steel chimney as shown in the Figure 14.l(a). The area of the flue opening is kept about 20% larger than the internal crosssectional area of the chimney. The maximum width of the flue opening should not be greater than twothirds of the diameter. In order to compensate the removed materials, the reinforcement should be provided all around the flue opening. The vertical reinforcement provided should be 20% larger than the material removed in the ratio of diameter to the long chord perpendicular to the face of the opening.
( a) One bndch opening
[ c
Two breech openings at right1angles
( b)Two bkecn openings
_{(} _{d}
1 Three breech openings
Figure 14.2
The horizontal reinforcement provided at the top and bottom of the opening is kept equal to the vertical reihforcement. The reinforcing material provides sufficient vertical stiffness. In order to transfer and distribute the stress into the steel of the chimney, the reinforcing material should be extended above and below the opening. In the selfsupporting steel chimney the flue opening is kept well above the flared or conical base, so that it does not extend in the flared base.
The steel chimneys may have one or two breech openings, in the same direction, two breech openings at right angles and three breech openings as shown in Figure 14.2 (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively. The number of flue openings may be 1, 2, 3, or 4 depending upon the requirement. It is suggested that a maximum of two flueopenings may be provided at one level so that the chimney remains safe enough to resist the applied forces at the plane of the openings. However, it is possible to provide thr$e openings in one plane. This is done only when the number of the openings is three only. The width of openings does not exceed onethird of the diameter of the chimney at that plane. A cleanout door as shown
by dotted lines in Figure 14.1 is provided preferably on the opposite side of the ^{D}^{e}^{s}^{l}^{g}^{n} ^{o}^{f} ^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{C}^{h}^{i}^{m}^{n}^{e}^{y}^{s} breech opening near the base. The minimum size of cleanout door shall be 300 mm x 800 mm clear. The cleanout door serves the purpose of removal of ash and for the inspection of inside of steel chimney cleanout doors are also properly reinforced.
14.7 FORCES ACTING ON STEEL CHIMNEY
The various forces acting on the selfsupporting steel chimney are as follows.
14.7.1 Vertical Forces
1)
Selfweight of the Chimney
The selfweight of steel chimney Ws acts vertically. Consider a horizontal section XX as shown in Figure 14.1 The thickness of steel plates of chimney above the section XX,may be assumed constant. The selfweight of chimney is given by
p = unit weight of steel =
79 k~/rn~
d = diameter of chimney in metres
t
= thickness of steel plates in metres
h = height of steel chimney above the section XX in metres
.:
W, = 79 (ndt.h) kN
(
14.5)
The compressive stress in the steel plates at the section XX due to the selfweight of chimney is given by
_{2}_{)}
= 0.079 h N/mm2
(14.6)
Weight of Lining
The weight of the lining in the steel chimney WL,also acts vertically. The thickness of brick lining may be assumed as 100 _{m}_{m}_{.} The weight of lining
W, = p, .mi. (O.l).h
pl = unit weight of brick lining
The compressive stress in the steel plates at the section XX, due to weight of lining
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
14.7.2 Horizontal Forces
1)
Wind Pressure
The wind pressure acts horizontally. The wind pressure acting on the structure depends on the shape of the structure, the width of the structure, the height of the structure, the location of the structure, and the climatic condition The wind pressure per unit area increases with the height of the structure above the ground level. In order to simplify the design, the steel chimney is divided into number of segments of equal height. The height of each segment may be kept 10 m. The intensity of wind pressure over each segment may be assumed as uniform. The intensity of wind pressure corresponding to the midheight of each scgment may be noted from IS : 8751984. The wind pressure on the flared portion may be found by using average diameter. The wind pressure is assumed to act at the midheight of each segment and also in the flared portion. It has also been practised to take uniform wind pressure over the full height of chimney.
The wind pressure
P = K.P1 x (Project area of chimney)
K = shape factor
where,
It accounts for the shape of thc structure. pe shape factor for the cylindrical portion is 0.7
P, = Intensity of wind
pressure
_{:}_{.}
P = 0.7 x (P,x dl x h) kN
(14.9)
2)
where, dl = outer diameter of chimney.
In addition to overturning effect due to wind pressure, the wind has also aerodynamic effect. The aerodynamic effect of wind has not been taken into consideration for the design of steel chimney.
Seismic Forces
The seismic forces also act horizontally. The seismic forces act on a structure, when the structures are located in the seismic area.
The following load combinations for calculation of stresses at any point of steel chimney are considered.
_{i}_{)} Dead load + wind load
_{i}_{i}_{)} Dead load + Earthquake load
_{i}_{i}_{i}_{)} Dead load + Earthquake seismic load
+ Temperature effect + live load.
Under these loads the chimney behaves _{a}_{s} a cantilever and the chimney may be designed by conventional beam and column theories and the maximum stress .is limited to the allowable stress given by the chimney code. The worst combination out of the effect due to seismic (Earthquake) forces and wind effect is only taken into consideration and only one effect is considered for the design of the structure.
 













 
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{8} BENDING MOMENT ON SELFSUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS
The wind force acts as uniformly distributed load on the selfsupporting steel chimney. For the purpose of determining bending moment at any section XX Figure 14.1 the wind force is assumed to act at the middle height above the section. The bending moment due to wind at section XX, _{h} metres below the top is given by
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,}
Substituting the value of P from Eq. 14.9.
p = total wind force
/'
(ii)
Design of Steel Chimneys
Sometimes the selfsupporting steel chimney is erected between the constructed buildings. A portion of the chimney extends over the roof of the building as shown in Figure 14.3. The remaining portion of the chimney remains protected from the wind. The bending moment for the part of chimney above the roof is calculated in accordance with the expression (ii) above, the bending moment of chimney below the roof (protected from the wind) shall be determined as follows:
When the chimney is not fixed at the roof
F
7
When the chimney is fixed at the roof
Case(A)
Figure 14.3
Case(ElI
The maximum bending moment occurs at the base of the chimney
This bending moment acts as overturning moment on the steel chimney. The overturning moment Md, due to the wind pressure causes compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney and the tensile stress on the windward side of the steel chimney. The maximum compressive stress and tensile stress on the extreme fibre of steel chimney due to wind are equal.
14.9 BENDING STRESS ON STEEL CHIMNEY DUE TO WIND
The bending stress fw at the extreme fibre of
moment, Mw (moment due to wind in kNm) is given by
steel chimney due to overturning
I = Moment of inertia of circular ring section of the steel chimney
Z = Modulus section OF chimney ring section with no flue opening
t = thickness of steel plate (viz., without corrosion allowance)
IS : 65331971
recommends the value of section modulus of steel chimney ring with no flue opening as
'Code of practice for design and construction of steel chimney
The modulus of section of chimney crosssection with flue opening as shown in Figures 14.2 (a, b, c, & d) are given by the following expressions respectively
(i)
It is to note that these expressions are applicable for thickness of the plane less than 0.015d.
14.10 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
^{D}^{e}^{s}^{i}^{g}^{n} ^{o}^{f} ^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{C}^{h}^{i}^{m}^{n}^{e}^{y}^{s}
The windward side of the steel chimney is subjected to tensile stress due to combined effect of the wind and the weight of steel chimney. The leeward side of the steel chimney is subjected to compressive stress due to combined effect of wind, weight of steel chimney and weight of lining. _{I}_{n} order to control buckling in steel chimneys the compressive stress caused by the combination of extreme stresses due to bending and direct load should not exceed the values given in Tables 14.3 and 14.4.
On the compressive side the chimney, the efficiency of the joint depends on the strength of the rivets in shear, and in bearing, and does not depend on the tensile strength of the plate. The efficiency of the joint on the compression side is 100%. The efficiency of the joint on the tension side is less than the efficiency on the compressive side say 70%. The permissible stresses in steel chimney in axial tension, shear and bearing shall be adopted as specified in 18:8001984. The allowable stress in axial compression and in bending for circular chimneys depends upon the effective height of the steel chimney h,, the radius of gyration, k (0.707 x radius), the diameter and the thickness 't' of the chimney to be considered for different types of steel chimneys are shown in the Table 14.3.
I
I
1
I
I
stress
Axial 
h, = 2L 
Bending 
h, = L 
Figure 14.4: Selfsupporting Chimney
where, h, = effective height of chimney
The allowable stress in axial compression and in pending for circular steel chimney are as per IS 65331971 ('Code of practice for design and construction of steel chimneys). The combined stress shall comply with the requirements of IS:8001984.
The member of the steel chimney reasonably exposed to adverse temperature shall be considered. The allowable stresses are obtained by multiplying the basic stresses the appropriate temperature coefficient, _{k}_{,}_{.}_{T}_{h}_{e} value of _{k}_{,} may be noted from Table 14.2 as specified in IS:65331971.
Temperature 
0.20 
250 
300 
kt 
1.OO 
0.75 
0.67 
Coefficient, kt
350 
40O0C 
0.60 
0.50 
for Circular Steel Chimneys
Allowable Stress in N/'
hlk 
(dlt) 

Ratio 
Ratio 

100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
300 
350 
400 
450 
500 
550 
and less
600
0 
125.0 
125.0 

10 
125.0 

20 
125.0 

30 
125.0 
125.0 _{*} 

40 
125.0 
125.0 125.01125.0 

50 
125.0 
125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 

60 
125.0 
125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 124.0 

70 
116.0 
116.0 
107.0 
80 
103.5 
103.5 

90 
90.6 
I ** 

100 
78.6 

110 
68.0 

120 
58.9 
92.8 

90.6 
85.8 

78.6 
78.3 
71.8 

68.0 
68.0 

58.9 
Table 14.4: Allowable Stresses in Bending for Circular Steel Chimneys
hlflr
Ratio
100 and
Less
125
150
Allowable Stress in k~/mm~
175
200
225
(dlt)
rado
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
^{D}^{c}^{a}^{l}^{p} ^{o}^{f} ^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{C}^{h}^{h}^{n}^{a}^{e}^{y}^{s}
upto 130 
165.0 
157.5 
153.0 
149.5 
146.5 
145.0 
143.5 
140.0 
137.0 

140 
159.0 
157.5 
153.0 

150 
151.0 
151.0 
151.0 
149.5 
146.5 
145.0 
143.5 
140.0 

160 
145.0 
145.0 
145.0 
138.0 
138.5 
138.5 
137.0 

170 
138.0 
132.0 

180 
132.0 
132.0 

** 

190 
126.0 
118.0 
116.5 

200 
118.0 
113.5 

210 
116.5 
112.0 

220 
113.5 
108.0 

*** 

230 
112.0 
107.0 

240 
108.5 
105.0 

250 
107.0 
104.0 

260 
105.5 
102.5 

270 
104.0 
104.0 

280 
102.5 
102.5 

290 
101.0 
101.0 

300 
9912 
99.2 
94.5 
86.6 
78.17 
Note : For Tables 14.3 and 14.4
^{*}
^{*}^{*}
^{*}^{*}^{*}
For ratios of d/t and hllk in zone above zigzag line, the stresses from the top line may be noted.
For ratios of a% and hllk in zone below zigzag line, the stresses from the column headed 100 and less may be noted.
Above values of stresses have been converted into SI Units from those given in m.k.s. Units.
In case, the increase in stresses is solely due to wind forces, the allowable stresses may be exceeded by 25%. However, the thickness of steel plates shall not be less than that needed if the wind forces were neglected.
Similarly, when the effect of seismic load is considered, the allowable stresses may be exceeded by 25 percent. The thickness of steel plate shall not be less than that required if the seismic forces were not taken in to account. The permissible stresses in rivets are adopted as per IS _{:} 8001984.
14.11 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE
Selfsupporting steel chimney may be provided with structural steel, cast iron, cast steel circular base plates. It is preferable to use cast steel base plates as compared to the cast iron base plate. The structural steel base plates are even better than cast steel base plates for high steel chimneys.
The width of steel plate should be sufficient to transmit the compressive stresses to the foundation. The allowable bearing pressure on a good cement concrete foundation is 4 ~/mm~.Thickness of base plate should be such that the bending stress and shearing stress in the base plate do not exceed the allowable bending and shearing stresses. There are two methods of connecting the flared portion of
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
the steel chimney with the,base plates. These methods are shown in Figure 14.5.
The maximum compressive stress at the base plate on the leeward side of the chimney
where,
The maximum compressive stress per unit circumferential length at the base plate on the leeward side of the chimney.
dl = diameter of the steel chimney at the base of the flared portion.
The width of the base plate
where, obcr= permissible bearing stress on the foundations.
In case the anchor bolts are provided on inside and outside of the steel chimney,
c/l
of
anchor
bolts
^{1}^{.}^{X}
_{b} _{=}_{w}_{i}_{d}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} (aI
I_ b = widk of base plate
(b)
Figure 14.5
4
then the base plate may be kept symmetrical with chimney, as shown in Figure 14.5(a). The unsuppor'ted length of the base plate 1, measured from the extreme edge upto the critical section XX, are equal. In case the anchor bolts are provided on the outside only, then the unsupported length I, would be kept more than the inner unsupported length. The critical section is marked under the root of angle section. The thickness bf base plate is found as under :
The maximum bending moment at the critical section XX
The moment of resistance of unit length of base plate at the critical section
12
Mk=(1.a
6
.ob,)
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,}
It is to be noted that this includes the thickness of the angle section used for the connection
a = thickness of the base plate at the critical section
(ii)
crbc = permissible bending stress in the base plate (0.75 f, where, f, is the yield stress for steel)
Equation (i) & (ii)
The thickness of the base plate found by deducting the thickness of the angle section from the total thickness obtained as per Eq. 14.18. The critical section may be checked for shear stress. It is to note that the total thickness of the base plate a, has been found by using permissible bearing stress on the foundation instead of actual bearing stress. This provides comparatively more thickness in case the unforseen wind pressure increases.
I
^{I}
14.12
DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLTS
The anchor bolts (holding down bolts) are provided to resist the uplift pressure due to the overturning effect of the wind on the windward side of the stress chimney. The uplift pressure is found by considering the combined effect of wind pressure and the weight of chimney only. The weight of lining is omitted. It is assumed that all the anchor bolts are drawn up tight. Further it is assumed that the line of rotation is perpendicular to the direction of wind and passes through the centre of the horizontal base section of the steel chimney as shown in Figure 14.1. The initial tension in the anchor bolt, if any, is neglected.
The maximum tensile stress at the base plate on the windward side of the chimney
The maximum tensile stress per unit circumferential length at the base plate on the windward side of the chimney
F2 = ofx (t x 1) kN/m
The maximum uplift force in one anchor bolt =F,.g=o,x (tx 1)xg kN
(14.20)
where, g = spacing of the anchor bolts in metres.
Steel structures
The number of anchor bolts may be found by dividing the circumference of anchor bolt ring by the spacing of anchor bolts. The permissible stress in axial tension at the root of the threads of the anchor bolt is adopted from IS:8001984.
Figure 14.6
14.13 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION
I
A plain cement concrdte or reinforced cement concrete foundation is used for selfsupporting steel chimney. The following types of foundation are generally
a) full raft (circular slab)
b) annuldr raft
ii) Pile founddtion
iii) Truncated cone foundation
iv) Hyperboloid foundation
The chimney foundation is usually designed as a circular slab and it is constructed as the circumscribing octagon. In the design of foundation of the chimney, a designer is to deal dith either the bearing condition of the soil is favourable and economical where the chimney may be directly supported by the soil or the bearing condition of the soil1is poor where the chimney has to be placed on piles. The foundation is designed to resist the stresses resulting from the following combinations.
_{i}_{)} Dead load + Live load
ii 
Dead 
load + Wind or seismic forces 
iii) 
Dead load + Live load + wind or seismic forces 
The weight of chininey lining etc. are considered as live load.
The foundation of the form of the frustum of a cone or an eight sided pyramid will be more econdmical. Therefore the shape of the foundation block is generally in the form of a frustum of a cone or a frustum of a eight sided pyramid. The square shaped foundations are not provided since the corners of square shaped foundations are subjected to high pressure when the direction of the wind is parallel to the diagonal. If the slope of the footing is 45" plain concrete foundation can be used. If reibforced concrete foundation is used, it is not necessary to keep the height 0.4b an4 a thinner foundation may be used.
The size and weight of the foundation should be such that the underside of the wgn of Steel Chimneys foundation is under compression only. In that case, the bottom of the foundation block remains in contact with the soil. So the size of the foundation at the bottom is kept sufficient to withstand the soil pressure and the bearing pressure in the soil should be less than the allowable pressure in the soil. The weight of the foundation is kept sufficient to prevent the overturning. In case the design of foundation is such that the compressive stress at one edge of the foundation is zero, and it increases to a maximum compressive stress at the other edge, under the extreme conditions of loading then such design of foundation is most economical. In such design of foundation, the unit stress due to the overturning moment of the wind is just equal to the unit stress due to the weight of the foundation and steel chimney. It should be noted that the weight of lining is omitted. However, the maximum compressive stress on the leeward side due to wind, weight of foundation, steel chimney and lining should not exceed the allowable unit pressure on soil.
For round foundation, the resultant thrust due to wind pressure, weight of steel
chimney, weight of lining, and weight of
middle quarter of the foundation. The foundation block is not subjected to tension in such condition.
The maximum eccentricity is then limited to _{1}_{1}_{8} of the width of foundation. The maximum eccentricity
foundation should not lie outside the
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,}
b = width of the circular or round foundation
Wf=weight of foundation block
As compared to the weight of foundation the weight of steel chimney W,, and the weight of lining WL, are small. For preliminary design the weight of steel chimney and the weight of lining are neglected. The weight of foundation
Then, the resisting moment due to weight of foundation is equal to the overturning moment due to wind. Therefore
The width of foundation is then revised by considering the weight of steel chimney and weight of lining.
The intensity of soil pressure is determind. It _{i}_{s} given by
1 Steel Structures
where, A and Z are the area and section modulus, respectively for the foundation slab. If the radius of the circle of the circumscribing octagon is R, then the area of _{f}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{3}_{.}_{3} _{1}_{2} _{R} and Z = 0.81 R~ as per (IS: 6533197 1). The successive trials are made for R to utilize fully. The soil pressure should not exceed the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.
(a) Foundation plan
L
( b) Foundatron thickness
'I c ) Soil Dressure dragram
Figure 14.7
D = Diameter of footing = 2R
P = vertical load.
e
= M/P
M = overturning moment
F = P/A
A = Area of circular footing
F,,,
= Maximum unit bearing pressure including overturning moment.
The full utilisation of the bearing
part of foundation is in compression (Figure 14.7). In such a situation the footing is designed as a circle, though it is constructed as octagonal.
of soil may _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d} to situations where only the
Let
f=[ W.S++:
(14.26)
The maximum soil pressure is obtained from the following procedure.
The eccentricity _{e} _{=}
_{w}_{,}_{+}_{w}_{,}_{+}_{W}_{F}
and thereby e/b valves are determined. The values of zero stress and the ratio f,, lf are found from Figure 14.7 as per IS : (65331971) and thus the value of f,,, is calculated. It is recommended in code IS : 65331971 that the elb valve should not exceed 0.255 and K,lb not be less than 0.6.
14.14 LINING FOR CHIMNEY
Design of Steel Chimneys
In general practice, the selfsupporting steel chimneys are all made with lining. The steel chimneys are lined in order to protect the chimneys from heat, to act as a protecting cover and thus reduce the corrosion on the _{s}_{t}_{e}_{e}_{l} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{m}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} the temperature of flue gases.
Figure 14.8 : Maximum Soil Pressure and Neutral Axis for Circular Footing
e,
The lining may be made of radial fire brick, common concrete brick, cement gunite or vibrobestos acid resisting bricks etc. The materials used for lining should be capable of withstanding high temperature up to 2000°F. The lining is required from below the flue opening to the height, where the heat of gases does not damage the chimney. The height of lining should not be less than.10 times the diameter or 113 of height above the flue opening. The selfsupporting steel chimneys are usually lined throughout the full height of chimney. The lined chimneys are inspeted every alternate year. In addition to the checking of thickness of chimney plates, the condition of lining and insulation is also checked.
The chimneys with riveted and bolted construction are checked near the flange angles. The rivet heads on the interior surface are also checked. The interior surface of lined chimney requires primary coat only. The exterior surfaces of the chimney is painted as describer for unlined chimneys depending upon the service temperature.


_{}_{}
14.15 STABILITY OF STEEL CHIMNEY
The steel chimney as a whole or any part of it is checked for stability. The stability of the structure or any part of it should be ensured by providing anchorages so that the least resisting moment including anchorages shall not be less than the sum of 1.5 times the maximum overturning moment due to dead loads and imposed loads with the seismiclwind loading considering as imposed hads. The stability of steel chimney is ensured at all times during construction,
repair with probable variation in dead loads, or during such other temporary phase of work is taken into account.
While the stability of steel chimney is checked, it is also seen that when the resulting pressure and $hear forces are transferred to the supporting soil through the foundation, the failure iof the foundation will not occur. The stability of the chimney is investigated so that
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,}
ow= stress due to wind load
om= stress by any other load increasing the combined stress
q = stress due to dead load
oa= allowable load.
14.16~~~1~~PROBLEMS
Example 14.1
A selfsupportingl steel chimney is 80 m high and its diameter at the top is 3 metres. ~esignbreech (flue) opening. Adopt the wind force as per IS : 875. The location of the place is such that the intensity of wind pressure up to
30 m height is 130 k~/m~.
Solution
The steel chimney is shown in Figure 14.9. The height of the chimney is
80 m and its diaineter at the top is 3 _{m}_{.}
Step 1
Figure 14.9 (a)
Flared portion
A conical flared portion is provided in the lower portion of the steel chimney. The recommended height of flared portion
Design of Steel Chimneys
Adopt the height of flared portion as 25 m. The diameter of conical flared portion at its bottom
Adopt the diameter of flared portion as 4.5 m.
Step 2
Intensity of wind pressure.
The location of place is such that the intensity of wind pressure up to 30 m height is 1.50 kN/m2. The intensities of wind pressure at higher heights as per IS: 875 are as follows:
The above intensity of wind at the respective heights are shown in Figure 14.9(b). The shape factor for steel chimney circular in plan 0.7.
I
Step 3
Overturning moment due to wind M,. Usually the intensity of wind pressure is adopted as the average value of these at upper and lower section. However for simplicity, the maximum intensity of wind pressure (i.e., at the top) has been used in the calculations.
The overturning moments at respective sections are as under _{:}
hl, h2, h3
etc. represent the height of respective forces pl, p,, p3
etc.
_{,} above the section considered in Figure 14.9 (b).
i)
At section XI X1
p,. h, = 0.7 x 1.83x 3 x 10x 5 = 192.15kNm
ii)
At section X2 Xz
p,. hl = 0.7 x 1.83x 3 x 10x 10 = 384.30kNm
Total = 430.76 kNm
iii)
At Section X5 X5
p5 .h5=0.7x1.72x3x5x2.5=45.15
kNm
Total = 1698.90 kNm
I
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
Iw~nd
pressure (k~hnll


iv) At section X8X8
hiyure 14.9 (b)
p, .h, =0.7x 1.83~3~lOx50= 1921.50lcNm p2 . h2 = 0.7 x 1.77 x 3 x 5 x 42.5 = 789.86 kNm p3 . h3 = 0.7 x 1.77 x 3 x 5 x 37.5 = 696.64 kNm p, . h, = 0.7 x 1.72 x 3 x 5 x 32.5 = 586.95 kNm ps . h, = 0.7 x 1.72 x 3 x 5 x 27.5 = 496.65 kNm P6. h6 = 0.7 x 1.67 x 3 x 5 x 22.5 = 394.54 Wm p7 .h7=0.7x 1.63~3~5~17.5=299.51kNm p8. h8 = 0.7 x 1.58 x 3 x 5 x 12.5 = 207.38 kNm
I

80m
7 5m
p,. h9=0.7A 1.56~3x5 x7.5 = 122.85kNm plo . hlo= 0.7 x 1.50 x 3 x 5 x 1.5 = 39.38 kNm
Total = 5555.37 kNm
Step 4
Thickness of chimney plate.
It is assumed that the design life of the steel chimney shall be the coal is used as a fuel for the boiler. The chimney shall be
insul2ted. The corrosion allowance is 4 mm for slight internal corrosion
20 years 
and 
lined and 
_{i}_{)} At section X2 X2 (Height from top is 15 m).
Design of Steel Chimneys
Diameter of chimney = 3 m.
Assuming the thickness of steel plates as 3 mm without corrosion
3000
Radius of gyration, K = 0.7 x 
2
= 1050 mm
Effective height for axial stress
hl =2x 15x 1000=30000mm
_{R}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o} _{}_{h}_{1} _{=} [3~:
k
1= 28.57
For bending stress
~llowabfestress in axial compression
= 71.8 ~/mm~
Allowable stress in bending
= 78.7 ~/mm~
These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward from Eq. 14.1
_{i}_{i}_{)} At section X8X8(Height from top is 55 m), Diameter of chimney = 3 m
Assuming the thickness of steel plate as _{7} mm without corrosion.
ratio =[3xi000)=428
Effective height for axial stress
hl = 2x55 x l000= 110000mm
Radius of gyration,
X=(o.ixi]=
3000
1050
Ratio (2)= [
1
'lox
lo50
loo0 = 194.76
For bending stress
Allowable stress in axial compression = 73.554N/mm2
Flowable stres!s in bending =
The stresses ate increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward $ide from Eq. 41.1
114.92 N/mrn2
The maximum compressive str#ss on the leeward side of the steel
chimney from Eq. 14.3
t = 0.01@3 m = 10.23 rnm
Therefore the total thickness with corrosion allowance is 11.44 + 4 = 15.44 mm
Adopt 16 rnrnr
Step 5
 Design of flue opeding
_{i}_{)} Portion of chidnney between sections X8 X8 and XIl XI,
Let there be two flue openings in the same direction.
Size
Width of the openings, A1= 1800 mm
Height of the Lentre line of openings above the base is 2 m. The diameter of the chimney at this level is 4.36 m. The thickness of plates less corrosion allowance is (16 _{} 4) _{=} 12 mm
of the openings = 1.8 m x 20 m
_{i}_{i}_{)} Modulus of the chimney at the centre line of flue opening
Area of crossbeetion
= n x 4350 x 12  2 x 2000 x 12 (for opening)
= IT5908 mm2
iii) Weight of chidnney
Weight of
chidnney above X8 X8
= 472.507 kN
It is obtained as follows.
.The thickness of lining increases from top to bottom. The weight of the chimney may be assumed as 0.64, 0.80, 0.96 and 1.28 kN/m2 per .metre
height of the chimney at the respectively.
At section _{X}_{2}_{x} _{X}_{2}
sections X2X2,X5 X5,X8X8 and XI XI
n x 3 x 15x 0.64 = 90.432 kN
Add 10% for stiffeness
= 1.10~90.432=99.475 kN
Area of crosssection
At Section X5X5
n x 3 x 15 x 0.64 = 90.432 kN
7~~3~15~0.80=113.04kN
203.472 kN
Add 10% for crosssection
= 1.10~203.472kN
= 223.82 kN
Area of crosssection
n x 3 lOOO(8 4) = 37680 mm.
At section X8 _{X}_{8}
n x 3 x 15 x 0.64 = 90.432 kN
nx3x15x0.80=113.040kN
n x 3 x 25 x 0.96 = 226.080kN
= 429.552 kN
Add 10% for stiffeners
1.10x 429.552 = 472.507 kN
Design of Steel Chimneys
The maximum compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney from Eq. 14.3
_{.} t = 0.00103 m = 1.03 mm.
Therefore, the total thickness with corrosion allowance is (1.03 + 4) mm = 5.03 mm
Adopt 6 mm.
^{S}^{t}^{e}^{e}^{l} ^{S}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e}^{s}
_{i}_{i}_{)}
At Seetion X5 XS (Height from top is 3 m), Diameter of Chimney = 3 m
Assuming the thickness of steel plates as 5 mm without corrosion.
Effective height for axial stress
h, = 2 x 30 x 1000 = 60,000 mrn
Radius of gyration
Ratio
hi

k
60000
= _{}
1050
_{}_{} 57.14
For bending stress
Allowable stress in axial compression
Allowable stress in bending
These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward side from Eq. 14.1
The maximum compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney from _{E}_{q}_{.} 14.3
Therefore the total thickness with corrosion allowance is (3.688 + 4) mm
Adopt 8 mm
Area of crosssection
= 7.68 mm
Weight of the opening X, X8 and X,,X1,
n x 3.75 x 25 x 1.28 = 376.80 kN
Total
= 849.3071dV
Add 10% for overlap, rivets and stiffeners
Total weight
= 1.10 x 849.307kN
= 934.238 kN
Actual stress =
i 934.238 x id + 11587.15x 106
115908

80790 x lo3
= (8.06 f 143.42) = 151.46N/mm2
iv) Allowable stress
Effective height for axial stress
h1=2x80x l000= 160000mm
Radius of gyration, k
ratio =[
4.5 x 12 loo0
)
= 375
Ratio [2)=(x)=101.59
160000
For bending stress,
1
N/md
Design of Steel Chimneys
Allowable stress in axial compression = 76.915 ~/mm~
Allowable stress in bending = 127.5 ~/mm~
These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. Therefore allowable stress in bending is 159.375 N/mm2, which one is greater than 151.46 N/mm2
v) Check for interaction expression
It exceeds unity very slightly. Hence, the section is adequate.
Area of steel plates removed for flue openings = 2 x 2000 x 12
= 48000 mrn2
The vertical reinforcement provided is kept 20% larger than the area removed.
_{:}_{.}
Area of steel to be provided
Area of vertical reinforcement on each side of two flue openings
Provide 21SA 200 mm x 200 mm x 25 mm (one on outer side and one
Steel Structures
^{.} ^{*}^{}
on inner side of the opening).
Area provided = 2 x 9380 = 18760mm2
The area of reinforcement provided on the top and the bottom of opening are kept the same.
SAQ
_{1}_{)}
_{2}_{)}
Design a selfsupporting steel chimney of 100 m height. The diameter of the cylindrical shell is 4 m. The chimney has a 100 m thick brick lining supported on the shell.
A selfsupporting steel chimney is 60 m high and has a diameter of 3 m at the top. Design the foundation and the riveted points. The hoizontal pressure may be assumed as 1.50 k~lm~.The bearing stress in cement concrete is 4.0 ~/mm~.
14.17
SUMMARY
Let us conclude this unit by summarising what we have covered in it. In this unit we have
Defined steel chimneys.
Described factors for selecting type of steel chimneys.
Studied the design of thickness of steel plates, joints, flue openings and foundation.
1)
_{2}_{)}
_{3}_{)}
_{4}_{)} Derived expressions for bending moment, stresses, thickness of plates.
_{5}_{)}
_{6}_{)}
Introduced the concept of lining for chimney.
Described the stability of steel chimney.
I
4.18 ANSWERS TO SAQs
Refer Example given in the text.
FURTHER READING
Design of Steel Structures  A.S. Arya & J. L. Ajmani
Steel Structures and Timber Structures, Vol. III  V.N. Vazirani & M.M. Ratwani
Design of Steel Structures  Vol. I & Vol. II  Dr. Ramchandia
Roofs and Bridges  M. Mprriman
Design of Steel Structures  M. Raghupati
Analysis, Design and DetaiYs of Structures V. N. Vazirani & M.M. Ratvani
Design of Steel and Timber Structures  Ramamrutham Structural Design in Steel  Sanvar Alum Raz
Desim of Steel Structures 4Edwin H. Gaylord, Jr. & Charles N. Gavlard
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