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UNIT 14

DESIGN OF STEEL CHIMNEYS

Structure

14.1 Introduction

Objectives

14.2 Types of Steel Chimney

14.2.1 Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

14.2.2 Guyed Steel Chimneys

14.3 Factors

14.4 Design of Steel Plates for Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

14.5 Design of Joints for Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

14.6 Design of Flue Openings for Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

14.7 Fvrces Acting on Steel Chimney

14.7.1

Vertical Forces

14.7.2

Horizontal Forces

14.8 Bending Moment on Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

14.9 Bending Stress on Steel Chimney Due to Wind

14.10 Permissible Stresses

14.11 Design of Base Plate

14.12 Design of Anchor Bolts

14.13 Design of Foundation

14.14 Lining for Chimney

14.15 Stability of Steel Chimney

14.16 Design Problems

14.17 Summary

14.18 Answers to SAQs

14.1

INTRODUCTION

Steel Chimneys are frequently known as steel Stacks. The steel chimneys are made of steel plants and supported on foundation. The steel chimneys are cylindrical in shape. To provide larger base and greater stability, and to allow for easy entrance of flue gases, the lower portion of the steel chimney is widened or flared out. The widened section of the chimney at the base reduces the unit stresses in the steel at the base of the chimney. The steel chimneys are constructed for the emission of flue gases to such a height that the gases do not contaminate the surrounding atmosphere. The cross-sectional area of the steel chimney is kept large enough to allow the passage of burnt gases. The cross-sectional area of the steel chimneys depends on the type and quantity of fuels to be used in plant, available draft for carrying the burnt gases up the chimney. The height of the steel chimney is kept to provide the required draft. "The draft is defined as the difference between the absolute gas pressure at any point in the steel chimney and the ambient atmosphere pressure." The draft depends on the height of the steel chimney above sea level, the type of fuel to be burnt, the type of furnace and the temperature of the burnt gases.

When the gases in a steel chimney are heated, then the gases expand. The hot gases occupy larger volume than before. The weight of the gases per cubic metre becomes less. As a result of this, the unit pressure at the bottom of chimney due to weight of hot gases also becomes less than the unit pressure due to weight of cold air outside the chimney. The difference between two pressures results in the flow of the burnt gases up the chimney. For the purpose of structural design of steel

Steel Structures

chimney, the height and the diameter of chimney at the top are known. The loads acting on the steel chimney are transferred to the foundation easily by the widened section. The base of the chimney may be made conical or bell-mouthed. But the fabrication of bell-mouthed base does not have any advantage over the conical base and the fabrication is costly. So, generally the conical base is provided.

The recommended height od flared portion of the chimney is 113rd of the height of the chimney. The ratio of the diameter of the base of the flare to the diameter of the cylindrical portion varies from 514 to 312. The plates in the conical flare should not be thinner than the thickness of the lowest course in the cylindrical portion.

Objectives

After studying this unit, you should be able to

distinguish between various types of steel chimneys,

evaluate the forces acting on a steel chimney,

effect of bending moment and bending stress on self-supporting steel chimneys,

design of flue openings, points and foundations,

obtain expression$ for bending moment, stresses and thickness of plates, and

understand the stability concept of steel chimney

14.2 TYPES OF STEEL CHIMNEY

The slteel chimfieys are of two types:

i) Self-supporting smeel chimneys

ii) Guyed steel chimbeys

14.2.1 Self-supporting Steel Chimneys

A self-supporting steel chimney or stack is made of steel plates and supported on

foundations. When the laterlal forces (wind or seismic forces) are transmitted to the foundation by the cantilevet action of the chimney, then the chimney is known as

self-supporting. The chimnay together with the foundation remains stable under all working conditions, without any additional support. A self-supporting chimney is shown in Figure 14.1. The self-supporting steel chimneys are made upto 10 m diameter and from 50 m to 100 m in height.

14.2.2 Guyed Steel Chimneys

In high steel chimneys, the mild steel wire ropes or guys are attached to transmit

the lateral forces. Such stedl chimneys are known as "guyed steel chimneys." In guyed steel chimneys, all the externally applied loads (wind, seismic force etc.) are

not totally carried by the chimney shell. These attached guys or stays do share these applied loads. These chimneys may be provided with 1, 2, or 3 sets of guys. In each set of guys 3 or 4 m sometimes 6 wires are attached to the collars. A particular type of steel chimney is selected depending on the advantage and disadvantages with referenae to economy.

14.3

tCylindricalportion

I

aor

Breech

(I((I Flue opening

liigure 14.l(a) : Self-supporting Steel Chimney

Figure 14.l(b) : Guyed Steel Chimneys

FACTORS

Design of Steel Chimneys

A choice between self-supporting steel chimney and guyed steel chimney is made by considering some of the important factors : Number of units, type of equipment, and type of fuel to be used are considered. In case the chimney to be used for boilers, the surface area, output efficiency, draft requirements etc. are taken into account. The mode of operation of the equipment shall also be considered.

The type of lining is decided knowing the composition of the flue gases. The temperature of the flue gases before entering the chimney and its likely variation are studied. The local statutory regulations, relating to height, dispersion of ash,

Steel Structures

provision for earthing aviation warning lamps. The quantity of dust and data about the aggressiveness of the flve gases etc. are the factors which should be considered for selecting a type of steel chimney.

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14.4 DESIGN OF' STEEL PLATES FOR SELF- SUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS

Generally the plate width of 1.5 m is used for chimneys. The thickness of plates should not be less than 6 mm and in upper portions one or two plates should be 8 mm thick as it is subjected to maximum corrosion. The thickness of steel plates in the flared portion should not be less than the thickness at the lowest section of the cylindrical portion. The steel plates are available in thickness of 2, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 & 20 mm. The saeel plates of chimneys are caulked from the inner side of chimney so they are sheared or planned to proper levelling. The thickness of steel chimney obtained from stress calculations and deflection consideration shall be increased by permitting an allowance for corrosion determined from the considerations of the deslign life of the chimneys and aggressiveness of the flue gases. The steel plates are painted in order to avoid corrosion. The corrosion resistant steel plates may be used in chimneys. Copper bearing steel plates may be used for self-supporting steel chimney. The allowance for corrosion permitted is decided depending upon the amount of internal corrosion of steel plates. For 10 years of design life the allowance for slight, normal, and exceptional internal corrosion is 2 mm, 3 m$, and 5 mm respectively also for 20 years, the above said steel is 4 mm, 5 mm and 8 mm respectively.

The windward side of steel chimney is subjected to tensile stress due to the combined effect of the qind and the weight of steel chimney. The weight of lining

is omitted in calculating (the maximum tension,

may act on the steel chimney before the lining is done. The maximum wind may also act, when the chimqey is under repair and the lining has been removed for

renewal. The maximum dotal tensile stress on windward side.

since the maximum wind pressure

where,

o,= permissible stress in tension in steel plates

ql = efficiency of the point on the tension side

Thus the thickness of the steel plates from tension side

The leeward side of the $tee1 chimney is subjected to maximum compressive stress due to the combined effect of wind, weight of steel chimney and weight of lining. The maximum total compressive stress on leeward side.

1

where,

oc=

I

I

q2=

,

permissible stress in compression in steel plates

efficiency of the joint on the compression side

=1 (:.

q2=100%)

Thus the thickness of the steel plates from compression side

Design of Steel Chimneys

The thickness of the steel plates at various horizontal sections are found. The thickness of steel plates of the flared portion should not be less than the thickness of steel plates in the cylindrical portion. The thickness of steel plates of chimney is kept in excess than what is necessary (in order to protect them from corrosion) by allowance for corrosion, which depends upon the design life of the steel chimney.

14.5 DESIGN OF JOINTS FOR SELF-SUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS

Single riveted lap joints are used for vertical seams, and single, double, or triple riveted lap joints are used for the horizontal seams of the upper part or cylindrical portion of the steel chimney i.e. flared portion, butt joints are used in the horizontal seams with the heavy plates. Butt joints are also used in the vertical seams in the bell-mouthed flare of large chimney. The recommended types of riveted joints and diameter of rivets necessary for different thickness of plates are given in Table 14.1.

Thickness of Steel Plates

(mm)

Table 14.1

Diameter of Steel

(mm)

Type of Riveted Joint

6

16

Single riveted lap joint

 

1

8-10

18

Double riveted lap joint

12-16

22

Triple riveted lap joint

Thicker than 16

24

Butt joint

The spacing of the rivets along the caulked edges of plates shall not be greater than 10 times the thickness of plates. The spacing of the rivets shall not be less than 2.5 times the diameter of rivet.

The steel plates more than 16 mm thick and not more than 22 mm thick are sub-punched with a punch 5 mm smaller than the nominal diameter of rivet, and reamed to a diameter of 1.5 mm larger than the rivet. The plates thicker than 22 mm are drilled.

Steel Structures

14.6

DESIGN OF FLUE OPENING FOR SELF-SUPPORTING CHIMNEYS

The flue opening is also khown as breech opening. The flue opening is provided for the entrance of flue gases. The flue gases come from furnaces of the boilers.

A flue opening or breech opening is provided in the steel chimney as shown in the Figure 14.l(a). The area of the flue opening is kept about 20% larger than the internal cross-sectional area of the chimney. The maximum width of the flue opening should not be greater than two-thirds of the diameter. In order to compensate the removed materials, the reinforcement should be provided all around the flue opening. The vertical reinforcement provided should be 20% larger than the material removed in the ratio of diameter to the long chord perpendicular to the face of the opening.

( a) One bndch opening

[ c

Two breech openings at right1angles

( b)Two bkecn openings

( d

1 Three breech openings

Figure 14.2

The horizontal reinforcement provided at the top and bottom of the opening is kept equal to the vertical reihforcement. The reinforcing material provides sufficient vertical stiffness. In order to transfer and distribute the stress into the steel of the chimney, the reinforcing material should be extended above and below the opening. In the self-supporting steel chimney the flue opening is kept well above the flared or conical base, so that it does not extend in the flared base.

The steel chimneys may have one or two breech openings, in the same direction, two breech openings at right angles and three breech openings as shown in Figure 14.2 (a), (b), (c), and (d), respectively. The number of flue openings may be 1, 2, 3, or 4 depending upon the requirement. It is suggested that a maximum of two flue-openings may be provided at one level so that the chimney remains safe enough to resist the applied forces at the plane of the openings. However, it is possible to provide thr$e openings in one plane. This is done only when the number of the openings is three only. The width of openings does not exceed one-third of the diameter of the chimney at that plane. A clean-out door as shown

by dotted lines in Figure 14.1 is provided preferably on the opposite side of the Deslgn of Steel Chimneys breech opening near the base. The minimum size of clean-out door shall be 300 mm x 800 mm clear. The clean-out door serves the purpose of removal of ash and for the inspection of inside of steel chimney clean-out doors are also properly reinforced.

14.7 FORCES ACTING ON STEEL CHIMNEY

The various forces acting on the self-supporting steel chimney are as follows.

14.7.1 Vertical Forces

1)

Self-weight of the Chimney

The self-weight of steel chimney Ws acts vertically. Consider a horizontal section XX as shown in Figure 14.1 The thickness of steel plates of chimney above the section XX,may be assumed constant. The self-weight of chimney is given by

p = unit weight of steel =

79 k~/rn~

d = diameter of chimney in metres

t

= thickness of steel plates in metres

h = height of steel chimney above the section XX in metres

.:

W, = 79 (ndt.h) kN

(

14.5)

The compressive stress in the steel plates at the section XX due to the self-weight of chimney is given by

2)

= 0.079 h N/mm2

(14.6)

Weight of Lining

The weight of the lining in the steel chimney WL,also acts vertically. The thickness of brick lining may be assumed as 100 mm. The weight of lining

W, = p, .mi. (O.l).h

pl = unit weight of brick lining

The compressive stress in the steel plates at the section XX, due to weight of lining

Steel Structures

14.7.2 Horizontal Forces

1)

Wind Pressure

The wind pressure acts horizontally. The wind pressure acting on the structure depends on the shape of the structure, the width of the structure, the height of the structure, the location of the structure, and the climatic condition The wind pressure per unit area increases with the height of the structure above the ground level. In order to simplify the design, the steel chimney is divided into number of segments of equal height. The height of each segment may be kept 10 m. The intensity of wind pressure over each segment may be assumed as uniform. The intensity of wind pressure corresponding to the mid-height of each scgment may be noted from IS : 875-1984. The wind pressure on the flared portion may be found by using average diameter. The wind pressure is assumed to act at the mid-height of each segment and also in the flared portion. It has also been practised to take uniform wind pressure over the full height of chimney.

The wind pressure

P = K.P1 x (Project area of chimney)

K = shape factor

where,

It accounts for the shape of thc structure. pe shape factor for the cylindrical portion is 0.7

P, = Intensity of wind

pressure

:.

P = 0.7 x (P,x dl x h) kN

(14.9)

2)

where, dl = outer diameter of chimney.

In addition to overturning effect due to wind pressure, the wind has also aerodynamic effect. The aerodynamic effect of wind has not been taken into consideration for the design of steel chimney.

Seismic Forces

The seismic forces also act horizontally. The seismic forces act on a structure, when the structures are located in the seismic area.

The following load combinations for calculation of stresses at any point of steel chimney are considered.

i) Dead load + wind load

ii) Dead load + Earthquake load

iii) Dead load + Earthquake seismic load

+ Temperature effect + live load.

Under these loads the chimney behaves as a cantilever and the chimney may be designed by conventional beam and column theories and the maximum stress .is limited to the allowable stress given by the chimney code. The worst combination out of the effect due to seismic (Earthquake) forces and wind effect is only taken into consideration and only one effect is considered for the design of the structure.

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14.8 BENDING MOMENT ON SELF-SUPPORTING STEEL CHIMNEYS

The wind force acts as uniformly distributed load on the self-supporting steel chimney. For the purpose of determining bending moment at any section XX Figure 14.1 the wind force is assumed to act at the middle height above the section. The bending moment due to wind at section XX, h metres below the top is given by

where,

Substituting the value of P from Eq. 14.9.

p = total wind force

/'

(ii)

Design of Steel Chimneys

Sometimes the self-supporting steel chimney is erected between the constructed buildings. A portion of the chimney extends over the roof of the building as shown in Figure 14.3. The remaining portion of the chimney remains protected from the wind. The bending moment for the part of chimney above the roof is calculated in accordance with the expression (ii) above, the bending moment of chimney below the roof (protected from the wind) shall be determined as follows:

When the chimney is not fixed at the roof

F

7

When the chimney is fixed at the roof

Case(A)

Figure 14.3

Case(ElI

The maximum bending moment occurs at the base of the chimney

This bending moment acts as overturning moment on the steel chimney. The overturning moment Md, due to the wind pressure causes compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney and the tensile stress on the windward side of the steel chimney. The maximum compressive stress and tensile stress on the extreme fibre of steel chimney due to wind are equal.

14.9 BENDING STRESS ON STEEL CHIMNEY DUE TO WIND

The bending stress fw at the extreme fibre of

moment, Mw (moment due to wind in kN-m) is given by

steel chimney due to overturning

I = Moment of inertia of circular ring section of the steel chimney

Z = Modulus section OF chimney ring section with no flue opening

t = thickness of steel plate (viz., without corrosion allowance)

IS : 6533-1971

recommends the value of section modulus of steel chimney ring with no flue opening as

'Code of practice for design and construction of steel chimney

The modulus of section of chimney cross-section with flue opening as shown in Figures 14.2 (a, b, c, & d) are given by the following expressions respectively

(i)

It is to note that these expressions are applicable for thickness of the plane less than 0.015d.

14.10 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES

Design of Steel Chimneys

The windward side of the steel chimney is subjected to tensile stress due to combined effect of the wind and the weight of steel chimney. The leeward side of the steel chimney is subjected to compressive stress due to combined effect of wind, weight of steel chimney and weight of lining. In order to control buckling in steel chimneys the compressive stress caused by the combination of extreme stresses due to bending and direct load should not exceed the values given in Tables 14.3 and 14.4.

On the compressive side the chimney, the efficiency of the joint depends on the strength of the rivets in shear, and in bearing, and does not depend on the tensile strength of the plate. The efficiency of the joint on the compression side is 100%. The efficiency of the joint on the tension side is less than the efficiency on the compressive side say 70%. The permissible stresses in steel chimney in axial tension, shear and bearing shall be adopted as specified in 18:800-1984. The allowable stress in axial compression and in bending for circular chimneys depends upon the effective height of the steel chimney h,, the radius of gyration, k (0.707 x radius), the diameter and the thickness 't' of the chimney to be considered for different types of steel chimneys are shown in the Table 14.3.

I

I

1

I

I

stress

Axial

h, = 2L

Bending

h, = L

Figure 14.4: Self-supporting Chimney

where, h, = effective height of chimney

The allowable stress in axial compression and in pending for circular steel chimney are as per IS 6533-1971 ('Code of practice for design and construction of steel chimneys). The combined stress shall comply with the requirements of IS:800-1984.

The member of the steel chimney reasonably exposed to adverse temperature shall be considered. The allowable stresses are obtained by multiplying the basic stresses the appropriate temperature coefficient, k,.The value of k, may be noted from Table 14.2 as specified in IS:6533-1971.

Temperature

0.20

250

300

kt

1.OO

0.75

0.67

Coefficient, kt

350

40O0C

0.60

0.50

for Circular Steel Chimneys

Allowable Stress in N/-'

hlk

(dlt)

Ratio

Ratio

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

and less

600

0

125.0

125.0

10

125.0

20

125.0

30

125.0

125.0

*

40

125.0

125.0 125.01125.0

50

125.0

125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0

60

125.0

125.0 125.0 125.0 125.0 124.0

70

116.0

116.0

107.0

80

103.5

103.5

90

90.6

I

**

100

78.6

110

68.0

120

58.9

92.8

90.6

85.8

78.6

78.3

71.8

 

68.0

68.0

 

58.9

Table 14.4: Allowable Stresses in Bending for Circular Steel Chimneys

hlflr

Ratio

100 and

Less

125

150

Allowable Stress in k~/mm~

175

200

225

(dlt)

rado

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

Dcalp of Steel Chhnaeys

upto 130

165.0

157.5

153.0

149.5

146.5

145.0

143.5

140.0

137.0

140

159.0

157.5

153.0

150

151.0

151.0

151.0

149.5

146.5

145.0

143.5

140.0

160

145.0

145.0

145.0

138.0

138.5

138.5

137.0

170

138.0

132.0

180

132.0

132.0

 

**

190

126.0

118.0

116.5

200

118.0

113.5

210

116.5

112.0

220

113.5

108.0

 

***

230

112.0

107.0

240

108.5

105.0

250

107.0

104.0

260

105.5

102.5

270

104.0

104.0

280

102.5

102.5

290

101.0

101.0

300

9912

99.2

94.5

86.6

78.17

Note : For Tables 14.3 and 14.4

*

**

***

For ratios of d/t and hllk in zone above zig-zag line, the stresses from the top line may be noted.

For ratios of a% and hllk in zone below zig-zag line, the stresses from the column headed 100 and less may be noted.

Above values of stresses have been converted into SI Units from those given in m.k.s. Units.

In case, the increase in stresses is solely due to wind forces, the allowable stresses may be exceeded by 25%. However, the thickness of steel plates shall not be less than that needed if the wind forces were neglected.

Similarly, when the effect of seismic load is considered, the allowable stresses may be exceeded by 25 percent. The thickness of steel plate shall not be less than that required if the seismic forces were not taken in to account. The permissible stresses in rivets are adopted as per IS : 800-1984.

14.11 DESIGN OF BASE PLATE

Self-supporting steel chimney may be provided with structural steel, cast iron, cast steel circular base plates. It is preferable to use cast steel base plates as compared to the cast iron base plate. The structural steel base plates are even better than cast steel base plates for high steel chimneys.

The width of steel plate should be sufficient to transmit the compressive stresses to the foundation. The allowable bearing pressure on a good cement concrete foundation is 4 ~/mm~.Thickness of base plate should be such that the bending stress and shearing stress in the base plate do not exceed the allowable bending and shearing stresses. There are two methods of connecting the flared portion of

Steel Structures

the steel chimney with the,base plates. These methods are shown in Figure 14.5.

The maximum compressive stress at the base plate on the leeward side of the chimney

where,

The maximum compressive stress per unit circumferential length at the base plate on the leeward side of the chimney.

dl = diameter of the steel chimney at the base of the flared portion.

The width of the base plate

where, obcr= permissible bearing stress on the foundations.

In case the anchor bolts are provided on inside and outside of the steel chimney,

c/l

of

anchor

bolts

1.X

b =width of base plate (aI

I_ b = widk of base plate

(b)

Figure 14.5

4

then the base plate may be kept symmetrical with chimney, as shown in Figure 14.5(a). The unsuppor'ted length of the base plate 1, measured from the extreme edge upto the critical section XX, are equal. In case the anchor bolts are provided on the outside only, then the unsupported length I, would be kept more than the inner unsupported length. The critical section is marked under the root of angle section. The thickness bf base plate is found as under :

The maximum bending moment at the critical section XX

The moment of resistance of unit length of base plate at the critical section

12

Mk=-(1.a

6

.ob,)

where,

It is to be noted that this includes the thickness of the angle section used for the connection

a = thickness of the base plate at the critical section

(ii)

crbc = permissible bending stress in the base plate (0.75 f, where, f, is the yield stress for steel)

Equation (i) & (ii)

The thickness of the base plate found by deducting the thickness of the angle section from the total thickness obtained as per Eq. 14.18. The critical section may be checked for shear stress. It is to note that the total thickness of the base plate a, has been found by using permissible bearing stress on the foundation instead of actual bearing stress. This provides comparatively more thickness in case the unforseen wind pressure increases.

I

I

14.12

DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLTS

The anchor bolts (holding down bolts) are provided to resist the uplift pressure due to the overturning effect of the wind on the windward side of the stress chimney. The uplift pressure is found by considering the combined effect of wind pressure and the weight of chimney only. The weight of lining is omitted. It is assumed that all the anchor bolts are drawn up tight. Further it is assumed that the line of rotation is perpendicular to the direction of wind and passes through the centre of the horizontal base section of the steel chimney as shown in Figure 14.1. The initial tension in the anchor bolt, if any, is neglected.

The maximum tensile stress at the base plate on the windward side of the chimney

The maximum tensile stress per unit circumferential length at the base plate on the windward side of the chimney

F2 = ofx (t x 1) kN/m

The maximum uplift force in one anchor bolt =F,.g=o,x (tx 1)xg kN

(14.20)

where, g = spacing of the anchor bolts in metres.

Steel structures

The number of anchor bolts may be found by dividing the circumference of anchor bolt ring by the spacing of anchor bolts. The permissible stress in axial tension at the root of the threads of the anchor bolt is adopted from IS:800-1984.

Figure 14.6

14.13 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

I

A plain cement concrdte or reinforced cement concrete foundation is used for self-supporting steel chimney. The following types of foundation are generally

a) full raft (circular slab)

b) annuldr raft

ii) Pile founddtion

iii) Truncated cone foundation

iv) Hyperboloid foundation

The chimney foundation is usually designed as a circular slab and it is constructed as the circumscribing octagon. In the design of foundation of the chimney, a designer is to deal dith either the bearing condition of the soil is favourable and economical where the chimney may be directly supported by the soil or the bearing condition of the soil1is poor where the chimney has to be placed on piles. The foundation is designed to resist the stresses resulting from the following combinations.

i) Dead load + Live load

ii

Dead

load + Wind or seismic forces

iii)

Dead load + Live load + wind or seismic forces

The weight of chininey lining etc. are considered as live load.

The foundation of the form of the frustum of a cone or an eight sided pyramid will be more econdmical. Therefore the shape of the foundation block is generally in the form of a frustum of a cone or a frustum of a eight sided pyramid. The square shaped foundations are not provided since the corners of square shaped foundations are subjected to high pressure when the direction of the wind is parallel to the diagonal. If the slope of the footing is 45" plain concrete foundation can be used. If reibforced concrete foundation is used, it is not necessary to keep the height 0.4b an4 a thinner foundation may be used.

The size and weight of the foundation should be such that the underside of the wgn of Steel Chimneys foundation is under compression only. In that case, the bottom of the foundation block remains in contact with the soil. So the size of the foundation at the bottom is kept sufficient to withstand the soil pressure and the bearing pressure in the soil should be less than the allowable pressure in the soil. The weight of the foundation is kept sufficient to prevent the overturning. In case the design of foundation is such that the compressive stress at one edge of the foundation is zero, and it increases to a maximum compressive stress at the other edge, under the extreme conditions of loading then such design of foundation is most economical. In such design of foundation, the unit stress due to the overturning moment of the wind is just equal to the unit stress due to the weight of the foundation and steel chimney. It should be noted that the weight of lining is omitted. However, the maximum compressive stress on the leeward side due to wind, weight of foundation, steel chimney and lining should not exceed the allowable unit pressure on soil.

For round foundation, the resultant thrust due to wind pressure, weight of steel

chimney, weight of lining, and weight of

middle quarter of the foundation. The foundation block is not subjected to tension in such condition.

The maximum eccentricity is then limited to 118 of the width of foundation. The maximum eccentricity

foundation should not lie outside the

where,

b = width of the circular or round foundation

Wf=weight of foundation block

As compared to the weight of foundation the weight of steel chimney W,, and the weight of lining WL, are small. For preliminary design the weight of steel chimney and the weight of lining are neglected. The weight of foundation

Then, the resisting moment due to weight of foundation is equal to the overturning moment due to wind. Therefore

The width of foundation is then revised by considering the weight of steel chimney and weight of lining.

The intensity of soil pressure is determind. It is given by

1 Steel Structures

where, A and Z are the area and section modulus, respectively for the foundation slab. If the radius of the circle of the circumscribing octagon is R, then the area of foundation is 3.3 12 R and Z = 0.81 R~ as per (IS: 6533-197 1). The successive trials are made for R to utilize fully. The soil pressure should not exceed the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.

(a) Foundation plan

L

( b) Foundatron thickness

'I c ) Soil Dressure dragram

Figure 14.7

D = Diameter of footing = 2R

P = vertical load.

e

= M/P

M = overturning moment

F = P/A

A = Area of circular footing

F,,,

= Maximum unit bearing pressure including overturning moment.

The full utilisation of the bearing

part of foundation is in compression (Figure 14.7). In such a situation the footing is designed as a circle, though it is constructed as octagonal.

of soil may lead to situations where only the

Let

f=[ W.S++:

(14.26)

The maximum soil pressure is obtained from the following procedure.

The eccentricity e =

w,+w,+WF

and thereby e/b valves are determined. The values of zero stress and the ratio f,, lf are found from Figure 14.7 as per IS : (6533-1971) and thus the value of f,,, is calculated. It is recommended in code IS : 6533-1971 that the elb valve should not exceed 0.255 and K,lb not be less than 0.6.

14.14 LINING FOR CHIMNEY

Design of Steel Chimneys

In general practice, the self-supporting steel chimneys are all made with lining. The steel chimneys are lined in order to protect the chimneys from heat, to act as a protecting cover and thus reduce the corrosion on the steel plates and to maintain the temperature of flue gases.

Figure 14.8 : Maximum Soil Pressure and Neutral Axis for Circular Footing

e,

The lining may be made of radial fire brick, common concrete brick, cement gunite or vibrobestos acid resisting bricks etc. The materials used for lining should be capable of withstanding high temperature up to 2000°F. The lining is required from below the flue opening to the height, where the heat of gases does not damage the chimney. The height of lining should not be less than.10 times the diameter or 113 of height above the flue opening. The self-supporting steel chimneys are usually lined throughout the full height of chimney. The lined chimneys are inspeted every alternate year. In addition to the checking of thickness of chimney plates, the condition of lining and insulation is also checked.

The chimneys with riveted and bolted construction are checked near the flange angles. The rivet heads on the interior surface are also checked. The interior surface of lined chimney requires primary coat only. The exterior surfaces of the chimney is painted as describer for unlined chimneys depending upon the service temperature.

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-

--

14.15 STABILITY OF STEEL CHIMNEY

The steel chimney as a whole or any part of it is checked for stability. The stability of the structure or any part of it should be ensured by providing anchorages so that the least resisting moment including anchorages shall not be less than the sum of 1.5 times the maximum overturning moment due to dead loads and imposed loads with the seismiclwind loading considering as imposed hads. The stability of steel chimney is ensured at all times during construction,

repair with probable variation in dead loads, or during such other temporary phase of work is taken into account.

While the stability of steel chimney is checked, it is also seen that when the resulting pressure and $hear forces are transferred to the supporting soil through the foundation, the failure iof the foundation will not occur. The stability of the chimney is investigated so that

where,

ow= stress due to wind load

om= stress by any other load increasing the combined stress

q = stress due to dead load

oa= allowable load.

14.16~~~1~~PROBLEMS

Example 14.1

A self-supportingl steel chimney is 80 m high and its diameter at the top is 3 metres. ~esignbreech (flue) opening. Adopt the wind force as per IS : 875. The location of the place is such that the intensity of wind pressure up to

30 m height is 130 k~/m~.

Solution

The steel chimney is shown in Figure 14.9. The height of the chimney is

80 m and its diaineter at the top is 3 m.

Step 1

Figure 14.9 (a)

Flared portion

A conical flared portion is provided in the lower portion of the steel chimney. The recommended height of flared portion

Design of Steel Chimneys

Adopt the height of flared portion as 25 m. The diameter of conical flared portion at its bottom

Adopt the diameter of flared portion as 4.5 m.

Step 2

Intensity of wind pressure.

The location of place is such that the intensity of wind pressure up to 30 m height is 1.50 kN/m2. The intensities of wind pressure at higher heights as per IS: 875 are as follows:

The above intensity of wind at the respective heights are shown in Figure 14.9(b). The shape factor for steel chimney circular in plan 0.7.

I

Step 3

Overturning moment due to wind M,. Usually the intensity of wind pressure is adopted as the average value of these at upper and lower section. However for simplicity, the maximum intensity of wind pressure (i.e., at the top) has been used in the calculations.

The overturning moments at respective sections are as under :

hl, h2, h3

etc. represent the height of respective forces pl, p,, p3

etc.

, above the section considered in Figure 14.9 (b).

i)

At section XI X1

p,. h, = 0.7 x 1.83x 3 x 10x 5 = 192.15kN-m

ii)

At section X2 Xz

p,. hl = 0.7 x 1.83x 3 x 10x 10 = 384.30kN-m

Total = 430.76 kN-m

iii)

At Section X5 X5

p5 .h5=0.7x1.72x3x5x2.5=45.15

kN-m

Total = 1698.90 kN-m

I

Steel Structures

I-w~nd

pressure (k~hnll

---

--

iv) At section X8X8

hiyure 14.9 (b)

p, .h, =0.7x 1.83~3~lOx50= 1921.50lcN-m p2 . h2 = 0.7 x 1.77 x 3 x 5 x 42.5 = 789.86 kN-m p3 . h3 = 0.7 x 1.77 x 3 x 5 x 37.5 = 696.64 kN-m p, . h, = 0.7 x 1.72 x 3 x 5 x 32.5 = 586.95 kN-m ps . h, = 0.7 x 1.72 x 3 x 5 x 27.5 = 496.65 kN-m P6. h6 = 0.7 x 1.67 x 3 x 5 x 22.5 = 394.54 W-m p7 .h7=0.7x 1.63~3~5~17.5=299.51kN-m p8. h8 = 0.7 x 1.58 x 3 x 5 x 12.5 = 207.38 kN-m

I

-

-80m

7 5m

p,. h9=0.7A 1.56~3x5 x7.5 = 122.85kN-m plo . hlo= 0.7 x 1.50 x 3 x 5 x 1.5 = 39.38 kN-m

Total = 5555.37 kN-m

Step 4

Thickness of chimney plate.

It is assumed that the design life of the steel chimney shall be the coal is used as a fuel for the boiler. The chimney shall be

insul2ted. The corrosion allowance is 4 mm for slight internal corrosion

20 years

and

lined and

i) At section X2 X2 (Height from top is 15 m).

Design of Steel Chimneys

Diameter of chimney = 3 m.

Assuming the thickness of steel plates as 3 mm without corrosion

3000

Radius of gyration, K = 0.7 x -

2

= 1050 mm

Effective height for axial stress

hl =2x 15x 1000=30000mm

Ratio -h1 = [3~:-

k

1= 28.57

For bending stress

~llowabfestress in axial compression

= 71.8 ~/mm~

Allowable stress in bending

= 78.7 ~/mm~

These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward from Eq. 14.1

ii) At section X8X8(Height from top is 55 m), Diameter of chimney = 3 m

Assuming the thickness of steel plate as 7 mm without corrosion.

ratio =[3xi000)=428

Effective height for axial stress

hl = 2x55 x l000= 110000mm

Radius of gyration,

X=(o.ixi]=

3000

1050

Ratio (2)= [

1

'lox

lo50

loo0 = 194.76

For bending stress

Allowable stress in axial compression = 73.554N/mm2

Flowable stres!s in bending =

The stresses ate increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward $ide from Eq. 41.1

114.92 N/mrn2

The maximum compressive str#ss on the leeward side of the steel

chimney from Eq. 14.3

t = 0.01@3 m = 10.23 rnm

Therefore the total thickness with corrosion allowance is 11.44 + 4 = 15.44 mm

Adopt 16 rnrnr

Step 5

- Design of flue opeding

i) Portion of chidnney between sections X8 X8 and XIl XI,

Let there be two flue openings in the same direction.

Size

Width of the openings, A1= 1800 mm

Height of the Lentre line of openings above the base is 2 m. The diameter of the chimney at this level is 4.36 m. The thickness of plates less corrosion allowance is (16 - 4) = 12 mm

of the openings = 1.8 m x 20 m

ii) Modulus of the chimney at the centre line of flue opening

Area of cross-beetion

= n x 4350 x 12 - 2 x 2000 x 12 (for opening)

= IT5908 mm2

iii) Weight of chidnney

Weight of

chidnney above X8 X8

= 472.507 kN

It is obtained as follows.

.The thickness of lining increases from top to bottom. The weight of the chimney may be assumed as 0.64, 0.80, 0.96 and 1.28 kN/m2 per .metre

height of the chimney at the respectively.

At section X2x X2

sections X2X2,X5 X5,X8X8 and XI XI

n x 3 x 15x 0.64 = 90.432 kN

Add 10% for stiffeness

= 1.10~90.432=99.475 kN

Area of cross-section

At Section X5X5

n x 3 x 15 x 0.64 = 90.432 kN

7~~3~15~0.80=113.04kN

203.472 kN

Add 10% for cross-section

= 1.10~203.472kN

= 223.82 kN

Area of cross-section

n x 3 lOOO(8- 4) = 37680 mm.

At section X8 X8

n x 3 x 15 x 0.64 = 90.432 kN

nx3x15x0.80=113.040kN

n x 3 x 25 x 0.96 = 226.080kN

= 429.552 kN

Add 10% for stiffeners

1.10x 429.552 = 472.507 kN

Design of Steel Chimneys

The maximum compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney from Eq. 14.3

. t = 0.00103 m = 1.03 mm.

Therefore, the total thickness with corrosion allowance is (1.03 + 4) mm = 5.03 mm

Steel Structures

ii)

At Seetion X5 XS (Height from top is 3 m), Diameter of Chimney = 3 m

Assuming the thickness of steel plates as 5 mm without corrosion.

Effective height for axial stress

h, = 2 x 30 x 1000 = 60,000 mrn

Radius of gyration

Ratio

hi

-

k

60000

= -

1050

-- 57.14

For bending stress

Allowable stress in axial compression

Allowable stress in bending

These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. The maximum tensile stress on windward side from Eq. 14.1

The maximum compressive stress on the leeward side of the steel chimney from Eq. 14.3

Therefore the total thickness with corrosion allowance is (3.688 + 4) mm

Adopt 8 mm

Area of cross-section

= 7.68 mm

Weight of the opening X, X8 and X,,X1,

n x 3.75 x 25 x 1.28 = 376.80 kN

Total

= 849.3071dV

Add 10% for overlap, rivets and stiffeners

Total weight

= 1.10 x 849.307kN

= 934.238 kN

Actual stress =

i 934.238 x id + 11587.15x 106

115908

-

80790 x lo3

= (8.06 f 143.42) = 151.46N/mm2

iv) Allowable stress

Effective height for axial stress

h1=2x80x l000= 160000mm

Radius of gyration, k

ratio =[

4.5 x 12 loo0

)

= 375

Ratio [2)=(x)=101.59

160000

For bending stress,

1

N/md

Design of Steel Chimneys

Allowable stress in axial compression = 76.915 ~/mm~

Allowable stress in bending = 127.5 ~/mm~

These stresses are increased by 25% for wind. Therefore allowable stress in bending is 159.375 N/mm2, which one is greater than 151.46 N/mm2

v) Check for interaction expression

It exceeds unity very slightly. Hence, the section is adequate.

Area of steel plates removed for flue openings = 2 x 2000 x 12

= 48000 mrn2

The vertical reinforcement provided is kept 20% larger than the area removed.

:.

Area of steel to be provided

Area of vertical reinforcement on each side of two flue openings

Provide 21SA 200 mm x 200 mm x 25 mm (one on outer side and one

Steel Structures

. *-

on inner side of the opening).

Area provided = 2 x 9380 = 18760mm2

The area of reinforcement provided on the top and the bottom of opening are kept the same.

SAQ

1)

2)

Design a self-supporting steel chimney of 100 m height. The diameter of the cylindrical shell is 4 m. The chimney has a 100 m thick brick lining supported on the shell.

A self-supporting steel chimney is 60 m high and has a diameter of 3 m at the top. Design the foundation and the riveted points. The hoizontal pressure may be assumed as 1.50 k~lm~.The bearing stress in cement concrete is 4.0 ~/mm~.

14.17

SUMMARY

Let us conclude this unit by summarising what we have covered in it. In this unit we have

Defined steel chimneys.

Described factors for selecting type of steel chimneys.

Studied the design of thickness of steel plates, joints, flue openings and foundation.

1)

2)

3)

4) Derived expressions for bending moment, stresses, thickness of plates.

5)

6)

Introduced the concept of lining for chimney.

Described the stability of steel chimney.

I

4.18 ANSWERS TO SAQs

Refer Example given in the text.

FURTHER READING

Design of Steel Structures - A.S. Arya & J. L. Ajmani

Steel Structures and Timber Structures, Vol. III - V.N. Vazirani & M.M. Ratwani

Design of Steel Structures - Vol. I & Vol. II - Dr. Ramchandia

Roofs and Bridges - M. Mprriman

Design of Steel Structures - M. Raghupati

Analysis, Design and DetaiYs of Structures- V. N. Vazirani & M.M. Ratvani

Design of Steel and Timber Structures - Ramamrutham Structural Design in Steel - Sanvar Alum Raz

Desim of Steel Structures 4Edwin H. Gaylord, Jr. & Charles N. Gavlard