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Construction TECHNOLOGY (CBD111) ASSIGNMENT 2

TITTLE: SITE LAYOUT

GROUP 3

TSHEPISO MOGAETSHO

20170040DCE

ODUETSE MANOKOLA

20170050DCE

THIPOMBO DITABA

20170017DCE

MR: RABEWU BOIKI

20170046DCE

QUESTION 1 (a)

SITE LAYOUT DRAWING

QUESTION 1 (a) SITE LAYOUT DRAWING Figure i: Typical site layout

Figure i: Typical site layout

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT SITE LAYOUT-INTRODUCTION Construction site layout involves identifying,

SITE LAYOUT-INTRODUCTION

Construction site layout involves identifying, sizing, and placing temporary facilities (TFs) within the boundaries of construction site. These temporary facilities range from simple laydown areas to warehouses, fabrication shops, maintenance shops, batch plant, and residence facilities. Required temporary facilities and their areas are depending in many factors including project type, scale, design, location, and organization of construction work

There are two general objectives which planners should seek to meet through careful organization of the site for construction. First, the site must be designed to maximize efficiency of operations in order to promote worker productivity, to shorten project time and to reduce cost. Second, the final plan must create a project with a good work environment in order to attract and retain the best personnel and thus contribute to better work quality and productivity.

MAIN FACTORS OF SITE LAYOUT

A well planned site including all temporary facilities and utilities lead to: 1) increasing productivity and safety, 2) reducing area(s) needed for temporary construction, and 3) maximizing utilization. The following points should be considered for a Green Field site.

1. Site Clearance

First of all site clearance it’s the first factor to deal with. The site should be in a cleared and graded condition. It involves the removal of trees, demolishing buildings, removing any and all old underground infrastructure, and any other obstacles that might affect the construction process in the future or hinder the project to be done.

process in the future or hinder the project to be done. Figure ii: Shows caterpillar and

Figure ii: Shows caterpillar and grader clearing the site or de-bushing

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT 2. Site Accessibility Easy accessibility will keep the morale

2. Site Accessibility

Easy accessibility will keep the morale of the equipment and vehicle drivers high minimize the chance of accidents, and save time in maneuvering to arrive at and leave the project. In case of large projects, proper planning is required to layout the roads leading from the nearest highway. Internal roads are necessary for easy flow of work. Also, Parking Lots are provided for the owner, office, and craft personnel, but this facility must be planned where space does exist.

but this facility must be planned where space does exist. Figure iii: shows main entrance of

Figure iii: shows main entrance of the site

3. Welfare Facilities

Before any construction begins on a project, the pre-construction information organized by the client should contain the arrangements for the provision of welfare facilities. On notifiable project the client must make sure construction doesn’t begin until they are satisfied that adequate welfare facilities will be provided. The size of facilities will depend on the size of the project; facilities include toilets, washing facilities, changing areas and lockers, facilities for rest, plus drinking water.

Drinking water must be provided at easily accessible spots and have cups available unless the supply is from a drinking jet.

cups available unless the supply is from a drinking jet. Figure iv: shows temporary drinking water

Figure iv: shows temporary drinking water container for workers on site

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT  Toilets provided must be suitable for use, ventilated,

Toilets provided must be suitable for use, ventilated, lit and kept clean and tidy. Washing facilities must be available to use immediately after using the toilet, even if they are located elsewhere .Ideally, separate male and female facilities should be provided. If this is not possible, then lockable toilets should be provided.

is not possible, then lockable toilets should be provided. Figure v: shows mobile toilets on site

Figure v: shows mobile toilets on site

Facilities for washing must be fit for purpose and maintained to the required standard. Clean hot and cold running, soap and a suitable means of drying must be provided and sinks need to be large enough for people to wash their face, hands and forearms.

enough for people to wash their face, hands and forearms. Figure vi: Shows regular toilet bowls

Figure vi: Shows regular toilet bowls and hand wash basin

Showers should be provided if the work is particularly dirty or if decontamination is needed. As with the toilet provisions separate male and female should be provided if possible.

separate male and female should be provided if possible. Figure vii: Shower facilities installed at base

Figure vii: Shower facilities installed at base location

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT  Changing rooms should be provided with seating and

Changing rooms should be provided with seating and facilities to keep clothing and personal property secure if workers are required to wear protective clothing due to the nature of their employment,.

Rest areas need to be supplied with enough tables and seating where workers can eat and rest. There should also be boiling water available and arrangements for the preparation of meals. Heating should also be available in the event of cold weather.

should also be available in the event of cold weather. Figure vii: rest place and cold
should also be available in the event of cold weather. Figure vii: rest place and cold

Figure vii: rest place and cold and hot water facilities at the wokers's rest area

4. Materials

One third or more of all construction operations can be classified as material handling. The use of proper equipment for material handling and advance planning for minimizing multiple handling will result in direct cost and time savings and this brings the concept of protection of materials because they can be classified into two being durable and non-durable so the handling and storage of materials in site should take note of weather when planning for storage to prevent deterioration. In terms of storage it is necessary to plan and reserve storage areas for materials so that multiple movement of material is avoided.

Laydown areas: Areas reserved for storage of large materials and equipment and it can be short-term or long-term.

Warehouses: They are sheltered storage facilities where materials are stored until they have disbursed to the job.

Material staging areas: They used when materials are stored near the work on a short- term basis. They are generally as close to work as possible.

Site cleaning: It is necessary at a work place and especially where the extent of debris produced is high. Regular disposal of debris is necessary.

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure viii: shows brick stock, cement store and steel
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure viii: shows brick stock, cement store and steel
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure viii: shows brick stock, cement store and steel
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure viii: shows brick stock, cement store and steel

Figure viii: shows brick stock, cement store and steel storage and bending

5. Location of Plant

Batch plants are provided on projects where it is more economical to produce concrete on site than to buy a ready mix. Aggregate storage piles, cement silos and admixture tanks will accompany an on-site batch plant. Concrete batching plant shall be located in the downwind direction of residential areas and also should be located in a very convenient place to reduce cost and time wasting. The plant should be near to pool and concrete recycling plants to avoid long distance transportation of resources and waste materials and also vital for it to be near to the concrete, aggregates and sand.

for it to be near to the concrete, aggregates and sand. Figure ix: Typical Batch-plant close

Figure ix: Typical Batch-plant close to aggregates and sand

6. Protection (site personnel, general public)

During the construction of a building or road not only the site men or workers on site are exposed to the dangers or hazards caused by construction but also the public is also exposed to those hazards. The general public must be protected from the hazards associated with construction work that may be carried out in a public area or adjacent to such area. These same persons are generally much less aware of hazards and necessary precautions on construction sites than are the construction workers and site personnel. Construction work should be fenced off and suitably signed. This will protect people (especially children) from site dangers and the site from vandalism and theft. The site personnel should be well equipped with protective clothing and it

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT should be considered compulsory for every worker who enters

should be considered compulsory for every worker who enters the site even the visitors should only enter the site fully wearing protective clothing.

only enter the site fully wearing protective clothing. Figure x: a hoarding protecting the public and
only enter the site fully wearing protective clothing. Figure x: a hoarding protecting the public and

Figure x: a hoarding protecting the public and the site, and workers wearing full personal protective clothing

7.

Safety

Fire prevention: Fire is a major cause of damage on construction sites. So fire extinguishers are basic requirements on a construction project.

Medical services: On construction project a first aid kit is a must. In remote projects a well- equipped medical room with a doctor and nurse is important.

Construction safety clothing: Basic safety supplies like safety shoes, hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers.

hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers. Figure xi: Fire hose reel, Protective
hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers. Figure xi: Fire hose reel, Protective
hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers. Figure xi: Fire hose reel, Protective

Figure xi: Fire hose reel, Protective clothing and mobile clinic all available for safety

8.

Security

Entrance: It is necessary to have a proper guard entrance to the site provided by a booth. Also, it is necessary to keep track of all visitors to the project.

Lighting: It is necessary to have a standby generator to maintain site lighting.

Fencing: The boundary should be fenced off from a security point of view.

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT 9. Accommodation On large construction projects, it is necessary

9. Accommodation

On large construction projects, it is necessary to provide camp accommodation for all type of staff involved in the project and mostly accommodation blocks are adjacent or near to the Site. The client or the contractor must take into account number and type of site staff anticipated, calculate size and select units of accommodation that they are suitable for accommodation. And it is advisable to provide for both female and male. Normally porta cabins are used for site accommodation and they should be well ventilated and in good condition.

and they should be well ventilated and in good condition. Figure xii: double story porta cabins

Figure xii: double story porta cabins for accommodating both female and male workers

10. Offices

The offices should be close together, close to the site, and in a safe area and siting for offices should give easy and quick access for visitors but at the same time giving a reasonable view of the site. Also, provide the offices with proper office equipment. The offices at the site may include job office, general contractor office, and sub-contractors and consultants Offices

contractor office, and sub-contractors and consultants Offices Figure xiii: Porta cabins used as Site offices 7

Figure xiii: Porta cabins used as Site offices

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT 11. Trial pits Is an excavation of ground in

11. Trial pits

Is an excavation of ground in order to study or sample the composition and structure of the subsurface, usually dug during a site investigation, a soil survey/a geological survey. Trial pits are dug before the construction. They are dug to determine the geology and the water table of that site. Trial pits are usually between 1 and 4 meters deep, and are dug either by hand or using a mechanical digger

Location

The pits or the bore holes should be located so as to give adequate information in respect of changes in properties of the underlying strata with depth

Should be located near to the proposed or existing foundations but not so close as to adversely affect foundation excavation or to disturb existing underground services and drains.

The pit should be excavated in the vicinity of the proposed structure; if the pit is under a proposed foundation particular attention needs to be given to the material used to backfill the whole

They should straddle the proposed site of the building to give cross-sections along the major axes.

Purpose

To make an examination of the sub soil on a construction site

To determine the nature of the of the subsoil by examination of the sides of excavations; soil and rock can be examined in situ on the faces of the excavated pit and samples taken for further laboratory tests

It also provide an indication of the ease of dig/excavation, trench stability and ground water conditions

dig/excavation, trench stability and ground water conditions Figure xiv: Trial pits showing different soil layers or
dig/excavation, trench stability and ground water conditions Figure xiv: Trial pits showing different soil layers or

Figure xiv: Trial pits showing different soil layers or lithology

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT QUESTION 1 (B) TEMPORARY SERVICES WATER The construction site,

QUESTION 1 (B)

TEMPORARY SERVICES

WATER

The construction site, by definition of Regulatory Standard No 18 (ETF, 2013), is the area of work where activities for the implementation of a construction work and support operations are carried out. In it, water is an important element for the achievement of several construction activities as well as for human consumption. Basically almost everything on site involved water so it’s a very vital temporary service provided on site.

Uses

It’s used to make mortar as cement, river sand and water are mixed together to make mortar

The water provided is drank by all employees

It is also used to clean plants, tools

In some cases it’s used to cool down the plant when they are used for a long time

It’s used to cook and wash the clothing of workers who live near the site or on the site

It is also used or very important in terms of fire break in construction site

Safety considerations

Make sure that water source onsite is not stored near electrical cables as this may course danger to site operatives.

Chemicals onsite should also kept away from water source to avoid risks to contaminate water and water stores should not be used together with that of chemicals and electric cables to avoid electrical sparks that may cause danger to site operatives.

If it can happen to have contaminated water by oil, it should not be used or poured to the ground as this will also contaminate soil, rather it should be poured on a recycled bin to go and treated again.

Water storages should be always closed to avoid contamination. Water that is stored for site operatives use like drinking, cooking or washing should not be used in one container with the one stored for work like mixing mortar, washing tools.

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure xv: different uses of water in construction-mixing concrete,
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure xv: different uses of water in construction-mixing concrete,
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure xv: different uses of water in construction-mixing concrete,
Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Figure xv: different uses of water in construction-mixing concrete,

Figure xv: different uses of water in construction-mixing concrete, drinking purposes and in civil works

GAS

Gas is also considered as a temporary service provided onsite normally in construction Liquid Petroleum Gas is widely used because it is convenient and clean gas to us. Its uses in construction range from

Uses

a domestic heating fuel( cooking)

fueling forklift trucks

furnaces

portable generators, and

LPG auto gas a clean cheap alternative fuel for vehicles

Safety considerations

LP-gas containers are available for vapor or liquid withdrawal service. Vapor withdrawal containers are the prevalent type for heater or salamander service, but certain specialized applications such as some tar kettles, generators, vaporizers, high capacity heaters etc. Require “liquid” withdrawal containers. CAUTION: The two types of containers are not interchangeable.

To protect against leakage from an accidental break in the piping or hose, the container valves must be protected with an excess flow valve either internally or in the container’s valve outlet connector. Check and verify the existence of an excess flow valve where required

Where welding equipment causes sparks, leather aprons and gloves should be won and • Repairs to equipment must be made only by a qualified LP-gas technician.

Highly flammable and NO SMOKING must be prominently displayed in places where cylinders are stored to protect workers who smoke to keep them away from danger

Do not allow the cylinders to be overheated by storing or using them near a heat source, keep the burning low pipe well away from them

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Safe Storage of Gas Cylinder  Store and use

Safe Storage of Gas Cylinder

Store and use cylinders upright position with protective collars in place.

Full or empty cylinders not in use should be stored at a specified location outside at ground level and protected against damage or tampering. Make sure cylinder valves are closed and protective caps or collars are in place. A good practice is to plug or cap all cylinder valves when not in use.

is to plug or cap all cylinder valves when not in use. Figure xvi: shows the

Figure xvi: shows the safe storage of gas cylinders on site

ELECTRICITY

Electricity is a very essential service that is used throughout the project and it should be readily available. Electricity can be provided on site through us two-ways either by using a generator or linking from the main power supply and is the most convenience power onsite and can have various important uses in construction site

Uses

Usually required at an early stage in the contract to provide light and power to the units of accommodation

As the work progresses power could also be required for site lighting, hand held power tools and large items of plant

Used effectively to enable work to continue during periods of inadequate daylight because it provide light

Provide site lighting can be employed externally to illuminate the storage and circulation areas and internally for general movement and for specific work tasks and also can be used in relation to security.

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Safety Considerations  private generators may be used but

Safety Considerations

private generators may be used but should be sound off to reduce noise onsite or adjacent buildings and The distributing system should be through a Transformer unit, Distribution unit and Outlet unit

Voltage should be low to avoid accidents in the form of shocks

Cables should be sheathed, insulated and earthed and Mortars should be provided with a means of preventing restarting which cause danger

Electric timber saw portable tool should be operated at NO volts with single phase alternating current. Long drilling cables should avoid by plumbing the insulation so as to bring the socket outlet near the working areas

Warning signs should be posted clearly showing underground electric cables and never put water near the electric cables.

Locate and identify overhead electrical power lines. Make sure that ladders, scaffolds, equipment or materials never come into close proximity of electrical power lines.

Remove broken or damaged tools and equipment from the jobsite.

broken or damaged tools and equipment from the jobsite. Figure xvii: power source of main switch
broken or damaged tools and equipment from the jobsite. Figure xvii: power source of main switch

Figure xvii: power source of main switch of electricity provided on site

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT

Construction Technology Assignment 2 : SITE LAYOUT Bibliography Chandler, I. (1987). Material Management on Building

Bibliography

Chandler, I. (1987). Material Management on Building Site. London: The construction press.

Chudley, R., & Greeno, R. (2008). Conctruction Handbook. Oxford: Elsevier.

Harris, G. (1989). Construction Equipment and Methods. UK: Longman Group.

Heap, A. (1987). Improving Site Productivity in the Construction Industry. International Labour Office.

Hedley, G., & Garrett, C. (1983). Practical Site Management: An Illustrated Guide. London.

Li, C. (2007). Construction Site Safety Handbook. The Hong Kong Construction Association.