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# DEVIATION CONTROL

## Deviation problems have cost

the petroleum industry billions of
dollars over the years

Deviation Control

If formation
force causes the
well to deviate,
directional
drilling
techniques can
be used to help
hit the target

Deviation Control

## Deviation problems have been

around since the inception of
drilling
Deviation was not only a
problem in rotary boreholes, but
was also a problem with cable
tool rigs

Deviation Control
Everyone agrees that deviation
is caused by the formations
drilled
Not everyone agrees as to how
the formation causes deviation
Bed dip is a primary requirement
for deviation
If the formations are flat (no dip),
deviation is usually not a
problem
Deviation Control

Anisotropic
theory is the
most widely
Point of believed
Tangency
ØBed dip causes
the bit to build
inclination as
discussed in
directional drilling
Anisotropic Formation Theory

Deviation Control
Anisotropic theory
Ø With an isotropic
formation, chip volume
formation on both sides of
the bit tooth causes the bit Isotropic – Equal Chip Volume Formation
Ø With anisotropic
formations, the formation Anisotropic – Unequal Chip Volume Formation
fractures with the bedding
plane on one side of the
bit tooth and across the
bedding plane on the
other side causing the bit
to deviate
Deviation Control

Formation
drillability theory
ØThe harder
formation does not
drill as fast as the
soft formation
causing the bit to
deviate down dip

Deviation Control

Miniature whipstock
theory
ØThe formation
fractures
perpendicular to the
bedding plane
creating miniature
whipstocks on the low
side of the hole

Deviation Control

## Drill collar moment

theory
ØThe hard formation
causes a bending
moment at the bit
ØBit deviates up dip
going from soft to
hard formation
ØBit deviates down
dip going from hard
to soft formation

Deviation Control

Raymond Knapp
theory
ØThe bit does not
drill a gage hole
causing the bit to
deviate randomly

Deviation Control

Deviation alone
does not cause
a lot of the
problems with a
deviated hole
Dogleg severity
has a
substantial
affect on
problems

Deviation Control
Normal force with 4° inclination
FN = wt / ft ´ L ´ B ´ sin I = 18.3 ´ 30 ´ 0.86 ´ sin ( 4 ) = 33 lbs

## Normal force with 4°/100’ dogleg and

100,000 lbs tension
2 2
ì æ DI ö ü ì æ DA ö ü
FN = í2T sin ç ÷ + W sin I(avg ) ý + í2T sin ç ÷ sin I ( avg ) ý
î è ø
2 þ î è 2 ø þ

2
ì æ 4 / 100 ´ 30 ö ü
FN = í( 2 )(100,000 ) sin ç ÷ + ( -472 ) sin ( 2 ) ý = 2078 lbs
î è 2 ø þ

Deviation Control
Normal force with 4°/100’ dogleg and
200,000 lbs tension
2 2
ì æ DI ö ü ì æ DA ö ü
FN = í2T sin ç ÷ + W sin I(avg ) ý + í2T sin ç ÷ sin I ( avg ) ý
î è ø
2 þ î è 2 ø þ

2
ì æ 4 / 100 ´ 30 ö ü
FN = í( 2 )( 200,000 ) sin ç ÷ + ( -472 ) sin ( 2 ) ý = 4172 lbs
î è 2 ø þ

Deviation Control

## What are the problems

associated with deviation
ØMiss the target
ØKeyseats
ØCasing wear
ØRod and tubing wear
ØTorque and drag
ØDrill pipe fatigue

Deviation Control

## What are the causes of the

problem
ØMiss the target Inclination
ØKeyseats Dogleg severity
ØCasing wear Dogleg severity
ØRod and tubing wear Dogleg severity
ØTorque and drag Dogleg severity
ØDrill pipe fatigue Dogleg severity

Deviation Control

Methods to
control deviation
ØUse a pendulum
assembly
ØReduce bit weight
ØWorks to reduce
the inclination
ØDoes not reduce
dogleg severity

Deviation Control
Inclination , degrees
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
0

## 60' PENDULUM ASSEMBLY IN

-500 10 PPG MUD

-1000
Pendulum Force, lbs

-1500

-2000

-2500

-3000

6 1/4" OD
-3500 6 3/4" OD
8" OD
-4000

Deviation Control

## Running low bit weight on a

pendulum assembly does not
substantially change the bit side force

Deviation Control
Lubinski
tables
ØCalculated
force on bit
ØThe deviation
predicted the
formation
force, which
he assigned a
letter

Deviation Control

## Other methods used to control

deviation
ØWoodpecker drill collar
ØTwo cone bit
ØHammer tool
ØDM bit
ØVertitrak

Deviation Control

## ØThe woodpecker drill

metal removed from the
side of the drill collar
causing the center of
mass to be different from
the center of the collar

Deviation Control

## ØAs the collar was

rotated, the off
center mass was
supposed to whip
the low side of the
hole
ØUnfortunately, it
whips all sides of
the hole

Deviation Control

## ØThe two cone bit has fewer inserts

touching the bottom of the hole at any
one time
ØThe bit would drill faster if the bit
weight was the same

Deviation Control

ØHammer tool
used in air drilling
operations
ØThe assumption
is that the
inclination stays
lower since low
bit weights are
required to drill at
higher penetration
rates
Deviation Control

## ØThe DM bit was

designed to drill a
gage hole
(Raymond Knapp
theory)

Deviation Control

## ØDirectional drilling tools such as a

steerable motor or Baker’s VertiTrak
System, Schlumberger’s Power V,
Sperry V-Pilot ,Smith VertiDrill bit

Deviation Control
ØThe formation is drilled as the
active zone of the bit engages
the low side of the wellbore. As
the bit rotates to the high side
of the wellbore, the active
the formation and the bit’s
passive zone is then on the
low side of the wellbore
ØDue to the bit’s unique layout
and geometry, the passive
zone of the bit does not
engage the wellbore
Deviation Control

## ØCan use the steerable motor but the

steerable motor still has significant
dogleg severity
ØThe well builds inclination while
rotating and then the inclination is
reduced while sliding

Deviation Control

## What is the real problem with

deviated wells?
ØMiss the target Inclination
ØKeyseats Dogleg severity
ØCasing wear Dogleg severity
ØRod and tubing wear Dogleg severity
ØTorque and drag Dogleg severity
ØDrill pipe fatigue Dogleg severity

Deviation Control

## Inclination causes you to miss

the target
Dogleg severity causes
everything else
controlling dogleg severity

Deviation Control

## Pendulum assemblies are

designed to control inclination
but are not stiff and will not
control dogleg severity
Packed hole assemblies are
designed to control dogleg
severity and will not minimize
inclination

Deviation Control

## Packed hole assemblies

will build inclination
Running lower bit weight
will not change the forces
at the bit

Deviation Control

## Bit side force is relatively

unaffected by bit weight

Deviation Control

## Higher bit side

force will
increase the
build or drop
tendency

Deviation Control

Drilled into a
block and
800 lbs placed side
force on block

Deviation Control

Measured the
displacement
800 lbs to get dogleg
severity

Deviation Control

## Higher bit side

force will
increase the
build or drop
tendency

Deviation Control

Drilling slower
allows the bit
to cut farther
sideways
(reduced
weight on bit)?

Deviation Control
High Bit Weight Low Bit Weight
Effect of bit Resultant
weight on
deviation Bit
tendency? Weight

## Increasing bit Bit Side

Force
weight and ROP Resultant
changes the
Bit
direction of the Weight
resultant force
at the bit? Bit Side
39 Force
Deviation Control

0
Deviation Control
2000
Penduluem

4000
Depth, feet

6000

8000

10000

12000
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
0
Deviation Control
2000
Penduluem Packed

4000
Depth, feet

6000

8000

10000

12000
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00
Deviation Control

## Even if bit weight causes

deviation, we must decide what
is important
ØDrill slow and minimize inclination
ØDrill faster and minimize dogleg
severity
How much is inclination worth?

Deviation Control

If you decide to
drill slow, the
well costs more
Offset the
surface location
to drill faster
and hit the
target reduces
well costs