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Part and Assembly Modeling

with ANSYS DesignModeler 14

Huei-Huang Lee
  Contents 1

Contents
Preface 2

Section A. Sketching 5

  Exercise 1.  Arm 6


  Exercise 1a.  Structural Analysis of the Arm 21
  Exercise 2.  Ratchet Stop 28
  Exercise 3.  Ratchet Wheel 35
  Exercise 4.  Cover Plate 44

Section B. Part Modeling 54

  Exercise 5.  Crank 55


  Exercise 6.  Geneva Gear Index 64
  Exercise 7.  Yoke 72
  Exercise 8.  Support 79
  Exercise 8a.  Structural Analysis of the Support 88
  Exercise 9.  Wheel 94
  Exercise 10.  Pipe 98
  Exercise 11.  C-Bar Dynamometer 106
  Exercise 11a.  Deformation of the C-Bar 111
  Exercise 12.  Threaded Shaft 119
  Exercise 13.  Lifting Fork 124
  Exercise 14.  Caster Frame 130

Section C. Assembly Modeling 144

  Exercise 15.  Threaded Shaft Assembly 145


  Exercise 16.  Universal Joint 152
  Exercise 16a.  Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 165
  Exercise 17.  Clamping Mechanism 176
  Exercise 17a.  Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 197

Section D. Concept Modeling 215

  Exercise 18.  2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 216


  Exercise 18a.  Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 219
  Exercise 19.  Surface Modeling (Support) 225
  Exercise 19a.  Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 230
  Exercise 20.  Line Modeling (Space Truss) 234
  Exercise 20a.  Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 240
2 Preface

Preface

Use of the Book


This book is designed for those who want to learn how to create parts and assembly models using ANSYS
DesignModeler. The author assumes no previous CAD/CAE experiences to begin with the book.
 This book is mainly designed as an auxiliary tutorial in a course using ANSYS as a CAE platform. In particular,
this book can serve as a preparation to the author's another book Finite Element Simulations with ANSYS Workbench 14,
which emphasizes on finite element simulations rather than geometry modeling such that the exercises on geometry
modeling (especially assembly modeling) may not be adequate.

ANSYS DesignModeler
ANSYS DesignModeler is a CAD program running under ANSYS Workbench environment. The DesignModeler can
create geometries as sophisticated as any other CAD programs. Yet, many engineers choose to create geometry
models using other CAD programs (e.g., Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks) and then import them into an ANSYS simulation
module (such as Mechanical) for simulations. One of the reasons may be that, other than the training materials
provided by the ANSYS Inc., there exist no tutorials in the bookstore. That is the main reason that I created this book.
 The DesignModeler is designed specifically for creating models which can be seamlessly imported into an ANSYS
simulation modules (such as Mechanical). Therefore, if a geometry model is solely used for ANSYS simulations, I
strongly suggest that we create the model from scratch using DesignModeler, rather than other CAD programs, to
avoid any unnecessary incompatibilities.

Structure of the Book


There are 20 exercises and 8 appendices in the book; each of them is designed in a step-by-step tutorial style. The 20
exercises involve creating parts and assemblies models, while the 8 appendices show how to perform simulations using
some of the models. If you are not currently interested in simulations, you may freely skip the 8 appendices without
affecting the learning of the 20 exercises.
 An assembly consists of two or more parts. Each part can be viewed as boolean operations (union, subtraction,
etc.) of simpler 3D bodies. Each of the 3D bodies usually can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch
on a 2D plane and then generate the 3D body by extrusion, revolution, sweeping, or skin/lofting.
 The book is divided into 4 sections. Section A lets students familiarize with sketching techniques. Section B
contains exercises of part modeling. Section C consists of exercises of assembly modeling. The last section introduces
the creations of concept models, including 2D models, surface models, and line models. A concept model is a
simplification of a 3D models, and is usually easier to create and more efficient to be simulated.
  Preface 3

Companion Webpage
A webpage dedicated to this book is maintained by the author:

http://myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~hhlee/Myweb_at_NCKU/ADM14.html

The webpage contains links to finished project files of each exercise and appendix. If everything works smoothly, you
do not need them at all. Every model can be built from scratch according to the steps described in the book. The
author provides these project files just in some cases you need them. For examples, if you have troubles to follow the
geometry details in the textbook, you may need to look up the geometry details from the project files.

Huei-Huang Lee

Associate Professor
Department of Engineering Science
National Cheng Kung University
Tainan, Taiwan
hhlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw
myweb.ncku.edu.tw/~hhlee
4
  Section A. Sketching 5

Section A
Sketching

An assembly is a combination of parts. From manufacture point of view, a part is a basic unit for manufacturing
process. Many parts can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch on a plane and then generate a 3D
body by extrusion, revolution, sweeping, or skin/lofting.
 The exercises in Section A are designed to introduce the 2D sketching techniques provided by the
DesignModeler. Each part created in Section A involves drawing a sketch and then extrude to generate a 3D solid
body representing the part.
 Although it can be used as a general purpose CAD software, the DesignModeler is particularly designed for
creating geometric models to be analyzed (simulated) under the ANSYS environment. To let the readers understand
what it means by analysis (simulation) as early as possible, an exercise (Exercise 1a) is appended right after Exercise 1
to perform a structural analysis for the part created in Exercise 1. However, the reader has option to skip Exercise 1a
without affect the subsequent learning of geometric modeling.
6 Exercise 1. Arm 

Exercise 1
Arm

1-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we will create a 3D


solid model for an arm, which is a
part of a clamping mechanism [1].
The clamping mechanism will be
introduced in Exercise 17 and
simulated in Exercise 17a.
 The arm model consists of a [1] The arm is a part
single solid body, which can be of a clamping
mechanism.
generated by extruding a sketch by a
thickness of 0.125 inches [2].
 Before creating a geometry
model, we must set up a global
coordinate system. For this exercise,
we arbitrarily choose the global
coordinate system as shown [3]. Y
Note that the origin is on the back
surface of the part. 1.375
R0.313 R0.313

3 × D0.25

R0.25
[3] The global
2.25

coordinate
system. [2] Details of
the arm.

Unit: in.
Thickness: 0.125 in.

R0.5
  Exercise 1. Arm 7

1-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench.

[2] The <Workbench GUI>


(graphical user interface) shows up.

[7] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up the DesignModeler.
[3] Click the plus sign (+) to
expand <Component
Systems>. The plus sign
becomes minus sign.

[5] A <Geometry> system


is created in the <Project
Schematic> area.

[6] You may click here to


show the messages from
ANSYS Inc. To hide the
message, click it again.
[4] Double-click to create
a <Geometry> system.
8 Exercise 1. Arm 

[8] <DesignModeler GUI>


shows up.

[9] Select <Inch> as


length unit.

[10] Click <OK>. Note


that, after clicking and
entering DesignModeler, the
length unit cannot be
changed anymore.

Speech Bubbles
1. In this book, each exercise is divided into subsections (e.g., 1-1, 1-2). In each subsection, speech bubbles are
ordered with numbers, which are enclosed by pairs of square brackets (e.g., [1], [2]). When you read, please follow
the order of speech bubble; the order is significant.
2. The square-bracket numbers also serve as reference numbers when referred in other text. When in the same
subsection, we simply refer to a speech bubble by its number (e.g., [1], [2]). When in the other subsections, we refer
to a speech bubble by its subsection identifier and its bubble number (e.g., 1-2[1]).
3. When a circle is used with a speech bubble, it is to indicate that mouse or keyboard ACTIONS are needed in that
step [1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10]. A circle may be filled with white color [1, 4, 7] or unfilled [3, 9, 10]. A speech bubble without a
circle [2, 8] or with a rectangle [6] is used for commentary only, i.e., no mouse or keyboard actions are needed.

Workbench Keywords
A pair of angle brackets is used to highlight an Workbench keyword (e.g., <Component Systems> in [3]).
Sometimes, if the angle brackets do not add any clarity, they may be dropped (e.g., DesignModeler).

Clicking and Selecting


When we say "click" or "select," we mean left-click the mouse button.
  Exercise 1. Arm 9

1-3 Prepare to Draw a Sketch on <XYPlane>

[3] Click <Look


At Face/Plane/
[1] By default, Sketch> to rotate
<XYPlane> is the the view angle so
current sketching that you look at the
plane (active plane). current sketching
plane.

[2] Click to switch to <Sketching


Mode>. Note that there are 5
toolboxes available: Draw, Modify,
Dimension, Constraints, and Settings.
<Draw> is the default toolbox.

[4] By default, the ruler is


on. In the next step, we will
turn off the ruler to make
more sketching space.

[6] This is the global


coordinate system.

[5] Select <View/


Ruler> to turn it off. [7] This is the plane
For the rest of this (local) coordinate
book, we always leave system.
the ruler off.
10 Exercise 1. Arm 

1-4 Draw a Circle with Dimension

[6] As soon as you


begin to draw, a name
is assigned to the
sketch and it becomes
the active sketch.
[5] Move the mouse
away from the center and
then click the mouse to
[1] Select
create a circle with
<Circle> tool.
arbitrary radius.

[2] In case you don't [4] Move the mouse


[7] Select see the <Circle> tool, around the origin until
<Dimension> scroll down to reveal a <P> (Point) appears
toolbox. the tool. and then click the
mouse to locate the
center of the circle.
The ability to "snap" a
point is a feature of the
DesignModeler, called
<Auto Constraints>.
[3] It gives you hints for
using the tool.

[11] It is possible that the circle


becomes too small. Select <Zoom to
Fit> tool to fit the sketch into the
graphics window. Now, we may need
to adjust (move) the position of the
dimension.

[8] Select
<Diameter> tool.
[9] Select the circle,
move the mouse
outward, and then click
[10] In the <Details to create a dimension.
View>, type 0.25 for Note that the circle turns
the diameter. blue, meaning the circle
has fully constrained
(fixed in the space).
  Exercise 1. Arm 11

[14] Whenever necessary, select


<Zoom to Fit> tool to fit the
sketch into the graphics window.

[12] Select <Move> tool.


Remember to scroll
down to reveal a tool if
you don't see the tool.

[13] Select the


dimension, move to a
suitable position, and
then click again.

[17] Instead of displaying dimension


name, now the dimension value is
displayed. For the rest of the book,
we always display dimension values
[15] Select <Display> instead of name.
tool. You may need to
scroll down to reveal
the tool if you don't see
the tool.

[16] Click <Name> to


turn the dimension
name off. Note that
<Value> automatically
turns on.
12 Exercise 1. Arm 

1-5 Draw Two More Circles

[1] Click anywhere in the


graphics window and then scroll
the mouse wheel down to zoom
out the sketch roughly like this.
[2] Select <Draw>
toolbox.

[4] Move the mouse


around the horizontal [5] Move the mouse until an <R>
axis until a <C> (Radius) appears and then click the
(Coincident) appears mouse. The radius dimension is
and then click the constrained to be the same as the
mouse to locate the first circle. Note that the circle is
center of the circle. greenish-blue, meaning it is not
This center is snapped fully fixed in the space yet. A
on the horizontal axis. horizontal location is needed to
fully defined the circle.

[3] Select
<Circle> tool.

[6] Create another circle in a


similar way. Make sure a <C> and
an <R> appear before clicking. A
vertical location is needed to fully
defined the circle.
  Exercise 1. Arm 13

[12] Remember that you


always can use <Zoom to Fit>
and scroll the mouse wheel [1]
to zoom in/out the view. Also,
[8] Select the vertical to "pan" the view, simply move
axis. Note that the shape the mouse while holding the
of the mouse cursor control-middle-button.
changes when your mouse
is on the axis. [10] Move the mouse upward roughly
here and click to locate a horizontal
dimension. Note that the circle turns
blue (fully constrained).

[7] Select
<Dimension> toolbox
and then select
<Horizontal> tool.

[11] In the <Details


View>, type 1.375 for [9] Select the center of
the horizontal the circle. Note that the
dimension. shape of the mouse
cursor changes when your
mouse is on the point.

[13] Select
<Vertical> tool.

[16] Before going further, make sure you


familiarize the two most frequently used view
operations: scrolling the mouse wheel to zoom
in/out the view and moving mouse with
control-middle-button to pan the view.

[14] Select horizontal axis,


select the center of the lower
circle, move the mouse
leftward roughly here, and click
[15] In the <Details to locate a vertical dimension.
View>, type 2.25 for The circle turns blue.
the vertical
dimension.
14 Exercise 1. Arm 

1-6 Draw Three Concentric Circles

[2] Select the <Dimension/


Radius> tool, and create a
radius dimension for the [1] Select the <Draw/
circle. In the <Details Circle> tool, and draw a
View>, type 0.313 for the concentric circle. Make sure
radius. a <P> appears before
defining the center.

[3] Select the <Draw/Circle> tool,


and draw a concentric circle with the
same radius as the previous circle.
[4] With the <Draw/Circle> Make sure a <P> appears before
tool still selected, draw a defining the center and an <R>
concentric circle. Make sure a appears before defining the radius.
<P> appears before defining
the center.

[5] Select the <Dimension/


Radius> tool, and create a
radius dimension for the
circle. In the <Details
View>, type 0.5 for the
radius.
  Exercise 1. Arm 15

1-7 Draw Tangent Lines

[1] Select the <Draw/Line


by 2 Tangents> tool, and
then select the two circles
to be tangent to. A tangent
line is created.

[2] Create additional


three tangent lines in a
similar way.
16 Exercise 1. Arm 

1-8 Draw a Fillet


[1] Select the <Modify/
Fillet> tool, and type 0.25
for <Radius>.

[2] Select these two lines.


A fillet is created. Note
that the fillet is not blue-
colored. We need to
specify the radius. The
radius typed in [1] is not
necessarily the final
dimension; it just serves as
a default dimension.

[3] Select the <Dimension/Radius>


tool, and create a radius dimension for
the fillet. You don't need to type in the
<Details View>, since the default value
[1] is automatically used. Note that the
color turns blue now.
  Exercise 1. Arm 17

1-9 Trim Away Unwanted Segments


[3] Click to trim
away two other
[1] Select the <Modify/ arcs.
Trim> tool, and turn on
<Ignore Axis>, meaning
that the axes will not serve
as trimming tools.

[2] Click the circle


roughly here to trim
away the arc. Note
that when you select
an edge (a line or a
curve), the remaining
edges will serve as
trimming tools.

[4] The sketch after


trimming.
18 Exercise 1. Arm 

1-10 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Arm


[7] Click <Display
Plane> to turn off the
[6] Click <Generate> display of XYPlane (and
[1] Select the sketches it contains).
to produce a 3D solid
<Extrude> tool.
body.

[3] Click the


[2] It automatically little cyan sphere
switches to to rotate the
<Modeling Mode>, in view into an
which a <Tree isometric view.
Outline> is
displayed, which will
be explained later.

[5] The active sketch is


[4] Type 0.125 for automatically taken as
the <Depth>. <Geometry>.

1-11 Save the Project and Exit Workbench

[2] In the <Workbench


GUI>, save the project
as "Arm."

[1] Select <File/Close


DesignModeler>. The
<DesignModeler GUI>
disappears.
[3] Select <File/
Exit> to quit
from the
Workbench.
  Exercise 1. Arm 19

1-12 Review

Global Coordinate System


Before creating a geometry model, you must set up a global coordinate system (1-1[3], 1-3[6]).

Workbench GUI
In the <Workbench GUI> (1-2[2]), you can create a system (1-2[4]) and start up DesignModeler (1-2[7]). Other
capabilities will be introduced later.

Project Schematic
Created systems appear on the <Project Schematic>, an area in the <Workbench GUI>.

DesignModeler GUI
Geometries are created entirely within the <DesignModeler GUI> (1-2[8]).

Length Unit
Before creating a model in the DesignModeler, you must choose a length unit (1-2[9, 10]). The length unit cannot be
changed thereafter.

Mouse Operations
Click  --  Left-click the mouse button.
Select  --  Left-click the mouse button.
Double-Click --  Left-click the mouse button twice.
Zoom In/Out --  Scroll the mouse wheel
Pan   --  Move the mouse while holding control-left-button.
Other mouse operations will be introduced later.

Current Sketching Plane


Each sketch is stored in the current sketching plane (1-3[1]). Manipulating (switching, creating, etc.) sketching planes
will be introduced later.

Sketching Mode v.s. Modeling Mode


Tools for sketching are provided in the <Sketching> mode (1-3[2]), while tools for creating and manipulating bodies
are provided in the <Modeling> mode (1-10[2]). There are 5 toolboxes available: Draw, Modify, Dimension,
Constraints, and Settings. Tools in <Modeling> mode includes <Extrude> (1-10[1]). Some tools are available in both
modes, e.g., <Zoom To Fit> (1-4[11]).

Look At Face/Plane/Sketch
Clicking this tool to rotate the view angle so that you look at the current sketching plane (1-3[3]).

Ruler
The ruler (1-3[4, 5]) is to help you obtain a better feeling of the drawing scale. In this book, we always leave the ruler
off to make more sketching space.

Plane Coordinate System


Every plane has its own coordinate system (1-3[7]); it is also called a local coordinate system. The plane coordinate
system will be explained further later.
20 Exercise 1. Arm 

Scrolling
In case you don't see a tool in a toolbox, scroll down/up to reveal the tool (1-4[2]). There is also a scrolling controller
for the <Details View>.

Tools in <Draw> Toolbox


Circle   -- Draw a circle, giving the center and the radius (1-4[1, 3-5]).
Line by 2 Tangent -- Draw a line tangent to two curves (including circles and arcs) (1-7[1, 2]).

Tools in <Dimension> Toolbox


Radius  --  Specify a radius dimension by selecting a circle (1-4[6, 8-10]) or an arc (1-8[2]).
Move  --  Move (relocate) a dimension name/value by dragging the name/value (1-4[12, 13]).
Display  --  This tool is to toggle the display of dimension name and the dimension value (1-4[15-17]).
    In this book, we always turn off the dimension name and turn on the dimension value.
Horizontal --  Specify a horizontal dimension by first selecting a or a point (or a vertical line) and
    then a second point (or a vertical line) (1-5[7-10]).
Vertical  --  Specify a vertical dimension by first selecting a or a point (or a horizontal line) and
    then a second point (or a horizontal line) (1-5[13, 14]).

Tools in <Modify> Toolbox


Fillet  --  Create a fillet by selecting two lines or curves (1-8[1-3]).
Trim  --  Trim away unwanted segments (1-9[1-4]).

Auto Constraints
P --  The mouse cursor snaps to a point (or the origin) (1-4[4]).
R --  The radius is the same as another circle (or arc) (1-4[5]).
C --  The mouse cursor is coincident to a line (or an axis) (1-5[4, 6]).
Other auto constraint features will be introduced later.

Color Codes
Greenish-blue --  Under-constrained (1-8[2])
Blue   --  Fully constrained (fixed in the space) (1-4[9], 1-5[10,14]).
Red   --  Over-constrained

Zoom To Fit
Click this tool to fit the entire sketch (in the <Sketching> mode) or entire model (in the <Modeling> mode) into the
graphics window (1-4[14]).

Extrude
This tool extrude a sketch by a specified depth to create a 3D body (1-10[1-5]). More exercises will be given later.

Isometric View
Click the little cyan sphere of the triad will rotate the view into an isometric view (1-10[3]). Other view controls will
be introduced later.

Display Plane
This tool is to toggle the display of current sketching plane and the sketches it contains (1-10[6]).
  Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm 21

Appendix:

Exercise 1a
Structural Analysis of the Arm

1a-1 Introduction [2] This is the deformed


structure under the design
loads. The wireframe is the
underformed configuration.
Although it can be used as a general purpose Note that, for visual effects,
CAD software, the DesignModeler is the deformation has been
particularly designed for creating geometric exaggerated.
models to be analyzed (simulated) under the
ANSYS environment. The purpose of this
exercise is to let the readers understand what
it means by analysis (simulation). However, the
reader has option to skip this exercise without
affect the subsequent learning of geometric
modeling.
 In this exercise, we will perform a static
structural analysis for the arm created in
Exercise 1. The objective is to find the
deformation and stresses under the working
loads.
 The clamping mechanism is entirely
made of steel and is designed to withstand a
clamping force of 450 lbf [1]. After a 281 lbf
structural analysis of the entire mechanism [2] 126 lbf
(also see Exercise 17a), the results show
[1] The clamping
shows that, to withstand a clamping force of mechanism is
450 lbf, the arm is subject to external forces as designed to withstand 264 lbf 187 lbf
shown [3] (also see 17a-13). Note that the a clamping force of
external forces are in a state of static 450 lbf.
equilibrium.
 The analysis for the entire clamping
mechanism will be perform in Exercise 17a. In
this exercise, we will only perform a analysis
[3] The external
on the arm. The purpose is to make sure the forces on the arm.
stresses are within the allowable stress of the These forces are
steel, which is 30,000 psi. calculated 77 lbf
 The analysis task cannot not be according to
17a-13.
performed in DesignModeler. Rather, it is
carried out with <Mechanical>, another
Workbench application program. 407 lbf
22 Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm

1a-2 Start Up <Mechanical>

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench.

[2] Open the project "Arm,"


which was saved in Exercise 1.

[3] Double-click to create


a <Static Structural>
analysis system.

[5] And drop here. A link


is created, indicating that
both <Geometry> share
the same data.

[6] Double-click to
[4] Drag <Geometry>... start up the
<Mechanical>.
  Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm 23

[7] This is the <Mechanical> GUI. Note


that the model is automatically brought
into <Mechanical>. By default, the body
is assumed to be made of steel.

[8] Make sure the length


unit is <in.>. If not,
select the right unit from
the pull-down menu
<Units> (see [9]).

[9] If the length unit is not <in.>,


select <Units/U.S. Customary (in,
lbm, lbf, F, s,V, A)>. Unlike
DesignModeler, the units can be
changed any time as you like in
<Mechanical>.
24 Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm

1a-3 Specify Loads


[2] Select <Loads/
Force>.

[1] Click to highlight


[3] A <Force> object is <Static Structural>.
inserted under the <Static [4] Select this
Structural> branch. cylindrical face.

[5] Click <Apply>.

[6] Select <Components>.

[7] Type -187 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 126 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.

[8] Select <Loads/


Force> again.

[9] A <Force 2> object


is inserted.
[10] Select this
cylindrical face.
[11] Click
<Apply>.

[12] Select <Components>.

[13] Type 264 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 281 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.
  Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm 25

1a-4 Specify Supports


[1] Select <Supports/
Fixed Support>.

[3] Select this


[2] A <Fixed Support> is cylindrical face.
inserted.

[4] Click
<Apply>.

1a-5 Insert Result Objects


[2] Select <Stress/
Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Solution>.

[3] A solution object is


inserted under the
<Solution> branch.
26 Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm

1a-6 Solve the Model [3] The maximum stress


[1] Click <Solve>.
is 29,690 psi, slightly below
the allowable stress
(30,000 psi). Note that the
maximum stress can be
[4] Select <Edges/
reduced by increasing the
Show Undeformed
radius of the fillet.
WireFrame>.

[6] For visual


effect, the
deformation is
automatically
enlarged 49 times. [5] Undeformed
shape.

[2] Click the Z-axis


to rotate the view so
that you look into the
<XYPlane>.

[7] Click to close the


<Message> window.

[8] Click <Play> to


[9] Click <Stop> to
animate the
stop the animation.
deformation.
  Exercise 1a. Structural Analysis of the Arm 27

1a-7 Save the Project and Exit Workbench

[2] In the <Workbench


GUI>, save the project as
"Arm-a".

[1] Select <File/Close


Mechanical>. The
<Mechanical GUI>
disappears.

[3] Select <File/


Exit> to quit from
the Workbench.
28 Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 

Exercise 2
Ratchet Stop

2-1 Introduction [1] The ratchet


wheel.
[2] The ratchet stop is
used to control the
rotational direction of
the ratchet wheel.
The ratchet stop is used to control a
ratchet wheel so that the ratchet
wheel rotates in a certain direction
only [1, 2]. The ratchet wheel will be
created in Exercise 3. In this exercise,
we'll create a 3D solid model for the
ratchet stop.
 The details of the ratchet stop
are shown in the figure below [3].
Note that the coordinate system is
also shown in the figure.

R0.56 Y

40 [3] Details
p: of the
Slo ratchet stop.
6
0.1
0.125

R0.34

Unit: in.
R0.188
Thickness: 0.125 in. 0.57
  Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 29

2-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system
(1-2[1-5]).

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> cell to start
up the DesignModeler.
Select <Inch> as the length
unit (1-2[9, 10]).

2-3 Draw a Circle on XYPlane

[3] Draw a
[2] Rotate to
circle centered at
XYPlane view
the plane origin
(1-3[3])
(1-4[1-5]).

[1] Switch to
<Sketching
Mode> (1-3[2]).

[4] Select <Dimension/Radius> tool and


specify a radius of 0.188 (in.) for the circle.
Remember to turn on the display of dimension
value (1-4[15-17]). Also remember to use
<Dimension/Move> to move the dimension to
a suitable position (1-4[12, 13]).
30 Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 

2-4 Draw a Line


[5] The line is not blue-
colored, meaning it isn't fully
defined in the space yet. We
now specify an angle dimension
[2] Select <Dimension/General> for the line.
tool and create a length
dimension by simply selecting
the line segment and move the
mouse upward. Specify a
dimension value of 0.16 (in.).

[1] Select <Draw/


Line> tool and
draw a line
roughly like this.

[4] Select <Dimension/


Vertical> tool and specify
a vertical dimension of
0.125 (in.) (1-5[13-15]).

[3] Select <Dimension/Horizontal>


tool and specify a horizontal
2-5 Specify an Angle Dimension dimension of 0.57 (in.) (1-5[7-11]).

[1] To specify an angle dimension, you need to select two lines (or axes).
When you select a line (or axis), the end near where you click become
the "arrow end" of the line. The angle is then measured from the first
line to the second line in a counter-clockwise fashion.

[2] Select <Dimension/


Angle> tool and then
click the X-axis on the
[3] Click the line positive side.
here near the
upper-right end.

[4] Click here to create


an angle dimension.
Type 40 (degrees) in the
<Details View>. Note
that the angle is
measured counter-
clockwise from the first [5] If you made mistakes (click on wrong ends or in a wrong order) and the
line to the second. Also angle is not what you meant, right-click anywhere in the graphics window to
note that the line is bring up a <Context Menu> and choose <Alternate Angle>. Repeat this before
blue-colored now. you click to locate the angle dimension until the correct angle appears.
  Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 31

2-6 Draw Arcs

[2] Click the upper- [4] An arc is created.


right end of the line
to define an end of
the arc.
[3] Click to define
another end roughly
here on the circle.

[1] Select <Draw/Arc by


Center> tool and then
click roughly here to
define the center.
[5] Select <Dimension/
Radius> tool and
specify a radius
dimension of 0.56 in. [6] Select <Constraints/
Tangent> tool and then select
the arc and the circle. A
<Tangent> constraint is
imposed between the arc and
the circle. Note that the arc
turns blue.

[7] Also note that the center of the


arc moves to a new location to
accommodate the constraint.
32 Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 

[9] Click the lower-


left end of the line to
define an end of the
arc.

[10] Click to define


another end roughly
here on the circle.
[8] Select <Draw/Arc by
Center> tool again and
define the center roughly
here.

[11] Select <Dimension/


Radius> tool and specify
a radius dimension of
0.34 in.

[12] Select <Constraints/


Tangent> tool and impose a
<Tangent> constraint
between the newly created
arc and the circle.
  Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 33

2-7 Trim Away Unwanted Segments

[1] Select <Modify/Trim> tool


and make sure <Ignore Axis> is
turned on (1-9[1]). Click here
to trim away the arc segment.

[2] The finished sketch.

2-8 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Ratchet Stop

[1] Extrude the sketch


0.125 in. to create the
ratchet stop (1-10[1-6]).

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Stop," and exit the
Workbench (1-11[1-3]).
34 Exercise 2. Ratchet Stop 

2-9 Review

Context Menu
When you right-click the mouse, a menu pops up. The contents of the menu
depends on when and where you right-click the mouse. The menu is thus
called the <Context Menu> (2-5[5]). Try to right-click anywhere in the
graphics area, <Details View>, or <Tree Outline> (1-10[2]), to see the
contents of the <Context Menu>.

<Dimension/General> Tool
This tool can be used for any type of dimension. For a line, the default is to
create a <Length> dimension (2-4[2]). For a circle or arc, the default is to
create a diameter dimension. If the default is not what you want, right-click
anywhere in the graphics window to bring up the <Context Menu> [1] and
choose a dimension type.

<Dimension/Angle> Tool
To specify an angle dimension, you need to select two lines (or axes). When
you select a line (or axis), the end near where you click become the "arrow
end" of the line. The angle is then measured from the first line to the second
line in a counter-clockwise fashion (2-5[1-4]). [1] This is the
 If you made mistakes (click on wrong ends or in a wrong order) and <Context Menu> when
the angle is not what you meant, right-click anywhere in the graphics window <Dimension/General> is
activated.
to bring up the <Context Menu> [2] and choose <Alternate Angle>. Repeat
this until the correct angle appears before you click to locate the angle
dimension (2-5[5]).

<Draw/Line> Tool
This tool draws a line by defining two end points (2-4[1])).

<Draw/Arc By Center> Tool


This tool draws an arc by defining its center and two end points (2-6[1-4]).

<Constraints/Tangent> Tool
This tool impose a <Tangent> constraint between two curves or between a
line and a curve (2-6[6, 12]).

[1] This is the <Context


Menu> after you select
two lines (or axes) and
before you click to create
an angle dimension.
  Exercise 3. Ratchet 35

Exercise 3
Ratchet Wheel

[1] The ratchet


wheel.
3-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we'll create a 3D


solid model for the ratchet wheel
mentioned in Exercise 2 [1]. The
details of the ratchet wheel are
shown in the figure below [2].

Y
60 
15 

[2] Details of
the ratchet
wheel.
1.00

D0.25

Unit: in.
Thickness: 0.25 in.
36 Exercise 3. Ratchet

3-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> cell to start
up the DesignModeler.
Select <Inch> as the length
unit.

3-3 Draw Two Concentric Circles

[1] On XYPlane, draw two


concentric circles with
diameters of 0.25 in. and
1.00 in. respectively.
  Exercise 3. Ratchet 37

3-4 Draw Lines with Angle Dimensions


[2] Specify an angle dimension
of 15 degrees. Remember to
select the line first and then
[1] Draw a line passing the axis. Clicking positions are
the origin like this. also important (2-5[1-5]).

[3] Draw
another line like
this.

[4] Specify an angle


dimension of 60
degrees.
38 Exercise 3. Ratchet

3-5 Trim Away Unwanted Segments

[1] Draw a circle which passes


through an end point of the line.
When you define the radius,
remember to snap (with a <P>
constraint) the end point of the line.
The circle serves as a construction
(temporary) circle.

[3] After
trimming, a single
tooth remains.

[2] Trim away


unwanted segments.
Remember to turn on
<Ignore Axis> (1-9[1]).
  Exercise 3. Ratchet 39

3-6 Duplicate Teeth


[2] Select these two lines. To
select multiple entities, hold
Control key while click the
entities sequentially. You also can
"sweep select" multiple entities,
i.e., holding left mouse button
while sweep through the entities.
After the selection, the entities
are highlighted with yellow color.
[1] Select
<Modify/Copy>.

[3] Right-click
anywhere in the
graphics window to
bring up the
<Context Menu>, and
select <End/Use Plane
Origin as Handle>.
Now the tooth has
been copied to a
"clipboard."

[4] The <Modify/Paste>


tool is automatically
activated. Type 15
(degrees) for the <r>,
meaning that the rotating
angle is 15 degrees.
40 Exercise 3. Ratchet

[5] Bring up the


<Context Menu>,
and select <Rotate by
-r Degrees>. Note
that a negative angle
is to rotate
clockwise. [6] Bring up the
<Context Menu>
again, and select
<Paste at Plane
Origin>.

[7] The tooth is


rotated 15 degree
clockwise (using
plane origin as
center of
rotation) and
pasted.

[8] Repeat steps [5, 6]


four more times. Press
<Esc> to end the tool
or choose <End> from
the <Context Menu>.
  Exercise 3. Ratchet 41

[9] Select <Modify/


Copy> again, and
select all the teeth,
using "sweep
select" [2]. From the
<Context Menu>,
select <End/Use
Plane Origin as
Handle> [3].

[10] Type 90
(degrees) for the
rotating angle.

[11] Repeat
steps [5, 6].

[12] Repeat steps [5, 6] two


more times. Press <Esc> to
end the tool or choose <End>
from the <Context Menu>.
42 Exercise 3. Ratchet

3-7 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Ratchet Wheel

[1] Extrude the sketch 0.25


in. to create the ratchet
wheel.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Ratchet," and exit
the Workbench.
  Exercise 3. Ratchet 43

3-8 Review

Selection of Multiple Entities


There are several ways to select multiple entities. Two of them are <Control-Select> and <Sweep Select>.
 Control-Select -- Click the entities sequentially while holding the Control key.
 Sweep Select -- Hold the left mouse button and sweep through the entities.
 Box Select -- Select <Select Mode/Box Select> [1], and use mouse to define a box.
     All entities inside the box are selected.

[1] One way to select


multiple entities is to
turn on <Select Model/
Box Select>.

<Modify/Copy> and <Modify/Paste> Tools


<Modify/Copy> copies the selected entities to a "clipboard." A <Paste Handle> must be specified using one of the
methods in the <Context Menu> (3-6[3]). After completing the <Copy> tool, the <Paste> tool is automatically
activated.
 <Modify/Paste> pastes the entities in the "clipboard" to the graphics window. The pasting location corresponds
to the <Paste Handle> specified in the <Copy> tool. To define the pasting location, you either click on the graphics
window or choose from the <Context Menu> (3-6[6]). Many options also can be chosen from the <Context Menu>
(3-6[5]), where the rotating angle <r> and the scaling factor <f> can be specified with the tool (3-6[4]). A positive
rotating angle is to rotate counter-clockwise.

<Modify/Replicate> Tool
<Replicate> is equivalent to a <Copy> followed by a <Paste>.

Ending a Tool
You can press <Esc> to end a tool (3-6[8, 12]). Besides, the <Context Menu> often provides an <End> option to end
a tool (3-6[5, 6]).
44 Exercise 4. Cover Plate 

Exercise 4
Cover Plate

4-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model


for a cover plate, of which the details are
shown in the figure below [2].

2 × R0.188 2 × D0.201

8 × R0.15 Y
0.25

0.376
0.312 0.312 2.00

[1] Details of
the cover plate.
1.25

6 × R0.06
0.75
0.25

Unit: in. 0.562


Thickness: 0.046 in. 1.50
  Exercise 4. Cover Plate 45

4-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> cell to start
up the DesignModeler.
Select <Inch> as the length
unit.

4-3 Draw Circles

[2] Draw another circle


with the same diameter.
Make sure an <R> appears [3] Use <Dimension/
when you define the radius Horizontal> to specify a
(1-5[5]). dimension of 0.376 in.

[4] Use <Dimension/


Vertical> to specify a
dimension of 2 in.

[1] On XYPlane, draw a


circle centered at the
origin and with a diameter
of 0.201 in.
46 Exercise 4. Cover Plate 

[6] Draw a concentric


circle with the same radius.
Make sure an <R> appears
when you define the radius.

[5] Draw a concentric


circle with a radius of
0.188 in.

4-4 Draw Rectangles and Lines

[1] Select <Draw/


Rectangle> and draw a
rectangle with
dimensions a shown.
  Exercise 4. Cover Plate 47

[2] Select <Draw/Polyline> and


draw three segments like this.
Select <Open End> from the
<Context Menu> after you
define the fourth point. Note
that the three segments are
either horizontal or vertical,
therefore make sure an <H> or
a <V> appears before clicking.
Specify the dimensions as
shown.

[4] Trim away this


extra segment.

[3] Select <Draw/Line>


again and draw a line like
this. Note that the two
end points coincide with
the Y-axis.

[5] Trim away this


extra segment.
48 Exercise 4. Cover Plate 

[7] Trim away this


segment.
[6] Use <Draw/Line>
again to draw a vertical
line and specify a
horizontal dimension as
shown.

[8] Trim away this [9] Trim away this


segment. segment.
  Exercise 4. Cover Plate 49

4-5 Draw Fillets

[2] Create 6 fillets


with the same radius
(1-8 [2]).

[1] Select
<Modify/Fillet>
and type 0.06 (in.)
for the <Radius>.

[3] Create a radius


dimension for
anyone of the fillets
(1-8[3]).

[5] Create 4 fillets


with the same
radius.

[4] Select
<Modify/Fillet>
again and type 0.15
(in.) for the
<Radius>.
50 Exercise 4. Cover Plate 

[6] With <Modify/Fillet>


tool still activated, create
this fillet by clicking the
horizontal line and the
circle. Note that the
horizontal line is
automatically trimmed.

[7] Repeat the last step


to create this fillet.

[8] Use <Draw/Line>


to re-create the
trimmed segment.

[9] Repeat the last step


to re-create this line.
  Exercise 4. Cover Plate 51

[12] Create a radius


dimension for anyone
of the 8 fillets.

[10] Use <Modify/


Fillet> to create this
fillet (with the same
radius as before) by
clicking the horizontal
line and the circle.

[11] Repeat the last step


to create this fillet.

4-6 Trim Away Unwanted Segments

[1] Select <Modify/


Trim> and turn on
<Ignore Axis>, then
trim away this segment.

[2] And this


segment.
52 Exercise 4. Cover Plate 

[3] The final


sketch.

4-7 Extrude the Sketch to Create the Cover Plate

[1] Extrude the sketch


0.046 in. to create the
cover plate.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Cover," and exit the
Workbench.
  Exercise 4. Cover Plate 53

4-8 Review

<Draw/Rectangle>
Draws a rectangle by defining two diagonally opposite points. The edges of the rectangle are either horizontal or
vertical. To draw a rectangle at an arbitrary orientation, please use <Draw/Rectangle by 3 Points>.

<Draw/Polyline>
This tool allows you to draw a series of connected lines, called a polyline. The polyline can be closed or open. After
defining the last point, choose <Open End> or <Closed End> from the <Context Menu>.

Auto Constraints
H -- Horizontal
V -- Vertical

Note:
For a comprehensive description of sketching tools, please refer to the following ANSYS on-line reference:
ANSYS Help System//DesignModeler User Guide//2D Sketching
54 Section B. Part Modeling 

Section B
Part Modeling

As mentioned in the opening of Section A, many parts can be created by a two-step operation: drawing a 2D sketch on
a plane and then generate a 3D body by extrusion, revolution, sweeping, or skin/lofting.
 A more complicated part often can be viewed as a series of the two-step operations; each two-step operation
either add material to the existing body or cut material from the existing body. The exercises in Section B are
designed to introduce the 3D modeling techniques for more complicated parts.
  Exercise 5. Crank 55

Exercise 5
Crank

5-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model for a crank, of which the details are shown in the figure below. Note
that a global coordinate system is set up and shown in the figure.
 The crank model can be viewed as a series of three two-step operations; each involves drawing a sketch on
XYPlane and then extrude the sketch to generate a material. The materials are either add to the existing body or cut
from the existing body.

Y Y
2 × D10
2 × R10

Unit: mm.
75

R10

X Z

R22
D30 65
D20 8
20
56 Exercise 5. Crank

5-2 Start Up DesignModeler


[3] Select
<Millimeter> as the
length unit.

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> cell to start
up DesignModeler.

5-3 Draw a Sketch on XYPlane

[1] On XYPlane, draw 5


circles and 4 tangent lines
(using <Draw/Line by 2
Tangents>) like this.
Specify the dimensions.
  Exercise 5. Crank 57

[3] Trim away these [2] Use <Modify/


three arc segments. Fillet> to draw a fillet
with a radius of 10
mm.
58 Exercise 5. Crank

5-4 Extrude to Create a Solid Body

[1] The active [2] The active


plane. sketch.

[10] Click
[9] Click <Display Plane>
<Generate>. to turn off the
[3] Click plane display.
<Extrude>.

[5] An <Extrude1> [8] Click the


object is inserted in small cyan
the model tree. sphere to rotate
the view into an
isometric view.
[4] It automatically
switches to
<Modeling Mode>.

[6] Click <Apply>.


The active sketch is
automatically taken
for <Geometry>.

[7] Type 8 (mm) for


<Depth>.

[11] The <Tree [13] Under the


Outline> displays a XYPlane, we've
tree structure for the created a sketch
geometry model, (Sketch1)
called <Model Tree>.

[14] The
<Extrude1> uses
<Sketch1> as the
base geometry.

[12] Click all the


plus signs <+> to
expand the model
[15] This is the
tree.
body we've
created so far.
  Exercise 5. Crank 59

5-5 Create a New Sketch on XYPlane

[2] A new sketch (Sketch2) is created. Note that, for the first
sketch of a plane, you don't need to explicitly click <New
Sketch>. However, for additional sketches on the same plane,
you need to click <New Sketch>. Remember that the [4] Click <Look At
drawing entities always belong to the active sketch. Face/Plane/
Sketch>.

[1] Click <New [5] Click <Display


Sketch>. Model> to turn off
the solid model
display.

[3] Click to switch


to <Sketching
Mode>.

[6] Draw a circle with a diameter


of 30 mm. This is the only entity
in <Sketch2>. Note that both
Sketch1 and Sketch2 are on the
same plane (XYPlane).
60 Exercise 5. Crank

5-6 Add Material to the Existing Body

[2] Click
<Apply>.

[1] Click [4] The default


<Extrude>. <Operation> is <Add
Material>.

[3] Type 20
[5] Click (mm).
<Generate>.

[7] <Sketch2> is
added under
[8] Click the XYPlane.
plus sign <+> to
expand
<Extrude2>.
[9] <Extrude2>
uses <Sketch2> as
the base
geometry. The
<Extrude2> is
simply a cylinder.

[6] The newly created [10] The body


material is simply a after adding
cylinder; it adds to the material.
existing body to form a
single body.
  Exercise 5. Crank 61

5-7 Create Another New Sketch on XYPlane

[2] A new sketch


(Sketch3) is created. [4] Click <Look At
Face/Plane/
Sketch>.

[1] Click <New [5] Click <Display


Sketch>. Model> to turn off
the solid model
display.

[3] Click to switch


to <Sketching
Mode>.

[6] Draw a circle with a


diameter of 20 mm. This is the
only entity in <Sketch3>. Note
that all three sketches are on
the same plane (XYPlane).
62 Exercise 5. Crank

5-8 Extrude to Create a Third Simple Body

[2] Click
<Apply>.

[1] Click
<Extrude>. [3] Select <Cut
Material>.

[4] Select
<Through All>.
[5] Click
<Generate>.

[7] <Sketch3> is
added under
XYPlane.

[8] Click the


plus sign <+> to
expand
<Extrude3>. [9] <Extrude3>
uses <Sketch3> as
the base
geometry. The
<Extrude3> is
simply a cylinder.

[6] The newly created


material is simply a
cylinder; The material
is cut from the [10] The body
existing body. after cutting
material.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Crank," and exit the
Workbench.
  Exercise 5. Crank 63

5-9 Review

<Plane> and <Sketch>


A sketch must be created on a plane; each plane, however, may contain multiple sketches. In the beginning of a
DesignModeler session, three planes are automatically created: XYPlane,YZPlane, and ZXPlane. You can create new
planes and new sketches as many as needed.

<Active Plane> and <Active Sketch>


The currently active plane and active sketch are shown in the toolbar (5-4[1, 2]). New sketches are created on the
active plane, and new drawing entities are created on the active sketch. You may change the active plane or active
sketch by selection from the pull-down list, or simply clicking the names on the model tree.

Modeling Mode
In the modeling mode (5-4[4]), several modeling tools become available, including Extrude, Revolve, Sweep, Skin/Loft,
Thin/Surface, Blend, Chamfer, Point, etc. In addition, a <Tree Outline> is displayed.

Model Tree
<Tree Outline> (5-4[11]) contains an outline of the model tree, the data structure of the geometric model. Each branch
of the tree is called an object, which may contain one or more objects. At the bottom of the model tree is a part
branch, which is the only object that will be exported to <Mechanical>. By right-clicking an object and selecting a tool
from the context menu, you can operate on the object, such as delete, rename, duplicate, etc.
 The order of the objects is relevant. <DesignModeler> renders the geometry according to the order of objects
in the model tree. New objects are normally added one after another. If you want to insert a new object BEFORE an
existing object, right-click the existing object and select <Insert/...> from the context menu. After insertion,
<DesignModeler> will re-render the geometry.

<Add Material> and <Cut Material>


With <Add Material> operation mode, the created material adds to the existing active body (i.e., they form a union).
With <Cut Material> operation mode, the material is cut from the existing active body. An active body is one that is
not frozen (to be defined later).
64 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 

Exercise 6
Geneva Gear Index

6-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model for a Geneva gear index, of which the details are shown in the figure
below. Note that a global coordinate system is set up and shown in the figure.

Y Y
5× 0
5 × R0.63 .2

Unit: in.

29
1.5

X Z

D0.25
D0.5

D2.47
D1.25
0.25
0.44
  Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 65

6-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as
the length unit.

6-3 Draw a Sketch on XYPlane

[1] On XYPlane, use


[2] draw two lines, each <Draw/Arc by Center> to
connects the origin to an draw an arc centered at
end point of the arc. the origin and with a radius
of 1.235 (in.) like this.

[5] draw two circles


centered at end points
of the new arc and
with the same radius
of 0.1 (in.).

[3] Specify an angle [4] Use <Draw/Arc by


dimension of 72 Center> to draw another
(degrees) for the arc with a radius of 0.625
sector. (in.) like this.
66 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 

[7] Draw a line connecting the upper


circle to the outer arc like this. The
line is parallel to the adjacent line,
therefore make sure a <//>
(indicating parallel auto constraint)
appears before clicking.

[6] Draw a line connecting the lower


circle to the outer arc like this. The
line is horizontal, therefore make
sure an <H> appears before clicking.

[9] Apply a <Constraints/


Tangent> on the upper
circle and the parallel line.

[8] Apply a
<Constraints/Tangent>
on the lower circle and
the horizontal line.
  Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 67

[10] Draw a line starting from


the origin like this. Then, make
the outer arc symmetric about
the newly created line. To do
this, select <Constraints/
Symmetric>, and then
subsequently click the line and
the two end points of the arc.

[11] Use <Dimension/


General> to specify a
length dimension of
1.529 (in.).

[12] Use <Draw/Arc by


Center> to draw an arc
centered at one end of the
new line. Specify the radius
dimension of 0.63 (in.).
68 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 

[13] Trim away unwanted


segments. This is the sketch
after trimming. Note that,
although the the sketch is no
more blue-colored, all the
dimensions are not changed.

6-4 Extrude to Generate 1/5 of the Gear Index

[1] Extrude the


sketch 0.25 in.
  Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 69

6-5 Duplicate the Body Circularly

[4] Select the


body.

[1] Select <Create/


Pattern> from the
pull-down menu.
[2] In the <Details
View>, select
<Circular> for
<Pattern Type>.

[3] Click the yellow area


to bring up <Apply/
Cancel> buttons.

[5] And click


<Apply>.

[6] Click the yellow area


to bring up <Apply/
Cancel> buttons.
[9] Type 4 for
<Copies>.
[8] And click
<Apply>.

[7] Select this


edge.

[10] Click
<Generate>.
70 Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 

6-6 Create the Hub

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[1] Select <Create/


Primitive/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu.

[2] Type 0.44 (in.) for


the <Axis Z
Component>.

[3] Type 0.25 (in.) for


the <Radius>.

[9] Click
<Generate>.

[5] Select <Create/


Primitive/Cylinder> again.

[6] Select <Cut


Material> for
<Operation>.

[7] Type 0.44 (in.) for


the <Axis Z
Component>.

[8] Type 0.125


(in.) for the
<Radius>. Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as
"Geneva," and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 6. Geneva Gear Index 71

6-7 Review

Auto Constraints: <//>


It is applicable to a line, indicating that the line is parallel to another line in the same plane (6-3[7]).

Sketching Tools: <Constraints/Tangent>


It can be applied on two edges (lines or curves), one of them must be a curve, to make them tangent to each other
(6-3[8, 9]).

<Create/Pattern>
This tool allows you to create copies bodies in three types of pattern: Linear, Circular, and Rectangular (6-5).

<Create/Primitive/Cylinder>
This tool creates a cylinder by specifying its origin, axis, and radius (6-6). The origin and axis are defined by referring to
the active plane coordinate system (1-12).
72 Exercise 7. Yoke 

Exercise 7
Yoke

7-1 Introduction

The yoke is a part of a universal joint [1]. In this exercise, we'll create a 3D
solid model for the yoke, of which the details are shown in the multiview
drawings below. Note that a global coordinate system is also shown in the
figure.

[1] The yoke is a part


of a universal joint.

D1.20
Z
Y Y

Unit: in.

R1.00
3.55

X Z
1.50

D0.75
R1.00
2 × 0.75
  Exercise 7. Yoke 73

7-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as
the length unit.

7-3 Create a U-Shape Body


[1] On XYPlane, use <Draw/
Arc by Center> tool to draw
two concentric arcs. Specify
the radius dimensions (1.00 in.
and 1.75 in. respectively).
[2] Use <Draw/
Polyline> tool to draw
a 3-segment polyline,
starting from this [5] Click the last point and
point. then select <Open End> from
the <Context Menu>. If the
last segment is not vertical,
use <Constraints/Vertical> to
make it vertical.

[6] Use
<Dimensions/
General> to
specify a length of
2.50 (in.).

[3] Click the second [4] Click the third


point. Make sure the point. Make sure the
first segment is vertical. second segment is
horizontal.
74 Exercise 7. Yoke 

[7] Draw two


vertical lines.

[8] Trim away this


segment.

[12] Click
<Generate>.

[9] Click
<Extrude>.

[10] Select <Both


- Symmetric>.

[11] Type 1 (in.) for


<Depth>. Note that,
the sketch is extruded
by 1.0 in. for both
sides of XYPlane,
therefore the total
depth is 2.0 in.
  Exercise 7. Yoke 75

7-4 Create Rounds

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius> [2] Control-
from the toolbar. select these 4
edges.

[4] Type 1 (in.)


for <Radius>. [5] Click
<Generate>.

[3] Click
<Apply>.

7-5 Create Holes [1] Select <Create/


Primitive/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu.

[3] Click
<Generate>.

[2] Click to bring up


<Apply/Cancel> buttons,
then select <YZPlane>
from the model tree and
click <Apply>. Now the
global Y-axis becomes local
X-axis, and the global Z-
axis becomes local Y-axis.
The origin and the axis are
defined using the local
(plane) coordinate system.
76 Exercise 7. Yoke 

7-6 Create Shaft [1] Click <New Plane>


to create a new plane.

[7] The new plane


become active plane.
[6] Click
<Generate>.

[2] A new plane


(Plane4) is inserted into
the model tree.

[3] Click to bring up <Apply/Cancel>


buttons, then select <ZXPlane> from the
model tree and click <Apply>. Now the
global Z-axis becomes local X-axis, and the
global X-axis becomes local Y-axis.

[4] Select <Offset Z> for


<Transform 1>. Note that
it refers to the local Z-axis.

[5] Type 3.55 (in.)


for <Value>.

[9] The local coordinate


system of the new plane. [8] The global
Note that, in a local coordinate system.
coordinate system, the Note that the
Workbench also uses Workbench uses RGB
RGB colors to represent colors to represent
XYZ axes respectively. XYZ axes respectively.
  Exercise 7. Yoke 77

[3] Click to turn off [2] Click to look at


model display. <Plane4>.

[4] Draw a circle


with a diameter of
1.2 (in.).
[1] Click to switch
to the <Sketching
Mode>.

[5] Click [8] Click


<Extrude>. <Generate>.

[6] Select
<Reversed> for
<Direction>. Now,
the extrusion
direction is the -Z
direction.

[7] Select <To


Next>. Now the
sketch will be
extruded up to the
next face.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Yoke," and exit the Workbench.
78 Exercise 7. Yoke 

7-7 Review

Extrude Direction
There are four options you can choose for the extrusion direction: <Normal>, <Reversed>, <Both -- Symmetric>, and
<Both -- Asymmetric>. In <Normal> case, the extrusion direction is the Z-direction of the sketching plane. When
<Reversed> is selected, the extrusion direction reverses to the -Z-direction (7-6[6]). For <Both -- Symmetric>, the
extrusion is along both +Z and -Z directions with the same depth (defined by <Depth>) (7-3[10]). For <Both --
Asymmetric>, the extrusion is along both +Z and -Z directions with the different depths (defined by <Depth> and
<Depth 2>).

<Blend/Fixed Radius>
This tool can be used to place rounds or fillets on a body (7-4). The fillets are specified on edges, while the rounds
can be specified on edges or faces. When faces are specified for rounds, the rounds are placed on the enclosing edges.

Create New Planes from Existing Planes


There are many ways to create a new plane [1]. Creating new plane from an existing plane (7-6[1-9]) involves
selecting the existing plane and then transforming the existing plane to a new position and orientation.

[1] There are


many ways to
create a plane.
  Exercise 8. Support 79

Exercise 8
Support

8-1 Introduction
The support is a part of the clamping
mechanism mentioned in Exercise 1 [1]. In
this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model
for the support, of which the details are
shown in the multiview drawings below.
Note that a global coordinate system is also
shown in the figure.

[1] The support is a


part of a clamping
mechanism.
0.125
0.375 0.375
0.375 1.250 Z
Y
0.219 0.250
R0.313

Unit: in.
2 × R0.100
0.750

0.250
Y
Slo
pe
:4

R0.156
5

1.250

6 × D0.25

X Z
0.375 1.250
0.875

0.125
0.625

2.500 1.000 R0.100


80 Exercise 8. Support

8-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as
the length unit.

8-3 Create Vertical Plate

[1] On XYPlane, draw


three circles of the same
radius. Specify their
[3] Use <Draw/ locations (two horizontal
Polyline> to draw a dimension of 1.25 and one [2] Specify a
polyline starting vertical dimension of 1.25) diameter of 0.25
from roughly here. in. for any one of
the circles.

[6] Click the fourth


point, making sure the
last segment is vertical.
Then select <Closed
End> from the
<Context Menu>.

[4] Click the second [5] Click the third


point, making sure point, making sure
the last segment is the last segment is
vertical. horizontal.
[7] Specify all dimensions so that all entities
become blue-colored: length dimensions of
2.50 and 0.625; a horizontal dimension of
0.375, a vertical dimension of 0.875, and an
angle dimension of 45 degrees.
  Exercise 8. Support 81

[8] Draw two more circles,


specify their radii (0.156 and
0.313) and locations
(horizontal dimensions of
0.219 and 0.250; vertical
dimensions of 0.25 and 0.75)

[9] Trim away


unwanted
segments.
82 Exercise 8. Support

[10] Draw two


fillets with the
same radius of
0.1 in.

[11] Click
<Extrude>. [13] Click
<Generate>.

[12] Type 0.125 (in.)


for <Depth>.
  Exercise 8. Support 83

8-4 Create Horizontal Plate


[7] Click <Generate>;
a <Plane4> is created.

[5] Click this face at a


location near this circle. A
[1] Click <New plane coordinate system
Plane>. shows up like this (the X
axis points to global -X
axis). Note that the
location you click
[3] The default determines the origin and
[2] Select <Subtype> is the axes of the plane
<From Face>. <Outline Plane>. coordinate system. If the
Y coordinate system is not
like this, simply re-click

X
again until it is correct.
Z
[4] Click the
yellow area to
bring up <Apply/
Cancel> buttons.

[6] Click <Apply>.

[10] Click to turn [9] Click to look at


of the model <Plane4>.
display.

[11] This is <Plane4>; it


is called an <Outline
Plane> since it includes
[8] Click to switch to an outline. The outline
<Sketching Mode>. is not part of a sketch
but can be used as
references.

[12] Draw a rectangle like this. Note that


three sides of the rectangle coincide with plane's
outline. Specify a length dimension of 0.125 in.
so that the rectangle become blue-colored.
84 Exercise 8. Support

[13] Click
<Extrude>.

[15] Click
<Generate>.

[14] Type 1 (in.)


for <Depth>.

8-5 Create Holes on the Horizontal Plate

[1] Click <New


Plane>.
[3] Click the
yellow area to
bring up <Apply/
[2] Select Cancel> buttons.
<From Face>.

[5] Click <Apply>.

[4] Click this face at a location


near this corner so that the plane
coordinate system is like this (the
X axis points to global X axis). Z
Remember, if the coordinate
system is not like this, simply re-
click again until it is correct.
Y

X
[6] Click <Generate>; a
<Plane5> is created.
  Exercise 8. Support 85

[9] Click to turn


of the model [8] Click to look at
display. <Plane5>.
[11] Draw three circles of the same
diameter (0.25 in.) and specify their
positions (horizontal dimensions of
0375, 0.375, and 1.25; vertical
dimensions of 0.375, 0.375, and 0.125)
[10] This is
<Plane5>; it
includes an
[7] Click to switch outline.
to <Sketching
Mode>.

[16] Click
<Generate>.
[12] Click
<Extrude>.

[13] Select <Cut


Material>.

[14] The
<Direction>
automatically
becomes
<Reversed>.

[15] Select
<Through All>.
86 Exercise 8. Support

8-6 Create the Round

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>
from the toolbar. [2] Click this
edge.

[4] Type 0.1 (in.)


for <Radius>.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[5] Click
<Generate>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Support,"
and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 8. Support 87

8-7 Review

Create New Planes From Faces


You can create a new plane from an existing face (8-4[1-7]). There are subtypes to choose: <Outline Plane> and
<Tangent Plane>. The only difference is that a <Tangent Plane> doesn't include the outline of the face. In either
subtype, the plane coordinate system is determined according to how you click the face. The origin is usually located
at the closest corner point or the center of a circle (or an arc); The Z-axis always points out of the face; The X-axis is
usually parallel to the closest edge.
 An outline plane include the outline of the face (8-4[11]). The outline is not part of a sketch but can be used as
references (datum). Without the outline, the only references are two exes (X-axis and Y-axis of the plane). However,
you can copy the outline (or part of the outline) into a sketch, using the sketching tool <Modify/Duplicate>.
88 Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 

Appendix:

Exercise 8a
Structural Analysis of the Support

8a-1 Introduction [2] This is the deformed


structure under the design
In this exercise, we will perform a static loads. The wireframe is the
underformed configuration.
structural analysis for the support created
in Exercise 8. The objective is to find the
deformation and the stresses under the
working loads, and make sure the stresses
are within the allowable level (30,000 psi).
 As mentioned in Exercise 1a, the
clamping mechanism is entirely made of
steel and is designed to withstand a
clamping force of 450 lbf [1]. After a
structural analysis of the entire
mechanism [2] (which is performed in
Exercise 17a), the results show shows
that, to withstand a clamping force of 450
lbf, the support is subject to external [1] The clamping mechanism
forces as shown [3] (also see 17a-4). is designed to withstand a
Note that the holes on the horizontal clamping force of 450 lbf.
plates are fixed to the ground [4].
 The analysis task will be carried out
with <Mechanical>.

380 lbf 62 lbf [3] The external


force on the arm.
See 17a-14.

163 lbf

380 lbf

[4] The horizontal


plates are fixed to
the ground.
  Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 89

8a-2 Start Up <Mechanical>

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench.

[2] Open the project


"Support," which was saved in
Exercise 8.

[3] Double-click to create


a <Static Structural>
analysis system.

[5] And drop here. A link


is created, indicating that
both <Geometry> share
the same data.

[6] Double-click to
[4] Drag <Geometry>... start up the
<Mechanical>.
90 Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 

8a-3 Specify Loads [7] Make sure the length


unit is <in.> (1a-2[8, 9]).

[2] Select <Loads/


Force>.

[3] Select this


[1] Click to highlight cylindrical face.
<Static Structural>.

[4] Click <Apply>.

[5] Select <Components>.

[6] Type -380 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 62 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.
  Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 91

[7] Select <Loads/


Force> again.

[8] Select this


cylindrical face.

[9] Click
<Apply>.

[10] Select <Components>.

[11] Type 380 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 163 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.

8a-4 Specify Supports

[2] Control-select
the three cylindrical
faces on the
horizontal plate.

[1] Select <Supports/


Frictionless Support>.

[3] And
control-select
this face.
92 Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 

[4] Click <Apply>.


Totally 5 faces are set to [6] Control-select the
<Frictionless Support>. four cylindrical faces on
the vertical plate.

[7] Click
<Apply>.

[8] Type 0
(in.) for <Z
[5] Select <Supports/ Component>.
Displacement.

8a-5 Insert Result Objects [2] Select <Stress/


Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Solution>.

[3] A solution object is


inserted under the
<Solution> branch.
  Exercise 8a. Structural Analysis of the Support 93

8a-6 Solve the Model


[1] Click <Solve>.

[2] Select <Edges/


Show Undeformed
WireFrame>. [3] The maximum
stress is 20,608 psi,
well below the
allowable stress
(30,000 psi).

[4] Click <Play> to [5] Click <Stop> to


animate the stop the animation.
deformation.

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project as "Support-a," and exit the
Workbench.
94 Exercise 9. Wheel 

Exercise 9
Wheel

9-1 Introduction

The main purpose of this exercise is to introduce another modeling tool (than <Extrude>): <Revolve>, which takes a
sketch as the profile and revolves about an axis to create a 3D solid body.
 We'll create a 3D solid model for a wheel, of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below. A
global coordinate system is also shown in the figure.
 Note that the wheel is axisymmetric. An axisymmetric body can be created by drawing a profile then revolting
about its axis to generate the 3D solid body.

45
Y

Unit: in.

X Z

D1.00

D1.50
D3.50
D4.00 0.25

0.50

0.75
  Exercise 9. Wheel 95

9-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as
the length unit.

9-3 Create the Profile

[1] On XYPlane, use


<Draw/Polyline> to
draw a polyline starting
from here.

[2] and ending here.


Select <Open End>
from the context
menu. Specify all
dimensions as shown.
96 Exercise 9. Wheel 

[3] Use <Modify/Replicate> to


"mirror copy" everything about the
Y-axis. The procedure is as follows:
(a) select all segments;
(b) select <End/Use Plane Origin as
Handle> from the context menu;
(c) select <Flip Horizontal> from
the context menu;
(d) select <Paste at Plane Origin>
from the context menu;
(e) finally select <End> from the
context menu (or press <Esc>).
  Exercise 9. Wheel 97

9-4 Revolve the Sketch about X-Axis [6] Click to turn


off the plane
display.

[5] Click
<Generate>.

[1] Click <Revolve> in [2] Rotate to an


the toolbar. isometric view.

[3] Click <Apply>. The active


sketch is automatically taken
as the profile.

[4] On the graphics


window, select the X-axis
and click <Apply>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Wheel," and exit the Workbench.

9-5 Review

Modeling Tool <Revolve>


It takes a sketch as the profile and revolves about an axis to create a 3D solid body (9-4[1-5]). The angle of revolution
can be specified.
98 Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 

Exercise 10
Transition Pipe

10-1 Introduction
The transition pipe is used to connect two pipe segments. In this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model for the
transition pipe, of which the details are shown in the multiview drawings below. A global coordinate system is also
shown in the figure.
 The main purpose of this exercise is to introduce another modeling tool: <Sweep>, which takes a sketch as the
path and another sketch as the profile; the profile then "sweeps" along the path to create a 3D solid body.
 Note that it is possible to create the curved pipe by using of <Revolve> tool (Exercise 9), however, as an
exercise, we decide to create the curved pipe by using <Sweep>.

Y Y
R1/16"

2 × D3.50

2 × D2.50

8 × D0.25

R3.50

Unit: in.

D1.00
R1/8"
R2.50
2 × 0.25

X Z
  Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 99

10-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch> as
the length unit.

10-3 Create a Sketch for the Path

[1] On the XYPlane, draw an


arc like this . This sketch will
be used as the sweeping path
of the curved pipe.

10-4 Create a Sketch for the Profile

[1] Select
<ZXPlane> (or
click ZXPlane in [1] On the ZXPlane, draw two
the model tree). concentric circles like this. This
sketch will be used as the
profile of the curved pipe.
100 Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 

10-5 Create a Body Using <Sweep>

[3] Click
<Generate>.
[1] Click
<Sweep> on the
<Toolbar>.
[2] Select <Sketch2>
(from the model tree)
for the <Profile> and
select <Sketch1> (from
the model tree) for the
<Path>.

10-6 Create a Plane on One End of the Pipe

[1] Click <New


Plane>.

[2] Select <From


Face>.

[4] Click this face. Note that


the local Z-axis (blue) points
out of the face, and the local
X-axis (red) points to the
global -Z direction.

[3] Click the yellow


color area to bring
[5] Click up <Apply/Cancel>
<Apply> buttons. [6] Click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 101

10-7 Create an End Plate

[1] On the new plane


(Plane4), create a sketch like
this (see next two steps).
Remember to impose two
<Symmetry> constraints to
make the four small circles
symmetric about X-axis and
about Y-axis.

[2] The sketch


[3] The sketch doesn't includes a circle
include this circle, which is that overlaps with
the outer circle of the the inner circle of
plane outline. the plane outline.

[4] Click
<Extrude>.
[6] Click
<Generate>.

[5] Select <Add


Frozen>. This
generates a
separate body.
102 Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 

10-8 Create Another End Plate by Duplication

[4] Click this face.


[1] Click <New Note that the local
Plane>. Z-axis (blue) points
out of the face.

[2] Select <From


Face>.

[6] Click
[3] Click the yellow <Generate>.
[5] Click color to bring up <Plane5> is
<Apply>. <Apply/Cancel> created.
buttons.

[8] Select
<Move>.
[9] Select the
existing end plate.

[10] Select <Plane4>


from the model tree.

[11] Select <Plane5>


from the model tree.

[7] Select <Create/


Body Operation>.

[12] Click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 103

10-9 Unite All Bodies into One Body

[2] <Unite> is the


default <Operation>.

[3] Control-select all


three bodies.

[4] Click
<Generate>.
[1] Select <Create/
Boolean>.

10-10 Create Fillets

[2] Control-
select these two
edges.
[1] Select <Blend/
Fixed Radius>.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.
104 Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 

10-11 Create Rounds

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>.
[2] Control-
select these two
edges.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.

10-12 Turn Off Edges

[1] Select <View/Shaded


Exterior> to turn off
the edges display.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Pipe," and exit
the Workbench.
  Exercise 10. Transition Pipe 105

10-13 Review

Modeling Tool <Sweep>


The <Sweep> can be thought of a generalization of the <Extrude>. <Sweep> takes a sketch as the path and another
sketch as the profile; the profile then "sweeps" along the path to create a 3D solid body (10-5). The <Sweep> also can
be used to create spiral shapes, which will be demonstrated in Exercise 12.

Add Frozon
A body is either in a state of active or frozen. The default state is active. Two overlapped active bodies would
automatically join together to form a single body. If either of them is frozen, they wouldn't join together. Therefore,
the only way to avoid overlapped bodies joining together is to make at least one of them frozen. In 10-7, we create the
end plate as frozen body (separating it from the curved pipe), so that, in 10-8, we can copy the end plate alone without
the curved pipe.

<Body Operation/Move>
This tool moves a body (or a group of bodies) to another position and orientation in the same way that the source
plane is move to coincide with the destination plane (10-8). If the <Reserve Bodies?> option is <Yes>, it essentially
copies the bodies. This tool is useful for "assembling" parts together to form an assembly.

<Create/Boolean>
Using boolean operations, bodies can be united, intersected, and subtracted.
106 Exercise 11. C-Bar 

Exercise 11
C-Bar

11-1 Introduction
[2] A strain gauge
is bonded to the
The C-shaped steel bar is used as a dynamometer, a device to surface here. The
measured strain is
measure the magnitude of a force P [1]. A strain gauge is bonded to
used to calculate
the surface of a location as shown [2]. The measured strain is then the force P.
used to calculate the force P.
 The details are shown below; a coordinate system is also
included in the figure. In this exercise, we will create a 3D solid
model for the C-bar. Due to the symmetry, we will create the
upper half of the model and then complete the model by using a
"mirror" (copy) operation.
[1] The C-
bar is used to
Y measure a
P force P.
100
70 20
Y
20
D10
Unit: mm.
[3] The body has a
thickness of 5 mm.
everywhere.
30

R50
40

R10
120

X Z
40

[4] All fillets have


radii of 3 mm.
  Exercise 11. C-Bar 107

11-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select
<Millimeter> as the length unit.

11-3 Create a Sketch for the Path

[1] On the XYPlane,


draw a sketch like this.

11-4 Create a Sketch for the Profile

[2] On the YZPlane,


draw a sketch like this. [1] Select
The sketch is <YZPlane> (or
symmetric about the click YZPlane in
horizontal axis. the model tree).
108 Exercise 11. C-Bar 

11-5 Create a Body Using <Sweep>

[3] Click
<Generate>.

[1] Click <Sweep>


on the <Toolbar>.

[2] Select <Sketch2> and


<Sketch1> (from the model
tree) as the <Profile> and
<Path> respectively.

[2] Click <New


[4] Draw a sketch
11-6 Create an Ear Sketch>. <Sketch3>
is created on the for the <Sketch3>
<XYPlane>. like this. Note that
<Sketch1> is
hidden now.

[1] Select
<XYPlane>
[3] Right-click
<Sketch1> and select
<Hide Sketch> from
the context menu.
  Exercise 11. C-Bar 109

[5] Click
<Extrude>. [7] Click
<Generate>.

[6] Extrude 2.5 mm


both sides.

11-7 Create Fillets [2] Control-select


these two edges.

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.
110 Exercise 11. C-Bar 

11-8 "Mirror" Copy the Body

[2] <Mirror> is
the default
operation type.

[3] Select the body


and click <Apply>.

[4] Select
<ZXPlane> from the
model tree.

[1] Select <Create/ [5] Click


Body Operation>. <Generate>.

[6] Select <View/Shaded


Exterior> to turn off
the edges display.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "CBar," and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar 111

Appendix:

Exercise 11a
Deformation of the C-Bar
P
11a-1 Introduction
As described in Exercise 11, the C-shaped steel bar is used to measure the
magnitude of a force P [1]. A strain gauge is bonded to the surface of the location as
shown [2]. The location is chosen because the strain is relatively large and
distributed quite uniformly, so that the measured strain is not sensitive to the
variation of the location of the strain gauge. The measured strain ε is then used to [2] Strain
calculate the force P. The idea also relies on the fact that the strain is linearly gauge.
proportional to the force P, which is true when the deformation is small enough. In
other words, if the measured strain is doubled, then the force must be doubled.
 In this section, we will assume a force of P = 2,000 N, and perform a simulation
to establish a relation between the force P and the strain ε .
[1]
Applied
force P.
11a-2 Start Up [5] The two systems P
share the same
<Geometry>. You can
edit up-stream cell
but not the down- [6] Double-click
stream cell. <Model> to start up
[2] Open the <Mechanical>
project "CBar," application.
which was saved
in Exercise 11.

[3] Drag <Static


Structural> and drop to [4] A <Static
<Geometry> cell of the Structural>
<Geometry> system. system is created.

[1] Launch
Workbench
112 Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar

[7] <Mechanical GUI> shows


[9] If the unit system is
up. If your GUI layout is not like
not like this, see [10].
this, pull-down-select <View/
Windows/Reset Layout> and
select <Graphics> tab., see [8].

[8] Whenever necessary, pull-


down-select <View/Windows/
Reset Layout> and select
<Graphics> tab to bring back
the "standard" layout.

[10] Pull-down-select <Unit/


Metric (mm, kg N, s, mV, mA)>.
Unlike DesignModeler, the
units in <Mechanical> can be
changed any time.
  Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar 113

[3] In the <Details>,


11a-3 Generate Mesh select <Fine> for
<Relevance Center> and
type "75" for <Relevance>.

[1] Highlight
<Mesh>.

[2] Click "+" to


expand
<Sizing>.

[4] Select <Mesh/


Generate Mesh>.

[5] Click "+" to


expand
<Statistics>.

[6] Number of nodes and elements


are shown in the Details view. Your
numbers may not be the same as here.
Also note that in an academic teaching
version of ANSYS Workbench, the
number of nodes or the number of
elements is limited to 30,000.
114 Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar

Meshing
The process of dividing a body into small bodies is call meshing. The small bodies are called elements, or finite elements.
The simulation method is thus called finite element simulation. The basic idea of finite element methods is to divide a
body of rather complicated geometry into smaller elements of simple geometry, and the elements are assumed to be
connected to each other through nodes. The element's geometry is so simple that a set of equations may be
established easily for each element. All equations are then solve simultaneously for the displacements. Strains are then
calculated from the displacements. And stresses are in turn calculated from the strains.
 In general, the finer the mesh, the more accurate the solution (and more computing time). In this exercise, we
control the mesh size by simply adjusting <Relevance Center> and <Relevance>.
 Also, note that the Workbench will automatically generate a mesh right before it solves the problem if a mesh
doesn't exist.

Limitation of Mesh Count


In this book, we will restrict the number of nodes or elements to be no more than 30,000, which is a limitation
imposed by the <ANSYS Academic Teaching> version.

11a-4 Set Up Environment Conditions

[3] Select this inner


cylindrical surface.
[1] Highlight
<Static Structural>.

[2] Select
<Supports/Fixed
Support>.

[4] Click <Apply>.


  Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar 115

[5] Select <Loads/


Force>. [6] Select this inner
cylindrical surface.

[8] Select <Components>


for <Define By> and type
-2,000 (N) for <Y
Component>.

[7] Click <Apply>.

[10] We've added these


two environment
conditions.
116 Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar

11a-5 Insert Result Objects

[1] Highlight
<Solution>.

[2] Select <Strain/Normal>


to insert a <Normal Elastic
Strain> result object.

[3] Select <Y


Axis> for
<Orientation>.

[5] The object is renamed


for better readability.

[4] Right-click the result


object as shown and
select <Rename Based on
Definition> from the
context menu.
  Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar 117

11a-6 Solve the Model and View the Results

[1] Click <Solve>.

[4] Click
<Probe>.

[2] Click <Play> to [3] Click <Stop> to


animate the stop the animation.
deformation.

[5] Move the [6] Move the mouse to the


mouse around the location of the strain gauge and
model to display click to put a label on the location.
the strain value. The strain is about 0.000296.
118 Exercise 11a. Deformation of the C-Bar

11a-7 Conclusion

The simulation results show that a force of P = 2,000 N produces a strain ε = 0.000296. We may establish a relation
between the force P and the strain ε as follows:

2000
P= ε
0.000296

For example, if the measured strain in the strain gauge is ε1 = 0.0001, then the force P1 is

2000
P1 = 0.0001= 676 N
0.000296

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project ("CBar"), and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 12. Threaded Shaft 119

Exercise 12
Threaded Shaft

12-1 Introduction [1] The threaded


shaft is a part of a
clamping mechanism.

The threaded shaft is a part of the clamping mechanism


mentioned in Exercise 1 [1]. In this exercise, we will
create a 3D solid model for the threaded shaft, of
which the details are shown below.

[2] Major [3] Pitch


diameter p = 1/16 in.
d = .375 in. [4] Thread
Unit: in. form: Unified
national coarse
Y
D0.625
.375-16UNC D0.250
D0.266

0.438 3.750 0.875

Pitch p

p−H 8
H 8
H = ( 3 2)p = 0.0541266 in
60 

H
Slo

H = ( 3 2)p

p − = 0.0557342 in
pe:

8
pe:
Slo
60

H


= 0.0135316 in
Major diameter d

4 H 4
120 Exercise 12. Threaded Shaft

12-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select <Inch>
as the length unit.

12-3 Create the Shaft

[1] On the XYPlane, use <Draw/


[2] Click Polyline> to draw a sketch like
<Revolve>. this. Specify the dimensions.

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[3] In the graphics


window, select the
X-axis for <Axis>.
  Exercise 12. Threaded Shaft 121

12-4 Create a Hole [1] Select <Create/


Primitive/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu.

[3] Click
<Generate>.

[2] The length is


arbitrary as long as
it is not less than
0.625 in.

[1] Click to create a new


12-5 Create Threads sketch (Sketch2) on
XYPlane.

[2] Right-click
<Sketch1> and select
<Hide Sketch>.

[3] Click <Sketch2>


to make it active.
122 Exercise 12. Threaded Shaft

[5] This is the


horizontal
dimension measured
from the Y-axis.

[4] Draw a sketch


<Sketch2> like this.
Specify the dimensions.
This sketch will be
used as the sweeping
profile.
[6] This is the
vertical dimension
measured from the
X-axis.

[7] Click to create a new


sketch (Sketch3) on
XYPlane.

[8] Hide <Sketch2>


and make <Sketch3>
active.

[9] Draw a sketch <Sketch3> like this.


The sketch is simply a horizontal line.
The length of the line is arbitrary as
long as it is not less than the total
length of the threads (3.75 in.). This
sketch will be used as the sweeping
profile.
  Exercise 12. Threaded Shaft 123

[10] Click
<Sweep>.

[11] Select
<Sketch2> (from the
model tree) as the
<Profile>.

[12] Select
<Sketch3> (from the
model tree) as the
<Path>.

[13] Select <Pitch>


for <Twisting
Specification>.

[14] Type 0.0625 (in.)


for <Pitch>. [15] Click
<Generate>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Shaft," and exit the Workbench.
124 Exercise 13. Lift Fork 

Exercise 13
Lift Fork

13-1 Introduction

The lifting fork is used in an LCD (liquid crystal display) manufacturing factory to handle glass panels. In this section,
we will create a 3D solid model for the lift fork, of which the details are shown below.
 The cross sections of the prongs (fingers) are not uniform along the length [1-3]. The tools <Extrude> or
<Sweep> cannot be used to created the prongs. This exercise introduces a modeling tool, <Skin/Loft>, which takes a
series of profiles from different planes and creates a 3D solid that fits through these profiles

[1] At the root, the


cross section is
160x40 (mm.).

[3] At the midway, Y 160


0
the cross section is
130x20 (mm.).

[2] At the tip, the


cross section is
100x10 (mm.). Z
200

0
240

Unit: mm.
  Exercise 13. Lift Fork 125

13-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select
<Millimeter> as the length unit.

13-3 Create the Transversal Beam

[1] Draw a rectangle on <XYPlane>.


The rectangle is symmetric about Y-
axis. Note that the top edge coincides
with X-axis.
[3] Details view of
the extrusion.
Remember to click
<Generate>.

[2] Extrude 200 mm.


For details, see [3].
126 Exercise 13. Lift Fork 

Skin/Loft
Now we want to create a single prong, or finger. The prong is then duplicated to create other prongs. The prong's
cross section is not uniform. You cannot create the prong using <Extrude> or <Sweep>. A more general way to
create a solid or surface of different cross sections along its path is using <Skin/Loft>. <Skin/Loft> takes a series of
profiles from different planes and creates a solid that fits through these profiles.
 You may view <Sweep> as a generalization of <Extrude>, and <Skin/Loft> as a generalization of <Sweep>.

13-4 Create Three Planes Based on a Face of the Beam

[1] All three planes will be


created based on this face.
When you select the face,
make sure the coordinate
system is attached at the
bottom-right corner and the
directions of the axes are the
same as global axes.

[2] Create
<Plane4>, see
[3].

[4] Create
<Plane5>, see [5].

[6] Create
<Plane6>, see [7].

[3] Details of
[5] Details of <Plane4>.
[7] Details of <Plane5>.
<Plane6>.
  Exercise 13. Lift Fork 127

13-5 Create a Sketch on Each Plane

[1] Create this sketch


on <Plane4>. This
becomes <Sketch2>.

[2] Create this sketch on


<Plane5>. This becomes
<Sketch3>.

[3] Create this sketch on


<Plane6>. This becomes
<Sketch4>.

[5] The prong is


created as a frozen
body, because we
don't want the prong
[1] Click to join the transversal
<Skin/Loft> on beam for now.
the toolbar.

[2] Control-select <Sketch2>,


<Sketch3>, and <Sketch4> (the order is
important) in the model tree, and click
<Apply>. Note that a grey lofting guide
line appears. If your guide line is not
correct, it can be resolved by right-clicking
anywhere and selecting <Fix Guide Line>
to redefine the lofting guide line.

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[3] Select <Add


Frozen>.
128 Exercise 13. Lift Fork 

13-7 Duplicate the Prong Using <Pattern>

[3] Click
<Apply>.

[4] Click the


yellow area to
bring up <Apply/
Cancel>.

[8] Click
[1] Select <Apply>.
<Create/
Pattern>.
[5] Select this
edge.

[9] Type 480 (mm)


for <Offset> and 3
for <Copies>.

[7] Click an arrow [6] If the direction


to switch the is not like this...
direction.
[2] Select the
prong body.

[10] Click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 13. Lift Fork 129

13-8 Combine the Bodies Using <Boolean>

[2] The default


operation is
<Unite>.

[3] Control-select
all five bodies and
click <Apply>.

[1] Select <Create/


Boolean>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Fork," and exit the Workbench.
130 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

Exercise 14
Caster Frame

14-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we'll create a 3D solid model for a caster frame, of which the details are shown in the multiview
drawings below. A coordinate system is also shown in the figure.

X
64

10
Unit: mm.
Fillets and rounds: R3
D25 D17.5
Z
D35 Y
Y
50

10 R15
28

R10
X Z

10
10
92

D32
76 10 D21.5
13
126
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 131

14-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and create a
<Geometry> system.

[2] Double-click <Geometry>


cell to start up the
DesignModeler. Select
<Millimeter> as the length unit.

14-3 Create A Quarter of Main Body

[4] Click <Extrude>.

[1] Click <ZXPlane>


to make it active.

[2] Click to switch to


<Sketching Mode>.

[3] Draw a rectangle of


50x32 (mm.). In this
exercise, we'll sketch in
3D view (rather than
plane view).
132 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

[7] Click <Generate>.


[5] Select <Sketch1>
in the model tree.

[6] And
click
<Apply>.

[8] Click <New [11] Click


Plane>. <Generate>.

[9] Select <From Face>.

[10] Click the yellow


area to bring up <Apply/
Cancel> buttons and
select the face with the
coordinate system as
shown.
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 133

[12] Switch to <Sketching


Mode> and use <Draw/
Polyline> to draw a sketch
like this on the newly
created plane (Plane4).

[13] Click <Extrude>.

[14] Click
<Generate>.
134 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

[15] Click <New


Plane>.

[16] Select the face


with the coordinate
system as shown.
[17] Click
<Generate>.

[18] Switch to <Sketching


Mode> and draw a sketch
like this on the newly
created plane (Plane5).
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 135

[19] Click <Extrude>.

[20] Click
<Generate>.

[21] Click <New


Plane>.

[22] Select the face


and the coordinate
system as shown.

[23] Click
<Generate>.
136 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

[24] Switch to <Sketching


Mode> and draw a sketch
like this on the newly
created plane (Plane6).

[25] Click <Extrude>.

[26] Click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 137

[27] Select <Create/Body


Operation> from the
pull-down menu and
select the solid body.

[28] Select <XYPlane>


from the model tree.
Click <Generate>.

[29] Select <Create/Body


Operation> from the
pull-down menu and
select the solid body.

[30] Select <YZPlane>


from the model tree.
Click <Generate>.
138 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

14-4 Create the Shaft

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/


Cylinder> from the pull-down
menu; click here to bring up
<Apply/Cancel> buttons and select
<ZXPlane> from the model tree.

[2] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
select <ZXPlane> from
the model tree.
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 139

[3] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
select <ZXPlane> from
the model tree.

14-5 Create the Bearing


[1] Select <Create/
Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
select <YZPlane> from
the model tree.
140 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

[2] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
select <YZPlane> from
the model tree.

[3] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
select <YZPlane> from
the model tree.
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 141

14-6 Create Rounds [2] Control-select


these four edges.

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>.

[6] Control-select
these two edges.

[3] And click


<Apply>.

[4] Click <Generate>.

[5] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius> again.

[7] And click


<Apply>.

[8] Click <Generate>.


142 Exercise 14. Caster Frame 

14-7 Create Fillets

[2] Select this


edge.

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>.

[4] The selection


extends to its
limits.

[3] Select <Extend


Selection/Extend to
Limits>.

[5] Control-select other


edges. Totally 18 edges
(also see [8, 9]). Whenever
necessary, rotate the view
and use <Extend Selection/
[6] Click <Apply>. Extend to Limits>.

[7] Click
<Generate>.

[9] There are 2


fillets if you view
from bottom.

[8] Fillets viewed


from top.
  Exercise 14. Caster Frame 143

14-8 Create Additional Rounds

[1] Select <Blend/


Fixed Radius>.

[2] Control-select these


edges. Totally 42 edges
(also see [5]). Whenever
necessary, rotate the view
and use <Extend Selection/
Extend to Limits>.

[3] Click <Apply>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[6] Select <View/


Shaded Exterior> to
hide all edges.

[5] You can see all


rounds if you view
from top.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Caster," and exit the Workbench.
144 Section C. Assembly Modeling 

Section C
Assembly Modeling

An assembly consists of two or more parts. The DesignModeler assigns a color for each part in an assembly. Creating
a simple assembly is straightforward, but you have to take case so that parts are not bonded together. This usually can
be done by freezing the existing parts. Exercise 15 is an example of creating a simple assembly. Creating complex
assemblies involves transformations (translations, rotations, etc.) of parts to appropriate positions. Exercises 16 and 17
demonstrate these techniques.
  Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly 145

Exercise 15
Threaded Shaft Assembly

15-1 Introduction [1] The threaded shaft


assembly is a sub-assembly
of a clamping mechanism.
In this exercise, we'll create a threaded shaft assembly
[1] shown in the figure below. The assembly consists
of four parts: the threaded shaft created in Exercise
12, a handle, and two hinges. We adopt a coordinate
system which is the same as that used in Exercise 12.
This assembly is simple enough that all parts can be
created with referring to the same coordinate system.
More complicated cases involve transformations
(translations, rotations, etc.) of the parts (eg., Exercises
16 and 17).

0.3
75

Y D0
Unit: in. .75 X

0.1
875

0.7
5
D0
.75
.25
D0

0.1
25
3.0
00

63
5 5.0
D 0.2 6
.26
D0
00
2.0

19
0.2

Z
146 Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly

15-2 Start Up DesignModeler


[1] Launch ANSYS
Workbench and open the
project "Shaft," which was
saved in Exercise 12.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler. Due
to the complexity of
the threads, it may take
a while to open the
model.

[3] Right-click
<Solid> and select
[4] Change the
<Rename> from the
part name to
context menu.
"Shaft."
  Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly 147

15-3 Create the Handle

[1] Select <Tool/Freeze> from


the pull-down menu. The body
become <Frozen>. By default,
frozen bodies are displayed as
transparent. This can be turned
off by selecting <View/Frozen
Body Transparency> from the
pull-down menu.

[2] A <Freeze1>
object is inserted.

Freeze Existing Bodies Before Creating New Parts


Remember, a body is either active (non-transparent) or frozen (transparent). Active bodies are automatically join
(unite) together to form a single body if they overlap each other. Here, we freeze the existing bodies, so that the
newly created body doesn't join the existing bodies and, in effect, becomes a new part.

[3] Select <Create/Primitives/


Cylinder> from the pull-down
menu and set up the <Details
View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[4] Rename the


new part as
"Handle."
148 Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly

15-4 Create the End Hinge

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/


Cylinder> from the pull-down menu
and set up the <Details View> as
shown. Click <Generate>.

[2] The newly created body (which is


active) doesn't overlap with the handle
(which is also active), therefore it
becomes a separate part.

[3] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
set up the <Details View>
as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[5] Rename the new


part as "EndHinge."

[4] The two newly created


bodies (both are active) join
together to form a single part.
  Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly 149

[6] Select <Create/Boolean> from the


pull-down menu and select <Subtract>
for <Operation>.

[7] In the graphics window, select the


body "EndHinge" as <Target Bodies>.

[8] In the graphics window,


[9] Select <Yes> for select the body "Shaft" as
<Preserve Tool Bodies>. <Tool Bodies>.

[10] Click
<Generate>.

[11] Right-click
"EndHinge" and select
<Hide All Other Bodies>
from the context menu.

[12] The finished


[13] Right-click "EndHinge."
anywhere in the graphics
window and select
<Show All Bodies> from
the context menu.
150 Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly

15-5 Create the Middle Hinge

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/


Cylinder> from the pull-down menu
and set up the <Details View> as
shown. Click <Generate>.

[2] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from
the pull-down menu and
set up the <Details View>
as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[4] Rename the new


part as "MidHinge."

[3] The two newly created


bodies (both are active) join
together to form a single part.
  Exercise 15. Threaded Shaft Assembly 151

[5] Select <Create/Boolean> from the


pull-down menu and select <Subtract>
for <Operation>.

[6] In the graphics window, select the


body "MidHinge" as <Target Bodies>.

[7] In the graphics


[8] Select <Yes> for window, select the body
<Preserve Tool Bodies>. "Shaft" as <Tool Bodies>.

[9] Click
<Generate>.

[10] Hide all bodies


except the
"MidHinge."

[11] Show all bodies.

[12] Select <View/Frozen


Body Transparency> to turn
off the transparent display
of the frozen bodies.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project ("Shaft"), and exit
the Workbench.
152 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

Exercise 16
Universal Joint

16-1 Introduction
In this exercise, we'll create a universal joint shown in the figure below. The assembly consists of four kinds of parts
[1-4], of which the yoke [1] was created in Exercise 7. A coordinate system for the assembly is also shown in the
figure [5]. The assembly created in this exercise is simple enough that we will create all parts in a single <Geometry>
system. For more complicated cases (eg., Exercises 17), multiple <Geometry> systems may be a better management
scheme.
 The universal joint is adapted from a working drawing in the book Technical Graphics Communication, by G. R.
Bertoline, E. N. Wiebe, C. L. Miller, and J. L. Mohler.

[1] 2 x Yoke
(created in
[5] Coordinate Unit: in. Exercise 7).
system for the
assembly.

[4] 4 x Pin.
D0.50, L1.35.

Z X

[2] Swivel.
OD1.00,
ID0.50, L2.15.

[3] 4 x Bushing.
OD0.75, ID0.50,
L0.60.
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 153

16-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[1] Launch ANSYS Workbench


and open the project "Yoke,"
which was saved in Exercise 7.

[2] Save the project


as a new name [3] Double-click
"Joint." <Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.

Coordinate Systems Y ,Y ′
There is a coordinate system for
the entire assembly, called a global
coordinate system; each part has
its own coordinate system, called a
local coordinate system.
 Here, the coordinate system [5] The
set up in 16-1 is the global coordinate
coordinate system [4], and the system of the
part.
coordinate system defined in 7-1,
used to create the yoke, is a local
coordinate system [5].
 In order to position the yoke [4] The
in the global coordinate system, we coordinate
system of the Z′
need to move the yoke upward (in
assembly. X′
Y direction) by 1.50 in.

Z X
154 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

16-3 Move the Yoke Upward

[6] Select <Tools/Freeze> to


[1] Select <Create/Body freeze the upper yoke.
Operation> from the
pull-down menu and
select <Translate>.

[2] In the graphics window,


select the solid body.

[3] Select <Coordinates>


for <Direction
[4] Type 1.5 (in.) for Definition>.
<Y Offset>. It refers to
the global coordinate
system. Click
<Generate>.

[5] Rename the


body as
"UpperYoke."

16-4 Create Lower Yoke

[1] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and select
<Mirror>.

[2] Select
"UpperYoke,"
either from the
model tree or
[3] Select <ZXPlane> from the graphics
from the model tree. window.
Click <Generate>.

[4] Rename the


new body (which is
also frozen) as
"LowerYoke."
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 155

[5] Select <Create/ [9] Select <Selection


Body Operation>. Filter: Model Faces>.

[10] Select this circular face.


This defines a direction, which is
normal to the face, i.e., a vertical
direction. You also can click
[13] Click <Display Plane> to turn on the
<Generate>. plane display, and then define the
direction by selecting the
vertical axis.

[6] Select
<Rotate>.

[7] Select
"LowerYoke."

[11] You can click here to


switch the direction.
However, in this case, it
[8] Type 90 doesn't matter whether it is
[12] Click the (degrees). upward or downward.
yellow area and
click <Apply>.

Selection Filters
By activating a selection filter [9],
you can make one of four types of
entities (points, edges, faces, and
bodies) selectable. By right-
clicking the graphic area, selection
filters can also be accessed
through the context menu, where
additional filters are available [15].
Multiple filters can be activated at
the same time.

[15] More selection


filters can be
accessed through
the context menu.
[14] Now, the lower
yoke rotates 90
degrees.
156 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

16-5 Create the Swivel [1] Select both bodies


and right-click-select
<Hide Body>. In order to
focus on the swivel, we
hide the existing bodies.

[2] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> from the
pull-down menu and set up
the <Details View> as shown.
Click <Generate>.
[3] The body is
active (non-
transparent), since it
is created with <Add
Material> option.

[4] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> and set
up the <Details View> as [5] The new material
shown. Click <Generate>. adds to the existing
active body.
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 157

[6] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> and set
up the <Details View> as
shown. Click <Generate>.

[7] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> and set
up the <Details View> as
shown. Click <Generate>.

[9] Select <Tools/


Freeze> to freeze
the swivel.

[10] Right-click
anywhere in the
graphics window and
select <Show All
[8] Rename the Bodies>.
body as "Swivel."
158 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

[1] Select <Create/


16-6 Create a Pin Primitives/Cylinder> and
set up the <Details
View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[2] The cylinder


starts from a yoke's
face (see [4]).

[3] The cylinder


extends to the
negative direction.

[4] The cylinder's outer


face aligns with a yoke's
face. Also, the cylinder is
created as frozen to avoid
joining the bushing to be
created next (16-7).

16-7 Create a Bushing [5] Rename the


body as "Pin1."

[1] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> and
set up the <Details
View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[2] The cylinder


starts from a swivel's
face (see [3]).

[3] The cylinder's inner


face aligns with a swivel's
face. Also, the cylinder is
created as active because
we haven't finished the
part (the part has a hole).

[4] Hide all other


bodies.
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 159

[5] Select <Create/


Primitives/Cylinder> and
set up the <Details
View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[6] The material


is cut from the
active bodies.

[7] Show all


bodies.

[8] Rename the


body as "Bushing1."

16-8 Create Other Pins and Bushings

[1] Select <Create/


Pattern> and select
<Circular>.

[2] Select both "Pin1"


and "Bushing1". You
can either select them
from the model tree
or from the graphics
window.

[4] Type 3. The bodies [3] In the graphics window,


are duplicated 3 times. select the vertical axis. If the
Click <Generate>. coordinate axes doesn't
display, see [5].

[5] If the coordinate


axes doesn't display,
click <Display Plane>.
160 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

[6] Rename the


bodies as shown.

[7] Hide "UpperYoke"


and "LowerYoke" to
view the details inside.
[8] Show all bodies and
select <View/Frozen
Body Transparency>.

[9] The objects here


records the history of
creating the model.

[10] The parts (bodies)


here are to be exported
outside the
DesignModeler, for
example, to
<Mechanical>.
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 161

16-9 Create an Exploded Model

[1] Select <Create/Body


Operation> from the pull-down
menu and select <Translate>.

[2] In the model tree, control-


select UpperYoke, Bushing2,
Bushing4, Pin2, and Pin4.

[3] Select <Coordinates> for


<Direction Definition>.

[4] Type 5 (in.) for <Y


Offset>. Remember, it
refers to the global
coordinate system. Click
<Generate>.

[5] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and, in the model
tree, control-select
LowerYoke, Bushing1,
Bushing3, Pin1, and Pin3.

[6] Type -5 (in.) for <Y


Offset>. Click
<Generate>.
162 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

[7] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and, in the
model tree, control-select
Bushing2 and Pin2. Set up
other options and click
<Generate>.

[8] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and, in the
model tree, control-select
Bushing4 and Pin4. Set up
other options and click
<Generate>.

[9] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and, in the
model tree, control-select
Bushing1 and Pin1. Set up
other options and click
<Generate>.

[10] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and, in the
model tree, control-select
Bushing3 and Pin3. Set up
other options and click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 16. Universal Joint 163

[11] Select <Create/


Body Operation> and, in
the model tree, select
Bushing2. Set up other
options and click
<Generate>.

[12] Select <Create/


Body Operation> and, in
the model tree, select
Bushing4. Set up other
options and click
<Generate>.

[13] Select <Create/


Body Operation> and, in
the model tree, select
Bushing1. Set up other
options and click
<Generate>.

[14] Select <Create/


Body Operation> and, in
the model tree, select
Bushing3. Set up other
options and click
<Generate>.
164 Exercise 16. Universal Joint 

[15] Control-select
the last 10 objects
and right-click-
select <Suppress>.

Suppress Objects vs. Hide Bodies


When a body is hidden, the body is not deleted from the model; it is just a visual effect to keep from being seen; the
body still exists.
 When an object is suppressed, however, it has exactly the same effect as being deleted. We usually prefer
"suppress" to "delete," since a suppressed object always can be "unsuppressed."
 Now, select the 10 objects again and right-click-select <Unsuppress> from the context menu; the model would
explode again. Using this method, you can explode or un-explode a model as you like.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project ("Joint"), and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 165

Appendix:

Exercise 16a
Dynamic Simulation of the
Universal Joint

[1] In this simulation, we'll


assume a hinge set up
here, such that the whole
assembly can swing in the
16a-1 Introduction XY plane and behaves like
a double-pendulum.
Y

In this exercise, we'll perform a dynamics simulation for


the assembly created in Exercise 11. The assembly is
entirely made of steel, which is the default material used
in <Mechanical>.
 We assume a hinge set up at the top of the upper
yoke, such that the whole assembly can swing in the XY
plane and behaves like a double-pendulum [1]. Initially, the
lower yoke is raised to form an angle of 30 degrees with
the vertical axis, and then released [2]. The only external
force, other than the reaction forces at the hinge, acting
on the assembly is the gravitational force. We want to
X
observe the double-pendulum behavior of the assembly.
 Since our concern is the double-pendulum behavior
of the assembly, the body deformation can be neglected.
Therefore, we assume all bodies are rigid. We'll use a
built-in system in the Workbench, called <Rigid
Dynamics>, which assumes all bodies are rigid and has
capabilities of performing rigid-body dynamic simulations.
 We'll further assume that the combination of the
swivel, four bushings, and four pins is an integrated part,
30 
i.e., they are bonded together. This assumption should be
reasonable as long as the double-pendulum behavior is
the only concern. This assumption not only simplifies the
model setup in <Mechanical> but also reduces
[2] Initially, the lower yoke
computation time. is raised to form an angle of
30 degrees with the vertical
axis, and then released.
166 Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint

16a-2 Group 9 Parts to Form an Integrated Part

[1] Lunch
Workbench and
open the project
"Joint," which was
saved in Exercise 16. [2] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up <DesignModeler>.

[3] Select all bodies except


"UpperYoke" and [4] This is called a multi-body part. In
"LowerYoke," and right-click- <Mechanical>, it is treated as an
select <Form New Part>. integrated part, i.e., all bodies are
bonded together. Close
<DesignModeler>.
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 167

16a-3 Start Up <Mechanical>

[3] The two systems share


the same <Geometry>. You
can edit up-stream cell but
not the down-stream cell.

[1] Drag <Rigid


Dynamics> and drop to
<Geometry> cell of the
<Geometry> system.

[4] Double-click
<Model> to start
[2] A <Rigid up <Mechanical>.
Dynamics>
system is created.

[5] <Mechanical GUI> shows up. If your


GUI layout is not like this, pull-down-select
<View/Windows/Reset Layout> and select
<Graphics> tab (11a-2[8]).

[6] If the unit system is not


like this, pull-down-select
<Unit/U.S. Customary (in, lbm,
lbf, F, s,V, A)> (11a-2[10]).
168 Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint

16a-4 Create a Revolute Joint

[1] Select <Contacts> and


right-click-select <Delete> Why Delete Contacts?
from the context menu. When a model is first time brought
into <Mechanical>, the <Mechanical>
automatically sets up connections
between parts; these automatic
setups are often not adequate.
Here, we decide to manually set up
the connections. That's why we
deleted the automatic setups.

[2] While <Connections>


in the project tree is still
highlighted, select <Body-
Body/Revolute>. [5] Click to activate
<Body Views>.

[6] The graphics window splits


into three windows. The upper-
right window will show the
reference body, and the lower-
[3] A revolute right window will show the
joint is created. mobile body.

[4] In <Details View>, we


need to specify a reference
body and a mobile body.
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 169

[9] Select this cylindrical face (to define a


[10] A revolute reference coordinate system). Zoom-in or rotate
joint allows the the view if necessary. Make sure the Z-axis of the
mobile body rotates reference coordinate system is in the cylinder
in Z direction. [8] Click axis; directions of the other two axes are not
anywhere on the important. A revolute joint allows the mobile
upper yoke. body rotates in Z direction (see [10]).

[7] Click the


yellow area to bring
up <Apply/Cancel>
buttons.

[11] Click
<Apply>.

[13] Click the swivel


(or anywhere of the
integrated part).

[12] Click the


yellow area to bring
up <Apply/Cancel>
buttons.

[14] Select this cylindrical face (to


define a rotational axis). Zoom-in or
[15] Click rotate the view if necessary. Note that
<Apply>. the reference coordinate system defined
in [9] also shows here.
170 Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint

[15] This completes the creation of a


revolute joint, in which the axis of the
"Bushing2" allows to rotate in the axis
of the cylinder hole. We now proceed
to create other revolute joints.

16a-5 Create Other Revolute Joints


[1] Select <Body-
Body/Revolute>.

[2] Select the cylindrical face of another


hole of the upper yoke to define a reference
coordinate system (see the upper-right
window). Remember to make sure the Z-
axis of the reference coordinate system is in
the cylinder axis; directions of the other two
axes are not important.

[3] Select the cylindrical face of the


"Bushing4" to define a rotational axis (see
the lower-right window).
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 171

[4] Select <Body-


Body/Revolute>.

[5] Select the cylindrical


face of a hole of the lower
yoke to define a reference
coordinate system (see the
upper-right window).

[6] Select the cylindrical face of the


"Bushing1" to define a rotational axis (see
the lower-right window).
[7] Select <Body-
Body/Revolute>.

[8] Select the cylindrical


face of another hole of the
lower yoke to define a
reference coordinate
system (see the upper-
right window).

[9] Select the cylindrical face of the


"Bushing3" to define a rotational axis (see
the lower-right window).
172 Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint

[10] We've defined 4


revolute joints.

16a-6 Create the Hinge


Now, we proceed to create a hinge at the top of the upper yoke (16a-1[1]). In a normal case, this hinge can be
modeled by a body-to-ground revolute joint. However, since we don't have any geometric entities (faces, edges, or
points) to define the rotational axis, we choose to create a "general" body-to-ground joint and then specialize to a
revolute joint.

[1] Select <Body-


[3] Click this circular face. Ground/General>.
This selects the upper yoke
as mobile body and, as the
same time, defines a
reference coordinate system.

[5] Select <Free Y>


for <Rotations>.
This allows the
mobile body to
rotate in Y direction.

[2] Click the yellow


[4] Click
area to bring up <Apply/
<Apply>.
Cancel> buttons.
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 173

16a-7 Set Up Initial Configuration


[1] Click to de-
activate <Body
Views>.

[4] Click
<Configure>.

[2] Select <Revolute -


LowerYoke to
Bushing1>.

[3] Click to rotate


the view to look at
the XY plane.

[8] When you satisfy


your initial
configuration, click
[6] Or, a better way is that you
<Set>.
type 30 (degrees) here.

[5] Drag the handle until


the lower yoke becomes 30
degrees (or 330 degrees).

[7] If you make any


mistakes, click
<Revert> and go
back to step [4].
174 Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint

16a-8 Apply Gravitational Force

[2] Select <Inertial/


Standard Earth
Gravity>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Transient>.

[3] An environment
condition is inserted.

[4] Select <-Y


Direction>.

16a-9 Insert Result Objects [2] Select


<Deformation/
Total>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Solution>.

[3] A results object is


inserted.
  Exercise 16a. Dynamic Simulation of the Universal Joint 175

16a-10 Set Up <Analysis Settings>

[1] Click to [2] Type 3 (s)


highlight for <Step End
<Analysis Time>.
Settings>.

16a-11 Solve the Model and View the Results

[1] Click
<Solve>.

[4] Totally 442


frames, each from
a result set.
[2] Click to highlight
<Total Deformation>.

[7] By clicking
[5] Click <Play> to [3] Click <Export Video File>,
[6] Click <Stop> to
animate the results. <Result the animation can be
stop the animation.
Sets>. save as an AVI file.

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project ("Joint"), and exit the Workbench.
176 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

Exercise 17
Clamping Mechanism

17-1 Introduction 0.375 D0.312

In this exercise, we'll create the clamping mechanism

0.75
mentioned in Exercises 1, 8, 12, and 15. Some parts that are
not created in the previous exercises are detailed in this page.

0.375
 Comparing with previous exercises, this exercise is
rather complicated. For a complicated model like this, we 1.375
need more efficient way of handling multiple parts and
Part Name: Grip
transforming parts. We'll demonstrate how a geometry can
be exported from a <Geometry> system and imported to
another <Geometry> system. We'll also demonstrate a more D0.25 D0.312
general way of transformation parts. In this way, we need two
planes: a source plane and a destination plane. A part then
can be transformed just like the source plane is transformed
to the destination plane.
 The clamping mechanicsm is adapted from a working 0.375
drawing in the book Technical Graphics Communication, by G. 0.75
R. Bertoline, E. N. Wiebe, C. L. Miller, and J. L. Mohler.
Part Name: Pin A

0.3
75 Unit: in. D0.312
0.2 D0.25
5
0.7
5

Grip
0.75
1.125
Part Name: Pin B

Pin A D0.312
D0.25

0.375
Pin C
1.125
Pin B
Part Name: Pin C
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 177

17-2 Export the Arm, Support, and Shaft Assembly

[1] Launch ANSYS Workbench


and open the project "Arm,"
which was saved in Exercise 1.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.

[6] Select <File/Close


DesignModeler>.

[3] In DesignModeler,
select <File/Export...>.

[5] Type "Arm" as the file


name. The exported
geometry will be saved as
"Arm.x_t."

[4] Select <Parasolid Text>


as the file type.
178 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

[9] Open the project


[7] Click <New>.
"Support," which was saved in
Exercise 8.

[10] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.
[8] Click <No>.

[14] Select <File/Close


DesignModeler>.

[11] In DesignModeler,
select <File/Export...>.

[13] Type "Support" as the


file name. The exported
geometry will be saved as
"Support.x_t."

[12] Select <Parasolid Text>


as the file type.
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 179

[15] Click [17] Open the project


<New>. "Shaft," which was saved
in Exercise 15.

[18] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.

[16] Click <No>.

[22] Select <File/Close


DesignModeler>.

[19] In DesignModeler,
select <File/Export...>.

[21] Type "Shaft" as the file


name. The exported geometry
will be saved as "Shaft.x_t."

[20] Select <Parasolid Text>


as the file type.
180 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-3 Create a New Project

[3] Save the new


project as "Clamp."

[1] Click <New>.

[5] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.

[4] Double-
click to create a
<Geometry>
system.
[2] Click <No>.

[6] Select <Inch>


as the length unit.

[7] Click <Ok>.


  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 181

17-4 Import the Support

[1] Select <File/Import External Geometry


File...> and open the file "Support.x_t."

[4] Click [5] Click


<Generate>. <Display Plane>.

[3] The <Base Plane>


determines how the imported
geometry positions in the current
global coordinate system. Here,
<XYPlane> means the imported
geometry's coordinate system is
[6] The imported
to be coincident with the current
geometry's coordinate
XYPlane.
system is coincident with
the current XYPlane.

[2] Select <Add


Frozen>.

17-5 Translate the Support

[1] Select <Create/Body


Operation> from the
pull-down menu and
select <Translate>. [3] Click X-
axis to look at
YZ plane.
[2] Select the
imported body and set
up other options as
shown. Click
<Generate>.

[4] Rename the


body as "Support1."
182 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-6 Create the Other Support

[1] Select <Create/Body [4] Click for a


Operation> from the isometric view.
pull-down menu and
select <Mirror>.

[2] Select
"Support1."

[3] Select
<XYPlane> from the
model tree and click
<Generate>.

[5] Rename the


body as "Support2."

17-7 Import the Shaft Assembly

[1] Select <File/Import


External Geometry
File...> from the pull-
down menu and open the
file "Shaft.x_t." Select
<Add Frozen>. Click
<Generate>.

[2] The shaft


assembly consists of
4 parts (see [3]).
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 183

[3] The shaft


assembly consists of
4 parts.

17-8 Translate the Shaft Assembly

Now, we want to translate the shaft assembly such that the part "MidHinge" is at its correct position. Calculation of
the amount of translation is not a easy task. We now demonstrate a general way of transformation parts. In this way,
we need two planes: a source plane and a destination plane. The shaft assembly will be transformed just like the source
plane is transformed to the destination plane.

[2] Select <From Face>.

[1] Click <New Plane>.


[4] Click the yellow
area to bring up
<Apply/Cancel> button
and click <Apply>.
Click <Generate>.

[3] Click this ring-


shaped face. Make sure
the three axes have the
same directions as the
global axes
184 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

[6] Select <From Face>.

[5] Click <New Plane>.


[8] Click the yellow area to
bring up <Apply/Cancel>
buttons and click <Apply>.

Y
[9] Select <Yes> for
<Reverse Normal/Z-
Axis>. Click
<Generate>.
X

[7] Click the inner face of the "Support1" at a location


near the arc. Make sure the three axes are like this.
Now, we want to reverse the Z-axis so that the three
axes have the same directions as the global axes.

[10] Now, the axes of the


<Plane4> have the same
directions as <Plane5>.
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 185

[11] Select <Create/


Body Operation> from
the pull-down menu and
select <Move>.

[12] Select the four


bodies of the shaft
assembly (Shaft, Handle,
EndHinge, and
MidHinge), either from
the model tree or from
the graphics window.

[14] Select <Plane5> [13] Select <Plane4>


as <Source Plane>. as <Source Plane>.
Click <Generate>.

[15] Now, we want to tilt


the shaft assembly a certain
angle. A tedious calculation
shows the angle is 9.273
degrees (see [16]).

[16] The two angles


shown are calculated
from the geometry of
the clamp. These
angles are needed for
the configuration of
the parts.

9.273

46.775
186 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-9 Rotate the Shaft Assembly


[1] Select <Create/
Body Operation> from
the pull-down menu and
select <Rotate>.

[2] Select the four


bodies of the shaft
assembly (Shaft,
Handle, EndHinge, and
MidHinge).

[4] Bring up
<Apply/Cancel>

[3] Type 9.273


(degrees) for
<Angle>. [8] Click <Apply>.
[6] Select this
circular face. Its outer Click <Generate>.
normal defines a
rotational axis (see
next step).

[7] Click to [5] Click <Selection


reverse the Filter: Model Faces>
direction.

[9] Now the shaft


assembly is at its
correct position and
orientation.
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 187

17-10 Import the Arm

Remember that the origin of the arm is


at the center of a hole (see 1-1). We
now want to import the arm such that
[2] Select <From Face>.
the hole connects to the "EndHinge" to
form a revolute joint.

[4] Click the yellow


[1] Click <New area to bring up
Plane>. <Apply/Cancel> button
and click <Apply>.
Click <Generate>.

[3] Click this ring-shaped


face. Make sure the three
axes have the same directions
like this.

[6] By default, the


currently active plane is
the base plane.

[5] Select <File/Import


External Geometry File...>
from the pull-down menu and
open the file "Arm.x_t." Select
<Add Frozen>. Click
<Generate>.

[6]Next, we need to rotate


the arm 46.775 degrees
clockwise (see 17-8[16]).
188 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-11 Rotate the Arm


[1] Select <Create/
Body Operation> from
the pull-down menu and
select <Rotate>.

[2] Select the arm.

[4] Bring up
<Apply/Cancel>

[3] Type 46.775 [8] Click <Apply>.


(degrees) for Click <Generate>.
<Angle>.

[7] If necessary,
click here to
reverse the
direction.

[5] Click <Selection


Filter: Model Faces>

[6] Select this


cylindrical face. the
cylinder axis defines a
rotational axis (see
next step).

[9] Now the arm is at its


correct position and [10] Rename the
orientation. body as "Arm1."
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 189

17-12 Create the Other Arm


[1] Select <Create/Body
Operation> from the
pull-down menu and
select <Mirror>.

[2] Select "Arm1."

[3] Select
<XYPlane> from the
model tree and click
<Generate>.

[4] The second


arm.

[5] YZ plane view.


Note that there is a
gap between an arm
and a support.

[6] Rename the


body as "Arm2."
190 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-13 Create the Grip


[2] Select <From
Face>.

[3] Click the yellow area to [1] Click <New


bring up <Apply/Cancel> Plane>.
buttons.

[5] Click
<Apply>.

[6] Select <Align X-Axis with


Global> for <Transform 1>.

[7] Select <Offset Z> for


<Transform 2>.

[8] Type 0.1875 (in.) for


<Value>. Click <Generate>.

[4] Select this face.


Make sure the axes
are like this.

[7] The X-axis


rotates to align with
the global X-axis.
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 191

[11] The plane


outline.

[9] The plane should lie


on the global XY plane.

[10] In the newly created plane (Plane7), draw


a sketch like this. The sketch consists of a
rectangle and a circle centered at the origin
and with a diameter of 0.312 (in.).

[12] Extrude the new


sketch (Sketch1) 0.125
(in.) both sides
symmetrically.

[13] Rename the


body as "Grip."
192 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-14 Create Pin A

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and select the new plane (Plane7) from
the model tree as the <Base Plane>.
Set up the <Details View> as shown.
Click <Generate>.

[2] If you hide all other


bodies, you would see the
new body like this.

[3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and select the new plane (Plane7) from [4] Pin A.
the model tree as the <Base Plane>.
Set up the <Details View> as shown.
Click <Generate>.

[5] Rename the


body as "PinA."
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 193

17-15 Create Pin B

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and select the XYPlane from the model
tree as the <Base Plane>. Set up the
<Details View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[2] If you hide all other


bodies, you would see the
new body like this.

[3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and selectXYPlane from the model tree [4] Pin B.
as the <Base Plane>. Set up the
<Details View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[5] Pin B should be


positioned here...

[6] And here.


194 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

[1] Select <Create/Body


Operation> and select
<Translate>.

[2] Select the new body.

[3] Type -1.25 (in.) for <X


Offset> (see the details in 8-1).
Click <Generate>.

[4] Select <Create/


Body Operation>
and select
<Translate>.

[5] Select the


new body.

[6] Select<Yes>
for <Preserve
Bodies?>

[7] Type 1.25 (in.) for <Y


Offset> (see the details
in 8-1). Click
<Generate>.

[8] Rename two new


bodies as "PinB1" (lower
pin) and "PinB2" (upper
pin) respectively.
  Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 195

17-16 Create Pin C

[1] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and select XYPlane from the model
tree as the <Base Plane>. Set up the
<Details View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[2] If you hide all other


bodies, you would see the
new body like this.

[3] Select <Create/Primitives/Cylinder>


and select XYPlane from the model [4] Pin A.
tree as the <Base Plane>. Set up the
<Details View> as shown. Click
<Generate>.

[5] Rename the


body as "PinC."
196 Exercise 17. Clamping Mechanism 

17-17 Enhance Visual Effects

[1] Select <Edge


Coloring/Black>. It
instructs DesignModeler
to render the model with
black edges.

[2] Select <View/Frozen


Body Transparency> to
turn off the transparent
display of the frozen
bodies.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project ("Clamp") and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 197

Appendix:

Exercise 17a
Simulation of the Clamping
Mechanism

17a-1 Introduction
The clamping mechanism created in Exercise 17 is designed to provide clamping forces up to 450 lbf [1]. In this
exercise, we'll perform a simulation to make sure that, under the clamping force of 450 lbf, the stresses everywhere are
within the allowable stress of the steel, which is 30,000 psi. Remember that the clamping mechanism is entirely made
of steel, which is the default material used in <Mechanical>.
 We'll assume an initial configuration such that the grip merely contacts the clamped object and the clamping
force is zero [2, 3]. As the handle rotates to increase the distance between two hinges, the clamping force also
increases, until the clamping force reaches 450 lbf [4-6].

[4] The middle


hinge.
[6] As the handle rotates to
increase the distance between
two hinges, the clamping force
also increases, until the clamping
force reaches 450 lbf.

[5] The end hinge.

[2] The initial


distance between
two hinges is 3.063
in (see 15-1). [3] With the initial
[1] The clamping mechanism is configuration, the grip
designed to provide clamping merely contacts the
forces up to 450 lbf. clamped object and the
clamping force is zero.
198 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-2 Simplify the Model

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and open the
project "Shaft," which was
saved in Exercise 15.

[2] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up DesignModeler.

[3] Right-click <Sweep1>


and select <Suppress>
from the context menu.
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 199

[8] Select <File/Close


DesignModeler>.

[4] The threads are removed.


This is a simplification of the
[5] In DesignModeler, model to make the simulation
select <File/Export...>. easier, without sacrifice too
much accuracy.

[7] Type "Shaft1" as the file


name. The exported
geometry will be saved as
"Shaft1.x_t."

[9] In <Workbench GUI>,


Click <New>. [6] Select <Parasolid Text>
as the file type.

[11] Open the project


"Clamp," which was
saved in Exercise 17.

[12] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up <DesignModeler>.

[10] Click <No>.


200 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

[13] Select
<Import2>, which is
the shaft assembly.

[14] Double-click
<Source>.

[15] Select "Shaft1.x_t,"


which was save in [5-7].

[16] Click <Generate>.


  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 201

[19] Control-select
"Support1," "Support2,"
"PinB1," "PinB2," and
"PinC," and right-click-
select <Form New Part>.

[17] Control-select [18] Rename the new part as


"Shaft," "Handle," and "ShaftAssembly." The three
"EndHinge," and bodies are now treated as an
right-click-select integrated part. It is not real; it is
<Form New Part>. a simplification to make the
simulation easier.

[21] Control-select
"Grip" and "PinA," and
right-click-select <Form
New Part>.

[20] Rename the new part as


"SupportAssembly." The five
bodies are now treated as an
integrated part. Again, it is not
real; it is a simplification to
make the modeling easier.

[22] Rename the new part


as "GripAssembly." The two
bodies are now treated as an
integrated part. Close
DesignModeler.

[23] Close
DesignModeler.
202 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-3 Start Up <Mechanical>

[3] The two systems share


the same <Geometry>. You
can edit up-stream cell but
not the down-stream cell. [4] Double-click
<Model> to start
up <Mechanical>.

[1] Drag <Static


Structural> and drop to
<Geometry> cell of the
<Geometry> system.
[2] A <Static
Structural>
system is created.

[5]If your GUI layout is not like this,


pull-down-select <View/Windows/
Reset Layout> and select <Graphics>
tab (11a-2[8]).

[6] If the unit system is not


like this, pull-down-select
<Unit/U.S. Customary (in, lbm,
lbf, F, s,V, A)> (11a-2[10]).
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 203

17a-4 Create Revolute Joints

There are 8 revolute joints to be created: [1] PinA to Arm1, [2] PinA to Arm2, [3] EndHinge to Arm1, [4] EndHinge to
Arm2, [5] MidHinge to Support1, [6] MidHinge to Support2, [7] PinC to Arm1, and [8] PinC to Arm2.

[3] EndHinge to Arm1.


[4] EndHinge to Arm2.
[5] MidHinge to Support1.
[6] MidHinge to Support2.

[1] PinA to Arm1.


[2] PinA to Arm2.

[7] PinC to Arm1.


[8] PinC to Arm2.

[9] Select <Contacts> and


right-click-select <Delete>
from the context menu.
(See 17a-4).

[10] The project tree


should look like this.
[11] Make sure
<Connection> is
highlighted.
204 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

Create [1] PinA to Arm1, and [2] PinA to Arm2.

[13], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[12] While
<Connections> is
highlighted, click to
activate <Body Views>.

[14] Select a cylindrical


face of the PinA (see the
red-colored face in the
upper-right window).

[15] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm1 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).

[16], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[17] Select another


cylindrical face of the
PinA (see the red-colored
face in the upper-right
window).

[18] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm2 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 205

Create [3] EndHinge to Arm1, and [4] EndHinge to Arm2.

[19], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[20] Select a cylindrical


face of the EndHinge (see
the red-colored face in
the upper-right window).

[21] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm1 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).

[22], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[23] Select another


cylindrical face of the
EndHinge (see the red-
colored face in the upper-
right window).

[24] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm2 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).
206 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

Create [5] MidHinge to Support1, and [6] MidHinge to Support2.

[25], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[26] Select a cylindrical


face of the MidHinge (see
the red-colored face in
the upper-right window).

[27] Select a cylindrical


face of the Support1 (see
the blue-colored face in
the lower-right window).

[28], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[29] Select another


cylindrical face of the
MidHinge (see the red-
colored face in the upper-
right window).

[30] Select a cylindrical


face of the Support2 (see
the blue-colored face in
the lower-right window).
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 207

Create [7] PinC to Arm1, and [8] PinC to Arm2.

[31], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[32] Select a cylindrical


face of the PinC (see the
red-colored face in the
upper-right window).

[33] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm1 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).

[34], select <Body-Body/


Revolute>.

[37] We've created 8


revolute joints.

[35] Select another


cylindrical face of the
PinC (see the red-
colored face in the upper-
right window).

[36] Select a cylindrical


face of the Arm2 (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).
208 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-5 Create a Translational Joint [1], select <Body-Body/


Translational>.

[5] A translational joint restricts the


mobile body sliding along the X direction
of the reference coordinate system.

[4] We've created a


translational joints.

[2] Select a cylindrical


face of the MidHinge (see
the red-colored face in
the upper-right window).

[3] Select the cylindrical


face of the Shaft (see the
blue-colored face in the
lower-right window).

17a-6 Specify Supports

[2] Select the bottom two


faces as fixed supports

[1] Highlight <Static


Structural> and select
<Support/Fixed
Support>.
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 209

[3] Select <Support/


Frictionless Support> and
select the bottom face of the
grip as a frictionless support.

17a-7 Specify a Relative Translation between Shaft and MidHinge

Why Specify an Arbitrary


Displacement?
Remember that the mechanism is to
provide a clamping force of 450 lbf.
(17a-1). But we cannot specify a
vertical force on the grip, because
[1] While <Frictionless the grip was fixed in the vertical
Support> is still direction (17a-6[3]). This is easy to
highlighted, select <Loads/
Joint Load> to insert a understand because you cannot
joint load. specify both displacement conditions
and force conditions on the same
face. You either specify a fixed (zero
[2] Select displacement) condition and try to
<Translational - evaluate the reaction force, or
MidHinge to Shaft>. specify a force condition and try to
evaluate the resulting displacement.
 Our strategy is to specify an
[3] Select arbitrary value of displacement [4]
<Displacement>. for the relative translation between
Shaft and MidHange, to simulate the
advance of the shaft due to the
[4] Type 0.003 (in.) rotation of the handle (17a-1[6]),
for <Magnitude>.
and then to evaluate the clamping
This is an arbitrarily
chosen value (see force. The displacement [4] then
an explanation on adjusts to give an exact clamping
the right. force of 450 lbf.
210 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-8 Insert Results Objects


[1] Highlight <Solution>.

[2] Select <Deformation/Total>.

[3] Select <Stress/Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[4] Select <Stress/Maximum Principal>.

[5] Select <Stress/Minimum Principal>.

[6] Select <Probe/


Force Reaction>.

[7] Select
<Frictionless
Support>.

17a-9 Solve the Model and View the Clamping Force

[1] Click <Solve>.

[3] The clamping force is


vertical, because the grip
is allowed to move
horizontally.

[2] While <Force


Reaction> is still
highlighted, you can see
the clamping force (425.52
lbf) in the details view.
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 211

17a-10 Adjust the Joint Displacement and Solve Again

[1] Highlight <Joint -


Displacement>.

[2] Type 0.003173 (in.) for <Magnitude>.


Note: 0.003/425.52x450 = 0.003173

[3] Click <Solve>.

[4] Now, the clamping


force is 450 lbf.
212 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-11 View Stresses and Animation

[3] Select <Auto


Scale>. [2] The maximum stress
is within the allowable
value (30,000 psi).

[1] Highlight
<Equivalent Stress>.

[4] Click <Play> to [5] Click <Stop> to


animate the results. stop the animation.

17a-12 Evaluate Joint Forces

[1] Highlight <Solution>.

[2] Select <Probe/Joint> and, in the details view, select


<Revolute - PinA to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>.

[3] Select <Probe/Joint> and, in the details view, select


<Revolute - EndHinge to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>.

[4] Select <Probe/Joint> and, in the details view, select


<Revolute - MidHinge to Support1> for <Boundary Condition>.

[5] Select <Probe/Joint> and, in the details view, select


<Revolute - PinC to Arm1> for <Boundary Condition>.
[7] Select <Probe/Force
Reaction> and, in the details
view, select <Fixed Support> for [6] Select <Probe/Joint> and, in the details view, select
<Boundary Condition>. <Translation - MidHinge to Shaft> for <Boundary Condition>.
  Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism 213

[8] Rename the results


objects like this, to make [9] Click <Solve>.
them more readable.

17a-13 Forces Acting on an Arm

[2] Details of "Force -


EndHinge to Arm1."

[4] The angle is


calculated from
17-8[16].

379.95

61.91 [1] Details of "Force -


56.048 PinA to Arm1."

225.04

379.94

163.13

[3] Details of "Force -


PinC to Arm1."

Transform Force Components


It is very easy to transform the above force components into
the force components shown in 1a-1[3]. We need to know
an angle [4] to accomplish the transformation. The angle can
be calculated from 17-8[16].
214 Exercise 17a. Simulation of the Clamping Mechanism

17a-14 Forces Acting on a Support

[1] Details of "Force -


MidHing to Support1."

379.94 62.045

[5] There are


no forces from
PinB2.
[3] These force components from
PinC have the same magnitudes and
opposite directions as those in
163.13 17a-13[3].
[4] There are 379.94
no forces from
PinB1.
[2] Details of "Force on
Bottom Faces." Note that,
half of the force (450.06 lbf)
acts on a support.

225.03

It is very easy to verify that the above forces


acting on a support is self-balanced. Please also
see 8a-1[3, 4].

17a-15 Compressive Forces in the Shaft

[1] Details of "Force -


MidHing to Shaft" shows that
a total compressive force of
769.61 lbf acts on the shaft.

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project as "Clamp-a", and exit the Workbench.
  Section D. Concept Modeling 215

Section D
Concept Modeling

As mentioned, although it can be used as a general purpose CAD software, the DesignModeler is particularly designed
for creating geometric models to be analyzed (simulated) under the ANSYS environment. So far, we've created many
3D solid models; each can be imported into an analysis application, such as <ANSYS Mechanical>. 3D solid models are
not the only models that <ANSYS Mechanical> can analyze. Often, due to the efficiency (computing time and solution
accuracy), we prefer using simplified models, such as 2D solid models, surface models, or line models. This section
provides exercises for creating such simplified model.
216 Exercise 18. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm)

Exercise 18
2D Solid Modeling (Arm)

18-1 Introduction

When the geometric characteristics in a certain dimension (e.g., the thickness in Z-dimension) can be parameterized
and the rest of the geometric characteristics (and the loads) can be expressed in a 2D space (in this example, XY-
space), we often simplify the model into a 2D solid model, to facilitate the simulation task. The benefits of using a 2D
solid model (over a 3D solid model) include reduced modeling time, reduced computing time, increased accuracy,
increased post-processing efficiency.
 In this exercise, we will create a 2D solid model for the arm, which has been modeled as s 3D solid model in
Exercise 1

18-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[2] Right-click here and


select <Duplicate>
from the context menu.

[1] Launch ANSYS Workbench


and open the project "Arm,"
which was saved in Exercise 1.
  Exercise 18. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm) 217

[3] Double-click the name of [4] Double-click the name of


the system (default to the system (default to "Copy
"Geometry") and type "3D of Geometry") and type "2D
Model" to change the name. Model" to change the name.

[5] Double-click to start up


DesignModeler.

[6] Right-click <Extrude1>


and select <Delete> from
the context menu.
218 Exercise 18. 2D Solid Modeling (Arm)

18-3 Create a 2D Model

[1] Now, the only object


in the model tree is
<Sketch1>, which is on
<XYPlane>.

[2] Select <Concept/


Surfaces From Sketches>.

[6] This is a 2D model for


the arm. Note that the 2D
model is on XY-plane;
<Mechanical> requires a 2D
[5] Click model resides on XY-plane.
<Generate>.

[3] Select
<Sketch1> from
the model tree.

[4] Type 0.125 (in.) for


<Thickness>. This
information doesn't show
in the geometry, but will
be brought to a simulation
module, such as
<Mechanical>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Arm-2D" and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 219

Appendix:

Exercise 18a
Structural Analysis of the Arm
Using 2D Model

18a-1 Introduction
In this exercise, we will perform a static structural analysis for the 2D model created in Exercise 18. We'll use the
same boundary conditions (loads and supports) as in Exercise 1a (1a-1[3]). The results (stresses) should be the same
as those obtained in Exercise 1a, except that a 2D model is computationally much more efficient.

18a-2 Start Up

[3] Right-click
<Geometry> and
select <Properties>.

[1] Launch Workbench


and open the project
"Arm-2D," which was
saved in Exercise 18.

[2] Drag <Static


Structural> and drop to
<Geometry> cell of the
<2D Model> system.
220 Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

[5] Click to close the


properties window.

[4] Select <2D> for


<Analysis Type>. It is
necessary for a 2D analysis,
otherwise, by default,
<Mechanical> will perform [6] Click <Model>
a 3D analysis. to start up
<Mechanical>.

[7] Click to close the


message window.
  Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 221

18a-3 Specify Loads


[2] Select <Loads/
Force>.

[1] Highlight <Static [3] Select this


Structural>. circular edge.

[4] Click <Apply>.

[5] Select <Components>.

[6] Type -187 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 126 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.

[7] Select <Loads/


Force> again.

[8] Select this


circular edge.

[9] Click
<Apply>.

[10] Select <Components>.

[11] Type 264 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 281 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.
222 Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

18a-4 Specify Supports


[1] Select <Supports/
Fixed Support>.

[3] Select this


[2] A <Fixed Support> is cylindrical face.
inserted.

[4] Click
<Apply>.

18a-5 Insert Result Objects


[2] Select <Stress/
Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Solution>.
  Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model 223

18a-6 Solve the Model [1] Click <Solve>.

[3] Select <Edges/


Show Undeformed
WireFrame>.

[2] The stress distribution is


essentially the same as that is
Exercise 1a.

[4] Click <Play> to


[5] Click <Stop> to
animate the
stop the animation.
deformation.

[8] Close <Mechanical>, and in the


<Workbench GUI>, save the
project as "Arm-2D-a."

[6] Highlight
<Mesh>.

[7] There are 779 nodes in the model; that means a total
degrees of freedom is 1558 (2x779; for 2D problems, each
node has 2 degrees of freedom). The degrees of freedom
is an indication of problem size, and it is in turn an
indication of computing time.
224 Exercise 18a. Structural Analysis of the Arm Using 2D Model

18a-7 Open the Project "Arm-a" [1] In the <Workbench GUI>,


Open the project "Arm-a," and
start up <Mechanical>.

[2] Highlight
<Mesh>.

[7] There are 890 nodes in the model; that means a total
degrees of freedom is 2667 (3x890; for 3D problems,
each node has 3 degrees of freedom). The ratio of the
problem size between the 2D model and the 3D model
is 0.58 (1558/2667). That means, in this case, only
approximately 58% of computing time is need for the 2D
model, to achieve the same solution accuracy.

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical> and exit the Workbench.
  Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support) 225

Exercise 19
Surface Modeling (Support)

19-1 Introduction

When a body in 3D space is thin enough, we often simplify the body into a surface body, to facilitate the simulation
task. The benefits of using a 3D surface model (over a 3D solid model), similar to a 2D solid over 3D solid, include
reduced modeling time, reduced computing time, increased accuracy, increased post-processing efficiency.
 In this exercise, we will create a 3D surface model for the support, which has been modeled as a 3D solid model
in Exercise 8.

19-2 Start Up DesignModeler

[2] Right-click here and


select <Duplicate>
from the context menu. [5] Double-click to start
up DesignModeler.

[1] Launch ANSYS


Workbench and open the
project "Surface," which was
saved in Exercise 8.

[3] Rename the original [4] Rename the


system as "3D Solid duplicated system as "3D
Model." Surface Model."
226 Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support)

[6] Select Extrude1,


Plane4, Extrude2, Plane5,
Extrude3, and FBlend1 in
the model tree and right-
click-select <Delete>
from the context menu.

[7] We've deleted


everything except
<Sketch1>, which is on
<XYPlane>.
  Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support) 227

19-3 Create a Surface Body for the Vertical Plate

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[5] This is a surface body


[1] Select <Concept/ representing the vertical
Surfaces From Sketches>. plate.

[6] The global origin is


here. Let's move the
[2] Select body to a more
<Sketch1> from convenient location.
the model tree.

[3] Type 0.125 (in.) for


<Thickness>. This
information doesn't show
in the geometry, but will be
brought to a simulation
module, such as
<Mechanical>.

[11] Click
<Generate>.

[7] Select <Create/


Body Operation>.

[12] The body translates


so that its lower-left is at
the origin.
[8] Select
<Translate>.

[9] Select the


vertical plate.

[10] Type 1.625 (in.) for


<X Offset> and 0.875 (in.)
for <Y Offset>.
228 Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support)

19-3 Create a Surface Body for the Horizontal Plate

[1] Activate
<ZXPlane>.

[3] Draw a sketch


like this. Note
that, in ZXPlane,
the Z-axis is the
[2] Switch to horizontal axis and
<Sketching the X-axis is the
Mode>. vertical axis.

[4] If you click <Look At


Face/Plane/Sketch> and
disable model display, you
would see the plane view of
the sketch like this.
  Exercise 19. Surface Modeling (Support) 229

[4] Click
<Generate>.

[1] Select <Concept/


Surfaces From Sketches>.

[2] Select the


newly created
skectch from the
model tree.

[3] Type 0.125 (in.) for


<Thickness>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project as "Support-Surface" and exit the Workbench.
230 Exercise 19a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model

Appendix:

Exercise 19a
Structural Analysis of the
Support Using Surface Model

19a-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we will perform a static structural analysis for the surface model created in Exercise 19. We'll use the
same boundary conditions (loads and supports) as in Exercise 8a (8a-1[3, 4]).

19a-2 Start Up

[3] Click <Model>


to start up
<Mechanical>.

[1] Launch Workbench


and open the project
"Support-Surface,"
which was saved in
Exercise 19.

[2] Drag <Static Structural>


and drop to <Geometry> cell
of the <3D Surface Model>
system.
  Exercise 19a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 231

19a-3 Specify Loads


[3] Click <Edge>.

[2] Select <Loads/


Force>.

[4] Select this arc


[1] Highlight <Static edge.
Structural>.

[5] Click <Apply>.

[6] Select <Components>.

[7] Type -380 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 62 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.

[8] Select <Loads/


Force>.

[9] Select this


circular edge.

[10] Click <Apply>.

[11] Select <Components>.

[12] Type 380 (lbf) for <X


Component>, and 163 (lbf)
for <Y Component>.
232 Exercise 19a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model

19a-4 Specify Supports


[2] Select <Face>.

[1] Select <Supports/


Fixed Support>.

[3] Select the


bottom face.

[4] Click
<Apply>.

[6] Select <Edge>.

[5] Select <Supports/


Displacement. [7] Select the 3
circular edges and an
arc edge on the vertical
plate.

[8] Click
<Apply>.

[9] Type 0
(in.) for <Z
Component>.
  Exercise 19a. Structural Analysis of the Support Using Surface Model 233

19a-5 Insert Result Objects and Solve the Model

[2] Select <Stress/


Equivalent (von-Mises)>.

[1] Click to highlight


<Solution>.

[3] Solve the model.

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project as "Support-Surface-a," and exit the Workbench.
234 Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss)

Exercise 20
Line Modeling (Space Truss)

20-1 Introduction
Consider a space truss subject to design loads as shown [1-4]. Note that each truss member and each connection
node (spherical joint) is given an identification number. This example is adapted from a problem in the book Vector
Mechanics for Engineers: Statics, by F. P. Beer, E. R. Johnston, and E. R. Eisenberg. The member forces calculated by the
textbook are shown in the table below [5]. Note that a plus sign is used to indicate a tensile member force and a
minus sign to indicate compressive member force.
 The truss is a statically determinate structure, that is, the member forces can be solved using static equilibrium
equations without any cross-sectional information. Here, we assume that all members have a circular cross-section of
diameter 10 mm.
 In this exercise, we'll create a line model for this space truss. In the Exercise 20a, as an appendix, we'll perform a
structural analysis to calculate the member forces using this line model.

1m
[4] This node is 4 [3] This node is
supported in Z- supported in Z- [5] Member
direction. direction. forces.
3

4 3
[1] This node is Member Member
supported in Y- Force
direction. 8 9
1 1 +400 N
7 2
-600 N
1m

1 2
5 -100 N
3
2
6 4 -200 N

0.5 5
Z X 0
m 200 N 5
0.5 1m 6 -1342 N
m
[2] This node is
supported with a 7 +1500 N
hinge, i.e.,
1200 N displacements in all +300 N
8
directions are
restricted. -566 N
9
  Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 235

20-2 Start Up

[3] Double-click
<Geometry> to start
up <DesignModeler>.
Select <Meter> as
length unit.
[1] Launch
<Workbench> and
save the project as
"Truss."

[2] Double-click to create


a <Static Structural>
system.

20-3 Create Points for Nodes

[2] Select <Manual


Input>.

[3] Type
coordinates.

[1] Select
<Create/Point>.

[4] Click
<Generate>.
236 Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss)

Point X Coordinate Y Coordinate Z Coordinate

[5] Repeat steps [1-4] 1 0m 0m 0m


for additional four
points (Points 2-5); type 2 1m 0m 0m
their respective
coordinates as shown in 1m 1m 0m
3
this table.
4 0m 1m 0m

5 0.5 m 0m 1m

[6] The newly 3


created points.

[7] The newly created


points. (The numbers 2
are not part of the
display.) 5

20-4 Create Line Bodies for Truss Members

[2] Click the


starting point
[1] Select
(Point1)...
<Concept/Lines [3] And then
From Points>. control-click the
ending point
(Point2).

[4] Click <Apply>.

[5] Select <Add


Frozen>.

[6] Click
<Generate>.
  Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 237

Line Start Point End Point


[7] Repeat steps [1-6]
for additional 8 lines 1 Point1 Point2
(Lines 2-9). Each line is
created by clicking the 2 Point2 Point3
starting point and then
control-clicking the 3 Point3 Point4
ending point. Each line is
created by <Add Point4 Point1
Frozen> operation, so 4
that each line body is Point1 Point5
treated as a separate 5
part.
6 Point2 Point5

7 Point3 Point5

8 Point4 Point5

9 Point1 Point3

[9] Rename the line


bodies as shown.

[8] Because of the


<Add Frozen>
operation, each line
body is treated as a
separate part.

8
2
5 1
7

[10] The newly created line


bodies. (The numbers are
not part of the display.)
238 Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss)

20-5 Create and Assign Cross Section for the Line Bodies

[2] In the <Details


View>, type 0.005
(m) for <R>.
[1] Select
<Concept/Cross
Section/Circular>.

[3] The sectional


properties are
automatically
calculated.

[4] Select all line


bodies.

[5] In the <Details


View>, select
<Circular1> for
<Cross Section>.
  Exercise 20. Line Modeling (Space Truss) 239

[6] Turn off <View/


Cross Section
Alignments>.

[7] Turn on <View/


Cross Section Solids>.

[8] Turn off


<Display Plane>.

Wrap Up
Close DesignModeler, save the project ("Truss") and exit the Workbench.
240 Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

Appendix:

Exercise 20a
Structural Analysis of the Space
Truss

20a-1 Introduction

In this exercise, we will perform a static structural analysis using the line model created in Exercise 20. We'll use the
boundary conditions (loads and supports) described in Exercise 20 (20-1[1-4]). The resulting member forces should
be consistent with those given by 20-1[5].

20a-2 Start Up

[1] Launch Workbench


and open the project
"Truss," which was
saved in Exercise 20.

[2] Double-click
<Model> to start up
<Mechanical>.
  Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 241

[3] If the unit system is not


like this, select <Units/
Metric (m, kg, N, s,V, A).
20a-3 Set Up <Connections>

[1] Highlight
<Connection>.

[2] Select <Body-Body/


Spherical>. A <Spherical>
joint allows the
connecting members to
independently rotate in
all directions.
242 Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

[3] Click
<Vertex>.

[4] Click this


node.

[5] Four "selection panes" show up;


each represents a vertex of a
connecting member. The currently
selected vertex is highlighted (red-
colored) and arranged at the leftmost
position. Let's leave the leftmost vertex
selected.

[6] Click to bring up


<Apply/Cancel> and click
<Apply>.

[7] Select
<Deformable>.

[10] Click to bring up


<Apply/Cancel> and
click <Apply>.

[11] Select
<Deformable>.

[8] Click this node again.

[9] Select all the panes


except the leftmost one.
  Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 243

Now, we've set up a spherical joint at node 1. We'll repeat the above steps to set up the other spherical joints at
nodes 2, 3, 4, and 5. When you click a node, make sure all selection panes representing involved vertices show up; if
not, click again until all panes show up. Remember to leave the leftmost pane as <Reference> body and the other
panes as <Mobile> bodies.

[12] Repeat steps


[2-11] four more times
to set up spherical
joints at nodes 2, 3, 4,
and 5.

20a-4 Set Up Supports

[1] Highlight <Static


Structural> and select
<Supports/
Displacement>.

[2] Select
<Vertex>.

[3] Select this


node.

[5] Click
<Apply>.

[6] Type 0 for <Z


Component>. [4] And control-
select this node.
244 Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

[7] Select <Supports/


Displacement> again.

[8] Select this


node.

[9] Click <Apply>


and type 0 for <Y
Component>.

[11] Select
this node.

[12] Click <Apply>


and type 0 for all
three components.

[10] Select <Supports/


Displacement> again.
  Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss 245

20a-5 Set Up Forces

[1] Select [2] Select this


<Loads/Force>. node.

[3] Click <Apply>


and type the
component as
shown.

20a-6 Set Up Result Objects

[1] Highlight <Solution>


and select
<Deformation/Total>.

[2] Select <Beam


Results/Axial
Force>.
246 Exercise 20a. Structural Analysis of the Space Truss

20a-7 Solve the Model and View the Results

[1] Click
<Solve>.

[7] Click
<Probe>.

[3] Select <Auto


Scale>.

[2] Highlight <Total


[6] Highlight Deformation>.
<Axial Force>.

[4] Click <Play> to


[5] Click <Stop> to
animate the
stop the animation.
deformation.

[1] Click each member to display


the axial force of each member.
These force values are consistent
with the values in 20-1[5].

Wrap Up
Close <Mechanical>, save the project as "Truss-a,"
and exit the Workbench.