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Basics of Power System Control and Protection

A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos
Georgia Power Distinguished Professor
School of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.1
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
School of Electrical and Computer
Engineering

Chairman
Chairman (interim)
(interim)
Dr.
Dr. Douglas
Douglas B.
B. Williams
Williams

Associate
Associate Director
Director
Graduate Computer
Computer Engineering
Engineering Microelectronics
Microelectronics
Graduate Affairs
Affairs

Associate Digital
Digital Signal
Signal Processing
Processing Modern
Modern Optics
Optics
Associate Director
Director
Undergraduate
Undergraduate Affairs
Affairs

Electric
Electric Power
Power Systems
Systems and
and Controls
Controls

Associate
Associate Director
Director
Electromagnetics
Electromagnetics Telecommunications
Telecommunications

Associate
Associate Director
Director Electronic
Electronic Design
Design Bioengineering
Bioengineering
and
and Applications
Applications

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.2


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Undergraduate Curriculum

ECE3070
ECE3070 Electromechanical Energy Conversion

ECE4320
ECE4320 Power System Analysis

ECE4321
ECE4321 Power System Engineering

ECE4330
ECE4330 Power Electronics

ECE4325
ECE4325 Electric Power Quality

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.3


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Graduate Courses in Power Systems

ECE6320
ECE6320 Control and Operation of Power Systems

ECE6321
ECE6321 Power System Stability

ECE6322
ECE6322 Power System Planning

ECE6323
ECE6323 Power System Relaying

Topics in Electric Power


ECE8843
ECE8843 Computational Intelligence in Power Systems

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.4


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Graduate Courses in Power Electronics

ECE6330
ECE6330 Power Electronic Devices & Subsystems

ECE6331
ECE6331 Power Electronic Circuits

ECE6335
ECE6335 Electric Machinery Analysis and Design

ECE6336
ECE6336 Dynamics & Control of Electric Machine Drives

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.5


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.6
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Continuing Education
Power Systems Certificate Program

Core
Core Courses
Courses
•Power
•Power System
System Relaying:
Relaying: Theory
Theory and
and Application
Application
•Modern
•Modern Energy
Energy Management
Management Systems
Systems
•Integrated
•Integrated Grounding
Grounding System
System Design
Design and
and Testing
Testing
•Grounding,
•Grounding, Harmonics,
Harmonics, && Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic Influence
Influence Design
Design Practices
Practices
•Power
•Power Distribution
Distribution System
System Grounding
Grounding and
and Transients
Transients
•Power
•Power Electronic
Electronic Devices,
Devices, Circuits,
Circuits, and
and Systems
Systems
Elective
Elective Courses/Conferences
Courses/Conferences
•Fault
•Fault and
and Disturbance
Disturbance Analysis
Analysis Conference
Conference
•Georgia
•Georgia Tech
Tech Protective
Protective Relaying
Relaying Conference
Conference

- All Courses are Coordinated by the Department of


Professional Education
- All Courses are Offered Annually
- Academic Administrator: A. P. Meliopoulos

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.7


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Present State of the Art: C&O and P&C
Model Based Control and Operation
Control & Operation Protection & Control
Real Time Model Component
State Estimation Protection
generators, transformers,
Applications lines, motors, capacitors,
reactors
Load Forecasting
Optimization (ED, OPF)
VAR Control System
Available Transfer capability Protection
Security Assessment
Special Protection
Congestion management
Schemes, Load Shedding,
Dynamic Line Rating
Out of Step Protection, etc.
Transient Stability
EM Transients, etc.
Visualizations Communications
Substation Automation,
Markets: Enterprize, InterControl
Day Ahead, Power Balance, Center
Spot Pricing, Transmission
Pricing (FTR, FGR), Ancillary
Services

The Infrastructure for Both Functions is Based on Similar


Technologies: Thus the Opportunity to Merge, Cut Costs,
Improve Reliability Integration of New Technologies
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.8
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Power Systems Operation

Main Objectives Tools


REGULATION DATA AQUISITION SYSTEM
Frequency SUPERVISORY CONTROL
Voltage STATE ESTIMATION
Net Interchange ANALYSIS
Pollutants OPTIMIZATION
CONTROL
SECURITY

ECONOMICS
Net Interchange Restructuring
Pollutants
Power Transactions POWER MARKET (SMD)
IPPs TRANSMISSION TARRIFS (FTR,FGR)
Energy Balance Market CONGESTION MANAGEMENT
Ancillary Services ERO (Electric Reliability Organization)

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.9


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Component (Zone) Protection
G+GSU Backup
Bus
Line
20 kV 230 kV

Xfmr

• Generators 12kV
• Transformers
• Buses
• Transmission Lines FDR
R
• Motors Zone
• Capacitor Banks
• Reactors, etc.
Radial

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.10


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
System Protection
Out of Step (Transient Stability)

Transient Voltage Collapse


Reactance Grounded Gen
800 MVA-15 kV Reactance Grounded Gen
X1=15.5%,X2=18%,X0=9% 800 MVA-15 kV

Va = 8.400 kV X1=15.5%,X2=18%,X0=9%
1
G SOURCE-A2

Va = 63.01 kV Va = 61.99 kV
BUS10 BUS20
Va = 42.02 kV Va = 8.238 kV
Illustration of Two Power System Swings:
1 2

BUS-MID BUS30 G

Generator Angle 2x47.4 mile 115 kV Transmission Line


(a)Stable – Out of Step Relay Should not Operate 52 Degrees Generator Angle
(b)Unstable – Out of Step Relay Should Operate -49 Degrees

Illustration of Voltage Collapse Near the Center of


Special Protection Schemes a Stable System Swing
Voltage Transitions Are Slow – Undervoltage
Special Protection Schemes are Protective Protection Should not Operate
Relaying Functions Concerned with the
Protection Against Special System Conditions
that May Lead to Catastrophic Results.
These System Conditions are Determined
Load Shedding – Frequency / Voltage
with Extensive Studies of Specific System
A System Disturbance May Create Generation-Load Imbalance
Behavior. Using this Information a SPS is
Leading to Sustained Frequency Decline. This Condition, if not
designed that monitors the System and When
Corrected, May Lead to Equipment Damage. The Condition Can be
the Special System Conditions Occur
Temporarily Corrected by Load Shedding Until Additional Generation
(Recognition Triggers) the System Operates
can be Dispatched.
(Automatically or with Operator Review and
Similarly, a Disturbance May Create Sustained Voltage Problems.
Action)
These problems Can be Also Corrected by Load Shedding

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.11


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Control & Operation

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.12


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Modern Energy Management System Functional Diagram
ENERGY/ECONOMY DATA AQUISITION AND
FUNCTIONS SUBSYSTEM PROCESSING SUBSYSTEM
Load Forecast
Economic Parameter SCADA GPS Synchronized
Load Forecast Estimation Measurements Measurements
Unit Commitment Interchange
Power Bids Evaluation

Ancillary Network
Services Economic Topology
Dispatch
State
Estimation
Power Automatic
Balance Generation Displays
Market Control

External
Congestion Equivalents
Management
SECURITY MONITORING
Transmission AND CONTROL SUBSYSTEM
Valuation Optimal
Power Flow
Security
Security Emergency Monitoring
State
Dispatch Extremis
Normal State
Emergency State
Environmental
Controls
Dispatch Contingency Restorative
Analysis Controls

Insecure
VAR State
Dispatch
Preventive
Controls

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.13


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
OVERVIEW OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Data Acquisition and Processing Subsystem

G1 G2

MW Flow Measurement
MVAR Flow Measurement
kV Measurement New Technology
Disconnect Switch Status
Breaker Status
GPS Synchronized
Measurements
(Phasors)

Communication
RTU Link with Control
Center

Contact Inputs
Analog Inputs Data
Master
Contact Outputs RTU
Station
Analog Outputs Commands

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.14


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Network Configurator Example

Breaker
Oriented
Model
AutoBank
500kV/230kV AutoBank
500kV/230kV
G1 G2

Bus
Oriented
Model
SG1 SG2

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.15


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
State Estimator
G1 G2 • MEASUREMENTS:
1 3 • STATE:
T1 T2 • FORMULATION:

2 4
• SOLUTION:
L1
Interconnection Interconnection
Traditional
L3 State
L2 Estimation
5
MW Flow Measurement Centralized
T1 MVAR Flow Measurement Procedure
kV Measurement
Transformer Tap Measurement
6

Observability
Bad Data Detection/ID/Rejection
Parameter Estimation
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.16
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Technological Developments

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.17


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
The OLD and the NEW

Circuit CT CCVT
Breaker

Relays

P Circuit CT CCVT
Breaker

IED-Relay

Comm Link
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.18
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
SCADA Evolution
Indicator

Control

SCADA circa 1923


Independent of Protection
To Data Base Remote Access

Control Center

User
Interface
Communication
Encoder
Decoder Standards

GPS
Communications
Terminal

RTU IED Disturbance Relays


Recorders

SCADA circa 2003


Communications Local
SCADA Terminal Computer

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.19


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Project Background: Substation Architectures: SmartGrid

Protection, Control,
Communications

Physical System

GE Industry Direction: Single Data Acquisition


Hardfiber System System for Protection, Control, and Operations
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.20
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Important New Technology
GPS-Synchronization

History of GPS-Synchronized
Measurements

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.21


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
History of GPS-Synchronized
Measurements

GPS Satellite System


Initiated 1989, Completed 1994

The Antikythera Mechanism


87 BC

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.22


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Important Milestones
1970: First Computer Relay (PRODAR, Westinghouse,
Gilcrest, Rockefeller, Udren)

1984: First Commercial µProcessor Based Relay (SEL)

1989: GPS Signal Becomes Commercially Available

1990-91: Phasor Measurement System (Arun Phadke)

1992: Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) (Jay Murphy,


Macrodyne)

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.23


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Arun Phadke’s
ArunPhasor
Phadke’s
Measurement
PMS System
Block
BlockDiagram
DiagramPublished
Publishedby
byArun
ArunPhadke
Phadke Vintage 1990-92
Vintage 1990-91
several units
were soldUnits
Several to
AEP,
WereNYPA,
Sold to
others
AEP, NYPA,
others
CHARACTERISTICS
• Analog Filter with
Cutoff Frequency of
360Hz
• Sample & Hold A/D
Technology with
Analog Multiplexing
Time • 12 bit S&H A/D 720
TimeAccuracy
AccuracyWas
WasNever
NeverMeasured
MeasuredororReported.
Reported.
Multiplexing s/s
Multiplexing and Design Suggest Very HighTiming
and Design Suggest Very High TimingError
Error
Estimated Time Precision: 100 us, 2 degrees at 60 Hz
Estimated Time Precision: 100 us, 2 degrees at 60 Hz
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.24
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Macrodyne 1620 PMU
Released to Market January 1992
Jay Murphy (Macrodyne) Was First to Introduce
Term PMU: Phasor Measurement Unit
GPS
Input Protection & Antenna
Isolation Section A/D Converter
(Σ∆ Modulation) Optical Digitized
Isolation Data
2880 s/s
CHARACTERISTICS
GPS
Receiver
• Individually GPS
Optical 1PPS IRIGB
Isolation Sync’d Channels
Analog
Inputs Sampling Clock
PLL • Common Mode
V : 300V
I : 2V
Rejection Filter with
Optical Isolation

Memory
Input Protection &
Isolation Section A/D Converter µP
(Σ∆ Modulation) Optical
Isolation
• 16 bit A/D Σ∆
Modulation
Digitized Display
Data &
2880 s/s Keyboard
Optical
Isolation
RS232

Data
Time Accuracy11µs
TimeAccuracy µs
Master
Workstation
Concentrator
(PC) 0.02
0.02Degrees
Degreesatat60
60Hz
Hz
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.25
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Distributed Dynamic State Estimation Implementation
PMU Technology Enables Distributed SE
IED Vendor D
Measurement Layer
Phase Conductor i(t)
Physical Arrangement

LAN

Processing
v(t) Current Relay
Transformer Vendor C

Data
FireWall
Transformer

Attenuator
Instrumentation
Potential

i1(t) i2(t) PMU


Burden
Vendor A
Super-
Cables

Calibrator

Attenuator
Anti-Aliasing
Data Flow
Filters

Encoding/Decoding
LAN

Cryptography
v1(t) v2(t)
PMU
Vendor C

Burden

Data/Measurements from all PMUs, Relays, IEDs, Meters,


FDRs, etc are collected via a Local Area Network in a data
concentrator.
The data is used in a dynamic state estimator which provides
the validated and high fidelity dynamic model of the system.
Bad data detection and rejection is achieved because of high
level of redundant measurements at this level.
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.26
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Numerical Results – B-G Plant

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.27


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Transient Stability Monitoring
The dynamic state estimator is utilized to predict the transient stability or instability of a generator. The dynamic
state of the system provides the center of oscillations of the generator swing. From this information the potential
energy of the generator is computed as a generalization of the basic energy function method.

The total energy of the generator can also be trivially computed once the potential energy has been computed.
The total energy is compared to the potential energy of the generator – if the total energy is higher than the peak
(barrier) value of the potential energy this indicates that the generator will lose its synchronism (transient
instability).

It is important to note that this approach is predictive, i.e. it identifies a transient instability before it occurs.

The figures provide visualizations of generator oscillations and the trajectory of the total energy superimposed on
the system potential energy.

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.28


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Energy Management Systems
Hierarchy of Scheduling Functions

Level 1: Load Forecasting


Unit Commitment
Emissions Control
Economy Purchases

Level 2: Economic Dispatch


Environmental Dispatch
Economic Interchange Evaluation
Optimal Power Flow
Transfer Capability
Day-Ahead Scheduling
Spot Market Scheduling

Level 3: Automatic Generation Control


- Frequency Control
- Interchange Control
- Transactions Control
- Inadvertent Power Flow Control
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.29
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Generating Unit Control Schemes
Schematic Representation

Tramsmission
System
and Load
Tie
Prime Line
G
Mover
Vg Pg f

Governor Exciter
G(s) fsched

f + -
Vref Σ f
Σ
Bias Σ Psched
+ - - Bf +
+ +
Pg Pg
PSS Σ K(s) Σ
- + +
D(s)
f

L(s)

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.30


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Net Interchange Control
Area 1 Area 3
G G

Vi e jδi

G G G
ACE = P

Area 4 Area 2
G
G

Area Control Error (ACE)


ACE = ∆Pint + B∆f G

∆Pgi = a i ACE G

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.31


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Economic Scheduling Functions Hierarchical Structure

A Resource Scheduling
(weeks)

Mid Term Load Forecast


Units out for maintenance
Fuel Management
Weekly hydro energy usage

B Unit Commitment
(hours/Days)

Short Term Load Forecast


List of committed units
Hourly hydro energy usage
Interchange schedule

C Economic Dispatch Security


(minutes) Dispatch

Economic Base Points


Participation Factors

Automatic
D Generation Control
(seconds)

Pdesi , i =1,2,...,n
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.32
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Economic Dispatch
G1 G2 • MEASUREMENTS

1 3
• COST
• FORMULATION
T1 T2
• SOLUTION
2 4
L1
Interconnection Interconnection

L3
L2
5
MW Flow Measurement
T1 MVAR Flow Measurement
kV Measurement
Transformer Tap Measurement
6

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.33


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Optimal Power Flow
G1 G2
• MEASUREMENTS
1 3
• STATE
T1 T2 • CONTROLS

2 4 • FORMULATION
L1
Interconnection Interconnection
• SOLUTION

L3
L2
5
MW Flow Measurement
T1 MVAR Flow Measurement
kV Measurement
Transformer Tap Measurement
6

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.34


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
SYSTEM NORMAL and SECURE
SECURITY System Optimization
D,O
(Congestion Management)
Power System Operating Preventive
Restorative
States Controls
Controls

Restorative
RESTORATIVE Controls NORMAL but
System Security VULNERABLE/INSECURE
Optimization/Security
D,O D,O

Emergency
Emergency Controls Corrective
Controls Controls

EXTREMIS EMERGENCY
System Security System Security

D,O D,O

Transition Due to Disturbances

Transition Due to Control Action

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.35


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Energy Management Systems
Hierarchical Structure

System Power
Production and
Control
(SPPC)
Operations
Coordination
Office
(OCO)

Regional
Dispatch
Center
(RDC)

Substation Power Plant


Psched
UCE Power Plant fsched
Vexc Controls ACE
Vsched

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.36


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
New Challenges: Wind/PV Farm Characteristics
Types 1 and 2
are Not Used for
Large Projects

Types 3 and 4
Limit Fault
Currents to
About 120% of
Nominal Current

Proposed
Proposed Requirements
Requirements –– NERC
NERC PRC-024,
PRC-024, >20
>20 MVA
MVA or
or >75
>75 MVA
MVA
Total
Total

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.37


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Renewables and Uncertainty
Solar is Available During High Price/Cost Hours

Small Storage can provide huge add-on value to solar projects

Better capacity factor than other renewables (70 to 80%)

Wind Availability is Highly Volatile and Patterns May be


Opposite to Grid Needs (i.e. CA)

Large Storage Schemes are needed to coordinate economic


usage of wind energy and to provide add-on value

Very small capacity factor (10 to 25%)

Large Wind Swings

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.38


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Energy Management Systems: Evolution

Control and Operation of Power Systems


is Driven by

(a) Legislative action


(b) Economics
(c) Technical constraints

The envelop is always moving because of


technological advancements
ERO Focus: Operational Reliability
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.39
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
History of Utility Regulatory Legislation
Federal Power Commission
• PUHCA – 1935 (Public Utility Holding Company Act)

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (1977)


• PURPA – 1978 (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act)
• Clean Air Act – 1990
• Energy Policy Act – 1992
• Orders 888 & 889 – 1996 (1 OASIS )
• CECA – 1998 (Comprehensive Electricity Competition Act)
• Order 2000
• SMD – Standard Market Design
• US Energy Policy Act, 2005 (provides authority to enforce reliability)
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.40
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Visualization & Animation G e n e ra to r A n im a tio n - U n it C a p a b ility
U n it N a m e
University of Illinois/Georgia Tech (PSERC Project) Qg R o tor
H e ating

Pg

L ow
V o lta ge
S e n s itiv itie s
d P g /d P
0 1 2 3 4

d Q g /d P
0 1 2 3 4

d V g /d P
0 1 2 3 4

Large Scale Systems


Performance - Model Hierarchy

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.41


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.42
Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Energy Management Systems
Information Systems and Standards

OASIS Open Access Same-Time Information System


UCA Utility Communication Architecture
ICCP Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol
CCAPI Control Center Application Program Interface
CIM Common Information Model
IEC61850 Evolution of the UCA
C37.118 Synchrophasor Data

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.43


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Active Future Distribution Systems (with distributed energy resources – solar, wind, PHEVs, fuel cells,…).
Smart Grid technologies: Distributed Monitoring, Control, Protection and Operations system. Target Speeds 10
times per second

Functions: (a) Optimal operation of the distribution system under normal operating conditions, (b) Emergency
management in cases of faults and assist the power grid when needed, (c) Assist Voltage recovery, (d) Assist cold
load pickup, (e) Balance Feeder, (f) etc., etc.

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.44


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011
Evolution, Naxos Island, Greece
June 25, 2011

NSF/ECEDHA Education Workshop 1.45


Georgia Tech GLC, Atlanta, Georgia, July 9-12, 2011