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Clutch System 2A-1

Volume II Chassis System


Chapter 10 Clutch Operating System.......................................................................................................2A-1
Chapter 11 List of tires and drive shafts................................................................................................... 2B-1
Chapter 12 Wheels and tires..................................................................................................................... 2C-1
Chapter 13 Suspension system.................................................................................................................2D-1
Chapter 14 Steering system...................................................................................................................... 2E-1
Chapter 15 Brake system.......................................................................................................................... 2F-1
Clutch System 2A-1

Chapter 10 Clutch Operating System

Clutch Operating System........................................................................................................................2A-2


Cluch pedal assembly............................................................................................................................2A-2
Check of clutch pedal ...................................................................................................................2A-2
Free stroke of clutch pedal............................................................................................................2A-2
Decoupling point of clutch pedal..................................................................................................2A-2
Removal/installation of clutch pedal ............................................................................................2A-3
Removal/installation of clutch assembly pipe ..............................................................................2A-3
Clutch slave cylinder..............................................................................................................................2A-3
Removal/installation of clutch slave cylinder...............................................................................2A-3
Clutch System 2A-2

Clutch Operating System

●Note: Free stroke of pedal


The oil reservoir is shared by the clutch and
brake system. Provided the clutch is
disassembled in any case, add in the clutch oil
(brake oil) and drain the air, check the oil for
leakage after installing the clutch.
Decoupling point of clutch pedal
Cluch pedal assembly 1. Apply the parking brake, and pack the mat
wood under front and rear wheels.
Check of clutch pedal 2. Start the engine, and make it idling.
As shown below, the clutch pedal assembly pedal 3. Don’t step the clutch pedal, and put the gear
pad surface to the distance of the carpet: lever slowly in reverse gear.
146- 156mm (for reference) 4. In case of hearing the gear noises, keep the
gear lever in position.
5. Step down the clutch pedal slowly.
6. When the noises of gear disappears, keep the
clutch pedal unchanged (decoupling point of
clutch pedal).
7. Measure the distance a (pedal stroke until the
clutch pedal decoupling point is fully stepped
down) and pedal stroke.
8. Confirm the release stroke is within the
specified value.
Total stroke: 105 to 115 mm (for reference)
Separated stroke: 50 to 60 mm (for
reference)
● If it’s outside the specified value, check
whether the clutch pedal and clutch master
cylinder are correctly assembled, and drain
the air out of clutch pipe.

Free stroke of clutch pedal


The free stroke of clutch pedal is the distance
required until a resisting force is felt by pressing
down the clutch pedal by hands.
Free stroke of pedal: 3 to 12mm (for reference)

If it’s outside the specified value, check whether


the clutch pedal and clutch master cylinder are
correctly assembled, and drain the air out of clutch
pipe.
离合器系统 2A-3

4, The clutch hose mounting adapter is unplugged


Removal/installation of clutch pedal from the clutch pipe mounting bracket.
1. Remove the drip cup hose clips ①, will take 5. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of
over the oil cup is removed from the brake removal.
fluid reservoir, and stoppered clutch brake
reservoir oil outlet to prevent oil spills; 6. After installing it, check the clutch pedal
2. Pull the clutch master pump ⑦ connection with again (refer to the check of clutch pedal).
the clutch master pump out the oil hose
assembly cotter pin, remove the clutch oil hose
assemblies, and cotter pin Replacing the clutch
master pump;
3. Remove the clutch pedal mounting nut ⑥, the
clutch pedal and clutch master pump be
removed from the body of the vehicle;
4. Remove the cotter pin ④ and ⑤, separated
from the clutch pedal to the clutch master
pump;
5. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of
removal.
6. After installing it, check the clutch pedal
again (refer to the check of clutch pedal).

Clutch slave cylinder


Removal/installation of clutch slave
cylinder
1. Remove the clutch slave cylinder is connected
with the clutch pipe ④ ⑤ push-in fitting cotter pin,
so that the two separated, and then replace the
clutch slave cylinder cotter pin;
2. Remove the clutch slave cylinder using the tool
to connect to the transmission bolts ③ (below),
remove the clutch slave cylinder;
3. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of removal.

Removal / installation of clutch 4. After installing it, check the clutch pedal again
(refer to the check of clutch pedal).
assembly pipe

1. From clutch master Unscrew the oil pumped out


of the hose assembly pipe ① clutch bolt head
②, ③ the clutch pipe with the clutch master
pump out the oil hose assembly ① Separated;
2. Remove the clutch slave cylinder is connected
with the clutch pipe ④ ⑤ push-in fitting
cotter pin, so that the two Separated, and then
replace the clutch slave cylinder cotter;
3. Remove the pipe clutch mounting bolts ⑥, the
clutch assembly and pipe Separated body;
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-1

Chapter 11 List of tires and drive shafts

Common procedures ............................................................................................................................... 2B-2


Attentions for wheels and tires............................................................................................................... 2B-2
Removal and installation of wheels and tires........................................................................................ 2B-2
Keypoints for removal of lock nut and cotter pin ................................................................................ 2B-2
Keypoints for mounting the lock nut and cotter pin ............................................................................ 2B-2
Drive shaft................................................................................................................................................ 2B-2
Keypoints for removal of right drive shaft................................................................................... 2B-2
Check of drive shaft ................................................................................................................................ 2B-2
Keypoints for removal of left drive shaft .............................................................................................. 2B-2
Keypoints for installation of snap ring .................................................................................................. 2B-3
Keypoints for installation of right drive shaft ...................................................................................... 2B-3
Keypoints for installation of left drive shaft ......................................................................................... 2B-3
Removal and installation of drive shaft ....................................................................................... 2B-4
Disassembly and assembling of drive shaft ........................................................................................... 2B-4
Keypoints for disassembling wheel side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp............................................ 2B-6
Keypoints for disassembling transmission drive axle side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp .............. 2B-6
Keypoints for disassembling inner cage shaft....................................................................................... 2B-6
Keypoints for disassembling 3-foot universal joint .............................................................................. 2B-6
Keypoints for disassembling dustproof rubber sleeve ......................................................................... 2B-6
Keypoints for assembling dustproof rubber sleeve .............................................................................. 2B-6
Keypoints for assembling 3-foot universal joint ................................................................................... 2B-6
Keypoints for assembling inner cage shaft............................................................................................ 2B-7
Keypoints for assembling the transmission drive axle side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp ............ 2B-7
Keypoints for assembling the dustproof rubber sleeve clamp on wheel side..................................... 2B-7
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-2

Common procedures
Attentions for wheels and tires
Removal and installation of wheels and tires
The removal and installation steps of wheels and
tires are not mentioned in this section. In case of
removing the wheels, their tightening torque is
100-120N.m during the installation.
Fabric
Keypoints for removal of lock nut and cotter
4. Use copper hammer tapping nuts, loosen the
pin
drive shaft from the front hub.
1. Use flat-nose pliers remove locknut outside
cotter pin.
2. Apply a braking force to lock the hub.
3. Remove the lock nut.

5. Remove the right drive shaft bolts on the base.


6. Hold the shaft with both hands to separate the
drive shaft.

Keypoints for mounting the lock nut and cotter


pin
1. Apply a braking force to lock the nut.
2. Install the new lock nut up to fixed torque of
170-190N.m. At the fixed torque, first hit it
up to the specified torque before loosening it,
and hit it up to the specified torque again.
Check of drive shaft
3. Use flat-nose pliers outside the cotter pin
1. Check the dustproof rubber sleeve of drive
assembly locknut.
shaft for cracks or damages, grease for
leakage or hoop for loosening.
Drive shaft 2. Check the drive shaft for bends or cracks,
Keypoints for removal of right drive shaft universal joint or spline for wears. If
necessary, repair or replace the drive shaft
1. Remove the steering knuckle bolt and nut. and dustproof rubber sleeve or hoop.
2. Wrap the cloth on the ball joint dust cover. Keypoints for removal of left drive shaft
3. Pry down the lower swing arm from steering 1. Remove the steering knuckle bolt and nut.
knuckle.
2. Wrap the cloth on the dustproof rubber sleeve
of ball joint.
3. Pry the lower control arm out of steering
knuckle.
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-3

Snap ring

Opening

Outer diameter

Cloth
Keypoints for installation of right drive
4. Attach the spare nut to drive shaft to make the
nut flush with the end of drive shaft. shaft
5. Hit the nut lightly with a copper hammer to Note:
loosen the drive shaft from front hub. The sharp edges of connecting shaft may scratch
6. Take the drive shaft out of hub. the oil seal, so it should be specially careful to
install the drive shaft into the transmission drive
Note: the sharp edge of drive shaft will scratch the axle.
oil seal, so it’s specially careful to remove the
drive shaft from the transmission drive axle. 1. Apply ATF to the lip of oil seal.

7. Insert a crowbar between outer ring and 2. Push the right drive shaft into the
transmission drive axle, and pry the left drive transmission drive axle.
shaft from transmission drive axle, as shown
in the figure below.
3. Fixed bearing bolts on the carriage.
4. Insert the right drive shaft into the hub..
5. The lower control arm ball joint to the
knuckle is placed in the corresponding holes
and fixing bolts and nuts.
Keypoints for installation of left drive
shaft
1. Insert the left drive shaft into the hub.
2. Apply ATF to the lip of oil seal.
3. Push the drive shaft into the transmission
Keypoints for installation of snap ring drive axle.
1. While attaching a new snap ring to the
connecting shaft, make the opening of snap
ring up, and ensure the diameter of snap ring
shall not exceed the specified value in
installation technology requirements.
2. After the installation, measure the outer
diameter of snap ring. If it exceeds the
specified value, additionally renew a snap
ring, and repeat Steps 1-2.
Technical requirements for snap ring outer
diameter: 26 mm {1. 02 in} 4. After the installation, draw the outer ring on
one end of transmission drive axle forward,
and confirm that the drive shaft is locked by
the snap ring.
5. The lower control arm ball joint to the knuckle
is placed in the corresponding holes and fixing
bolts and nuts.
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-4

Removal and installation of drive shaft ③. Remove it in the sequence shown in the table.
①. Drain all the oil out of transmission drive axle. ④. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal.
②. Remove the hub of steering knuckle.

1 Lock nut
Refer to the keypoints for removal of M lock nut. Refer to the keypoints for installation of
M lock nut.
2 Ball joint of steering tie rod end socket
Refer to the keypoints for steering tie rod end socket ball joint.
3 Lower control arm ball joint
4 Right drive shaft
Refer to the keypoints for removal and installation of M drive shaft.
5 Bolt
6 Left drive shaft
Refer to the keypoints for removal and installation of M drive shaft..
7 Snap ring
Refer to the keypoints for installation of M snap ring.
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-5

2. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of


Disassembly and assembling of drive shaft
disassembly.
1. Disassemble it in the sequence shown in the
table.

1 Wheel side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp


Refer to the keypoints for disassembling M wheel side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp. Refer
to the keypoints for assembling M wheel side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp.
2 Transmission drive axle side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
Refer to the keypoints for disassembling M transmission drive axle side dustproof rubber
sleeve clamp. Refer to the keypoints for assembling M transmission drive axle side dustproof
rubber sleeve clamp.
3 Inner Cage shaft
Refer to the keypoints for disassembling M inner Cage shaft.
Refer to the keypoints for assembling M inner Cage shaft
4 Snap ring
5 3-foot universal joint
Refer to the keypoints for disassembling M 3-foot universal joint. Refer to the keypoints for
assembling M 3-foot universal joint.
6 Dustproof rubber sleeve
Refer to the keypoints for disassembling M dustproof rubber sleeve. Refer to the keypoints for
assembling M dustproof rubber sleeve.
7 Outside the Cage and ball joint assembly
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-6

Note: make the mark with paint, and don’t punch


Keypoints for disassembling wheel side
the mark.
dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
1. For the purpose of correct assembly, make the
Note
mark on the shaft and 3-foot universal joint.
Only when the dustproof rubber sleeve clamp is
2. Remove the stop ring with clip forceps.
replaced, it’s required to remove the dustproof
rubber sleeve clamp with clamp forceps and scrap 3. Remove 3-foot universal joint from the shaft.
it, as shown in the figure below.

Mark
Keypoints for disassembling dustproof rubber
sleeve
Keypoints for disassembling transmission drive
Note: unless it’s necessary to replace the dustproof
axle side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
rubber sleeve ball joint and shaft assembly, don’t
Remove big or small clamp with clamp forceps. remove the dustproof rubber sleeve on wheel side
under common conditions; remove the paper tape
after assembling the dustproof rubber sleeve.
1. Wrap the spline of shaft with a tape.
2. Remove the dustproof rubber sleeve.

Paper tape
Keypoints for disassembling inner cage shaft
Keypoints for assembling dustproof rubber
1. Make a mark for correct assembling on the sleeve
inner cage shaft.
Note: the dustproof rubber sleeves are different
2. Remove the inner cage shaft. from each other on wheel side and transmission
drive axle side; apply the specified grease supplied
in kits of dustproof rubber sleeve.
Mark
1. Apply the specified grease to the dustproof
rubber sleeve on wheel side.
Filling capacity: 90-110 g {3.13- 3.82oz}
2. Since the spline of shaft has been wrapped
with a taper during the removal, the dustproof
rubber sleeve can be mounted at this time.
3. Remove the tape.

Keypoints for disassembling 3-foot universal Keypoints for assembling 3-foot universal joint
joint 1. nstall 3-foot universal joint with a crowbar
and hammer by aligning to the mark;
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-7

clearance A.
Clearance A:2.9 mm {0.11 in}

Adjusting screw

2. Install the new stop ring with clip forceps.


Keypoints for assembling inner cage shaft
Note: apply the specified grease supplied in kits of
dustproof rubber sleeves.
1. Apply the specified grease to the outer ring 2. Lock the small dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
and transmission drive axle side dustproof on wheel side with SST, and ensure the
rubber sleeve; clearance B conforms to the provisions for
technical requirements. If the clearance B
Filling capacity of grease:110-130g {3.82-4.59oz} exceeds the specified value, reduce the
2. Assemble the inner cage shaft; clearance A of SST, and re-lock the dustproof
rubber sleeve. If the clearance B is below the
3. Wrap the head of screwdriver with a cloth, specified value, replace the dustproof rubber
then lift up the small end of each dustproof sleeve clamp, increase the clearance A of SST,
rubber sleeve carefully, and drain the air and lock the new dustproof rubber sleeve;
remaining in dustproof rubber sleeve.
Clearance B: 2.4-2.8 mm {0.095-0.110 in}

Keypoints for assembling the transmission drive


axle side dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
{0.095-0.110 in}
Note: the new hoop must be used every time. The
wrapping direction of hoop should be reverse to 3. Ensure the dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
forward rotation direction of drive shaft. shall not be outside the clip mounting area. If
any of above cases occurs, replace the hoop,
1. After wrapping the hoop by a turn, clamp it and repeat Steps 2 and 3;
with clip forceps;
4. Fill in the dustproof rubber sleeve with the
2. Lock the hoop with a locking clamp; grease supplied in repair kits;
5. Turn SST adjusting bolt to adjust the
clearance A.
Clearance A: 3.2 mm {0.13 in};
6. Lock the big dustproof rubber sleeve clamp
on wheel side with SST;
7. Ensure the clearance B conforms to the
provisions for technical requirements;
If the clearance B exceeds the specified value,
reduce the clearance A of SST, and re-lock the
Keypoints for assembling the dustproof rubber dustproof rubber sleeve. If the clearance B is
sleeve clamp on wheel side below the specified value, replace the dustproof
rubber sleeve clamp, increase the clearance A of
1. Turn SST adjusting bolt to adjust the
List of tires and drive shafts 2B-8

SST, and turn the edges of new dustproof rubber


sleeve up to clearance B: 2.4-2.8 mm {0.095-0.110
in};
8. Ensure the dustproof rubber sleeve clamp is
not outside the hoop mounting area. If any of
above cases occurs, replace the hoop, and
repeat Steps 7 and 8.
Wheels and tires 2C-1

Chapter 12 Wheels and tires

Description and operation ......................................................................................................................2C-2


Tires.............................................................................................................................................. 2C-2
Tire rotation .................................................................................................................................. 2C-3
All season tire ............................................................................................................................... 2C-3
Tire label....................................................................................................................................... 2C-3
Spare tire....................................................................................................................................... 2C-3
Wheel............................................................................................................................................ 2C-3
Tire pressure ................................................................................................................................. 2C-4
Tire rotation .................................................................................................................................. 2C-4
Wheel balance............................................................................................................................... 2C-4
Diagnostic data and procedures.............................................................................................................2C-4
Tire wears ..................................................................................................................................... 2C-4
Irregular or excessive wears of tire............................................................................................... 2C-5
Repair instructions .............................................................................................................................2C-6
Wheel repair instructions.............................................................................................................. 2C-6
Instructions for tire size and air pressure ...................................................................................... 2C-7
Installation / disassembly of tire pressure monitoring hosts ......................................................... 2C-8
Tire pressure sensor installation / removal ................................................................................... 2C-8
Precautions.................................................................................................................................... 2C-9
Function Display Interface............................................................................................................... 2C-10
Function Display Interface Description...................................................................................... 2C-10
Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................................... 2C-12
Wheels and tires 2C-2

Description and operation


Width
Tires
Tread
The portion contacting the road surface outside the
buffer layer and tire body. It’s made of high wear- Inner Outer
resistant rubber. Its operation is determined by its diameter diameter
surface details.
Buffer layer
The fabric layer between the tread and tire body is
used to prevent the damages of tires caused by Width
road impacts and vibration.
Tire body
This main portion is a tire-like structure consisting Height
of high-strength synthetic fiber cord fabric. Since it
must maintain the tire pressure and bear all the
loads and vibrations of tires, so it must have high
fatigue-resistant properties.
Tire bead 215 Width (mm)
The steel wire coil on ends of tire body, which is Flatness rate 65%
covered with rubber layers and wrapped with 65
nylon threads. It’s used to fix the tire on the rim. (Height/width)×100

Tire tube R Radial tire


215/65R16
The most tires applied in modern vehicles are 102H Rim diameter
tubeless tires. 16 (Inner diameter of tire,
feet)
Sidewall of tire
102 Max. load index
It’s used to protect the tire body, flexing resistant
and improve the driving comfort. H Max. speed rating

Tire
215 Width (mm)
Structure of tubeless tire
Flatness rate 65%
60
Buffer layer Tread (Height/width)×100
Tire body R Radial tire
Sidewall 215/60R17
96H Rim diameter
17 (Inner diameter of tire,
Tire bead feet)
Inflating 96 Max. load index
valve
H Max. speed rating

Tire hydroplaning
When the vehicle is driving on the road surface
with water at high speed, it will make the tires
unable to drive like rolling on the good road
surface, thus the tires may float on it. This is called
as tire hydroplaning.It will cause the failure of
Wheels and tires 2C-3

brake, low friction force and steering failure, so mileometer values, vehicle ground clearance, and
it’s very dangerous. clearance from tire to vehicle body or chassis. But
it’s not applicable for spare tires.
It’s recommended to replace a pair of tires on the
High-speed driving Low-speed driving same shaft synchronously during the renewal of
tires.
If it’s required to replace a tire, find a nearest tread
to compensate the braking coefficients.
Different producers design different tread patterns,
but the same TPC number may be used on the
same vehicle.

Standing wave All season tire


During the rotation of tires, the tread will produce Now, most of vehicles are equipped with all season
the repeated deformations and restoring torques. PCR tires as standard configurations. These tires
However, the new deformation has been produced can be used as snow tires. During the use in the
and the previous deformation still exists at higher snow, their average ratio is 37% higher than
speed, so a vibration wave will be produced on friction coefficient of non-all season tires. In other
local part of tread. The lower the tire pressure is, aspects, e.g.their wet water friction coefficient,
the more serious its vibration wave is, especially at rolling resistance, tread service life and air
high speed. resistance are all improved, because the design of
tread patterns and tread compound are also
improved. These tires have “M+S” engraved
behind their tire side marked size codes. The suffix
“MS” is also engraved behind the instructions for
tire side TPC numbers.
Not all the steering wheel tires are all season tires.
These tires have no “MS” marks behind the tire
sizes or behind the instructions for TPC numbers.
Tire label
The tire labels shall be permanently affixed behind
the side door of driver’s seat, and the tires shall be
inflated as per the above tire pressure. The
maximum vehicle load, tire specifications
Tire rotation (including the spare tire) and inflating pressure
((including the spare tire) are described on the tire
As indicated in the tire performance criteria (TPC), labels.
the numbers have been engraved in the tire side
mold near to tire size. It indicates that these Spare tire
numbers include the traction force index, strength, This vehicle is equipped with full-size wheels and
size and rolling resistance conforming to the spare tires on it.
criteria. Generally speaking, each size of tire shall
have different TPC numbers. Wheel
Note: Don’t use different types of tires on the If any of the following cases occur to the wheels,
same vehicle, e.g.radial tire and bias tire, except in they must be replaced: bends, indentions, flanging
emergency cases, because the vehicle will be or deflected jumps, air leakage of weld joints,
seriously influenced, and it may cause the control enlargement of bolt holes, or fixing failure or
failure of vehicle. serious rusting of bolts. The jumps of wheel
transition will cause the vibration of vehicle. Any
Replace the original tires with the tires of the same replaced wheel must have the same load, diameter,
size, load and structure. The use of other sizes or rim width, offset distance and mounting size as
structures of tires will seriously influence the ride those of original wheel. The inconformity of wheel
comfort, steering properties, speedometer / size or type will influence the service life of wheel
Wheels and tires 2C-4

and bearing, cooling of brake, readings of habits,etc. The wear rate of front wheel tire is
speedometer/kilometer, vehicle ground clearance, below that of rear wheel tire.
and clearance from tire to vehicle body and chassis.
In order to avoid uneven wears of tire and extend
Tire pressure its service life, rotate the tire every 10,000km.
After rotating the tire, adjust its air pressure, and
The recommended air pressure of any vehicle tire ensure that the torque of hub nut meets the
shall be carefully calculated, which will give your specified requirements.
driving/ride comfort, good steering ability, extend
the service life of tire, and ensure its loading Minimum pattern depth 1.6mm(0.06 inch)
capacity.
Check the tire every 5,000km. The tire pressure
must be checked every month or before driving it
for long distance. The tire must be checked at low
temperature, i.e. when the vehicle drives for about
3 minutes or at less than 1. 6km/hour. Inflate the
tire as per the air pressure indicated in the tire label
on driver’s seat side door. The inflation pressure of
tire has been given in “Instructions for Tire
Specifications and Inflation Pressure” of this
section. Wheel balance
The inflating valve must have a nut cap on it, It’s a simple process to check the wheel balance. If
which is used to prevent the dust and water from the wheel jumps at high speed, it shall be first
entering into it. checked by you. During the replacement of wheels
The air pressure above the recommended pressure and tires, their balances must be checked.
will lead to: While checking the wheel balance, be sure to
● Harder ride and driving follow the rules below:
① The number of balance blocks shall not
● Explosion or damages of tire
exceed two on inner or outer side of one
● Rapid wears of tread in the middle of tire wheel;
The air pressure below the recommended pressure ② The total weight of one wheel balance block
will lead to: shall not exceed 100g (3.5 ounce);
● Large noises while turning
● Difficult steering
Diagnostic data and procedures
● Rapid or uneven wears of both sides of tire Tire wears
● Scratches or cutting of tire edges ① Check the depth of tire pattern.

● Fracture of tire cord ② If the depth of its pattern is below the given
value, please replace the tire.
At higher tire temperature, its different tire
pressure on the same shaft will lead to:
● Uneven braking force
● Heavy steering
● Reduction of handling stability
● Sudden steering during the acceleration
● Direction of torque control
Tire rotation
It can be seen from the specifications that the tire
Front and rear tires have different functions and must be replaced when the depth of tire pattern is
will lead to uneven wears, which is determined by reduced (below 1. 6mm (0. 06 inch)).
road surfaces for driving and different driving
Wheels and tires 2C-5

Irregular or excessive wears of tire


Fault Possible causes Corrective measures
● Overlow tire pressure ● Adjust the tire pressure.
● Improper tire rotation ● Rotate the tire.

● Overhigh tire pressure ● Adjust the tire pressure.


● Improper tire rotation ● Rotate the tire.

● Improper toe-in ● Adjust the toe-in.

● Reverse toe-in ● Adjust the toe-in.

● Improper kingpin caster angle ● Check the steering knuckle,


or improper front-wheel control connecting rod, drive
camber shaft and suspension. Replace
if necessary.
● Suspension failure
● Adjust the balance of wheel.
● Improper wheel balance
● Rotate the tire.
● Improper tire rotation
Wheels and tires 2C-6

Repair instructions wheel can be removed from the vehicle by


adopting the following methods:
Wheel repair instructions
A. Re-tighten any influenced hub nut, and then
turn the hub nut two circles in its loosening
direction.
B. Lower the vehicle, try to shake the vehicle,
and adopt the weight of one or several
persons to loosen the wheel.
C. Lift up the vehicle again, and then remove the
wheel.
Note: don’t apply the lubricating oil to vertical
surface of wheel and hub (or brake disc), because
the existence of lubricating oil in these positions
will lead to the wheel loosening when the vehicle
is driven, control failure of vehicle and even
serious accidents. The lubricating oil is not good
for removal of tightened wheel. If the lubricating
oil is required, don’t apply too much oil, and only
to the centerhole area of wheel.
II. Sequence of installation
Note: before installing the wheel, please remove
the sundries from the mounting faces of wheel,
brake drum and hub with a hairbrush. If the surface
contact is poor during the installation, it will
loosen the hub nut. While the vehicle is driving,
there may be a risk of disengaging the wheel from
the vehicle. The hub nut must be tightened as per
the specified torque, but its tightening force shall
not be excessive, thus the bends of wheel, brake
drum or hub can be avoided.
① Install the wheel.
② Install the hub nuts in diagonal order. Don’t
tighten the hub nut.
③ Lower the vehicle.

I. Sequence of removal ④ Tighten it.

① Remove the hub nut; Tighten the hub nuts up to the torque of 100 to 120
N.m (73.3 to 88.3 lb-ft).
② Lift the wheel stably. ⑤ Wheel balance
Note: don’t loosen the tightened wheel by heating Measure the balance of wheel with an automatic
it. It will shorten the service life of wheel, hub nut balancing machine. The balancing machine is
and wheel bearing. Excessive force application, e.g. convenient in operation, its static and dynamic
hitting the wheel or tire, will also cause the balance can be also measured. Unlike the balance
damages, which can’t be recovered. It’s allowed to of vehicle, don’t calibrate the unbalance of vehicle,
hit the sides of wheel slightly with a hand or brake drum or hub. This defect can be resolved by
rubber hammer. precision. During the balancing work, make the
③ Remove the wheel. taper part through the wheel center hole to fix the
wheel, and don’t do so through the mounting hole
If it’s difficult to remove the wheel from the of hub nut.
vehicle, it may be caused by the existence of
sundries or excessive close fit among the wheel ⑥ Calibrate the unbalanced tire.
middle holes, nuts and hubs. At this time, the Provide two methods to calibrate the unbalanced
Wheels and tires 2C-7

tire. 145 21 193 28 241 35


One method is to fix the tire through this automatic 152 22 200 29 248 36
device, and then hit small yellow rubber blocks on 159 23 207 30 276 40
both sides of tire tread. Such calibration method is
166 24 214 31 310 45
usually permanent.
172 25 220 32 345 50
If it’s well handled, it won’t influence its
appearance or tire service life. 179 26 228 33 379 55

It’s not recommended to calibrate any tire with a Instructions for tightening torque
blade-shape machine, because it can reduce the
service life of tire tread, and the tire can’t be Type N.m Ib.Ft Ib.In
permanently calibrated. Hub
The other method is to remove the tire, and then nut(aluminu 100 to
66 to 81 -
turn it by 180‫ ﹾ‬on the rim. The unbalance of wheel m alloy 120
wheel)
or tire must be known before doing so, because
this method can ensure the balance of its assembly. Hub
100 to
nut(steel 66 to 81 -
⑦ Installation of tire and wheel 120
wheel)
The tire and wheel shall be installed in the
assembling workshop. During the installation,
install them by aligning the radial hard point or
heavy balancing point of tire to the radial dot or
light balancing point of wheel.
The heavy balancing point of tire is marked with a
red dot during the start of its production, or marked
on the tire side with a label.
The light balancing point of wheel is located at the
inflating valve.
Before installing the tire and wheel, scribe a line
on the tire and inflating valve to ensure that they
can be installed in the same position during the re-
installation.
The quality of spare tire and original tire shall be
the same, and their heavy and light points shall be
marked with the same method.
Instructions
Instructions for tire size and air pressure
Inflation pressure
Front Rear
Tire Wheel
kPa psi kPa psi
215/65 16×5. 5J
230 33 210 31
R16 aluminum)
215/60 17×6.5J
230 33 210 31
R17 (aluminum)

Instru`ctions for converting the inflation


pressure
kPa psi kPa psi kPa psi
140 20 186 27 234 34
Wheels and tires 2C-8
Installation / disassembly of tire pressure
monitoring hosts
1. Remove the battery negative connection.
2. Disconnect the tire pressure monitoring host.
3. Use a wrench to tire pressure monitoring hosts and
mounting bracket removed from the car body.
4. In the order shown in the table demolition;
5. According to and reverse order of removal
installation.

1 Dust cup

2 Hex nuts

3 Metal gasket

4 Sensor

1 Harness connector

2 Mounting bolts

3 tire pressure monitoring host (with

bracket)

Tire pressure sensor installation / removal


1. Remove the tire;
2. Remove the tire casing:
3. In the order shown in the table demolition;
4. According to and reverse order of removal
installation.
Wheels and tires 2C-9

Precautions
1.Driving the process, as in the present system alarm Do not panic, to avoid unnecessary accidents, please check
to make sure the safety zone by car to.。
2.The system can effectively vehicle tire pressure and temperature to be monitored, but can not prevent the
occurrence of unexpected accident; the user should ensure that the car with the help of the system in the
normal tire pressure and temperature conditions.
3.To ensure the safety of you and your family do not use more than the life or have been badly worn tires, tires
should be replaced with new tires require timely.
4.Perfusion certain chemicals (such as leak-proof glue, etc.) can damage the sensor within the tire manufacturer
will not be affected for such systems to provide quality assurance.
5.When the vehicle is running, such as a radio frequency transmitter to nearby towers, radio stations, military
region, airports and other areas surrounding the complex electromagnetic environment, it may cause the
system wireless communication signal interference, causing the system to issue a warning abnormal
communication tips. When the vehicle left these areas may automatically resume normal operation.
6.When the radiation inside the vehicle fitted with a large electronic products, or install wireless transmission
continued working device, are likely to affect the normal reception of the data in this system, cause the system
to communicate warning exceptions.
7.Vehicles may generate pressure alarm from extremely cold surroundings into a very hot surroundings, or from
extreme heat to extreme cold surroundings into the surrounding environment, with tire gas expansion and
contraction.
8.Tire pressure sensors powered by battery when the vehicle is used in the extremely cold environments, you
may discharge the battery by temperature influence diminished capacity, resulting in weakening of sending a
warning signal of the sensor caused by communication failure, when the vehicle is running for some time as
the tire temperature rises high, the failure to eliminate themselves.。
9.Tire pressure sensor when the vehicle is stopped, to save energy automatically enters a low power state.
If the tire pressure changes can be updated when there is 10KPA offer 20 seconds of data once, and also the
ignition switch is turned on, tire pressure host in the receiving state.
If the parking subtraction tire pressure, tire pressure monitor can not update the data, the user starts the
vehicle, when the vehicle exceeds 25Km / h, pressure data will be automatically updated.
Wheels and tires 2C-10

Function Display Interface


Function Display Interface Description

When you open the ACC, tire pressure host sends data to the instrument display.

The following is the reference pattern:

1:Normal display(instrument processing)

2:Show Gap
Because the sensor test error, error associated requirements in line with GB T 26149-2010;
1. The ambient temperature (0 ~ 50 ℃) error: ± 8.5KPa;
2. Other temperature (-40 ~ 105 ℃) error: ± 17.5KPa;
Note: When the tire pressure data changes 10KPA still more in order to have updated, as you can not receive
IGN OFF.
When the test pressure, to confirm whether the data is updated, the following methods:
1: IGN ON position, using the learning is activated once the tires;
2: exercising the vehicle enters a state (25km / h or higher) and held for 5 minutes.
The data in the above manner is sent to the host for the tire sensor data updates.
3:Undervoltage alarm display
Indicate the location of undervoltage tires.
When the car tires of one or more tire pressure is below 170kpa, the display will be shown prompted alarm.
(Shown for reference only)
Wheels and tires 2C-12
4. High pressure alarm display
When the car tires of one or more tire pressure is higher than 290kpa, the display will be shown prompted alarm.
(Shown for reference only)

5. Fault alarm display


Vehicle exercising greater than 25 km / h, when the system itself is faulty, damaged or did not match, such as
sensors, tire pressure system should send alarm signals within 15 min, the display will be shown prompted
alarm.
Pictured: front left tire failure (Shown for reference only)

6. Fast leak alarm display


Exercise of the vehicle is greater than 25 km / h, when the tire in the tire pressure of one or more greater
than 30kpa / min rate is lowered,
Issued within TPMS60s fast leak detection alarm signal 60s,, such as continuous pressure does not drop, or
pressure rise, canceled fast leak alarm.
(Shown for reference only)

7. about tire pressure difference is too big alarm display


Two vehicle axle rear tire pressure or tire pressure difference between the two exceeds 0.6 kpa, the display
will be shown prompted alarm.
(Shown for reference only)
Wheels and tires 2C-12

Troubleshooting
1: undervoltage alarm
Cause: The weather temperature is too low or leak, resulting in low tire pressure warning.
Troubleshooting: Vehicle placed in ACC status, filling the tires to normal pressure, the system will disarm the
alarm, such as the fault persists, you can exercise the vehicle to 25 km / h and the duration of 10 minutes, the
fault is automatically lifted.
2: The emergence of high-pressure alarm
Cause: The weather temperature is too high or the tires, too high, causing the tire pressure is too high alarm.
Troubleshooting: ACC status of the vehicle is placed on reducing gas to the normal tire pressure, the system
will disarm the alarm, such as the fault persists, you can exercise the vehicle to 25 km / h and the duration of 10
minutes, the fault is automatically lifted.
3: Fault Alarm
Reason: Vehicles subject to electromagnetic interference, sensor does not match, the sensor battery is low or the
sensor is damaged, resulting in failure alarm.
Troubleshooting:
3.1): Vehicle by environmental electromagnetic interference, such as radio or military exercises near the vehicle
outside interference can be exercised to return to normal;
3.2): the vehicle is the vehicle electromagnetic interference: If the vehicle installation DVD, tachograph,
walkie-talkies and other electronic devices excessive electromagnetic radiation, will
Tire pressure system for communication frequency interference, causing the tire pressure sensor signals the host
can not receive automatic alarm. Disconnect the power supply related electronic equipment for testing, such as
tire pressure back to normal, then the excessive electromagnetic related equipment failed to be removed.
3.3): The sensor does not match, the system automatically normal alarm.
Use vehicle diagnostic, click interface makes tire pressure tire pressure to match the host into the matching state;
Learn collected using a handheld tire sensor ID, tire pressure and transmit to the host, as follows:
a. the vehicle is at a standstill, holding learner key positive press LF wake of this tire sensors and receives the
ID code, the learner becomes longer by a flashing LED light and sounds 2 beeps, indicating that the
received data is normal, about 4 seconds carry out;
b. After the completion of the tire FL wake and receive data, and then the other tire to wake up and receive
data.
c. When the four tires school code is successful, the learner LED is lit each tire, and the tire sensor ID is
stored.
Wheels and tires 2C-14

Learning match

d: sending data to the host tir

Diagnostic confirmation has entered the tire pressure learning mode;

Press the handheld learning the "TPMS launch keys" to the sensor ID wirelessly transmitted to the host on tire

pressure.

Learning Mode
Wheels and tires 2C-14

Four tires ID reading success Diagnostic

Learning Success

Upon completion, the meter data related tire pressure returned to normal, you can add or subtract gas related tire
for confirmation.
Learning about the diagnosis related instructions refer "Haima_SC00_TPMS_Diag_V3.3"

3.4): sensor damage:


If you find from the diagnostic sensor battery is low or can not be activated with a handheld learning device
to read ID, description of the sensor has been damaged, to be replaced, the replacement sensor to repeat 3.3
Learning match.
Suspension system 2D-1

Chapter 13 Suspension system

General procedures attentions ...............................................................................................................2D-2


Front suspension system .........................................................................................................................2D-2
Removal/installation of wheel and tire .........................................................................................2D-2
Removal/installation of suspension tie rod...................................................................................2D-2
Cutoff/connection of brake pipe ...................................................................................................2D-2
Removal/installation of power steering part .................................................................................2D-2
Location of wheel.....................................................................................................................................2D-2
Initial check of wheel location......................................................................................................2D-2
Location of front wheel ................................................................................................................2D-2
Adjustment of maximum steering angle.......................................................................................2D-3
Adjustment of total toe-in.............................................................................................................2D-3
Location of rear wheel ..................................................................................................................2D-3
Front suspension......................................................................................................................................2D-3
Removal/installation of front shock absorber and spring .............................................................2D-3
Keypoints for removal of piston rod nut.......................................................................................2D-4
Keypoints for installing the stop block .........................................................................................2D-4
Keypoints for installing the spiral spring......................................................................................2D-5
Keypoints for installing front shock absorber and spring .............................................................2D-5
Check of front shock absorber ......................................................................................................2D-5
Front shock absorber scrapping ...................................................................................................2D-5
Removal/installation of front suspension lower swing arm assembly ..........................................2D-5
Keypoints for removing the dust cover.........................................................................................2D-6
Keypoints for removing the lower swing arm front bush .............................................................2D-6
Keypoints for removing the lower swing arm rear bush...............................................................2D-6
Keypoints for installing lower swing arm rear bush.....................................................................2D-6
Keypoints for installing the lower swing front bush.....................................................................2D-7
Removal/installation of front transverse stabilizer bar .................................................................2D-7
Keypoints for installing front transverse stabilizer bar fixing plate..............................................2D-7
Removal/installation of front suspension crossbeam assembly ......................................2D-8
Keypoints for removing the front suspension crossbeam assembly .............................................2D-8
Rear suspension.......................................................................................................................................2D-8
Removal/installation of rear shock absorber and spring...............................................................2D-8
Check of rear shock absorber .......................................................................................................2D-9
Removal/installation of rear spiral spring.....................................................................................2D-9
Removal/installation of Rear suspension and subframe overall ...................................................2D-9
Suspension system 2D-2

Location of wheel
General procedures Initial check of wheel location
1. Check the inflation of tire, and adjust its
Front suspension system
pressure to the recommended pressure as per
Removal/installation of wheel and tire the demands.
1. Its tightening torque during the installation of 2. Check the front wheel bearing clearance, and
wheel:100-120N.m {10. 0-12. 0kgf.m,77. 3- apply the necessary calibrations to it as per
88. 3in.lbf} the demands (refer to the check of M wheel
bearing clearance).
Removal/installation of suspension tie rod
3. Check the radial runout of wheel and tire
1. Each part of suspension with rubber bush can
(refer to TD suspension).
be tightened only after the vehicle is laid
down and at empty load. 4. Check the ball joint and steering linkage for
excessive loosening.
Empty load: the fuel tank is full, the levels of
cooling oil and lubricating oil in engine reach the 5. Shake the vehicle body to check the operation
specified liquid level, the spare tire jack and tool of shock absorber.
are placed in specified positions.
Note: the vehicle must be placed on horizontal
Cutoff/connection of brake pipe road surface at empty load.
Note: the brake oil will damage the paint surface. Empty load: the fuel tank is full, the levels of
If the brake oil contacts with the paint surface, engine cooling oil and lubricating oil reach the
remove it immediately. specified liquid level, the spare tire jack and tool
are placed in specified positions.
1. Tighten the brake pipe taper nut with SST
special service tool 490 259 770B, and 6. Measure the vertical height from wheel center
confirm the adjustment of brake pipe taper nut to wheel fender edge, and the difference
tightening torque to ensure the combined use between the values measured on left and right
of torque wrench and SST special service tool. sides can’t exceed 10mm {0.39 in}.
2. If any brake pipe is disconnected in this Measured point
process, add in the brake oil, remove the
residual air out of brake system, and check it
for leakage after terminating the operation.
Removal/installation of power steering part A-A section

1. If any power steering oil line is disconnected


in this process, add in DEXRON-III or ATF-
III oil, remove the residual air out of oil line,
and check it for leakage after terminating the
operation.
Location of front wheel Technical parameters (empty load)*1

Item Parameters
Total toe-in mm {in} 2±1
° 0°5’±2’30’’
Maximum value of steering Inner side wheel 37±3°
angle Outer side wheel 31.8±3°
kingpin caster angle(reference value) *2 4°40'±45'
front-wheel camber -0°25'±45'
Kingpin inclination angle (reference value)*2 10°25'±45'
1. The levels of engine cooling oil and lubricating oil reach the specified liquid level, and the spare tire jack
and tool are placed in specified positions.
2. The difference between the values measured on left and right sides can’t exceed 1º30’.
Suspension system 2D-3

Note: turn each of both steering linkages by a


Adjustment of maximum steering angle
complete circle, and change the toe-in by about
1. Loosen the end lock nuts of steering linkage. 6mm {0.24 in} 0º36’.
2. Remove the steering gear boot clamp. 3. Tighten the lock nut of steering linkage up to
the specified tightening torque: 66-86N.m
3. Make the length of steering linkage equal to L.
{6.0-8.6kgf.m, 48.7-63.4in.lbf}

Difference between left and right Location of rear wheel


values is below 3mm(0. 12in) Technical parameters (empty load)

Indications of fuel
Empty--full
meter
Total toe- mm 2±2
out ° 0°5’±5’
Rear wheel camber
-0°45’±30’
angle (reference value)

Maximum difference between left/right values of


3mm {0.12 in}
Front suspension
4. Adjust the steering linkage evenly to ensure
its corresponding maximum steering angle.
Removal/installation of front shock
5. Tighten the end lock nut of steering linkage.
absorber and spring
Tightening torque: 66-86N.m {6.0-
8.6kgf.m,48.7-63. 4in.lbf} Note
6. Ensure that the gland cover is not twisted, and In case of not removing ABS anti-lock brake
install the boot clamp. system wheel speed sensor first, carry out the
following operation procedures. If the sensor is
7. Adjust the toe-in after adjusting the steering
inadvertently pulled, it may cause the broken
angle.
circuit of wire. Before carrying out the following
Adjustment of total toe-in operation procedures, remove ABS wheel speed
sensor from axle side, and fix it in appropriate
1. Locate the steering wheel in middle position,
position to prevent the sensor from inadvertent
and ensure that the wheel/tire is right ahead.
pulling during the repair of vehicle.
2. Loosen left and right steering linkage lock
1. Remove it in the sequence shown in the table;
nuts, keep the rotations of both side linkages
equal to each other, both side steering 2. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal;
linkages are right hand threads, so right
3. Check the location of front wheel. In case of
steering linkage shall be turned in front of
not conforming to the standard provisions,
vehicle, and left steering linkage shall be
adjust the location of front wheel (refer to the
turned back to increase the toe-in.
location of R front wheel).
Suspension system 2D-1

Front control
connecting rod and Front spiral
3 9
shock absorber spring
mounting bracket
Fixing nut of shock
Lower rubber
4 absorber and 10
mount
vehicle body.
Piston rod nut
Refer to the Front shock
5 keypoints for 11 absorber
removal of R-4 assembly
piston rod nut
Upper support of
6 12
damping column

Keypoints for removal of piston rod nut


Warning:
It’s dangerous to remove the piston rod nut, the
shock absorber and spring may pop up due to huge
pressure, thus it will lead to serious personal injury
and death. Ensure that the shock absorber shall be
installed inside SST special service tool before
removing the piston rod nut.
1. Protect the spiral spring with a cloth, and then
place SST special service tool.
2. Compress the spiral spring and remove the
piston rod nut with SST special service tool.

In case of applying the engine support

Bolt and brake Damping


1 7
hose column bearing
Fixing bolt and nut
of shock absorber With a stop
2 8
andsteering block dust cover
knuckle Keypoints for installing the stop block
Apply the grease to the contact surface of stop
Suspension system 2D-2

block and dust cover. noises. If it can’t conform to the standards,


replace the shock absorber.
Keypoints for installing the spiral spring
(1) Compress the shock absorber piston, and then
1. First installed on rubber shock absorber under
release it.
the seat, make sure the lower rubber seat and
spring seat vibration really fit into place. (2) Confirm that the piston stretches and returns
at normal speed.
2. Dust will take Taoka buffer block in the upper
support.
Warning for scrapping the front shock
3. Compress the spiral spring with SST special absorber
service tool.
 Wear the safety goggles in case of each
4. The coil spring shock absorber up through drilling of shock absorber, because the high-
from below, so that the end face of the coil pressure gas in the shock absorber may inject
springs under the seat under the rubber with the metal shavings to the eyes and faces while
the place. drilling.
Dent 1. Clamp the shock absorber down on the plane
by making the piston down.
2. Drill a hole φ2-3 mm {0.08-0.12 in} in the
position 20-30mm {0.8-1.2 in} away from the
pipe bottom to make the gas leaked out.

3. Make the hole down.


5. Mounted on the end face of the bearing and so
4. Collect the oil by moving up and down the
on are supported on the coil spring, shock
piston rod several times and cutting the pipe
absorber piston rod so that the threaded end of
ends.
the support through the bearing and on.
5. Handle the waste oil as per the waste material
6. Matter of the piston rod nut.
processing regulations.
7. Remove the SST Special Service Tools.
Note: the gas applied in the shock absorber is
Tightening torque of piston rod nut:70-90N.m nitrogen, and the oil applied in the shock absorber
is mineral oil.
Keypoints for installing front shock absorber
and spring Removal/installation of front suspension
lower swing arm assembly
The upper support of shock absorber has wrong-
installation-proofing functions, which ensure no 1. Remove it in the sequence shown in the
wrong installation during the installation. table.
Check of front shock absorber 2. Install it in the reverse sequence of
1. Remove front shock absorber from the removal.
vehicle.
2. Check the shock absorber for damages or oil
leakage.
3. Check the rubber bush for aging and wears.
4. Compress and stretch the shock absorber
piston at least three times, confirm the
unchanged operating force and no abnormal
Suspension system 2D-3

1 Self-lock nut
2 Hexagon flange bolt
3 Hexagon flange bolt
4 Self-lock nut
5 Hexagon flange bolt
6 Front suspension lower swing arm assembly
7 Knuckle

Keypoints for removing the dust cover


2. Press it down with SST special service tool to
Remove the dust cover with a chisel, and don’t remove the bush of lower swing arm.
damage the ball joint and arm lever.
Press in

Keypoints for removing the lower swing arm


front bush
1. The lower arm front bushing fitted with body
pressure required angle, and marked in order to
correct the demolition should be pushed again.
2. Press it down with SST special service tool, and
Keypoints for installing lower swing arm rear
remove the lower swing arm front bush.
bush
1. As shown in the figure, align the mark of
lower swing arm to small bump behind lower
swing arm bush.

Small bump
Special tools
Keypoints for removing the lower swing arm
rear bush
1. As shown in the figure, align to rear small
bump of lower swing arm bush, and make the Mark
mark on lower swing arm for the purpose of
correct installation.
2. Install the lower swing arm on SST special
service tool.
Small bump 3. Press new bush of lower swing arm with SST
special service tool.

Mark
Suspension system 2D-4

Press in 1.1lbf}

Keypoints for installing the lower swing front


bush
1. Place the alignment mark on the demolition Removal/installation of front transverse
done, make sure the angle of the bushing press- stabilizer bar
fitting the body correctly.
1. Remove the front suspension crossbeam
2. Press a new bush into swing arm body with SST assembly (refer to the removal/installation of
special service tool. R-9 front suspension crossbeam assembly).
Keypoints for installing the dust cover 2. Remove the control front stabilizer bar
1. Wipe off the grease from the ball head bolt. connecting rod assembly and coupling nut ①.

2. Fill the grease into the new dust cover. 3. Remove the front stabilizer bar fixing plate
nut, front stabilizer bar fixing plate, stabilizer
3. Press the dust cover on the ball joint with SST bar rubber bushings, stabilizer bar rubber seat
special service tool. ②.
4. Wipe off the excessive grease. 4. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal.

Check of front lower swing arm


1. Remove lower swing arm from the vehicle.
2. Check it for damages, cracks and bends. Keypoints for installing front transverse
stabilizer bar fixing plate
3. Check the rotation torque of ball joint.
1. Apply the rubber grease to inner surface of
(1) Turn the ball joint five times.
stabilizer bar rubber sleeve.
(2) Connect SST special service tool to ball head
2. When installing rubber sleeve, insert the
bolt, and measure its rotation torque with a
rubber sleeve notch toward the vehicle rear
tension meter. If unqualified, replace the
stabilizer bar fixing plate of the hole toward
lower swing arm.
the rear of the car.
Pre-load of ball joint: 1.0 -4.9N.m {0.1-0.5kgf.cm,
3. Before installing the stabilizer bar fixing plate.
0.74-3.6in.lbf}
Reading of tension meter: 10-49N {1-5kgf, 0.225-
Suspension system 2D-5

Removal/installation of front suspension


crossbeam assembly
1. Remove the rubber lug of exhaust pipe (refer Keypoints for removing the front suspension
to removal/installation of F exhaust system). crossbeam assembly

2. Remove the engine mounting suspension 1. Support the front suspension crossbeam
(refer to the keypoints for removing B engine assembly with a jack, and remove the bolts
support beam). connected to vehicle body.

3. Remove the steering gear and tie rod(refer to Bolt torque: 90-100N.m
removal/installation of N steering gear and tie 2. Remove the front suspension crossbeam
rod). assembly.
4. Remove the front suspension lower swing
arm assembly(refer to removal/installation of Rear suspension
R-6 front suspension lower swing arm
assembly). Removal/installation of rear shock
5. Remove front transverse stabilizer bar(Refer absorber and spring
to removal/installation of R-8 front transverse Note:
stabilizer bar).
In case of not removing ABS anti-lock brake
6. Remove the front suspension cross member system wheel speed sensor first, carry out the
and the body mounting bolts ①, following operation procedures. If the sensor is
Remove the front suspension cross member inadvertently pulled, it may cause the broken
assembly and body mounting bolts ② and ③. circuit of wire. Before carrying out the following
operation procedures, remove ABS wheel speed
7. Install the assembly in the reverse sequence of
sensor from axle side, and fix it in appropriate
removal.
position to prevent the sensor from inadvertent
8. Check the location of front wheel, and adjust pulling during the repair of vehicle. During the use
its location if necessary. of jack, be sure to avoid the damages of brake pipe
and brake hose.
1. In accordance with the order shown in the
table (see the front suspension disassembly
sequence table) Remove the stabilizer bar and
the rear connecting rod;
2. Withstood the shock absorbers and the rear
trailing arm with the Department, so that the
shock absorber in a slightly compressed state,
removed the damper and trailing arm
connection fasteners.
3. Remove the shock absorber and rear sub-frame
Suspension system 2D-6

connection fasteners. 2. Remove the trailing arm connected with the


trailing arm mount fasteners.
4. In accordance with the reverse order of removal
to install.. 3. Dropped out after trailing arm coil springs
4. In accordance with the reverse order of removal
to install.
Installation of rear spiral spring
Installation of coil springs, coil springs ensure
lower after opening rubber seat is always in a
compressed state.
Warning
It’s very dangerous to install the spiral spring,
because the spiral spring may fly off and lead to
serious injury or death.
Removal/installation of Rear suspension
and subframe overall
1. Lift the vehicle to its appropriate position, and
remove the tire.
2. Disconnect the brake lines, parking and a variety
of cable harness connector.
Check of rear shock absorber 3. Remove the trailing arm connected with the
trailing arm mount fasteners.
Check rear shock absorber by adopting the same
method as that of front shock absorber (refer to the 4. Remove the coil spring.
check of R-6 front shock absorber). 5. After the top high jacking device subframe
Scrapping of rear shock absorber assembly.

Handle rear shock absorber by adopting the same 6. Remove the subframe and body connection bolts.
method as that of front shock absorber (refer to the 7. Removing the order shown in the table.
scrapping of R-6 front shock absorber).
8. Install the reverse order of removal order.
Removal/installation of rear spiral spring
1. Remove rear shock absorber assembly.
Steering system 2E-1

Chapter 14 Steering system

General procedures ................................................................................................................................. 2E-2


Attentions for steering system ...................................................................................................... 2E-2
Removal/installation of power steering assembly ........................................................................ 2E-2
Disconnection and connection of joint ......................................................................................... 2E-2
Leakage check of power steering oil ............................................................................................ 2E-2
Check of power steering hydraulic force...................................................................................... 2E-2
steering wheel and steering column ....................................................................................................... 2E-3
Check of steering wheel and steering column .............................................................................. 2E-3
Check of steering wheel clearance................................................................................................ 2E-3
Check of steering wheel loosening ............................................................................................... 2E-3
Removal and installation of steering wheel and steering column................................................. 2E-4
Keypoints for removing the steering wheel.................................................................................. 2E-5
Keypoints for removal of steering lock bolt and support ............................................................. 2E-5
Keypoints for removing the steering column external assembly.................................................. 2E-6
Keypoints for installing the steering lock bolt and support .......................................................... 2E-6
Keypoints for installing the steering shaft .................................................................................... 2E-6
Check of steering shaft ................................................................................................................. 2E-6
Removal and installation of steering gear and connecting rod ..................................................... 2E-7
Keypoints for removing and installing the bolt (telescopic shaft) ................................................ 2E-8
Keypoints for removing the Steering tie rod tail end ball head .................................................... 2E-8
Keypoints for removing the steering gear and joint...................................................................... 2E-8
Disassembly of steering gear and connecting rod......................................................................... 2E-9
Assembling of steering gear and connecting rod........................................................................ 2E-11
Removal and installation of power steering pump ........................................................................ 2E-16
Disassembly and assembly of power steering pump ...................................................................... 2E-17
Keypoints for disassembling the power steering pump assembly .............................................. 2E-18
Keypoints for installing the oil seal ............................................................................................ 2E-18
Keypoints for installing the blade............................................................................................... 2E-18
Keypoints for installing inner cam ring ...................................................................................... 2E-18
Keypoints for installing rear pump body .................................................................................... 2E-18
Steering system 2E-2

Steps 8 and 9. Check of power steering


General procedures oil,Check of oil level,Check the level of
power steering oil.If necessary, add in the
power steering oil up to the specified level.
Attentions for steering system
For removal/installation of wheel and tire The model of such power steering oil is
The installation steps of wheel and tire are not ATF-III or DEXRON-III.
described in this chapter.
Leakage check of power steering oil
After removing the wheel, its tightening torque
during the reinstallation: 110N.m(100 to 120 N.m). Note:

Removal/installation of power steering ● In case of keeping the steering wheel in the


assembly extreme steering position for over 5s, the
temperature of power steering oil will be
If the power steering oil pipe is broken during the increased to an extreme value, and produce
operation, add in some ATF-III or DEXRON- adverse influences on the power steering
III power steering oil after completing the pump.
operation. Bleed the air out of power steering 1. Start the engine, and idle it.
pipe, and check it for leakage.
Disconnection and connection of joint
Before any work to contact the plug by hands,
disconnect the negative cable of battery. The cable
can be reconnected only after finishing the work.

Engine speed sensing power


steering
Exhaustion of air Note:
1. Check the level of power steering oil(refer to ● The parts shown with the arrows of figure
the check of power steering oil, and check of may be leaked.
liquid level).
2. Turn the steering wheel to left or right
2. Jack up the front end of vehicle with a jack, furthest several times to make the oil pressure
and support it with a safety support. produced in every position.
3. Turn the steering wheel to left or right 3. Check them for leakage.
furthest several times at the shutdown state of
engine.
Check of power steering hydraulic force
4. Check the level of power steering oil again. If
its level is reduced, refill the power steering 1. Install the special tool as shown in the figure.
oil.
5. Repeat Steps 3-4 until the liquid level
stabilizes at the specified value.
6. Lay down the vehicle.
7. Start the engine, and keep it idling.
8. Turn the steering wheel to left or right
furthest several times.
9. Confirm that the power steering oil shall have
no bubbles and its level shall not be reduced 2. Disconnect the high-pressure pipe from the oil
any longer. pump, and connect to its special tool.
 If its level has been reduced, add in the power
steering oil as per the demands, and repeat
Steering system 2E-3

8. Fully open the valve of pressure gauge, and


increase the engine speed up to 1,000-
1,500rpm.

Thermometer
Pressure gauge
Valve fully open

Tightening torque:45-55N·m{4.5-5.5kgf.m}

3. Bleed the air out of the system.


4. Fully open the valve of pressure gauge.
9. Turn the steering wheel to left or right
5. Start the engine, and turn the steering wheel to
furthest, and then measure the hydraulic
left or right furthest to make the temperature of
pressure produced in the gear chamber.
power steering oil up to 50-60°C{122-140°F}.
Note:
Note:
If the pressure is not within the specified
If the valve is closed for over 5s, the temperature range, it’s required to repair or replace the
of power steering oil will be increased to an steering gear assembly.
extreme value, and produce adverse influences on
Hydraulic pressure in gear chamber (pump
the power steering pump.
chamber):
6. Fully close the valve of pressure gauge. 7.7-8.4Mpa{78.0-85.0kgf/cm2,1116-1218psi}
10. Remove the special tool.
Thermometer
Pressure gauge 11. Install and tighten the high-pressure pipe, and
Valve fully closed
tighten it up to the specified torque.
Valve iron Tightening torque:
45-55N.m{4,5-5. 5kgf.m}
12. Bleed the air out of system.

Check of steering wheel and steering


column

Check of steering wheel clearance


7. Increase the engine speed up to 1000-1500rpm,
and measure the pressure of power steering oil. Stop the wheel directly in front, turn the steering
wheel lightly to left or right, and confirm whether
If the hydraulic pressure is not within the its oscillation amplitude is within the specified
specified range, it’s required to repair or replace range.
the power steering pump assembly.
Hydraulic pressure of power steering oil pump: Note:
2
7.7-8.4Mpa{78.0-85.0kgf/cm ,1116-1218psi} If the clearance is not within the specified range,
it may be caused by wears of steering knuckle or
Note: excessive clearance of steering gear, and apply
the necessary corrections to it. Clearance: 0-
In case of keeping the steering wheel in the 30mm{0-1. 18in}
extreme steering position for over 5s, the
temperature of power steering oil will be Check of steering wheel loosening
increased to an extreme value, and produce
adverse influences on the power steering pump. Shake the steering wheel in the shown direction,
Steering system 2E-4

check the steering column bearing sleeve, steering Steering force: 7.8N·m{78kgf }.cm.
shaft hinge for oscillation, steering wheel for
loosening or steering column for loosening, etc. Note:
● In order to judge the conformity of results,
check the steering operation of another
vehicle with the same model with the same
method under the same conditions, and
compare the test results.
● The rotation torque of steering wheel varies
under the different conditions, as said below:
① Road conditions, e.g. dry or wet road
surface, asphalt or cement road surface.
Check of steering wheel steering force ② Tire conditions, e.g. tire patterns, wears,
1. Check the following items. tire pressure, etc.

• Tire size and tire pressure. Removal and installation of steering


wheel and steering column
• Level of power steering oil.
Warning:
• Slack of drive belt.
● Incorrect handling of safety airbag module
2. Stop the wheel on firm or level road surface,
will make the safety airbag suddenly opened,
and make the wheel directly in front.
and it may cause the personal injury, so it’s
3. Start the engine, and increase the temperature required to handle the safety airbag. Please
of power steering oil up to 50-60°C{122- first read “Warning for Safety Airbag” (refer
140°F}. to the repair warning for safety airbag system.)
4. Remove the safety airbag module. 1. Remove them in the sequence shown in the
table.
Warning:
2. Install them in the reverse sequence of
● For removal/installation of safety airbag
removal.
module after the check, refer to
removal/installation of T safety airbag module
on driver’s side.
5. Measure the steering force F with a torque
wrench.
● If not within the specified range, pay attention
to the following items:
- Existence of air in the system
- Hose or joint for leakage
- The performances of power steering pump
and gear are perfect.
Steering system 2E-1

1 Safety airbag: refer to removal/installation of safety airbag system,T dirver’s safety


airbag;
2 Lock nut
3 Steering wheel: refer to its removal instructions; refer to its installation instructions.
4 Steering column cover
5 Clock spring
6 Combination switch
7 Lower cover plate
8 Steering column: refer to its installation instructions.
9 Steering column lock sleeve
10 Steering column mount
11 Removed assembly of steering column: refer to its removal instructions.

Keypoints for removing the steering wheel Keypoints for removal of steering lock
Note: bolt and support
● Don’t hit the steering shaft with a hammer while 1. Make a groove in the lock bolt with a
hammer and chisel.
removing the steering wheel, thus it will cause
the collapse of steering column. 2. Remove the bolt with a straight screwdriver.
1. Make the wheel directly in front, and stop the 3. Disassemble the steering lock assembly.
vehicle.
2. Remove the steering wheel with an appropriate
puller.
Steering system 2E-7

Keypoints for removing the steering


column external assembly
Note:
 During the replacement of its external
assembly, its coil must be replaced.
1. Turn the ignition key to “ACC” position.
2. Press down the lock button, and pull out the
steering column external assembly.

Keypoints for installing the steering lock


bolt and support
1. Install the steering lock assembly on the
steering shaft.
2. Confirm the correct locking operation.
3. Install the steering lock bolt.
4. Tighten the bolt until its head falls off.

Keypoints for installing the steering shaft


Note:
● Don’t shake the steering shaft in axial
direction.
1. Tighten the bolt A.
2. After tightening the bolt B, tighten the bolt
C.

Check of steering shaft


1. Check the following items, and replace the
steering shaft assembly if necessary:
- Steering column bearing for damages.
- Length of steering shaft.
Length: 890.0-900.0 mm
2. Inclination operation
● Confirm that the adjusting lever can move
stably from its unlocked position to locked
position.
Lock
● Confirm that the steering shaft isn’t loosened
when the adjusting lever is locked.
Adjusting lever Unlock
Steering system 2E-8

Removal and installation of steering gear from wrong pulling during the repair of
and connecting rod vehicle.

Note: 1. Remove front exhaust pipe fixing rubber


sleeve. (refer to the exhaust system,
● In case of not removing the wheel speed removal/installation of exhaust system).
sensor from ABS system, carry out the
following operation. When the wire is 2. Remove it in the sequence shown in the table.
wrongly pulled, it may cause the broken 3. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal.
circuit of wire. Before carrying out the
following operation procedures, remove 4. After installing it, check the toe-in of wheel
wheel speed sensor (from axle side), and (refer to the location of wheel, location of
place it in appropriate position to prevent it front wheel).

1 Bolt

2 Flange nut

3 Flange nut
Steering system 2E-9

Keypoints for removing the bolt (telescopic shaft)


Make the aligning marks of gear shaft and gear
chamber for the purpose of correct installation.

Keypoints for installing the bolt (telescopic shaft)


After aligning the marks, install the intermediate
shaft and bolt.

Keypoints for removing the Steering tie rod tail


end ball head
1. Remove the end rod nut.
2. Remove the end post from steering knuckle
with a special tool.

Keypoints for removing the steering gear and


joint
Draw the steering gear and joint out of right side.
Steering system 2E-10

Disassembly of steering gear and connecting rod


1. Disassemble it in the sequence shown in the table.

1 Bolt 12 End plugs and self-locking nuts


Locknut - compact plug and plug the
2 Heat shield 13
compact pieces together
3 Oil pipe 1(long) 14 Helical spring
4 Oil pipe 2(short) 15 Support compact assembly
5 Outer ball end assembly 16 Dust cover
6 Adjusting nut 17 C-type snap ring
7 Small Clamps 18 Seal - the upper valve
8 Tie Rod Dust 19 Gear and valve assembly
9 Large Clamps 20 Rack bushing assembly
10 Tie Rod Assembly 21 Seal - rack bushing
11 Snap ring - rack stopper 22 Rack assembly
Keypoints for disassembling the insulation Keypoints for disassembling the outer ball joint
board assembly
1. Remove the bolts 1. Loosen the adjusting nut
2. Remove the insulation board 2. Remove the outer ball joint assembly
Keypoints for disassembling the tie Rod Keypoints for disassembling the gear and valve
Assembly assembly
1. Remove the large and small clamps 1. Remove the self-locking nut and end plugs
2. Remove the tie rod jacket 2. Remove the clamp plugs, coil springs and a
3. Remove the tie rod assembly compact plug
3. Remove the dust cover and seal - the upper
Keypoints for disassembling the rack assembly
valve
1. Remove the snap ring - rack stopper
4. Remove the gear and valve assembly
2. Remove the rack bushing assembly
3. Remove the piston - rack bushing
4. Remove the rack assembly
Steering system 2E-11

Check of steering gear and connecting rod


Check of rack
1. Check the rack for fracture, damages or broken
teeth, etc.
 If any, replace the rack.
2. Measure the radial runout of rack. If not within
the specified range, replace the rack. Radial
runout
Near to A point: 0.15mm{0.006 in}
Near to B point: 0.20mm{0.008 in}
Check of steering tie rod end
1. Check the tie rod end for damages or rubber
sleeve for cracks.
2. Replace if necessary.
3. Check the ball joint for loosening.
4. Replace the tie rod end if necessary.
5. Turn the ball head five times.
6. Measure the rotation torque of ball head with a
special tool and spring.
• If not within the specified range, replace the tie
rod end. Rotation torque:
0. 4-2.7N.m{3.5-26.0kgf.cm, 3.1-22.5in.lbf}
Reading of spring balance:
3. 4-25.5N{0.35-2.60kgf, 0.8-5.71bf}

Check of steering tie rod


1. Check the tie rod for bends or damages, and
replace it if necessary.
2. Check the ball joint for loosening, and replace
it if necessary.
3. Swing the tie rod back and forth five times.
4. Measure the swing torque with a spring
balance.
If the torque is not within the specified range,
replace the tie rod.
Swing torque:
0. 1-4. 0N·m(1-39kgf.cm, 0. 9-30. 8in.lbf}
Reading of spring balance:
0. 6-24. 5N.m{0. 06-2. 50kgf, 0. 13-5. 501bf}
Steering system 2E-12

Assembling of steering gear and connecting rod


1. Assemble them in the sequence shown in the table.

1 Rack assembly 12 Oil pipe 2(short)


2 Gear and valve assembly 13 Oil pipe 1(long)
3 Seal - rack bushing 14 Tie Rod Assembly
4 Rack bushing assembly 15 Adjusting nut
5 Snap ring - rack stopper 16 Outer ball end assembly
6 Seal - the upper valve 17 Tie Rod Dust
7 C-type snap ring 18 Large Clamps
8 End plugs and self-locking nuts 19 Small Clamps
9 Support compact assembly 20 Heat shield
10 Helical spring 21 Bolt
Locknut - compact plug and plug the
11 22 Dust cover.
compact pieces together

Installation of gear and valve assembly Installation of snap ring - rack stopper
1. Place rack assembly mounted within the housing 1. Place the seal - rack bushings and bushing
assembly. assembly rack has a rack mount assembly.
2. In the case where the guaranteed centering of the
2. Insert the card ring - rack stopper into the disease
rack gear and the valve assembly mounted within
cards in housing assembly snap ring grooves.
the housing assembly.
Steering system 2E-13

Installation of end plug Installation of briquetting plug


1. Install a good seal - the upper valve ring with C- 1. Place the support clamp assembly alignment rack
card limit. installed.
2. The self-locking nut installed.
2. Load coil spring.
3. Replace the upper end plug and tighten.
3. Replace the plug and lock nut clamps - compact
plug.
Installation of long and short oil pipe Installation of outer ball end assembly
1. The long and short tubing installed and locked. 1. The adjustment nut is attached to the tie rod
assembly.
Installation of tie rod dust
1. Place the tie rod assembly installed. 2. Place the outer ball head assembly installed.
2. Place the tie rod retaining good suit with large
Installation of insulation panels assembly
and small clamps fixed.
1. The Insulation panels with fixing nut installed.
Keypoints for installing the tie rod end rubber
sleeve
1. Wipe off the oil dirt from the ball joint.
2. Put a little of grease into new dust jacket.
3. Install the dust jacket on the end of tie rod with
a special tool and press.
4. Wipe off all the exposed grease.

Keypoints for installing the supporting rubber


block
1. Apply the soap water to the rubber of
supporting block.
2. Press the rubber support block with a special
tool and press, until the rubber end comes out
of gear chamber.
Steering system 2E-14

Rubber mat 3. Turn back the gear chamber, and press the
rubber supporting block, until the rubber block
comes out of its other side.
Steel pipe
4. Align the rubber supporting block to steel pipe.
The rubber block end is
aligned to steel pipe.

Oil seal Attentions for installing the oil seal and bush
1. Install a new “O” ring and seal ring on the rack
lever.
2. After installing the seal ring, make it tightly
affix the lever.
3. Attach a new oil seal to (49B032 325) with a
special tool (49 B032 324).

4. Remove the special tool (49B032325).


5. Place the oil seal on the edge of rack lever with
a special tool, and remove the special tool.
6. Attach a new bush to steering rack.
Note:
● While pressing it in, the applied force shall not
exceed 39kpa{400kg}cm2, 5688psi} to avoid
the damages of oil seal and bush.
● Apply a little of grease to the seal ring and oil
seal bush.

7. Install the steering rack into gearbox, and press


in the oil seal and bush with a special tool, until
it’s difficult to press.
Steering system 2E-15

Keypoints for installing the hoop


1. Apply a little of lubricating oil to “O” ring and
U seal gasket.
2. Install “O” ring and U seal gasket on the socket
sleeve.
3. Install them on the steering gear with a special
tool.

4. Install the hoop with a special tool.

5. Fix the hoop on cylinder body with a chisel.

Keypoints for installing the oil seal


1. Apply the appropriate amount of grease to new
oil seal.
2. Press in the new oil seal with a special tool.

Keypoints for installing upper bearing


1. Apply the appropriate amount of grease to new
upper bearing.
2. Press in the bearing with a special tool.

1. Attach a new seal ring to the valve body of


gear shaft with a special tool.
2. After the installation, place the seal ring in
position with a special tool.
3. Install the snap ring.
Steering system 2E-16

Keypoints for installing the adjusting cover


1. Place the rack in middle position.
2. Tighten the adjusting cover up to its tightening
torque of 19.6N.m{2.0kgf.m} three times, and
then turn the end cover by 23° with a special
tool.

[Reading of spring balance]9.9-13.7N{1.0-1.4kgf}


Install the lock nut with a special tool.
Tightening torque: 40-49N·m{4. 0-5.0kgf.m}

Check of air tightness


1. Connect the special tool to the gear chamber
booster cylinder.
2. Apply a vacuum pressure of 53.3kpa
{400mmHg,15.7inHg) to cylinder with a
vacuum pump, and ensure that its vacuum
pressure can be kept for at least 30s.
● If this vacuum pressure can’t be kept, replace
the oil seal.
Steering system 2E-17

Removal and installation of power steering pump


1. Remove it in the sequence shown in the table. 3. Adjust the drive belt (refer to the drive belt,
adjustment of drive belt).
2. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal.

1 Adjusting bolt
2 Tightening bolt
3 Drive belt
4 Pressure switch plug
5 High-pressure pipe
6 Oil suction hose
7 Oil pump and support
Steering system 2E-18

Disassembly and assembly of power steering pump


Note:
● The following operation can be performed only after replacing “O”ring and oil seal. If it’s still
required to check other items, replace the pump body assembly.
1. Disassemble it in the sequence shown in the table.
2. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of disassembly.

Power steering pump assembly: refer to Cam ring: refer to its installation
1 9
its disassembly instructions. instructions.
2 Bolt 10 Snap ring
3 Oil suction pipe 11 Rotor
Impeller: refer to its assembling
4 O ring 12
instructions.
5 Pressure switch 13 Front pump body
Rear pump body: refer to its assembling
6 14 Shaft assembly
instructions.
Oil seal: refer to its assembling
7 O ring 15
instructions.
8 Side disc
Steering system 2E-19

Keypoints for disassembling the power steering


pump assembly
Note:
● While clamping the assembly with a vice, fix,
remove and assemble it with a special tool to
avoid the damages of oil pump.

Keypoints for installing the oil seal


Note:
● Locate the pump body. Install the oil seal with
a special tool and hammer.

Keypoints for installing the blade


Place the blade inside the rotor, the round edge of
blade shall contact with that of inner cam ring.

Keypoints for installing inner cam ring


With the mark up, install the inner cam ring into
front pump body.

Keypoints for installing rear pump body


After installing rear pump body, turn the wheel shaft
by hands, and observe whether it rotates smoothly.
Brake system 2F-1

Chapter 15 Brake system

General and operation ............................................................................................................................ 2F-2


Description of ABS fault light...................................................................................................... 2F-2
Description of ESC fault light ...................................................................................................... 2F-2
Description of ESC-OFF switch indicator lamp........................................................................... 2F-2
Parts of brake system.............................................................................................................................. 2F-3
brake system1 ...................................................................................................................................... 2F-3
brake system2 ....................................................................................................................................... 2F-4
Diagnostic data and procedures .................................................................................................... 2F-5
Faults of brake system .................................................................................................................. 2F-6
Manual exhaustion........................................................................................................................ 2F-6
Check of pedal stroke ................................................................................................................... 2F-7
Check of brake pedal free stroke .................................................................................................. 2F-7
Repair instructions 1 ..................................................................................................................... 2F-8
Specifications.............................................................................................................................. 2F-10
Circuit diagram ............................................................................................................................2F-11
Repair instructions 2........................................................................................................................ 2F-12
Brake master cylinder with oil cup ............................................................................................. 2F-12
Diagnostic references and procedures ........................................................................................ 2F-12
Brake master cylinder with brake fluid reservoir assembly........................................................ 2F-12
Specifications.............................................................................................................................. 2F-13
Vacuum booster ................................................................................................................................ 2F-13
Check of vacuum booster ................................................................................................................. 2F-13
Check of vacuum booster functions(simple methods).................................2F-错误!未定义书签。
Check of vacuum booster functions (check them with a measuring instrument) ....................... 2F-17
Vacuum hose assembly..................................................................................................................... 2F-14
Vacuum hose assembly (1.6L engine)........................................................................................ 2F-14
Vacuum hose assembly (1.5T engine).........................................................2F-错误!未定义书签。
Electric vacuum pump ................................................................................................................ 2F-15
Electric vacuum pump (1.5T engine only) ................................................................................. 2F-15
Front and rear brakes........................................................................................................................... 2F-17
General and operation................................................................................................................. 2F-17
front-disc brake........................................................................................................................... 2F-17
Rear brake disc with drum brakes............................................................................................... 2F-25
Parking brake system............................................................................................................................ 2F-25
General and operation................................................................................................................. 2F-25
Brake system 2F-2

Structure diagram ....................................................................................................................... 2F-25


Repair instructions...................................................................................................................... 2F-25
ABS 9 system ......................................................................................................................................... 2F-27
ABS 9 Overview..................................................................................................................................... 2F-27
I. Attentions ................................................................................................................................ 2F-27
II. Initial check............................................................................................................................ 2F-29
Introduction of ABS 9 system .............................................................................................................. 2F-31
I. Composition of ABS 9 system ................................................................................................ 2F-31
II. Hydraulic diagram for Haima S5 ABS 9 X-type arrangement .............................................. 2F-31
III. Haima S5 ABS 9 ECU interface circuit................................................................................ 2F-33
ABS Fault diagnosis .............................................................................................................................. 2F-35
I. Diagnostic flow ....................................................................................................................... 2F-35
II. For the faults without fault codes, repair it. ........................................................................... 2F-36
III. Repair of occasional faults.................................................................................................... 2F-36
IV. Analysis of fault codes ......................................................................................................... 2F-37
ABS removal and installation............................................................................................................... 2F-43
I. Steps for removing ABS assembly.......................................................................................... 2F-43
II. Installation steps of ABS assembly........................................................................................ 2F-43
III. Cross validation .................................................................................................................... 2F-43
IV. Exhaust instructions.............................................................................................................. 2F-43
V. Repair technical parameters................................................................................................... 2F-43
Summary ESC system......................................................................................................................... 2F-47
I. Attentions ................................................................................................................................ 2F-47
II. Initial check............................................................................................................................ 2F-48
Introduction of ESC system ................................................................................................................. 2F-51
I. Composition of ESC system.................................................................................................... 2F-51
II. Hydraulic diagram for ESC.................................................................................................... 2F-51
III.Haima S5 ESC ECU interface circuit .................................................................................... 2F-53
Fault diagnosis....................................................................................................................................... 2F-57
I. Diagnostic flow ....................................................................................................................... 2F-57
II. For the faults without fault codes, repair it. ........................................................................... 2F-58
III. Repair of occasional faults.................................................................................................... 2F-58
IV. Analysis of fault codes ......................................................................................................... 2F-59
Removal and installation ...................................................................................................................... 2F-66
I. Steps for removing ESC assembly .......................................................................................... 2F-66
II. Installation steps of ESC assembly ........................................................................................ 2F-66
III. Exhaust instructions.............................................................................................................. 2F-66
Instructions for calibrating the integrated inertial sensor (ESPC system) ..................................... 2F-68
Repair technical parameters....................................................................................................... 2F-69
Brake system 2F-1
Brake system 2F-2

Description of ESC fault light


General and operation
ESC fault light applied in this brake system
Operation of brake caution light is located inside the instrument panel (as shown in
the figure).
The brake caution light (BRAKE) applied in
this brake system is located inside the instrument ESC self-check: when the ignition switch is turned
panel. When the ignition switch is in ON gear, the from ACC to ON, the self-check of ESC is started,
brake caution light will go on. When the ignition and the fault light goes on at this time. After
switch returns to ACC gear, the caution light will finishing its self-check, the fault light goes out, and
go out. The following cases will make the caution it certifies the normality of ESC system; if it’s
light go on. constantly on, ESC system will be faulty, and the
professionals are required to check the faults of
● In case of applying the parking brake when ESC system (for its details, see the description of
the ignition switch is in ON gear, the caution ESC anti-lock system repair).
light will go on.
● When the level of brake fluid is below a
certain value, “BRAKE” caution light will
go on.

Description of ESC-OFF switch indicator


lamp
Description of ABS fault light
ESC manual switch indicator lamp applied in
ABS fault light applied in this brake system is this brake system is located inside the instrument
located inside the instrument panel (as shown in panel (as shown in the figure).
the figure).
When ESC-OFF light goes on, it indicates the
Self-check of ABS: when the ignition switch is
functions of ESC is manually closed, its functions
turned from ACC to ON, the self-check of ABS is
can be started with ESC switch button, and ESC-
started, and the fault light goes on. After finishing
its self-check within 0.7 to 3s, the fault light goes OFF light will go out after starting it.
out, it certifies the normality of ABS system; if it’s
constantly on, ABS system will be faulty, and the
professionals are required to check the faults of
ABS system (for its details, see the description of
ESC snow mode lamp located in the
ABS anti-lock system repair).

instrument panel. When snow mode ESC


lighting, indicating the snow mode ESC mode is
active.
Brake system 2F-3

Parts of brake system


Brake system (I)

Brake system(with ABS)

1. Front steering knuckle 22. Front brake pipe(right) 36. Rear brake pipe middle 54. Vacuum power-assisting
with brake assembly(right) section (left) hose assembly
23. Rear brake pipe front
2. Front brake hose section (right) 37. Rear brake pipe middle 55. Bolt- Vacuum power-
assembly(right) section (right) assisting hose
24.Brake master cylinder
3. Washer driven cavity oil pipe 38. Pipe clamp 56.Front chamber brake hose
25. Brake master cylinder
4. Hollow bolt active cavity oil pipe 39. Rear brake discs 57. Rear chamber brake hose
5. Front ABS wheel speed 26. Rear brake hose 40. Flange Bolt 58.Bolt - vacuum booster
sensor support
assembly Ⅰ 41.Rear ABS wheel speed
6. Elastic card sensor 59. Pin shaft
27. Rear brake pipe rear
7. Pipe clamp section (right) 42. Flange Bolt 60. Split pin
8. Front brake hose assembly 28. Pipe clamp D 43. Flange bolt 61. Parking brake handle
(left) assembly
29.Support- Rear brake hose 44.Rear axle hub unit
9. Front steering knuckle (right) 62.Bolt- Parking brake
with brake assembly(left) 45.Rear parking brake
handle
30. Rear brake hose assembly (left/right)
10. ASB control unit assembly Ⅱ (right) 63.Lock bolt- Front section
46.Bolt- Brake pedal
cable
11. ABS support cushion 31.Middle support-Rear
47. Brake pedal assembly
wheel speed sensor 64.Front section cable
12. ABS support
48.Support- vacuum booster
32. Support- Rear brake hose 65. Rear parking cable
13. Bolt
(left) 49. With master cylinder assembly (right)
14. Pipe clamp E vacuum booster assembly
Brake system 2F-4

15. Pipe clamp 33. Rear brake hose 50. Elastic pipe clamp 66.Bolt- Rear parking cable
assembly Ⅱ (left) (vacuum hose)
16. support- Pipe clamp 67. Rear parking cable
34.Rear brake assembly 51.Fluid reservoir assembly assembly (left)
17. Flange nut
(left/right)
52.Bolt- Fluid reservoir
18. Pipe clamp
35. Rear brake pipe rear
53. Elastic pipe clamp
19. Pipeline joints section (left)
(front/rear chamber hose)
20. Front brake pipe(left)
21. Rear brake pipe front
section(left)

Brake system (II)

Brake system(with ESC)

1. Front steering knuckle 23. Front brake pipe(left) 40. Rear brake discs 59. Bracket- Electric vacuum
with brake assembly(right) pump
24. Rear brake pipe front 41.Rear brake assembly (left)
2. Front brake hose section(right) 60.Bolt- Electric vacuum pump
assembly(right) 42.Bolt bracket
25. Front brake pipe(right)
3. Front ESC wheel speed 43.Rear ESC wheel speed 61. Electric vacuum pump
sensor 26. Rear brake pipe front sensor
section(left) 62.Bolt- Electric vacuum pump
4. Elastic card 44.Flange bolt
27. .Brake master cylinder 63. Vacuum power-assisting
5. Front steering knuckle driven cavity oil pipe 45.Flange bolt
hose (rear section)
with brake assembly(left) 28. Brake master cylinder 46. Rear axle hub unit
active cavity oil pipe 64.Bolt- Vacuum power-
6. Hollow bolt 47.Rear parking brake assisting hose (rear section)
29. Rear brake hose assembly (left)
7. Washer assembly Ⅰ 65. Dual Slot pipe clamps Ⅰ
Brake system 2F-5

8.ESC hydraulic unit 30. Rear brake pipe rear 48.Bolt- Brake pedal 66. Dual Slot pipe clamps Ⅱ
section (right)
9.Steering angle sensor 49. Brake pedal assembly 67. Bolt - vacuum booster
31. Support- Rear brake support
10.Support-ESC hose (right) 50.Support- vacuum booster
68. Split pin
11.Bolt 32. Rear brake hose 51. With master cylinder
assembly Ⅱ (right) vacuum booster assembly 69. Pin shaft
12.bolt
33. Rear brake pipe middle 52. Fluid reservoir assembly 70. Parking brake handle
13. ESC support cushion assembly
section (right) 53. Bolt- Fluid reservoir
14. Pipe clamp 71. Bolt- Parking brake handle
34. Pipe clamp D 54. Elastic pipe clamp
15. Pipe clamp (front/rear chamber hose) 72. Lock bolt- Front section
35. Middle support-Rear
16 Pipe clamp G wheel speed sensor cable
55. Rear chamber brake hose
17.. Front brake hose 36. Support- Rear brake 73. Front section cable
56. Front chamber brake
assembly (left) hose (left) hose 74. Rear parking cable
18. Pipe clamp 37. Rear brake hose assembly (right)
57. Vacuum power-assisting
19. Pipe clamp assembly Ⅱ(left) hose (front section) 75. Bolt- Rear parking cable

20. Pipeline joints 38. Rear brake pipe rear 58.Bolt- Vacuum power- 76. Rear parking cable
section (left) assisting hose ( front assembly (left)
21.Support-Pipe clamp
39. Rear brake pipe middle section)
22.Flange nut section (left)

Diagnostic data and procedures runout of brake.


Brake system test Check of brake fluid leakage: make the engine
idling, put the gear in neutral gear, and step down
The brake test must be performed on dry, clean and the brake pedal with a consistent force. If the pedal
flat road without slope. If the road surface is wet sinks, the hydraulic system may be leaked, so the
and slippy, oil dirty or soft, the vehicle can’t stick system shall be checked.
to the ground evenly, thus its real braking
performance can’t be tested. Check of fluid level in master cylinder fluid
reservoir: the slow drop of fluid in fluid reservoir
The brake test shall be performed with lighter and is caused by normal wears of friction liner.
heavier pedal-applying forces at different speeds, However, its fluid level shows very low, it
but the lock of brake and slippage of vehicle must indicates the leakage of system. The system may
be avoided. Even if the vehicle is braked with a be internally or externally leaked. Sometimes, if no
large force, its lock and slippage can show its faults of system are found out during the following
braking ability. During the rotation of wheel, its check, it may be slightly leaked. If its fluid level is
braking distance is less than the one while it’s normal, check the length of vacuum booster
locked, the friction force between the wheel and pushrod. In case of finding out the improper length
ground is also below the force of wheel while it’s of pushrod, adjust or replace the pushrod.
slipped. The higher its deceleration speed is, the
higher the required brake pedal force is. Three key Check the master cylinder through the
external factors can influence its braking ability: following procedures:
 The uneven adhesion between the tire and  Check the casting cracks of master cylinder or
ground will lead to uneven braking force, the leakage of brake fluid around it. If at least one
air pressures of left and right tires shall be drop of brake fluid exists outside the master
equal to each other, and the patterns of left cylinder, it indicates the leakage of master
and right tires shall be the same. cylinder, but its problems can’t be explained
only as per the wetting conditions of master
 Uneven load will also influence its braking cylinder.
ability, because the wheel with higher load
requires a higher braking input force than any  Check the lengths of linkage and pushrod
other wheel, so it can also produce a higher connected to the pedal. If these two parts
braking force. don’t conform to the requirements,
disassemble the master cylinder, and check
 Projected or unflat road surface will cause the whether the leather cup is extended or
Brake system 2F-6

expanded. If it’s expanded, the brake fluid compressed air before reassembling them, and
may be unqualified or polluted. In case of replace all the rubber parts from the system,
confirming the pollution of brake fluid, all the including the hose.
parts shall be removed for cleaning, and all
Check of brake hose
the brake pipes must be also cleaned.
The hydraulic brake hose shall be checked at least
Unqualified brake fluid, other mineral oil or water
once every two years. After the occurrence of
in brake fluid will cause the gasification of brake
accidental damages, broken surface scratches,
fluid or deterioration of rubber parts,e.g. the
leakage or bubbles, the hose must be also checked.
expansion of master cylinder piston rubber cup
Check the trends and fixing conditions of hose. If
indicates the deterioration of rubber part.
the friction of brake hose with other parts occurs, it
Meanwhile, the same case also occurs to the brake
will lead to final failure of surface damages, and its
slave cylinder rubber cup.
check may require a mirror or light. If the above
In case of finding out the deterioration of rubber cases are found, the hose must be adjusted or
parts, disassemble all the hydraulic parts, and clean replaced.
themwith alcohol; blow the alcohol dry with
Faults of brake system
Fault symptom Cause Remedy
Leakage of brake fluid Repair or add in the brake fluid.
The brake warning lamp is Short circuit of parking brake Repair its short circuit part.
constantly on. switch
Fault of fluid level sensor Replace the sensor.
Fault of brake lamp switch Replace the brake lamp switch.
Too short length of pushrod Adjust the length of vacuum
The brake lamp goes on.
booster pushrod.
Short circuit of brake lamp switch Repair its short-circuit part.
Lack or leakage of brake fluid Repair or add in brake fluid.
Pollution of brake fluid Replace the brake fluid.
Air in brake system Drain the fluid out of brake
Insufficient braking force system again.
Damages of brake pipe Replace the brake pipe.
Damages of vacuum power- Replace the vacuum power-
assisting hose or non-return valve assisting hose or non-return valve.
Seizure of brake pedal Replace the brake pedal.
Fault of caliper piston return Replace the return rubber ring.
Braking drag Fault of brake master cylinder Replace the brake master
cylinder.
Air in brake system Exhaust the air.
Insufficiency or leakage of brake Replace the leaked part or add in
fluid the brake fluid.
Overlong stroke of pedal Overlong free stroke of brake pedal Adjust the length of vacuum
booster pushrod.

Manual exhaustion at the distance from the brake master cylinder brake sub-
cylinder exhaust farthest beginning, and then sub-divided
Important hints: cylinder brake far evacuated until 4 Cylinder complete until
the completion of the exhaust; if off point is not the brake
the sequence of exhaustion: Whenever you have to master cylinder at the break point distance from the nearest
disconnect the brake pipe exhaust brake system. If you sub-cylinder began to exhaust brake, then the next nearest
disconnect the hydraulic lines in the brake master cylinder sub-cylinder, four cylinder until fully completed until the
Brake system 2F-7

exhaust. 2. Step down the pedal three times.


During the drainage of fluid, check the level of 3. Step down the brake pedal with about 15Kg
fluid continually, and add in the brake fluid. (33Ibf) force, and measure the distance
1. Lift up the vehicle. between the pedal and the lowest part of front
barrier.
2. Loosen the bleed bolt and dust cover.
Unit: mm
Parameter 50mm

3. Connect a transparent pipe to bleed screw,


and make its other end soaked in the brake
fluid of transparent container. 4. If the distance is below 50mm, it may be
caused by the worn size of rear brake shoe
over its specified value or existence of air in
the pipe. After replacing the brake shoe and
bleeding all the air, if the distance is still
below 50mm , it may be caused by the faults
of rear brake shoe regulator or overlong
stroke of vacuum booster pushrod, but this
case seldom occurs.
5. After removing the brake drum, check the
automatic clearance regulator. If it’s damaged,
repair or replace it.
Check of brake pedal free stroke
4. After stepping the brake pedal slowly several 1. Step the brake pedal several times to
times, keep it stepped. eliminate the vacuum of vacuum booster.
5. Loosen the bleed screw, drain the brake fluid, 2. Push the brake pedal by hands, and measure
and then tighten the screw. the stroke of pedal from its free state to
hardening position.
Note: Step the pedal until the bleed screw is
tightened. Unit: mm
6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until all the air is bled. Specified value 5-10

7. Check whether the bleed screw is tightened. 3. The free stroke of brake pedal can’t be
adjusted.
Note:
a) The manual venting, while the exhaust side of
the jar to check the brake fluid reservoir level,
if less than the minimum tick, add brake fluid,
after the completion of the exhaust, brake
fluid is added to the specified value.
b) must be dedicated hippocampus brake fluid
DOT-4 brake fluid filling.
Check of pedal stroke
1. Start the engine.
Brake system 2F-8

6. Install the wheel.

Repair instructions 1 Rear brake hose

(I) Repair on the vehicle Removal procedures:

Front brake hose ① Remove the wheel,

Procedures for removing: ② Remove the brake hose.

Note: ● Loosen the connector connected to brake pipe


Do not spill brake fluid or splashed paint. Brake ①.
fluid will damage the paint. If splashed paint on, ● Remove the snap spring ②.
then immediately wipe clean and washed with
water. ● loosen bolts ③.
1. Remove the wheel. ● Block the opening of brake pipe, and avoid
2. Remove the brake hose. the loss and pollution of brake fluid.

● Loosen the connector ① connected to brake


pipe.
● Block the opening of brake pipe, and avoid
the loss and pollution of brake fluid.
● Remove the snap spring ②.
● Loosen the connecting bolt ③.
● Remove the brake hose from the support.

Installation procedures:
1. Connect the brake hose to the pipe.
Tightening torque: 14 to 18N·m (12 Ib-ft).
2. Install the snap spring.
3. Install the brake hose connecting bolt ③.
Tightening torque: 22-29N·m.
Important: please apply only the recommended
brake fluid.
4. Exhaust the brake system. Refer to manual
Installation procedures: exhaustion in this chapter.
1. Connect the brake hose to pipe ①. Tightening 5. Confirm whether the brake system is leaked.
torque: 14 to 18N·m. 6. Install the wheel.
2. Install the snap spring ②.
3. Install the brake hose connecting bolt ③. Brake lamp switch
Tightening torque: 22-29N·m.
Removal procedures:
Important: please apply the brake fluid
recommended by Sino Maersk Co., Ltd. 1. Disconnect the negative cable of battery.

4. Exhaust the brake system. Refer to manual 2. Remove the brake lamp switch.
exhaustion in this chapter. ● Pull down the plug ①.
5. Confirm whether the brake system is leaked.
Brake system 2F-9

● Use a wrench to loosen the brake switch Ensure the brake light switch on the brake
comes with the lock nut ②. pedal arm assembly after no preload.

● Rotating brake light switch, removed from Brake pedal


the pedal. Removal procedures:
1. Remove the brake lamp switch.
2. Pull out the split pin ①, take down the pin
shaft ②, and disconnect the connection of
vacuum booster and brake pedal.
3. Remove the bolt ③.Take down the pedal
assembly.

Installation procedures:
1. Install the brake lamp switch.
The brake pedal switch screwed into the Assembling procedures:
switch bracket to the threaded end of the
rotary switch to metal bracket rubber pad in 1. Use nut ③, the brake pedal is fixed to the
contact with the pedal switch (no preload), the vehicle body.
lock switch comes with a locking nut. 2. Use and cotter pin ② ① connection with
Tightening torque 5-7N.m.
vacuum booster brake pedal.
2. Connect the plug.
3. Install the brake lamp switch.
3. Connect the negative cable of battery.
4. Detect brake lights are working properly.

Important:
Brake system 2F-10

Specifications
General parameters

Item mm
Front brake
Diameter of brake disc φ296
Thickness of brake disc 26
Valid thickness of disc 24
Diameter of caliper cylinder Φ60.3
Rear-drum brake
Specification Φ172×20
Inner diameter of brake drum Φ172
Rear-disc brake
Diameter of brake disc φ292
Thickness of brake disc 9
Valid thickness of disc 7
caliper cylinder diameter φ35
Vacuum booster with brake master cylinder assembly
Assist rate 9
diameter of master cylinder 23.8
Stroke of master cylinder 18+18
Brake pedal
free stroke 6-10
Valid stroke 120
Type DOT-4
brake fluid
Capacity 700ml±50ml

Tightening torque specifications of fasteners

Application N·m
Install the brake oil pipe at the joint of 14 to 18
brake oil pipe.
Mounting bolt of front brake hose and 22 to 29
caliper
Connecting bolt of brake pedal and pedal 19 to 25
support
brake hose support tightening bolt 8 to 14
Connecting bolt of wheel speed sensor 8 to 14
support
ABS/ESP/proportional valve support 20 to 24
mounting bolt
Brake system 2F-11

Circuit diagram

Circuit diagram of brake warning lamp

Battery
ABS control unit

Brake switch

High-mounted brake lamp Left brake lamp Right brake lamp


Brake system 2F-12

2. If the liquid level is below MIN line, add in


Repair instructions 2 the brake fluid up to MAX.
Removal procedures:
Brake master cylinder with oil cup
1. Remove the brake fluid reservoir.
General and operation
 Pull out the brake fluid level alarm switch ①.
Brake master cylinder Some models also need to pull out the hose
and drip cup unblocked clutch oil outlet;
The brake master cylinder is designed as per the
shunt of system. The braking pressure of right  Loosen the clamp ③, and remove the master
front wheel brake and left rear wheel brake is cylinder connected to oil hose ④;
supplied by the first chamber, and that of left front
wheel brake and right rear wheel brake is supplied  Remove the bolts ②;
by the second chamber.  Pull out brake fluid reservoir violently.
Note: 2. Remove the master cylinder.
 During the replacement of master cylinder,
 Loosen the brake oil pipe joint ⑤;
replace the master cylinder assembly. If the
hydraulic parts are removed or separated, the  Block the opening of master cylinder to avoid
fluid of all or a part of brake systems must be the outflow and pollution of brake fluid;
drained.
 Remove the master cylinder connected to
 The torque shall be achieved on the dry and vacuum booster ⑥;
non-lubricated fastener.
 Remove the brake master cylinder.
 All the operations must be performed on clean
platform to avoid all the mineral oils.
Liquid level sensor
Liquid level sensor is stuck to the liquid reservoir.
When the brake fluid is below the liquid level line,
this sensor activates the brake lamp. When the
level of brake fluid becomes normal, the brake
lamp will go out.

Note: the brake fluid will damage the paint. If the


fluid overflows to the paint surface, flush it
immediately with cold water.
Installation procedures
Note: apply only the specified brake fluid.
1. Install master cylinder assembly with a nut.
Tightening torque: 20N·m.
2. Connect the fluid reservoir and brake master
Diagnostic references and procedures cylinder.
Brake master cylinder with brake fluid
3. Connect the brake pipe and master cylinder.
reservoir assembly Tightening torque:
Check of brake fluid level M10 16.2N·m
1. Check the liquid level. . M12 18.2N.m
Brake system 2F-13

4. Exhaust the brake system. In case of finding out any problem, check the
Specifications check valve and vacuum hose for damages, check
their installation, repair and recheck them if
General requirements necessary.
Application Unit Value Step 3
Master 1. Start the engine.
Type - Tandem
cylinder
2. Step down the brake pedal with a common
Hole force.
mm(in) 23.81(0.94)
diameter
3. Keep the brake pedal in stepped position, and
Tightening torque specifications of fasteners stop the engine.

Application N·m 4. Keep the brake pedal in stepped position for


about 30s.
Fluid reservoir mounting screw 14
5. If the height of brake pedal is unchanged, it
Master cylinder mounting nut 20 indicates that the vacuum booster is running.
Connection of brake oil pipe M10 16.2 Check of vacuum booster functions (check them
and master cylinder M12 18.2 with a measuring instrument)
Connection of brake oil pipe 1. As shown in the figure, separately connect
22-29 SST, vacuum gauge and pedal pressure
and rear brake caliper
detector.
Connection of brake oil pipe
22-29
and front brake caliper Note:
Vacuum booster  Adopt a special instrument and pedal pressure
detector. Bleed the air out of SST at
Check of vacuum booster
instrument A.
Check of vacuum booster functions(simple
methods)
Note:
 Replace the vacuum booster if necessary.
Pedal pressure gauge
Step 1
1. Stop the engine, and step down the brake
pedal several times.
Vacuum gauge
2. Keep stepping down the brake pedal, and start
the engine.
3. If the pedal moves down slightly immediately 2. After bleeding the air out of SST, check it as
after starting the engine, it indicates that the per the following steps.
vacuum booster is running.
Check of vacuum
Step 2
1. Start the engine. Leakage and non-load
2. After running the engine for 1 or 2 minutes, 1. Start the engine.
stop the engine. 2. When the reading of vacuum gauge reaches
3. Step down the brake pedal with a common 66.7kPa {500mmHg}, stop the engine.
force. 3. Close the vacuum gauge for15s. If the
4. If the first pedal stroke is long and the vacuum pressure shows 63.3-66.7kPa {475-
following stroke of stepped pedal becomes 500mmHg}, it indicates the normal operation
shortened, it indicates that the surface vacuum of vacuum booster.
booster pump is running. Loading conditions
Note: 1. Start the engine.
Brake system 2F-14

2. Step down the brake pedal with a force of


196N {20kgf}.
3. Keep stepping down the brake pedal. When
the reading of vacuum gauge is up to 66.7kPa
{500mmHg}, stop the engine.
4. Observe the vacuum gauge for 15s. If the
vacuum pressure indicates 63.3-66.7kPa
{475-500mmHg}, it indicates the normal
operation of vacuum booster.
Check of hydraulic system
1. Stop the engine (vacuum pressure of
0kPa{0mmHg}. If the pressure of fluid is Installation procedures :
within the specified range at this time, it
indicates the normal operation of vacuum 1.The use of tools by bolts ④ the vacuum booster
booster. hose assembly bracket to the engine lug
Pedal pressure Fluid pressure Department;
196N{20kgf} 586kPa{6kgf/cm2}min 2. With a pair of pliers or a special tool through
hoop clamp ②, respectively connection, attention
should be solid and reliable work clamp booster
2. Start the engine. When its vacuum pressure vacuum hose assembly ③ and engine vacuum
reaches 66. 7kPa{500mmHg}, step down the suction port and the vacuum booster interface ①
brake pedal. Department.
 If the pressure of fluid is within the specified
range at this time, it indicates the normal Vacuum hose assembly (1.5T engine)
operation of brake device.
Note: 1. Vacuum tube containing internal one-way
Pedal pressure Fluid pressure valve.

196N{20kgf} 9003kPa{92kgf/cm2}min 2. 1.5T vacuum models span, need two parts


removal and installation.

Vacuum hose assembly


Vacuum hose assembly (1.6L engine)
Note: vacuum tube containing internal one-way
valve.
Removal procedures :
1. With a pair of pliers or a special tool clamp
release clamps ②, respectively ③ vacuum
booster hose assemblies removed from the
engine vacuum suction port and the vacuum
booster interface ① Department;
2. Use tools to remove the bolts ④ from the
vacuum booster hose assembly bracket;
3. Take down the vacuum hose.
Removal procedures :
1.With a pair of pliers or a special tool clamp
release clamps ①, ② the vacuum booster hose
pulled from the front engine vacuum suction
mouth;
Brake system 2F-15

2.With the tools to remove the bolts and bolt ③ ④, release clamps ⑤, is the vacuum booster
the vacuum booster hose ② removed from the vacuum hose and electric separation;
front of the engine and gearbox hanging on the
ear;
3.With a pair of pliers or a special tool clamp
release clamps ⑤, the anterior posterior segment
of the vacuum booster hose and vacuum booster
hose ② ⑥ separately;
4.Remove the vacuum booster hose front ②;
5.With a pair of pliers or a clamp release clamps
⑦ special tools and clamps, the segment inlet ⑧
⑥ take place and electric vacuum from the
vacuum booster pump booster hose inlet take
place to remove;
6.With tools to remove the bolts, remove the upper
section of the body right stringer ⑥ booster
vacuum hose;
2.The electric pump wiring harness plug from the
7.The first double pipe clamp ⑨ ⑥ removed from
electrical connection on the pump mounting
the segment after the vacuum booster hose, and
bracket ③ removed;
then removed from the segment ⑥ ⑩ double
pipe clamp booster vacuum hose; 3.Using tools from the electric vacuum pump to
remove the mounting bolts ②;
8. Remove the vacuum booster hose ⑥ segment.
4. Remove the vacuum hose.
Installation procedures :
1.With the tool through bolt and bolt ③ ④ booster
vacuum hose ② front lug the engine and Vacuum booster assembly
gearbox are connected; Removal procedures:
2. ① ② front of the vacuum booster hose and 1. First remove the master cylinder brake hard pipe,
engine vacuum suction port connected through a oil pipe connected to the master cylinder and
hoop clamp with pliers or special tools; booster vacuum hose and master cylinder with a
3.After the vacuum booster hose attached to the plug to seal the oil port;
double pipe clamp ⑥ ⑩ on, and then double 2. Unplug cotter pin ③, remove the pin ②, remove
pipe clamp attached to the segment ⑨ ⑥ the nut with a tool ⑤;
vacuum booster hose to enhance fixed;
3. Vacuum booster assembly is removed with
4.With the tools bolts vacuum booster hose and vacuum booster and master cylinder mounting
electric vacuum pump ⑥ take air intakes bracket;
connected;
4. Use the tool to remove the nut ⑦, the vacuum
5.With a pair of pliers or a special tool through booster assembly with vacuum booster and
hoop clamp ⑤, ⑦ clamps and clamp, respectively, master cylinder mounting bracket separation.
after the section of the vacuum booster hose and
vacuum booster hose ⑥ front ②, take the vacuum
booster inlet ⑧ and electric vacuum pump inlet to
take place connection, attention to clamp work to
be solid and reliable.
Electric vacuum pump
Electric vacuum pump (1.5T engine only)
Removal procedures :
1.With a pair of pliers or a special tool clamp
Brake system 2F-16

Installation procedures :
1. First use of nuts with a master cylinder and
vacuum booster assembly vacuum booster
mounting brackets together, tighten the nut
torque of 23N • m.
2.Vacuum booster assembly and vacuum booster
with master cylinder mounting bracket through
the body using a nut and the brake pedal, the nut
tightening torque of 23N • m.
3. The booster pedal pusher fork arm connecting
hole pairs, the insert pin, cotter pin lock.
4. Master cylinder brake hard pipe, drip tubing
master cylinder and vacuum booster hose
connected to the vacuum booster, master
cylinder brake hardware fittings tightening
torque for M10 16.2N • m, M12 18.2N • m.
Brake system 2F-17

force stored in the seal ring makes the piston move


Front and rear brakes to right and return to its initial position. When the
General and operation piston moves, the brake liner will move with it,
and the clearance between brake disc and liner will
Brake caliper assembly be gradually increased.
This brake caliper is a single-cylinder one installed After the friction block is worn, the clearance
on the steering knuckle with two bolts. The between the brake disc and friction block will be
hydraulic force produced by brake pedal is increased, and the piston stroke will be also
converted into braking force. This braking force increased. The seal ring has a certain deformation,
equally acts on the piston and bottom of caliper but after its deformation exceeds the certain value,
chamber to make the piston move out and brake the seal ring will move the groove of inner end of
caliper slide in, thus an action to clamp the brake cylinder body, and the elastic deformation of seal
disc is produced, which makes the brake liner affix ring will have the specified limit.
the brake disc, and produces a frictional force to
stop the vehicle. After the clearance is increased, the piston is
required to move a more distance to eliminate the
clearance. When the piston returns, its return
Piston stroke keeps unchanged, and the seal ring will also
return to its initial shape, so the clearance between
the brake disc and friction block will keep its
initial state unchanged.

Friction block 1. Piston


Brake disc 2. Piston seal ring
3. Friction block
a.Clearance

Note:
During the replacement of brake caliper, please
replace all the components.
Lubricate the rubber parts with clean brake fluid
for easier assembling.
Don’t apply the lubricated compressed air to avoid
the damages of rubber parts.
Check of front-disc brake
Once the hydraulic elements are removed or
separated, it’s required to exhaust the brake system. Hints for brake judder repairs
The brake liner of front brake assembly must be The brake judder problems have the following
replaced in sets. three features:
The tightening torque is only applicable for dry or 1. Vibration of steering wheel: this feature is
unlubricated fasteners. the most obvious when it’s braked at 100 to
140 km/h {62 to 87 mph} if the steering
Repair them with clean or unpolluted wrench. wheel vibrates in its rotation direction;
Return clearance 2. Vibration of floor: the vehicle body shakes
When the hydraulic pressure acts on the piston, the forward and back, its shaking level is not
piston moves to left. At this time, the seal ring influenced by the vehicle speed;
produces a large pressure to the piston, so it moves 3. Vibration of brake pedal: an impulse force
with the piston. However, the part of seal ring is trys to push the brake liner, and this impulse
fixed in the ring groove of brake caliper as shown is transmitted to the brake pedal during the
in the figure. When the piston moves to left, the braking operation.
seal ring will be torsioned and deformed.
The following are several main reasons to make
After the hydraulic pressure is released, the elastic the brake shake:
Brake system 2F-18

1. Excessive jumps of brake disc, the swing local temperature of disc rise up to about
thickness from one side to other side is 1,000℃{1,832ºF}, thus it will lead to the
uneven: deformation of disc.
At the place 10 mm {0.39in} away from the edge 3. Due to the changes of corroded disc
of brake disc, if its jump exceeds 0.05mm {0.002 thickness and friction coefficient:
in}, it indicates that the uneven wears of disc are
If the vehicle parks in wet environment for a long
caused by uneven contact of liner and disc. If its
time, the friction surface of disc will be corroded,
jump is below 0.05mm {0.002in}, it indicates that
its uneven corrosion thickness is sometimes like
no uneven wears occur.
corrugations, its friction coefficient will be
2. Thermal deformation of disc: changed and produce a reaction force.
Repeated violent braking operations can make the
Procedures for check and repair
Certify the customer0’s

Peform the transverse jump test. (refer Above 0.05mm {0.002in}


to the transverse jump test)
Below
Below 0.05mm 0.05mm
Appear {0.002in}
{0.002in} Confirm remove the disc, install it
Confirm whether the
brake shakes in other phase position, and re-
Disappear perform the transverse jump test.
Whether the brake shakes
Perform the thickness change Above 0.015mm {0.0005in}
test (see below)
Above
Below 0.015mm {0.0005in} 0.05mm
{0.002in}
Certify the repair conditions.
Machine the disc with an on-
board grinder

Tighten all the hub nuts up to the


same torque to fix the brake disc,
and measure its transverse jump.

Grind with an on-board grinder (below


0.015mm{0.0005in}).

Completion of work.

transverse jump.
Check of transverse jump
Its jump limit: 0. 05mm{0. 002 in}.
1. Tighten the hub nut diagonally, and ensure
the correct installation of disc and hub, or
insert the washer between the hub bolt and
hub nut.
The thickness of washer is 10mm {0.39 in} and its
inner diameter is over 12mm{0.47 in}.
2. After tightening all the hub nuts up to the
same torque, place a dial indicator on the Check of its thickness changes
friction surface of brake disc in the position 1. Clean the friction surface of brake disc and
about 10mm{0.39in}away from the edge of brake liner with a brake cleaner.
disc.
2. Measure the thickness of each point shown in
3. Turn the brake disc once and measure its
Brake system 2F-19

the figure with a caliper dial indicator. Removal and installation of Front-disc
3. Deduct the minimum value with the measured brake
maximum value. If the result can’t meet the 1. For its removal and installation, refer to the
requirements, machine the brake disc with a figure.
grinding tool.
2. After installing it, step the brake pedal several
Its thickness change limit: 0.015 mm {0.0005 in} times, and turn the wheel by hands to confirm
Warning: the existence of brake drag.
• Don’t exceed the minimum thickness of brake Table I: List of supply-level parts for front steering
disc. knuckle with brake assembly
Thickness check of front or rear brake disc
1. Measure the thickness of brake disc.
Caution:
If the brake disc is removed from the vehicle for
machining, it may cause its excessive jump.
Therefore, it’s required to be machined when the
brake disc is installed on the vehicle. Minimum
thickness: front disc: 26mm {1.02 in}. Adopt its
minimum thickness machined on the vehicle: 24. 8
{0. 94in}
2. If the thickness of brake disc is not within the
technical requirements, replace the brake disc.
Warning:
 Don’t exceed the minimum thickness of brake disc.

Check of brake liner thickness 1 Caliper support bolt

1. Jack up the front of vehicle, and support it 2 Front brake caliper assembly(left/right)
with a safety support. 3 Front brake disc
2. Remove the wheel. 4 Front outer friction plate
5 Front inner friction plate (left/right)
6 Steering knuckle assembly(left/right)

Table II: Removal of front-disc brake assembly


Removal of front-
disc brake assembly

3. Check the residual thickness of liner, and


replace the sets of liners. Provided the
thickness of one side liner of left and right
wheels is equal to or below its minimum
thickness, it’s required to replace left and
right liners at the same time. Thickness of
liner: minimum value 2. 0mm { 0. 08in}.
4. If the thickness of any side of left or right
wheel is below or equal to its minimum
thickness, replace the brake shoes from its
both sides.
Brake system 2F-20

1 Brake hose 7 Cotter pin


2 Hollow bolt(22-29N.m) 8 Lock nut
3 Sealing washer 9 Brake disc
4 Shaft pin bolt (30-36N.m) 10 Caliper support bolt (160-170N.m)
5 Caliper assembly
6 Inner and outer friction plate assembly

Keypoints for removing the brake disc


1. Before removing it, make the marks on the
hub bolt and brake disc for the references
of installation.
Mark
Keypoints for installing the brake disc
1. Remove any rust or dust from the contact
surface of brake disc and hub.
2. Assemble the brake disc by aligning to the
mark before removing it.

Wood Keypoints for installing the brake liner


board 1. Push the piston to bottom with SST.
2. Install the brake liner.

Replacement of front brake liner


1. Remove it in the sequence shown in the
table.
2. Install it in the reverse sequence of
removal.
1 Bolt
2 Support bracket
3 Circlip
4 Guide pin
5 Guide pin dust cover
6 Inner and outer friction plates

Disassembly and assembling of front brake


caliper
1. Disassemble it in the sequence shown in
the table.
2. Assemble it in the reverse sequence of
removal.
Brake system 2F-21

1 Dustproof seal ring


Piston(refer to keypoints for
2
disassembling P piston)
Piston seal ring (refer to keypoints for
3
disassembling P piston seal ring)
4 Bleed screw cover
5 Bleed screw
6 brake caliper body

Keypoints for disassembling the piston


Note:
 While blowing the compressed air into brake
caliper, blow it slowly to avoid the sudden jump
of piston.
Place SST inside the brake caliper, blow the
compressed air from the hole into brake caliper,
to make the piston push into the brake caliper.

Keypoints for disassembling the piston seal


ring
Take the brake caliper out of piston seal ring
with SST.

Rear brake disc with drum brakes


Thickness check of brake shoe friction plate
1. Remove the observation hole blockage
observed thickness of the brake shoe.
2. Check the thickness of residual friction
plates. Provided the thickness of any of left
and right friction plates is equal to below
its minimum thickness, replace left and
right brake shoes at the same time.
Thickness of friction plate
Its minimum value of 1.0 mm {0.04 in}
Brake system 2F-22

Check of brake drum


1. Measure the inner diameter of brake drum.
Maximum value of inner diameter
172 mm {6.77 in}

2. If necessary, repair or replace the brake


drum.
3. Check whether the contact of drum and
brake shoe is good when repairing or
replacing the brake drum.

Friction brake shoes and brake drum


clearance check
Friction brake shoes and brake drum design
clearance gap 0.3-0.5 mm {0.011 in-0.02 in}.
When the gap please exceeds the design value
of the parking brake adjustment screw assembly
adjustments.
Table 1: Removing and installing rear drum brakes
with brake
Brakes with rear drum brakes dismantling chart
1. Remove and install the chart below.
2. After installation, use the following steps to
adjust the cable:
1) 294N (30Kg, 66 lb) force operating the
parking handle more than 10 times.
2) Turn the adjusting nut with a ratchet wrench
to adjust the parking lever stroke.
3) Check the parking lever stroke and the
operating force.
4) 245N force operating the parking lever
handle to check whether a predetermined stroke
range of the notch (9-11 teeth).
1 Lock bolt 5) Turn the brake disc in the case of the
parking lever is released, and check the drag.
2 Rear brake caliper
3 Rear brake discs
4 Lock bolt
5 Hub Bearing Unit
6 Lock bolt
7 Rear parking brake
Brake system 2F-23

1 Clip
Table II: The parking brake is split Parts List
2 Locating Pins
3 Upper tension spring (left)
4 Upper tension spring (right)
Adjusting screw rod assembly
5
(left /right)
6 Lower tension spring
7 Push plate (left and right)
Parking brake shoe assembly
8
(right)
Parking brake shoe assembly
9
(left )
10 Lever (left / right)
11 Parking brake plate (left/right)

Check of rear-disc brake Minimum thickness: rear disc: 9mm {0.35in}


Hints for repair of brake tremor Adopt the minimum thickness machined on the
vehicle: 8.8 {0.35in}
(refer to front-disc brake);
2. If the thickness of brake disc is not within the
Thickness check of rear brake disc technical requirements, replace the brake disc.
1. Measure the thickness of brake disc. Warning:
Note:  Don’t exceed the minimum thickness of
If the brake disc is removed from the vehicle for brake disc.
machining, it may cause its excessive jump. Thickness check of brake liner
Therefore, it’s required to machine during the
installation of brake disc on the vehicle. 1. Jack up the front of vehicle with a jack, and
tie it firmly with a safety support.
2. Remove the wheel.
3. Check the residual thickness of liner, and
replace the liner in sets. Provided the
thickness of any block of left and right
wheels is below or equal to its minimum
thickness, it’s required to replace left and
right liners at the same time.
Minimum thickness of rear liner: 2.0 mm {0.8in}
4. If the thickness of any side of left and right
wheels is below or equal to its minimum
thickness, replace both brake shoes in sets.
Brake system 2F-24

Keypoints for removing the brake disc: 2.Instructions for installing rear brake linings
Before removing the disc, make the marks on a. Push in the piston fully with SST;
hub bolt and brake disc for the references of
b. Install the brake shoe.
installation.
Keypoints for installing the brake disc
a. Remove any rust or dust from the contact
surface of brake disc and hub.
b. Align the mark made before the removal,
and assemble the brake disc.

2. Description of caliper body disassembly


(refer to the description of front caliper
Mark disassembly)

Removal and installation of rear service


brakes
1.Instructions for removal of rear brake lining
a. Remove it in the sequence of installation;
b. Install it in the reverse sequence of removal.
Piston sealing ring (see P piston
1
seal disintegration points)
Piston (see P piston disintegration
2
points)
3 Dust seals
4 Brake caliper bracket
5 Dust Cover
6 Outer friction plate assembly
7 Circlip
8 Inner friction plate assembly
9 Clamp body
10 Guide pins
11 Bleeder screw
12 Bleeder screw cap
Brake system 2F-25

2. Remove the wire plug ② of brake lamp


Parking brake system switch on parking handle .
3. Place the parking brake handle in loosened
General and operation position, loosen and remove three fixing bolts
It’s displayed through the parking brake caution ③ of parking brake handle, and the tightening
light installed on the instrument panel. When torque of bolt during the assembly:19 to
25N.m.
the ignition switch is turned on, the caution light
goes on. When the parking handle is put down, the
caution light goes out. Whenever the parking
control mechanism is pulled, when the ignition
switch is turned, the caution light should be on.
Structure diagram
Parking brake

4. Loosen the cable assembly before ④ self-


locking nuts, relax before cable assembly, rear
parking ⑤⑥ connector cable assembly cable
assembly removed from the front slot.
5. Remove the front cable assembly ④ from the
1. Parking brake handle
parking brake lever assembly ②, remove the
2. Lock nut parking brake lever assembly ② from the body.
3. Front cable assembly
Rear parking brake cable assembly
4. Parking brake cable (right)
1. Disconnect the cable assembly before and after
5. Parking brake handle fixing bolt parking the connection cable assembly in
6. Parking brake cable (left) accordance with the demolition, "parking brake
lever and cable assembly before" in the method,
7. Parking brake cable fixing bolt and then the rear parking cable ② mounting
Repair instructions bracket from the body detached.
Parking brake handle and front cable assembly
1. Remove the parking brake handle cover of
auxiliary instrument panel(a) (see the details
of auxiliary instrument panel removal
method).

2. Use a tool to remove the body from the


fastening bolts ① ② and rear bracket supports
④.
Tightening torque bolt assembly is: 15 ~
Brake system 2F-26

19N.m 1. Adjust the clearance of brake shoe.


3. Use the tool to remove the fastening bolts from 2. Start the engine, and step the brake pedal
the rear bracket arm ④ ⑤ several times.
When mounting bolt tightening torque is: 18 ~ 3. Stop the engine.
26N.m
4. Turn the parking handle ① and ③ connect
cable assembly before adjusting nut ②, pull
the handle to test its stroke.

5. After adjusting it, check the following points:


Check of handle parking brake (1) Turn the ignition switch, pull the parking
1. Pull the parking brake handle several times. brake handle by 1 tooth, and confirm that the
parking brake lamp goes on.
2. Step the brake pedal several times.
(2) Confirm no brake drag of rear brake.
3. Pull the parking brake handle with a force of
245N {25kgf, 55Ibf}, and check the stroke of
parking brake.
Stroke of 9-11 teeth.
Adjustment of parking brake handle stroke

Parameters
General technical parameters
Item Instructions
Stroke of parking brake handle 9 to 11 teeth[tensile force of 245N (25 kgf, 55 Ibf)]

Locking torque parameters


Item Nm Lb-Ft Lb-in
Parking handle mounting nut 22 - 89
Parking cable fixed support
17 - 69
mounting bolt
Brake system 2F-27

ABS system

Note: when moving or installing other electronic elements, or tools and other equipment are easy to contact
the exposed terminals, disconnect the power cathode lines. It can avoid the personal injury and vehicle
damages to disconnect this wire. The ignition switch must be also in B gear, unless otherwise marked
additionally. Don’t diagnose ABS system, because it will lead to the termination of ABS functions.

Overview
I. Attentions
ABS is a part related to the safety. Therefore, the
following attentions for diagnosis must be also
followed in addition to general safety and
preventive measures during its repair diagnosis.
1. ABS system must be repaired by trained and
skilled technicians, and can be replaced only by
the original part.
2. Before diagnosing ABS system, if the
fundamental brake system has any fault, first
remove it, e.g.:
● Brake system noises
Brake system 2F-28

● Overhard brake pedal. in position in horizontal and vertical directions


to avoid their damages.
● During the common braking operation, The
brake pedal or vehicle vibrates. 6. While connecting ABS brake pipes, be sure to
ensure their correct installation. ABS ECU
● Runout of vehicle brake.
can’t judge whether the brake pipes are
● Faults of parking brake system correctly connected. Any wrong connection
may lead to the serious accident. During the
connection of brake pipe, be sure to follow the
mark on ABS assembly:
● MC1: connect the brake master cylinder brake
pipe 1;
● MC2: connect the brake master cylinder brake
pipe 2;
● FL: connect the brake pipe of left front wheel
brake wheel cylinder;
● FR: connect the brake pipe of right front wheel
brake wheel cylinder;
3. ABS assembly (e.g. ABS electronic control
● RL: connect the brake pipe of left rear wheel
unit and hydraulic regulator assembly,
brake wheel cylinder;
excluding the brake pipe, sensor or other
auxiliary devices) can be only replaced as a ● RR: connect the brake pipe of right rear wheel
whole, and can’t be disassembled for check brake wheel cylinder.
or partially replaced/interchanged. Bosch
doesn’t supply any separate spare part, and
doesn’t guarantee the disassembled ABS
assembly, and undertake no responsibility for
bad consequences caused after disassembling
or partially replacing/interchanging ABS
hydraulic regulator.
4. The following two cases indicate that ABS
system detects the faults:
● After turning on the ignition switch, the self-
check of system is finished, and the warning
lamp keeps lightened.
● While the vehicle is driving, the warning lamp
keeps constantly on. At this time, the driver can
apply the regular braking operation, but he
should try his best to reduce the applied
braking force, and prevent the wheel from
locking. After the warning lamp goes on, it’s
required to drive carefully and go to the special
service station immediately for repair, so as to
avoid the occurrence of more accidents,
otherwise it will lead to the traffic accidents.
5. The following points need to be attentioned
while connecting ABS sensor wires: 7. ABS will produce the noises in the following
cases:
● Before pulling ABS wire and sensor wire, be
sure to disconnect the ignition switch. ● After powering on the vehicle or starting the
engine, it will produce a short sound of “buzz”,
● Ensure the drying and cleanness of connector, this is a sound of ABS self-check, which is a
and avoid the entry of any strange substance . normal phenomenon.
● The connectors of ABS wires must be installed ● ABS will produce the noises during the normal
Brake system 2F-29

operation, which is mainly reflected by the


following aspects:
1) Action sound of motor, solenoid valve and
return pump in ABS hydraulic unit.
2) Sound caused by the bounce of brake pedal.
3) Impact sound of suspension and body
caused by emergency braking operation.

II. Initial check


Before the diagnosis of ABS system, first check its
parts, which may cause the faults of ABS system
and be easy to contact, their visual check and
appearance check procedures can determine the
faults quickly, thus their further diagnosis need’s be
diagnosed.
1. Ensure that only the tires and hubs with
recommended sizes are installed on the vehicle.
The patterns and depths of tires on the same
shaft must be the same.
For the details of tire models, please refer to the
operating instructions for vehicle.
2. Check ABS hydraulic regulator, brake pipe and
connection for leakage.
3. Check the fuses of ABS system, ensure that no
fuses are burnt and their models are correct.
ABS system has three fuses separately:
  Pump motor fuse(40A)
  Solenoid valve fuse(25A)
  Electronic control unit fuse (10A)
4. Check the voltage of battery, and check
whether the battery terminals are corroded or
loosened. Normal operating voltage range of
ABS system is 9. 3V-16. 8V.
5. Check whether the bonding point of ABS earth
wire is loosened, and whether its earthed Apply the seal gum to the exposed end of wire,
and adopt the shrinkable tube gland.
position is changed.

6. ABS earth wire must have good sealing ability Ignition


to prevent the water or moisture from coil/ignition
penetrating into ABS ECU joint through the wire/spark plug
hole of wire due to capillary effect (siphon), Gear ring
thus it can lead to the failure of its function.
Adopted measures: apply the seal gum to Generator
exposed ends of wire, and adopt the shrinkable
tube gland.
Wheel speed sensor
7. Apply the visual checks and appearance checks
of the following electric parts:
 Whether the wires and connectors of relevant

Water
Brake system 2F-30

ABS system parts are correctly connected,


jammed or slashed.
 The wires shall be arranged near to high- Hydroplaning Hydroplanin
voltage or high-current device, e.g.high-voltage
power or part, generator, motor, and
stereophonic amplifier attached after sale.
Note: the high-voltage or high-current device Don’t cling
may make the circuit noisy, thus it will disturb
the normal operation of circuit.
 ABS parts are very sensitive for
electromagnetic interference(EMI). In case of
suspecting the intermittent faults, check
whether the thief-proof devices, lamps or
mobile telephones attached after sale are .
correctly installed.
8. ABS is an active safety system. Its main
purpose is to adopt the maximum ground
adhering moment, and keep the steer ability of
vehicle and drive stability. However, in case of
exceeding its physical limit or driving on the
wet and slippery road at high speed, ABS can’t
prevent the vehicle from slipping fully, too.
9. In case of too much noise of ABS, it may be
caused by the following cases:
 Loosened fixation of ABS assembly and
ABS support.
 Loosened fixation of ABS support and
vehicle body.
 Loss or damages of plastic washers on ABS
support.
Brake system 2F-31

Introduction of ABS 9 system


I. Composition of ABS 9 system
As shown in the figure below, ABS 9 consists of hydraulic module with an electronic control unit and
wheel speed sensor .

① Wheel speed sensor


② ABS hydraulic control module of electronic control unit
Note: this drawing is only for reference. For the detailed positions of elements, please refer to the vehicle
maintenance manual.
II. Hydraulic diagram for Haima S5 ABS 9 X-type arrangement
The brake system is arranged in X shape. As shown in the figure below, ABS 9 hydraulic regulator
includes a motor, two return pumps, two energy accumulators and eight solenoid valves.
Brake system 2F-32

The following meanings of English abbreviations in Fig.:

M First circuit of brake master cylinder RR Right rear wheel


M Second circuit of brake master cylinder FLEV left front wheel oil inlet valve
M motor FLAV left front wheel oil outlet valve
R return pump 1 FREV right front wheel oil inlet valve
R return pump 2 FRAV right front wheel oil outlet valve
A Energy accumulator 1 RLEV Left rear wheel oil inlet valve
A Energy accumulator 2 RLAV Left rear wheel oil outlet valve
F left front wheel RREV Right rear wheel oil inlet valve
F right front wheel RRAV Right rear wheel oil outlet valve
R Left rear wheel
Brake system 2F-33

III. Haima S5 ABS 9 ECU interface circuit


3.1 Haima S5 circuit diagram
Brake system 2F-34

3.2 Definitions of Haima S5 pins

Pin Function Pin Function


1 Motor power terminal(positive) 20 Undefined
2 Wheel speed output(right front) 21 Undefined
3 EBD warning lamp 22 Undefined
4 wheel speed sensor signal terminal(right 23 Undefined
front)
24 Undefined
5 Undefined
25 Power end of valve relay
6 Diagnostic K line
26 CAN H (unused)
7 Undefined
27 ABS warning lamp
8 wheel speed sensor signal terminal(left
28 ECU power terminal (ignition power line)
front)
29 wheel speed sensor signal terminal (right
9 Undefined
rear)
10 Undefined
30 brake lamp switch
11 Undefined
31 wheel speed sensor power terminal (left
12 Undefined rear)
13 Motor ground terminal 32 Undefined
14 CAN L (unused) 33 Speed output
15 Undefined 34 Undefined
16 wheel speed sensor power terminal (right 35 Undefined
front)
36 Undefined
17 wheel speed sensor power terminal (right
37 Undefined
rear)
38 ECU ground terminal
18 wheel speed sensor signal terminal (left
rear)
19 wheel speed sensor power terminal (left
front)
Brake system 2F-35

ABS 9 Fault diagnosis


I. Diagnostic flow

1 The vehicle enters into the repair factory.

2 Analysis of customers’ problems

3 Reading of fault codes

Faults Go to Step 4

No faults Go to Step 6

4 Record the fault codes, and then remove the fault codes.

5 Certification and reproduction of faults: accelerate the vehicle speed up to at least 15 km/h,
simulate the reproduction of faults, and read the faults again.

Faults Current fault code. Go


to Step 9.

No faults Historical fault code.


Go to Step 9.

6 For the faults without fault codes, repair and go to Step 9.

7 Remove the faults as per the list of fault codes, and then go to Step 9.

8 Remove the faults as per the list of fault symptoms, and then go to Step 9.

9 Confirm the removal of faults, perform the repair and test on completion.

10 Avoid the regeneration of faults.

Conclusion
Brake system 2F-36

II. For the faults without fault codes, repair it.


If the faults occur to the brake system, but ABS has no stored fault codes, and this fault is called as a fault
without fault codes. The fault without fault codes is generally caused by basic faults of brake system. E.g.:
 Leakage of brake fluid (it may cause the softening of brake, overlong stroke of brake pedal, and even
serious failure of brake)
 Application of poor brake fluid(the use of poor brake fluid will corrode the brake pipe and elements
inside ABS hydraulic control module, and lead to the serious failure of brake)
 Existence of air in brake pipe (it may cause the softening of brake and even brake failure)
 Blockage of brake pipe (it may cause the hardening of brake and even brake failure)
 Excessive wears of brake disc (it may cause the softening of brake and even brake failure)
 Faults of booster (it may cause the hardening or softening of brake, overlong stroke of brake pedal and
even still brake failure seriously)
 Wrong connection of brake pipe (it may cause the reduction of ABS performances, whipping and long
braking distance,etc. For the correct installation methods, please refer to the marks near to oil holes in
ABS hydraulic control module: MC1 stands for #1 master cylinder oil pipe; MC2 stands for #2 master
cylinder oil pipe; FL stands for left front wheel cylinder oil pipe; FR stands for right front wheel
cylinder oil pipe; RL stands for left rear wheel cylinder oil pipe; RR stands for right rear wheel
cylinder oil pipe)
Note: no power or power failure of ABS will lead to the constant illumination of ABS warning lamp, but it
has no fault codes.

Suggestions for fault removal: check the corresponding parts as per the fault symptoms, and remove the
faults as per the vehicle maintenance manual.
III. Repair of occasional faults
In the electronic system, the instant poor contact may appear in the electric circuit and input/output signals,
thus it may cause the occasional faults. Sometimes, the fault causes will disappear automatically, so it’s not
easy to check these problems. In case of meeting the occasional faults, first read the historical fault codes
with a diagnostic unit, check the conditions related to fault codes, simulate the faults as per the following
modes, and check whether the faults are regenerated.
If no fault is regenerated at this time, its diagnosis and repair must be performed after the regeneration of
next fault. Generally speaking, the occasional fault will become a reproducible fault gradually, and it won’t
disappear automatically.

Possible causes of
S/N Simulated faults Remarks
faults
If the wire is twisted off or broken
due to its excessive tension, it must
1. Shake ABS ECU connector lightly be renewed.
up, down, left or right.
The wheel speed sensor wire will
2. Shake ABS wire lightly up, down, become shortly open-
When the vibration left or right.
1 may be a major circuited/short-circuited due to
cause 3. Shake the sensor lightly up, down, upward/downward movement of
left or right. suspension system during the
4. Shake other moving parts(e.g. movement of vehicle. Therefore,
wheel bearing) lightly. the actual driving test of vehicle
must be performed while checking
the sensor wires.
Brake system 2F-37

Possible causes of
S/N Simulated faults Remarks
faults
1. Heat the parts with possible faults
When the with an air blower.
2 temperature may be
a major cause 2. Check them for cold welding with
cold spraying agent.
1. Turn on all the switches of electric
When the excessive
appliances, including the lamp and
3 electricity load may
wiper, to make the power supply of
be a major cause
vehicle work at high load.

IV. Analysis of fault codes


4.1 List of fault codes

DTC fault code Description of fault codes

C190004 High supply voltage of ECU

C190104 Low supply voltage of ECU

C100004 ECU fault(hardware, tiny errors of controller)

C101008 ECU fault(software error)

C006B06 Inappropriate ABS control(overlong control time)

C003108 Faults of left front wheel speed sensor signals: off-limit, loss, noises, intermittent
interruptions

C003200 Fault of left front wheel speed sensor wire: open-circuit

C00A000 Fault of left front wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to ground

C00A100 Fault of left front wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to power supply

C00A900 Fault of left front wheel speed sensor: its fault causes can’t be definitely known.

C003408 Faults of right front wheel speed sensor signals: off-limit, loss, noises, intermittent
interruptions

C003500 Fault of right front wheel speed sensor wire: open-circuit

C00A200 Fault of right front wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to ground

C00A300 Fault of right front wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to power supply

C00AA00 Fault of right front wheel speed sensor: its fault causes can’t be known.

C003708 Faults of left rear wheel speed sensor signals: off-limit, loss, noises, intermittent
interruptions

C003800 Fault of left rear wheel speed sensor wire: open-circuit

C00A400 Fault of left rear wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to ground
Brake system 2F-38

DTC fault code Description of fault codes

C00A500 Fault of left rear wheel speed sensor wire:shorted to the power supply

C00AB00 Faults of Left rear wheel speed sensor:its fault causes can’t be definitely known.

C003A08 Faults of Right rear wheel speed sensor signals: off-limit, loss, noises, intermittent
interruptions

C003B00 Fault of Right rear wheel speed sensor wire: open-circuit

C00A600 Fault of Right rear wheel speed sensor wire: shorted to ground

C00A700 Fault of right rear wheel speed sensor wire:shorted to the power supply

C00AC00 Faults of right rear wheel speed sensor: its fault causes can’t be definitely known.

C109904 Fault of wheel speed sensor set(interchange of wheel speed sensor, overhigh
differences between the wheel speeds, faults of several wheel speed sensor)

C001004 Fault of left front inlet valve

C001104 Fault of left front outlet valve

C001404 Fault of right front inlet valve

C001504 Fault of right front outlet valve

C001804 Fault of left rear inlet valve

C001904 Fault of left rear outlet valve

C001C04 Fault of Right rear inlet valve

C001D04 Fault of right rear outlet valve

C109504 Fault of valve relay

C002004 Fault of return pump motor

C007208 Faults of valve set (overheat protection, disabled signals, hardware damages)

4.2 High or low supply voltage


Fault setting conditions
When the supply voltage of ECU conforms to any of the following conditions, this fault will be produced:
(1) The voltage of vehicle when starting the power-up vehicle is below 4.5V.
(2) When the ignition switch is in On position, the voltage is below 7.7V or above 16.8V.
(3) When the vehicle speed is above 6km/h, the voltage is between 7.7V and 9.2V.
Possible fault causes
(1) Overhigh or overlow voltage of battery.
(2) Damages of ECU.
Brake system 2F-39

Diagnostic steps

Step Operation Yes No


Perform the initial
1 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 2.
check. (see Page 3)
Measure the voltage of battery. Do you find out the
2 faults and remove them? For the definitions of pins, Perform Step 4. Perform Step 3.
refer to the circuit diagram of detailed items.
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer
to Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of
3 Perform Step 4. -
confirming the damages of ECU, replace ABS. Is the
fault removed?
Re-diagnose it, and confirm whether its fault is Completion of
4 -
regenerated? diagnostic work

4.3 Faults of solenoid valve and valve set relay


Fault codes: C001004; C001104; C001404; C001504; C001804; C001904; C001C04; C001D04;
C109504; C007208
Fault setting conditions
(1) Valve supply faults.(short circuit of power supply to ground or open circuit of earth wire)
(2) Overhigh temperature of solenoid valve.(overheat protection)
(3) Short circuit of at least 5 solenoid valves(fuses)
(4) Actuate the corresponding solenoid valve, but it has no feedbacks. Diagnostic steps
(5) Self-faults of solenoid valve.
(6) Faults of valve set relay.
Possible fault causes
(1) Short circuit of solenoid valve to power supply or earth, open circuit of wire(poor earthing).
(2) Fuse faults.
(3) Overheat protection of system (overlong operating time of solenoid valve, which often occurs in case
of vacuum filling and off-line check).
(4) ABS damages.

Step Operation Yes No


Cool the vehicle for 5 minutes, and check whether its
1 - Perform Step 2.
faults are removed?
Perform the initial
2 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 3.
check.
Measure the voltage of power supply pins of solenoid
valve in connectors, and check the fuses, external
3 relays, connectors, wires and earth wires. Are the Perform Step 5. Perform Step 4.
faults found out and removed? For the definitions of
pins, refer to the circuit diagrams for detailed items.
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer
to Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of
4 Perform Step 5. -
confirming the damages of ABS, replace ABS. Is the
fault removed?
Brake system 2F-40

Step Operation Yes No


Stop the vehicle after increasing its speed up to
Completion of
5 15km/h, re-diagnose it, and confirm whether the fault -
diagnostic work
is regenerated?

4.4 Fault of pump motor


Fault codes: C002004
Fault setting conditions
(1) Overload operation of pump motor, its overhigh temperature (overheat protection)
(2) After the return pump motor relay works for 60ms, the return pump monitor can’t still detect any
voltage signal.
(3) The return pump motor relay fails to work, and the return pump monitor detects the voltage of over 2.
5V.
(4) The return pump motor relay stops its operation, the return pump monitor detects no reduction of
voltage.
Possible fault causes
(1) Poor grounding of pump motor.
(2) Overheat protection of system.
(3) Abnormality of pump motor power supply(fuse, battery terminal)
(4) Faults of pump motor relay.
(5) Faults of pump motor.
Diagnostic steps

Step Operation Yes No


Cool the vehicle for 5 minutes, and check whether its
1 - Perform Step 2.
faults are removed?
Perform the
2 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 3.
initial check.
Measure the voltage of power supply pins of pump motor
in connectors, and check the fuses, external relays,
3 connectors, wires and earth wires. Are the faults found Perform Step 5. Perform Step 4.
out and removed? For the definitions of pins, refer to the
circuit diagrams for detailed items.
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer to
Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of
4 Perform Step 5. -
confirming the damages of ABS, replace ABS. Is the
fault removed?
Stop the vehicle after increasing its speed up to 15km/h,
Completion of
5 re-diagnose it, and confirm whether the fault is -
diagnostic work
regenerated?

4.5 Wheel speed sensor wire


Fault codes: C003200; C00A000; C00A100; C00A900; C003500; C00A200; C00A300; C00AA00;
C003800; C00A400; C00A500; C00AB00; C003B00; C00A600; C00A700; C00AC00; C109904
Fault setting conditions
(1) ECU detects that the signal line of wheel speed sensor is shorted to ground.
Brake system 2F-41

(2) Open circuit of wheel speed sensor wire.


Possible fault causes
(1) Disconnection, loosened connection or fracture of wheel speed sensor wires.
(2) Reverse connection of wheel speed sensor signal line and power line.
(3) Short circuit of signal line to ground.
(4) Damages of sensor head or connection pin.
Diagnostic steps

Step Operation Yes No


Perform the
1 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 2.
initial check.
Check whether the wheel speed sensor is perfectly
connected. Check the open circuit or short circuit of wheel
2 speed sensor wires in the harness. Are the faults found out Perform Step 4. Perform Step 3.
and removed? For the definitions of pins, refer to the
circuit diagrams for detailed items.
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer to
3 Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of confirming Perform Step 4. -
the damages of ABS, replace ABS. Is the fault removed?
Stop the vehicle after increasing its speed up to 15km/h,
Completion of
4 re-diagnose it, and confirm whether the fault is -
diagnostic work
regenerated?

4.6 Faults of wheel speed sensor signals


Fault codes: C003108; C00A900; C003408; C00AA00; C003708; C00AB00; C003A08; C00AC00;
C109904
Fault setting conditions
(1) ECU detects that the signal line of wheel speed sensor is shorted to the power supply.
(2) ECU detects that the power line of wheel speed sensor is shorted to ground.
(3) Abnormal signals of wheel speed sensor.
Possible fault causes
(1) Disconnection, loosened connection or breakage of wheel speed sensor wires.
(2) The signal line of wheel speed sensor is shorted to the power supply.
(3) The power line of wheel speed sensor is shorted to ground.
(4) Non-installation of gear ring, loss of teeth, dirty gear ring, existence of strange substances,
demagnetizing, eccentric gear ring.
(5) Excessive air gap between the sensor and gear ring.
(6) External magnetic field interference of wheel speed sensor (demagnetizing failure of wheel or axle).
(7) Faults of wheel speed sensor body.
(8) Wrong number of gear ring teeth.
(9) Above-normed size of tire.
(10) Damages of ECU.
Diagnostic steps
Note:
Brake system 2F-42

1) For the faults of wheel speed sensor signals, after removing the faults, be sure to start the vehicle and
increase its speed up to about 15km/h, thus ABS warning lamp can go out.
2) Don’t measure the supply voltage from the wheel speed sensor to ECU. Once the open circuit of
wheel speed sensor exists, ECU will stop its power supply automatically, until its power supply is
recovered after the next ignition self-check.
4.7 ECU faults
Fault codes: C100004; C101008
Fault setting conditions
(1) ECU supply fault.
(2) Damages of ECU.
Possible fault causes
ECU faults
Diagnostic steps

Step Operation Yes No


Perform the initial
1 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 2.
check.
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer to
Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of
2 Perform Step 3. -
confirming the damages of ABS, replace ABS. Is the
fault removed?
Re-diagnose it, and confirm whether the fault is Completion of
3 -
regenerated? diagnostic work

4.8 Unreasonable control of ABS


Fault codes:C006B06
Fault setting conditions
ABS receives the command of continual operation (above 1 minute).
Possible fault causes
(1) Continual braking of ice.
(2) Overlarge wheel speed difference.
Diagnostic steps

Step Operation Yes No


Perform the
1 Is the initial check performed? Perform Step 2.
initial check.
Check the wheel speed sensor and gear ring. Are the
2 Perform Step 4. Perform Step 3.
faults removed?
Cross validation of ABS (for its detailed steps, refer to
Section “Removal and Installation”). In case of
Perform Step 4. -
3 confirming the damages of ECU, replace ABS. Is the
fault removed?
Re-diagnose it, and confirm whether the fault is Completion of
4 -
regenerated? diagnostic work
Brake system 2F-43

Removal and installation


I. Steps for removing ABS assembly
1. Make the ignition switch in OFF position, and disconnect the negative pole of battery.
2. Remove the wire from ABS assembly.
3. Step the brake pedal to bottom, fix it with a pedal support to prevent the brake fluid from flowing out
after removing the brake pipe from the brake master cylinder.
4. Remove the brake pipe, block the thread hole of ABS assembly and oil hole of brake pipe to avoid the
entry of impurities.
5. Take down ABS from the fixed support.
II. Installation steps of ABS assembly
1. Install ABS assembly on the support,and tighten it up to the torque of 8±2Nm.
2. Take down the plugs from ABS thread hole and brake pipe, connect the brake pipe into ABS assembly,
and tighten it up to the torque of 16±2Nm.
3. Add the brake fluid into fluid reservoir up to Max, and bleed it as per the specified method.
III. Cross validation
1. Remove ABS to install it on another vehicle with the same model and without faults (the oil pipe can’t
be installed, and only ECU plug is connected, but you must ensure that the plug can’t be loosened
while the vehicle is driving).
2. Drive the vehicle, ensure the vehicle speed is not below 20km/h, and activate the dynamic self-check
of ABS.
IV. Exhaust instructions
The hydraulic unit can be manually exhausted, and any of following three exahust procedures can be
selected during the repair:
1. Exhaust with a filling unit (exhaust pressure of 2bar).
2. Exhaust with a manual pedal.
3. Combined exhaustion of manual pedal and filling unit.
 After the customer replaces the brake system (e.g. replacement of brake fluid, brake pipe or hydraulic
unit), or the brake pedal is soft, it must be exhausted.
 The hydraulic unit replaced by the customer must be a filled ABS hydraulic regulator with ECU.
 During the exhaustion, be sure to ensure the complete structure of brake system, and all the high-
pressure hydraulic units have been connected.
 It’s required to pull the parking brake before exhausting it.
 The brake fluid is corrosive. If it’s affixed to the skin carelessly, it must be removed.
4.1 Exhaust with an exhaustion/filling unit (exhaust pressure of 2 bar).
Connect the exhaust/filling unit to the fluid reservoir, confirm that the brake fluid is enough to
A turn on the switch, and set its pressure to 2bar.

Open the bleed screw on the wheel cylinder, until all the air bubbles are drained.
B

Check the stroke of pedal.


C
Brake system 2F-44

If not successful, exhaust it again at each wheel.


D

Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum
E
values.

4.2 Manual pedal exhaustion


Fill up the fluid reservoir(up to the neck of filter)
A

Repeat the following procedures for each wheel cylinder. Air exhaustion sequence: left rear,
B left front, right front, right rear

Open the bleed screw.


C

Repeat stepping the brake pedal.


D

Close the exhaust screw.


E

Loosen the brake pedal.


F

Check the stroke of pedal.


G

If not successful, exhaust it again.


H

Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum
J
marks.

4.3 Combination of manual pedal exhaustion and 2 bar exhaustion


Connect the exhaust/filling unit to the fluid reservoir, confirm that the brake fluid is enough to
A turn on the switch, and set its pressure to 2bar.

Open the bleed screw on the wheel cylinder, until all the air bubbles are drained.
B Sequence: left rear, left front, right front, right rear

Repeat stepping the pedal back and forth.


B1

Check the stroke of pedal.


C

If not successful, exhaust it again at each wheel.


D

E Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum
Brake system 2F-45

values.

Remarks:
 Recommended sequence of X circuit: Left rear, left front,right front, right rear.
 In the whole exhaustion, the level of brake fluid in fluid reservoir can’t be below its lowest mark.

Technical parameters for repair

Vehicle type Haima M3


Models of brake fluid DOT4
Number of front axle gear ring teeth 43
Number of rear shaft gear ring teeth 44
Tire model 215/65 R16 or 215/60 R17
Spare tire model The same as model of tire
Brake system 2F-46

ESC system
Repair manual for Haima S5 ESC
Customer: Haima
Vehicle type: S5
Types of brake circuit arrangements: Arrangement of X circuit
Drive type: Front wheel drive
Communication type: CAN
Brake system 2F-47

Summary
I. Attentions
ESC is a part related to the safety. Therefore, the
following attentions for diagnosis must be also
followed in addition to general safety and
preventive measures during its repair diagnosis.
1. ESC system must be repaired by trained and
skilled technicians, and can be replaced only by
the original part.
2. Before diagnosing ESC system, if the
fundamental brake system has any fault, first
remove it, e.g.:
● Brake system noises
● Overhard brake pedal.
● During the common braking operation,the
brake pedal or vehicle vibrates.
● Runout of vehicle brake.
● Faults of parking brake system
3. ESC assembly (e.g. ESC electronic control unit
and hydraulic regulator assembly, excluding
the brake pipe, sensor or other auxiliary
devices) can be only replaced as a whole, and
can’t be disassembled for check or partially
replaced/interchanged. Bosch doesn’t supply
any separate spare part, and doesn’t guarantee
the disassembled ESC assembly, and undertake
no responsibility for bad consequences caused
after disassembling or partially
replacing/interchanging ESC hydraulic
regulator.
4. The following two cases indicate that ESC
system detects the faults:
● After turning on the ignition switch, the self-
check of system is finished, and the warning
lamp keeps lightened.
● While the vehicle is driving, the warning lamp
keeps constantly on.
At this time, the driver can apply the regular braking
operation, but he should try his best to reduce the
applied braking force, and prevent the wheel from
locking. After the warning lamp goes on, it’s
required to drive carefully and go to the special
service station immediately for repair, so as to avoid
the occurrence of more accidents, otherwise it will
lead to the traffic accidents.
5. The following points need to be attentioned
while connecting ESC sensor wires:
● Before pulling down ESC wire and sensor
wire, be sure to disconnect the ignition switch.
Brake system 2F-48

● Ensure the drying and cleanness of


connector,and avoid the entry of any strange
substance .
● The connectors of ESC wires must be installed
in position in horizontal and vertical directions
to avoid their damages.
6. While connecting ESC brake pipe, be sure
to ensure its correct installation. ESC ECU can’t
judge whether the brake pipes are correctly
connected. Any wrong connection may lead to the
serious accident. During the connection of brake
pipe, be sure to follow the mark on ESC assembly:
● MC1:connect the brake master cylinder brake
pipe 1;
● MC2:connect the brake master cylinder brake
pipe 2;
● FL:connect the brake pipe of left front wheel
brake wheel cylinder;
● FR:connect the brake pipe of right front wheel
brake wheel cylinder;
● RL:connect the brake pipe of left rear wheel
brake wheel cylinder;
● RR:connect the brake pipe of right rear wheel
brake wheel cylinder.
7. ESC will produce the noises in the following
cases:
● After the speed of vehicle is increased up to
30km/h, it will produce a short sound of
“buzz”, this is a sound of starting the return
pump motor during ESC self-check, which is a
normal phenomenon.
● ESC will produce the noises during the normal
operation, which is mainly reflected by the
following aspects:
1) Action sound of motor, solenoid valve and
return pump in ESC hydraulic unit.
2) Sound caused by the bounce of brake pedal.
3) Impact sound of suspension and body caused
by emergency braking operation.

II. Initial check


Before the diagnosis of ESC system, first check its
parts, which may cause the faults of ESC system
and be easy to contact, their visual check and
appearance check procedures can determine the
faults quickly, thus their further diagnosis need’s be
diagnosed.
1. Ensure that only the tires and hubs with
recommended sizes are installed on the
Brake system 2F-49

vehicle.The patterns and depths of tires on the


same shaft must be the same. For the details of
tire models, please refer to the operating
instructions for vehicle.
2. Check ESC hydraulic regulator, brake pipe and
connections for leakage.
3. Check the fuses of ESC system ensure that no
fuses are burnt and their models are correct.
ESC system has three fuses separately:
● Pump motor fuse (40A)
● Solenoid valve fuse (25A)
Apply the seal gum to the exposed end of wire, and
● Electronic control unit fuse (10A) adopt the shrinkable tube gland.
4. Check the voltage of battery, and check
whether the battery terminals are corroded or
loosened.
Ignition
Normal operating voltage range of ESC system is coil/ignition
9.3V-16.8V. wire/spark plug
Gear ring
5. Check whether the bonding point of ESC earth
wire is loosened, and whether its earthed Generator
position is changed.
6. ESC earth wire must have good sealing ability Wheel speed sensor
to prevent the water or moisture from
penetrating into ESC ECU joint through the
hole of wire due to capillary effect (siphon),
thus it can lead to the failure of its function.
Adopted measures: apply the seal gum to
exposed ends of wire, and adopt the shrinkable
tube gland.
7. Apply the visual checks and appearance checks
Hydroplaning
of the following electric parts: Hydroplaning

● Whether the wires and connectors of relevant


ESC system parts are correctly connected, Water line

jammed or slashed. Don’t cling.

● The wires shall be arranged near to high-


voltage or high-current device, e.g.high-voltage
power or part, generator, motor, and
stereophonic amplifier attached after sale.
Note: the high-voltage or high-current device may
make the circuit produce the sensing noises, thus it
will disturb the normal operation of circuit.
● ESC parts are very sensitive for
electromagnetic interference(EMI). In case of
suspecting the intermittent faults, check
whether the thief-proof devices, lamps or
mobile telephones attached after sale are
correctly installed.
8. ESC is an active safety system. Its main
purpose is to adopt the maximum ground
adhering moment, and keep the steer ability of
vehicle and drive stability. However, in case of
Brake system 2F-50

exceeding its physical limit or driving on the


wet and slippery road at high speed, ESC can’t
prevent the vehicle from slipping fully, too.
9. In case of too much noise of ESC, it may be
caused by the following cases:
● Loosened fixation of ESC assembly and
support.
● Loosened fixation of ESC support and vehicle
body.
● Loss or damages of plastic washers on ESC
support.
Brake system 2F-51

Introduction of ESC system


I. Composition of ESC system
As shown in the figure below, ESC charged by the hydraulic control unit module, airbag ECU and various
sensors. ESC control program, the yaw rate sensor is integrated in the airbag ECU, each of the wheel speed
signal through a hard line, the steering angle signal is input to the airbag ECU via CAN line, hydraulic
control unit ECU receives signals internal airbag ECU via CAN line .

II. Hydraulic diagram for ESC


The brake system of this vehicle is arranged in X shape. As shown in the figure below, ESC hydraulic
regulator includes a motor, two return pumps, two energy accumulators and twelve solenoid valves.
Brake system 2F-52

The following meanings of English abbreviations in Fig.:

MC1 First circuit of brake master cylinder FLAV Left front wheel outlet valve
MC2 Second circuit of brake master FREV Right front wheel inlet valve
cylinder
M Motor FRAV Right front wheel outlet valve
RP1 Return pump 1 RLEV Left rear wheel inlet valve
RP2 Return pump 2 RLAV Left rear wheel outlet valve
A1 Energy accumulator 1 RREV Right rear wheel inlet valve
A2 Energy accumulator 2 RRAV Right rear wheel outlet valve
FL Left front wheel HSV1 High-pressure valve 1
FR Right front wheel HSV2 High-pressure valve 2
RL Left rear wheel USV1 Guide valve 1
RR Right rear wheel USV2 Guide valve 2
FLEV Left front wheel inlet valve P/U Pressure gauge
Brake system 2F-53

III. Haima S5 ESC interface circuit


3.1 ECU circuit diagram
Brake system 2F-54

3.2 Definitions of ECU pins


1. Airbag ECU
Brake system 2F-55

2. Hydraulic unit ECU


Brake system 2F-56
Brake system 2F-57

Fault diagnosis
I. Diagnostic flow
1 The vehicle enters into the repair factory.

2 Analysis of customers’ problems

3 Reading of fault codes

Faults Go to Step 4

No faults Go to Step 6

4 Record the fault codes, and then remove the fault codes.

Certification and reproduction of faults: ignite to start the vehicle again, accelerate the vehicle
5
speed up to 15km/h, and read the faults again.

Faults Go to Step 7

No faults Go to Step 8

6 For the faults without fault codes, repair and go to Step 9.

7 Remove the faults as per the list of fault codes, and then go to Step 9.

8 For the occassional fault, repair and then go to Step 9.

9 Confirm the removal of faults.

10 Avoid the regeneration of faults.

Conclusion
Brake system 2F-58

II. For the faults without fault codes, repair it.


If the faults occur to the brake system, but ESC has no stored fault codes, and this fault is called as a fault
without fault codes. The fault without fault codes is generally caused by basic faults of brake system. E.g.:
 Leakage of brake fluid (it may cause the softening of brake, overlong stroke of brake pedal, and even
serious failure of brake)
 Application of poor brake fluid(the use of poor brake fluid will corrode the brake pipe and elements
inside ESC hydraulic control module, and lead to the serious failure of brake)
 Existence of air in brake pipe (it may cause the softening of brake and even brake failure)
 Blockage of brake pipe (it may cause the hardening of brake and even brake failure)
 Excessive wears of brake disc (it may cause the softening of brake and overlong stroke of brake pedal)
 Faults of booster (it may cause the hardening or softening of brake, overlong stroke of brake pedal and
even still brake failure seriously)
 Wrong connection of brake pipe (it may cause the reduction of ESC performances, whipping and long
braking distance,etc. For the correct installation methods, please refer to the marks near to oil holes in
ESC hydraulic control module: MC1 stands for #1 master cylinder oil pipe; MC2 stands for #2 master
cylinder oil pipe; FL stands for left front wheel cylinder oil pipe; FR stands for right front wheel
cylinder oil pipe; RL stands for left rear wheel cylinder oil pipe; RR stands for right rear wheel
cylinder oil pipe)
Note: no power or power failure of ESC will lead to the constant illumination of ABS and ESC warning
lamps, but it has no fault codes. Suggestions for fault removal: check the corresponding parts as per the
fault symptoms, and remove the faults as per the vehicle maintenance manual.
III. Repair of occasional faults
In the electronic system, the instant poor contact may appear in the electric circuit and input/output signals,
thus it may cause the occasional faults. Sometimes, the fault causes will disappear automatically, so it’s not
easy to check these problems. In case of meeting the occasional faults, first read the historical fault codes
with a diagnostic unit, check the conditions related to fault codes, simulate the faults as per the following
modes, and check whether the faults are regenerated.

Possible causes
S/N Simulated faults Remarks
of faults
If the wire is twisted off or broken
due to its excessive tension, it
● Shake hydraulic unit ECU connector must be renewed.
lightly up, down, left or right.
The wheel speed sensor wire will
● Shake ESC wire lightly up, down, become shortly open-
When the left or right.
1 vibration may be circuited/short-circuited due to
a major cause ● Shake the sensor lightly up, down, upward/downward movement of
left or right. suspension system during the
● Shake other moving parts(e.g. wheel movement of vehicle. Therefore,
bearing) lightly. the actual driving test of vehicle
must be performed while
checking the sensor wires.
● Heat the parts with possible faults
When the with an air blower.
temperature may
2 be a major cause ● Check them for cold welding with
cold spraying agent.
When the ● Turn on all the switches of electric
excessive appliances, including the lamp and
3
electricity load wiper, to make the power supply of
may be a major vehicle work at high load.
Brake system 2F-59

cause

If no faults is regenerated at this time, it must be diagnosed and repaired until the regeneration of faults.
Generally speaking, the occasional accident will become gradually a regenerable fault, and can’t disappear
automatically.
IV. Analysis of fault codes
4.1 List of fault codes
DTC Code Descriptions
Internal software fault, failure to invoke the diagnostic event. The appearance of this
C101E-F2 DTC indicates the fault in module software. Contact the professionals of Haima for
solutions.
The main CAN network is disabled. Check the connections of pins A31 and A32 of the
U0064-88
DCU if only the communications for DCU and ESC are unavailable.
The main CAN network is suspended. Check the connections of pins A31 and A32 of the
U0065-88
DCU if only the communications for DCU and ESC are unavailable.
The received serial data is invalid. For a CAN message segment, the length is not
U0064-81 matched with the frame size. Check if the module software is matched with the
hardware.
For the failure of establishment of CAN communication, check the connections of the
U0064-87 pins A31 and A32 of the DCU. Replace the DCU or the ESC modules for the failure of
troubleshooting.
Internal fault of ESC. Pressure failure feedback from the left front oil path. Check the
C0046-F0
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Pressure failure feedback from the right front oil path. Check the
C0046-F1
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Pressure failure feedback from the left rear oil path. Check the
C0046-F2
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Pressure failure feedback from the right rear oil path. Check the
C0046-F3
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Compression failure from the left front oil path. Check the status
C0010-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Compression failure from the right front oil path. Check the status
C0014-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Compression failure from the left rear oil path. Check the status of
C0018-F0
the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Compression failure from the right rear oil path. Check the status
C001C-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Decompression failure from the left front oil path. Check the status
C0011-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Decompression failure from the right front oil path. Check the
C0015-F0
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Decompression failure from the left rear oil path. Check the status
C0019-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Decompression failure from the right rear oil path. Check the
C001D-F0
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure at left front oil charging pipe. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-00
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure at right front oil charging pipe. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-01
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure at left rear oil charging pipe. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-02
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure at right rear oil charging pipe. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-03
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure of upper limit of pressure at the left front oil path. Check
C1000-04
the status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Brake system 2F-60

Internal fault of ESC. Failure of upper limit of pressure at the right front oil path. Check
C1000-05
the status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure of upper limit of pressure at the left rear oil path. Check the
C1000-06
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Pressure failure feedback from the right rear oil path. Check the
C1000-07
status of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Compression failure at BMF pipeline. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-08
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal fault of ESC. Isolation failure at BMF pipeline. Check the status of the ESC
C1000-09
module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Shorted to ground awaken by ESC. Check the statuses of the ESC module and harness.
C1000-0B
Check pin 31 of the ESC module and pin B9 of the DCU.
Shorted to battery awaken by ESC. Check the statuses of the ESC module and harness.
C1000-0C
Check pin 31 of the ESC module and pin B9 of the DCU.
Power supply of ESC module out of normal scope of operation. Check the battery and
C1000-0D
starter.
Internal fault of ESC. Failure of pressure feedback from main cylinder. Check the status
C0044-F0
of the ESC module. Replace the ESC module if necessary.
Internal software/logic fault. Logic failure in ESC module. Detect the CAN
communication connection of the ESC module (pins 13 and 24 of ESC module; pins A29
C1000-F1
and A30 of DCU module). Replace the ESC module or rewrite the program for the
failure of troubleshooting.
Internal electrical failure. Power supply of speed sensor higher than normal scope of
C006C-17
working voltage. Replace the DCU module.
Internal electrical failure. Power supply of wheel speed sensor lower than normal scope
C006C-16
of working voltage. Replace the DCU module.
Left front wheel speed sensor shorted to ground. Check pins B6 and B7 of the DCU
C0032-11
module.
Left front wheel speed sensor shorted or battery shorted. Check pins B6 and B7 of the
C0032-15
DCU module.
Right front wheel speed sensor shorted to ground. Check pins B15 and B16 of the DCU
C0035-11
module.
Right front wheel speed sensor shorted or battery shorted. Check pins B15 and B16 of
C0035-15
the DCU module.
Left rear wheel speed sensor shorted to ground. Check pins B17 and B18 of the DCU
C0038-11
module.
Left rear wheel speed sensor shorted or battery shorted. Check pins B17 and B18 of the
C0038-15
DCU module.
Right rear wheel speed sensor shorted to ground. Check pins B19 and B20 of the DCU
C003B-11
module.
Right rear wheel speed sensor shorted or battery shorted. Check pins B19 and B20 of the
C003B-15
DCU module.
C0089-12 ESC on/off button shorted to battery, check pin B2 of the DCU module.
C008A-12 Reverse signal shorted to battery, check pin A25 of the DCU module.
C0089-13 ESC on/off button opened, check pin B2 of the DCU module.
C008A-13 Reverse signal opened, check pin A25 of the DCU module.
C0089-11 ESC on/off button shorted to ground, check pin B2 of the DCU module.
C008A-11 Reverse signal shorted to ground, check pin A25 of the DCU module.
C0089-02 ESC on/off button failure, check status of switch and pin B2 of the DCU module.
C008A-02 Reverse signal failure, check status of switch and pin A25 of the DCU module.
ESC on/off button configuration failure. Check if the parts or software installed are
C0089-4A
incorrect.
Reverse signal configuration failure. Check if the parts or software installed are
C008A-4A
incorrect.
C0089-2B Electricity leakage in ESC on/off switch, check pin B2 of the DCU module.
Brake system 2F-61

C008A-2B Electricity leakage in reverse signal switch, check pin A25 of the DCU module.
Check steering wheel angle sensor and steering wheel assembling. For the deviation in
C0051-F0
the steering wheel angle sensor, set to zero again.
C0051-F2 Check steering wheel angle sensor and steering wheel assembling.
C0061-F1 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0061-F2 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0061-F3 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0062-F1 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0062-F2 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0062-F3 Abnormity in heading angle sensor acceleration signal, replace the DCU module.
C0069-FA Heading angle sensor value off the specification requirements, replace the DCU module.
C0069-FB Abnormity in heading angle signal of heading angle sensor, replace the DCU module.
C0069-FC Abnormity in heading angle signal of heading angle sensor, replace the DCU module.
Zero wheel speed feedback from left front wheel speed sensor, check the installation of
C0031-F1
the wheel speed sensor.
Zero wheel speed feedback from right front wheel speed sensor, check the installation of
C0034-F1
the wheel speed sensor.
Zero wheel speed feedback from left rear wheel speed sensor, check the installation of
C0037-F1
the wheel speed sensor.
Zero wheel speed feedback from right rear wheel speed sensor, check the installation of
C003A-F1
the wheel speed sensor.
Abnormal wheel speed feedback from left front wheel speed sensor, check the
C0031-F2
installation of the wheel speed sensor.
Abnormal wheel speed feedback from right front wheel speed sensor, check the
C0034-F2
installation of the wheel speed sensor.
Abnormal wheel speed feedback from left rear wheel speed sensor, check the installation
C0037-F2
of the wheel speed sensor.
Abnormal wheel speed feedback from right rear wheel speed sensor, check the
C003A-F2
installation of the wheel speed sensor.
C1000-14 Sensor out of the range, replace the ESC module.
Check if the brake pedal is returned to position, if so and still under the failure, the
C0044-F2
sensor may be out of the range, then replace the ESC module.
Check if the brake pedal is returned to position, if so and still under the failure, the
C0044-F3
sensor may be out of the range, then replace the ESC module.
C0040-F0 Check the brake switch
C0040-F1 Check the brake switch
C1000-0A Poor contact awaken by ESC, check pin B9 of the DCU and pin 31 of the ESC.
For the inability to check the communication of the ESC module, check pins A29, A30
C1000-F4
and B9 of the DCU, and pins 1, 2, 13, 24, 25, 26 and 31 of the ESC.
For the abnormity in CAN communication of the ESC, check pins 13 and 24 of the ESC
C1000-F0
and pins A29 and A30 of the DCU.
C1000-F2 Check pins 13 and 24 of the ESC, and pins A29 and A30 of the DCU.
Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the EMS
U0100-62
module.
Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the EMS
U0100-F3
module.
Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the EMS
U0100-F4
module.
Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the EMS
U0100-F5
module.
Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the steering
U0126-62
wheel steering angle sensor.
U0126-01 Failure in steering wheel steering angle sensor, replace the sensor.
U0402-62 Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the TCU module.
Brake system 2F-62

U0402-F0 Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the TCU module.
U0402-F1 Signal match failure, DCU has detected the invalid signal sent out from the TCU module.
Check the caliper at the left front wheel, if so and still under the failure, replace the DCU
C0031-F0
module.
Check the caliper at the right front wheel, if so and still under the failure, replace the
C0034-F0
DCU module.
Check the caliper at the left rear wheel, if so and still under the failure, replace the DCU
C0037-F0
module.
Check the caliper at the right rear wheel, if so and still under the failure, replace the DCU
C003A-F0
module.
C0031-F3 Check if the dimension of the left front tire is off the specification.
C0034-F3 Check if the dimension of the right front tire is off the specification.
C0037-F3 Check if the dimension of the left rear tire is off the specification.
C003A-F3 Check if the dimension of the right rear tire is off the specification.
C0031-F4 Check if the dimension of the left front tire is off the specification.
C0034-F4 Check if the dimension of the right front tire is off the specification.

C0037-F4 Check if the dimension of the left rear tire is off the specification.

C003A-F4 Check if the dimension of the right rear tire is off the specification.
C0044-F1 Sensor out of the range, replace the ESC module.
Check the statuses of caliper of left front wheel, tread pattern, wheel speed sensor and
C1000-0E
basic braking system. If there is no abnormity, replace the ESC module.
Check the statuses of caliper of right front wheel, tread pattern, wheel speed sensor and
C1000-0F
basic braking system. If there is no abnormity, replace the ESC module.
Check the statuses of caliper of left rear wheel, tread pattern, wheel speed sensor and
C1000-10
basic braking system. If there is no abnormity, replace the ESC module.
Check the statuses of caliper of right rear wheel, tread pattern, wheel speed sensor and
C1000-11
basic braking system. If there is no abnormity, replace the ESC module.
ESC on/off button may not be returned since being blocked, if not and still under the
C1000-15
failure, check the pin B2 of the DCU module.
C1000-16 TCU module has no response to request for ice road mode.
C0051-54 No zero calibration for the steering wheel steering angle sensor.
Failure to detect the communication of steering wheel steering angle sensor, check if this
U0126-87
sensor has been installed or connected.
U0101-87 Failure to detect TCU communication, check if TCU has been installed or connected.
U0101-F0 Failure to detect TCU communication, check if TCU has been installed or connected.
U0101-F1 Failure to detect TCU communication, check if TCU has been installed or connected.
U0100-87 Failure to detect EMS communication, check if EMS has been installed or connected.
U0100-F0 Failure to detect EMS communication, check if EMS has been installed or connected.
U0100-F1 Failure to detect EMS communication, check if EMS has been installed or connected.
U0100-F2 Failure to detect EMS communication, check if EMS has been installed or connected.
Failure to detect communication of dashboard, check if dashboard has been installed or
U0155-87
connected.
C1000-F3 ESC module is not matched with the software of the DCU module.
B0051-52 No online zero calibration for the steering wheel angle sensor.
Brake system 2F-63

required to check whether the installation


4.2 ECU supply fault
position of ESC is horizontal and tight. ESC
Possible fault causes support can’t be applied for installing any
other device.
(1) Overhigh or overlow voltage of battery;
4.5 Wheel speed sensor circuit faults
(2) Poor grounding of body.
Possible fault causes
Repair and diagnostic methods
(1) Disconnection, loosened connection or
(1) Measure the voltage of battery, and charge the
fracture of wheel speed sensor wires.
battery if necessary (standard voltage of 9. 3V
to 16. 8V); (2) Reverse connection of wheel speed sensor
signal line and power line.
(2) Check two ground points of ESC, including
ground point of ESC electronic control unit (3) Short circuit of signal line to ground.
and ground point of return pump motor;
Repair and diagnostic methods
(3) Start all the high-power electric appliances on
(1) Check whether any wheel speed sensor wire
the vehicle, and measure the supply voltage of
is opened or shorted;
ESC, because its power supply may be
insufficient at high electricity load; (2) Check whether any wheel speed sensor wire
connector is loosened or broken;
(4) Measure the voltage fluctuation produced by
turning on or off the high-power electric (3) Check whether the power line and signal line
appliance during the start of vehicle. Any of wheel speed sensor are reversely connected;
potential fault of electrical appliance may lead
(4) Increase the speed of vehicle up to 30km/h to
to the substantial voltage fluctuation of supply
perform the dynamic self-check of ESC
circuit.
system;
4.3 ECU fault
(5) If the fault can’t be still removed after
Possible fault causes finishing its dynamic self-check, replace the
wheel speed sensor.
Damages of ECU.
4.6 Wheel speed sensor signal fault
Repair and diagnostic methods
Possible fault causes
(1) Replace ESC assembly, and exhaust the brake
pipe. (1) The wheel speed sensor wire is bent, and its
connector is loosened or broken;
4.4 Abnormality of brake system (overlong
action time of ABS/ESC) (2) The wheel speed sensor signal line is shorted
to the power supply;
Possible fault causes
(3) The wheel speed sensor power line is shorted
(1) Continual violent driving or long-time
to ground;
continual application of brake;
(4) Non-installation of gear ring, loss of teeth,
(2) Incorrect signals of wheel speed sensor;
dirty gear ring, existence of strange
(3) Abnormal signals of steering angle angle substances, demagnetizing, eccentric gear
sensor and yaw velocity sensor. ring.
Repair and diagnostic methods (5) Excessive air gap between the sensor and gear
ring.
(1) Read the data flow of wheel speed sensor
with a diagnostic unit, and observe whether (6) External magnetic field interference of wheel
any wheel speed is constantly overhigh or speed sensor (demagnetizing failure of wheel
overlow; or axle).
(2) Start to test the vehicle in figure eight (7) Faults of wheel speed sensor body.
inclination, turn the steering angle fully to left
(8) Wrong number of gear ring teeth.
or right during the test, and read the fault code
again; (9) Above-normed size of tire.
(3) If no faults related to steering angle angle Repair and diagnostic methods
sensor or yaw velocity sensor occur, it’s
(1) Check whether the wire of wheel speed sensor
Brake system 2F-64

is bent; Possible fault causes


(2) Check whether each connector of wheel speed (1) Incorrect installation position of yaw velocity
sensor wire is loosened or broken; sensor; (be sure to ensure that the sensor
keeps in horizontal position on the vehicle
(3) Check whether the wire of wheel speed sensor
body);
is shorted to power supply or ground;
(2) Incorrect calibration of yaw velocity sensor;
(4) Check whether the wheel speed sensor is
correctly fixed; (3) Damages of yaw velocity sensor.
(5) Read the data flow of wheel speed sensor Repair and diagnostic methods
with a diagnostic unit, record whether each
(1) Adjust the installation position of yaw
wheel speed is consistent with its acceleration
velocity sensor, and check whether its fixing
speed during the travel of vehicle, and
position is bent or worn;
whether the shown vehicle speed is correct;
(2) Re-calibrate the yaw velocity sensor;
(6) If the inconsistency of shown wheel speeds
occurs, and check the gear ring of (3) Replace the yaw velocity sensor.
corresponding wheel speed sensor signal for
4.10 CAN bus faults
lost teeth, dirts or strange substances,
demagnetizing or eccentricity; Possible fault causes
(7) After repairing the wheel speed sensor, it’s (1) Overhigh or overlow voltage of battery
required to increase the speed of vehicle up to (standard voltage of 9V to 16V);
at least 30km/h for dynamic self-check of
(2) Faults of CAN bus network;
ESC system;
(3) Damages of ECU.
(8) If the fault can’t be still removed after
finishing its dynamic self-check, replace the Repair and diagnostic methods
wheel speed sensor.
(1) Measure the voltage of battery, and charge it
4.7 Pressure sensor fault if necessary;
Possible fault causes (2) Check CAN bus and each of its nodes;
(1) Fault of brake lamp switch or its circuit; (3) Replace ESC assembly, and exhaust the brake
pipe.
(2) Fault of pressure gauge.
4.11 Faults of steering angle sensor
Repair and diagnostic methods
Possible fault causes
(1) Check whether the brake lamp switch and its
circuit are normal; (1) Incorrect calibration of steering angle sensor;
(2) Replace ESc assembly, and exhaust the brake (2) Steering angle sensor circuit fault;
pipe.
(3) Loosening or breakage of steering angle
4.8 Fault of brake lamp switch (BLS) sensor plug;
Possible fault causes (4) Damages of steering angle sensor.
(1) Open circuit or short circuit of brake lamp Repair and diagnostic methods
switch wire;
(1) Cancel the calibration of steering angle sensor,
(2) Wrong installation of brake lamp switch; and re-calibrate it;
(3) Damages of brake lamp switch. (2) Check the wires of steering angle sensor;
Repair and diagnostic methods (3) Check and re-insert the steering angle sensor
plug;
(1) Check the brake lamp switch and its wire;
(4) Replace the steering angle sensor.
(2) Replace the brake lamp switch.
4.12 Faults of CAN bus nodes
4.9 Faults of yaw velocity sensor
Possible fault causes
The yaw velocity sensor includes three
signals of lateral acceleration, vertical (1) Interruption of CAN bus communication;
acceleration and yaw velocity.
Brake system 2F-65

(2) Poor power supply of CAN bus nodes; (4) Increase the speed of vehicle up to at least
30km/h for dynamic self-check of ESC
(3) Faults of CAN bus nodes(disengaged from
system;
CAN bus or ECU fault).
(5) If the fault can’t be still removed after
Repair and diagnostic methods
finishing its dynamic self-check, replace ESC
(1) Check whether CAN bus communication is assembly, and exhaust the brake pipe.
normal;
4.15 Return pump motor fault
(2) Turn off the ignition switch, measure the
Possible fault causes
resistance from each CAN bus node to ESC
of CAN-H and CAN-L lines;(standard value: (1) Overheat protection of system;
below 5Ω;)
(2) Poor power supply of pump motor(low supply
(3) Measure the resistance between CAN-H and voltage, damages of fuse or poor contact);
CAN-L lines from the connector of each CAN
(3) Poor grounding of pump motor;
node (keep the connection of plug); (standard
value: 60Ω); (4) Damages of pump motor.
(4) Check the power supply of each CAN bus Repair and diagnostic methods
node;
(1) After cooling it for 10 min, read the fault
(5) Read the fault codes of each node of CAN bus, codes again;
and carry out the corresponding check as per
(2) Check the power line of pump motor, fuse
the fault codes.
and power voltage;
4.13 Faults of solenoid valve
(3) Adopt a 21W test lamp to measure the voltage
Possible fault causes drop between ESC connector pump motor
power pin and battery positive pole; (standard
(1) Overheat protection of system;
value: below 0.2V);
(2) Damages of ESCelectronic control unit.
(4) Adopt a 21W test lamp to measure the voltage
Repair and diagnostic methods drop between ESC connector pump motor
ground pin and body ground point; (standard
(1) After cooling the vehicle for 10min, read the
value: below 0.2V);
fault codes again;
(5) Increase the speed of vehicle up to at least
(2) Replace ESC assembly, and exhaust the brake
30km/h for dynamic self-check of ESC
pipes.
system;
4.14 Fault of solenoid valve relay
(6) If the fault can’t be still removed after
Possible fault causes finishing its dynamic self-check, replace ESC
assembly, and exhaust the brake pipe.
(1) Poor power supply of solenoid valve(low
supply voltage, damages or poor contact of 4.16 ESC OFF switch fault
fuse);
Possible fault causes
(2) Poor grounding of ESC electronic control unit;
(1) ESC OFF switch is pressed by the articles;
(3) Damages of ESC electronic control unit.
(2) Damages of ESC OFF switch or its circuit.
Repair and diagnostic methods
Repair and diagnostic methods
(1) Check the supply wire of valve relay, fuse and
(1) Turn off ESC OFF switch manually, and
power voltage;
restart ESP functions;
(2) Adopt a 21W test lamp to measure the voltage
(2) Check ESC OFF switch.
drop between ESC connector valve relay
power pin and battery positive pole; (standard 4.17 ESC Errors of configuration information
value: below 0.2V);
Possible fault causes
(3) Adopt a 21W test lamp to measure the voltage
(1) No configuration information is written in;
drop between ESC connector ESC ECU
ground pin and body ground point; (standard (2) Non-matching of configuration information.
value: below 0.2V);
Repair and diagnostic methods
Brake system 2F-66

Write in the correct configuration information with avoid the entry of impurities.
a diagnostic unit.
5. Take down ESC from the fixed support.
4.18 Abnormality of hand brake/clutch/reverse II. Installation steps of ESC assembly
gear signals
1. Install ESC assembly on the support,and
Possible fault causes tighten it up to the torque of 8±2Nm.
(1) Abnormality of hand brake signals; 2. Take down the plugs from ESC thread hole
(2) Faults of clutch switch; and brake pipe, connect the brake pipe into
ESC assembly, and tighten it up to the torque
(3) Abnormality of clutch signals; of 16±2Nm.
(4) Open circuit or short circuit of clutch signal 3. Add the brake fluid into fluid reservoir up to
line; Max, and bleed it as per the specified method.
(5) Abnormality of reverse gear signals; 4. After replacing ESC assembly, be sure to
(6) Open circuit or short circuit of reverse gear write in its configuration information(if any).
signal line; 5. After replacing ESC assembly, be sure to
Repair and diagnostic methods calibrate the steering angle sensor and yaw
velocity.
(1) Check the hand brake signal line; III. Exhaust instructions
(2) Check the clutch switch; ● After the customer replaces the brake system
(3) Check the clutch signal line; (e.g. replacement of brake fluid, brake pipe or
hydraulic unit), or the brake pedal is soft, it
(4) Check the reverse gear signal line. must be exhausted.
Removal and installation ● The hydraulic unit replaced by the customer
must be a filled ESC hydraulic regulator with
I. Steps for removing ESC assembly ECU.
1. Make the ignition switch in OFF position, and ● During the exhaustion, be sure to ensure the
disconnect the negative pole of battery. complete structure of brake system, and all
2. Remove the wire from ESC assembly. the high-pressure hydraulic units have been
connected.
3. Step the brake pedal to bottom, fix it with a
pedal support to prevent the brake fluid from ● It’s required to pull the parking brake before
flowing out after removing the brake pipe exhausting it.
from the brake master cylinder. ● The brake fluid is corrosive. If it’s affixed to
4. Remove the brake pipe, block the thread hole the skin carelessly, it must be removed.
of ESC assembly and oil hole of brake pipe to
Brake system 2F-67

3.1 Exhaust with an exhaustion/filling unit (exhaust pressure of 2 bar).


Connect the exhaust/filling unit to the fluid reservoir, confirm that the brake fluid is enough to turn on
A the switch, and set its pressure to 2bar.

Open the bleed screw on the wheel cylinder, until all the air bubbles are drained.
B Sequence: left rear, left front, right front, right rear

Check the stroke of pedal.


C

If not successful, exhaust it again at each wheel.


D

E Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum values.

3.2 Manual pedal exhaustion


Fill up the fluid reservoir(up to the neck of filter)
A

Repeat the following procedures for each wheel cylinder. Air exhaustion sequence: left rear, left
B front, right front, right rear

Open the bleed screw.


C

Repeat stepping the brake pedal.


D

Close the exhaust screw.


E

Loosen the brake pedal.


F

Check the stroke of pedal.


G

If not successful, exhaust it again.


H

J Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum marks.
Brake system 2F-68

3.3 Combination of manual pedal exhaustion and 2 bar exhaustion


Connect the exhaust/filling unit to the fluid reservoir, confirm that the brake fluid is enough to turn on
A the switch, and set its pressure to 2bar.

Open the bleed screw on the wheel cylinder, until all the air bubbles are drained.
B Sequence: left rear, left front, right front, right rear

Repeat stepping the pedal back and forth.


B1

Check the stroke of pedal.


C

If not successful, exhaust it again at each wheel.


D

E Check the level of brake fluid, and ensure that it’s between the maximum and minimum values.

Remarks:
● Recommended sequence of X circuit: Left rear, left front,right front, right rear.
● In the whole exhaustion, the level of brake fluid in fluid reservoir can’t be below its lowest mark.
● In case of repeating a phase or whole exhaustion, be sure to wait for 5min, so as to make the solenoid
valve cooled, otherwise the solenoid valve may be damaged due to overheat.
IV. Instructions for calibrating the integrated inertial sensor (ESC system)
ESC system integrates the yaw velocity sensor, so it has high-level precision requirements for
installation.Its installation tolerance must be below ±5° during the replacement, otherwise it can’t be
calibrated.

Calibration of integrated inertial sensor


Operator Test bench/test device

Turn the steering angle directly in front, and make Offset calibration for integrated inertial sensor
the vehicle in straight travel position on the test
device.
Preconditions for offset calibration of sensor
• The maximum inclination angle must be within the allowable range (it must be met in two alignment
directions, and refer to the figure below for details).
• The test bench must be static.
• Turn the steering angle directly in front.
• Correct tire pressure
• Normal loading conditions
• Allowed for low capacity of vehicle oil tank
• The vehicle is supported by its self wheels.
• Only one driver must be seated inside the vehicle.
• Any additional interference, e.g.door closing or engine cover closing, is not allowed.
Brake system 2F-69

• The calibration can be performed on the hub tester or flat area.


Remarks
EEPROM of delivered ESC has stored the preset offset values. During the calibration, ECU will write
the measured new data into EEPROM, and deliver them for the use of ESC. ESC can’t confirm the
above-mentioned preconditions, so the customer must ensure the validity of above calibration conditions.
If its offset value is too high, the system will reject its calibration, and the vehicle must be repaired at this
time. IIS calibration must be performed during the replacement of ESC.
Side view of vehicle (IIS calibration)

Please note the maximum


allowable inclination angle
during IIS calibration!
0.57°(1%)

Side view of vehicle (IIS calibration)

Please note the maximum


allowable inclination angle
during IIS calibration!
0.57°(1%)

Technical parameters for repair


Vehicle type S5
Models of brake fluid DOT4
Number of front shaft gear ring teeth 43
Number of rear shaft gear ring teeth 44
Tire model 215/65 R16 or 215/60 R17