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age

Sentences, Paragraphs,

and Compositions

Skills Practice for


Chapters 9-11

• Student Worksheets
• Writer's Reference Sheets
• AnswerKey

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Teachers using ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE may photocopy blackline masters in
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Printed in the United States of America
ISBN 0-03-056319-4
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Table of Contents

--------------------------------------------------------------~O

About This Book ........................................................................................................................................................................ vi

Revising and Proofreading Handouts

Parts of Paragraphs ......................................................................................................................... vii

Coherence ............................................................................................................................................ viii

Hints for Writing and Using a Thesis Statement......................................................... ix

Symbols for Revising and Proofreading ............................................................................ x

Writing Complete Sentences


for CHAPTER 9 Identifying Sentence Fragments

(Pupil/s Edition pp. 340-51)


Practice A, Worksheet 1.............................................................................................................. 1

Practice B, Worksheet 2 .............................................................................................................. 2

Revising Phrase Fragments

Practice A, Worksheet 3 .............................................................................................................. 3

Practice B, Worksheet 4 .............................................................................................................. 4

Revising Subordinate Clause Fragments

Practice A, Worksheet 5 .............................................................................................................. 5

Practice B, Worksheet 6 .............................................................................................................. 6

Using Subordinate Clauses in Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 7 .............................................................................................................. 7

Practice B, Worksheet 8 .............................................................................................................. 8

Identifying and Revising Fragments

Practice A, Worksheet 9 .............................................................................................................. 9

Practice B,Worksheet 10 ......................................................................................................... 10

Revising by Correcting Run--ons

Practice A, Worksheet 11 ......................................................................................................... 11

Practice B, Worksheet 12 ......................................................................................................... 12

REVIEW A: Correcting Fragments and Run-on Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 13......................................................................................................... 13

Practice B, Worksheet 14 ......................................................................................................... 14

REVIEW B: Revising Fragments and Run--on Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 15 ......................................................................................................... 15

Practice B, Worksheet 16 ......................................................................................................... 16

iii
Table of Contents (continued)
------------------------------------------------------------------0

Writing Effective Sentences


for CHAPTER 10
Combining by Inserting Words

(Pupil's Edition pp.352-69)


Practice A, Worksheet 17......................................................................................................... 17

Practice B, Worksheet 18 ......................................................................................................... 18

Combining by Inserting Words

Practice A, Worksheet 19......................................................................................................... 19

Practice B, Worksheet 20 ......................................................................................................... 20

Combining by Inserting Phrases

Practice A, Worksheet 21 ......................................................................................................... 21

Practice 8, Worksheet 22 ......................................................................................................... 22

Combining Using Compound Subjects and Verbs


Practice A, Worksheet 23 ......................................................................................................... 23

Practice 8, Worksheet 24 ......................................................................................................... 24

Combining to Create Compound Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 25 ......................................................................................................... 25

Practice 8, Worksheet 26 ......................................................................................................... 26 ....J

Combining to Create Complex Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 27 ......................................................................................................... 27

Practice 8, Worksheet 28 ......................................................................................................... 28

REVIEW A: Revising Sentences by Combining

Practice A, Worksheet 29......................................................................................................... 29

Practice 8, Worksheet 30 ......................................................................................................... 30

REVIEW B: Revising a Paragraph by Combining Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 31 ......................................................................................................... 31

Practice 8, Worksheet 32 ......................................................................................................... 32

Revising Sentences to Create Parallel Structure

Practice A, Worksheet 33 ......................................................................................................... 33

Practice 8, Worksheet 34 ......................................................................................................... 34

Revising Stringy Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 35 ......................................................................................................... 35

Practice 8, Worksheet 36 ......................................................................................................... 36

Revising Wordy Sentences

Practice A, Worksheet 37 ......................................................................................................... 37

Practice 8, Worksheet 38 ......................................................................................................... 38

iv
Table of Contents (continued)
----------------------------------------------------------------~O

Varying Sentence Beginnings


Practice A, Worksheet 39......................................................................................................... 39

Practice S, Worksheet 40 ......................................................................................................... 40

Revising a Paragraph to Create Variety


Practice A, Worksheet 41 ......................................................................................................... 41

Practice S, Worksheet 42 ......................................................................................................... 42

Understanding Paragraphs and Compositions

for CHAPTER 11 Identifying Parts of Paragraphs


(Pupil's Edition
Worksheet 43 ............................................................................................................................... 43

pp. 370-401 )

Improving the Qualities of Paragraphs


Worksheet 44 ............................................................................................................................... 44

Analyzing Thesis Statements


Worksheet 45 ............................................................................................................................... 4S

Analyzing Introductions
Worksheet 46 ............................................................................................................................... 46

Analyzing Body Paragraphs


Worksheet 47 ............................................................................................................................... 47

Improving a Conclusion
Worksheet 48 ............................................................................................................................... 48

Answer Key................................................................................................................................................................................ 49

v
I About This Book
--------------------~~----------------------.

The Blackline Masters


Revising and Proofreading These pages are designed as a reference for students. They
Handouts include lists of useful words, strategies to improve writing,
and aids to proofreading. Encourage students to keep copies
of these pages in their subject notebooks or to laminate them
and refer to them whenever they begin a significant writing
assignment.

The Worksheets
Exercises Worksheets for each exercise provide students with oppor­
tunities to practice what is taught in Part 2 of the Pupil's
Edition-how to revise and improve sentences through tech­
niques such as combining sentences and varying sentence
lengths. Worksheets also provide students with opportunities
to practice the basics of good paragraphs, including how to
achieve unity and coherence and how to use effective transi­
tions between paragraphs in longer pieces of writing.

vi
Parts of Paragraphs
o

PARTS OF PARAGRAPHS

Main Idea • provides the central focus of the paragraph

Topic Sentence • directly states the paragraph's main idea


• often is the first sentence in the paragraph
• may be found at the end of the paragraph, for em phasis or variety

Supporting Sentences • support the main idea of the paragraph


• use the following kinds of details:
sensory details: information collected using the five senses
(sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste)
facts: information that can be proven
statistics: facts based on numbers
examples: specific instances or illustrations of a general idea
anecdotes: an extended example or brief story, often entertaining
or amusing

Clincher Sentence • sometimes (but not always) found at the end of longer paragraphs
• emphasizes or summarizes the main idea of a paragraph

• adds zing to a paragraph


• often includes a transitional phrase
• most often used with longer, complicated paragraphs to reinforce the
main idea

Revising and Proofreading Handouts vii


Coherence

--------------------------------------------------------------------~O

Building Coherence: Types of Order

ORDER tWHENTOUSE .. HOW IT WORKS

Chronological
! ~, . presents actions and events
: • to tell a story
," to explain a process according to the order in which
they occur

Spatial to describe a place or object I:::, . arranges details according to


their location in space

Logical groups related ideas together


;,: : • to explain or classify (by defining,
dividing, or comparing and to show their relationship
contrasting)

Order of Importance I" to inform or to persuade arranges details from most


important to least important,
or vice versa
:

Building Coherence: Connecting Ideas

CONNECTING STRATEGY tHOW IT WORKS

Direct References ~: • use a noun or pronoun that refers to a noun or pronoun


used earlier

! 0 repeat a word used earlier

use a word or phrase that means the same thing as one


used earlier
I"
Transitional Expressions I:: '0 compare ideas (also, and besides, in addition, similarly, too)
(including prepositions that
contrast ideas (although but however, instead nevertheless,
show chronological or spatial
otherwise, yet)
order and conjunctions)
show cause and effect (as a result, because, consequently,

," so, therefore, thus)

i" show time (after, before, eventually, finally, first, meanwhile,


then, when)
: . show place (above, across, around beyond, from, here, in, on,
over, there, to, under)

show importance (first, last, mainly, then, to begin With)

'"
viii ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE i Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions
Hints for Writing and Using a Thesis Statement
o

HINTS FOR WRITING AND USING A THESIS STATEMENT

1. Develop your thesis statement from information you have gathered.

Review your prewriting material-the many facts and details you've gathered.

Ask yourself, What main idea do the facts and details suggest?

2. Include both a topic and your main idea about it.

Most thesis statements answer these two questions:

What is my topic?
What am I saying about my topic?

To make sure you have included both parts, underline the topic and circle the
main idea.

For example, read this thesis statement:

"Ifyou take sensible precautions with clothing, equipment, and safety, you can
enjoy bicycling all year long./I

It is clear that this writer is going to discuss year-round bicycling (topic)


and specific precautions you need to make involving clothing, equipment,
and safety (main idea).

3. Be clear and specific.

Keep your language and ideas sharp and definite. Compare this vague and
fuzzy thesis statement with the actual one you have just read:

"Ifyou want to continue bicycling, you need to take care ofa lot ofthings."

4. Keep your thesis statement in front of you as you plan and write.

It will help keep you on track. Every idea and detail should directly support your
thesis statement, so be focused and get rid of any that do not.

Revising and Proofreading Handouts ix


Symbols for Revising and Proofreading

Symbol of Symbol

Maple High ~chool Capitalize a lowercase letter.


'"
/ theFlrst person Lowercase a capital letter.

Ion the fourt'hMay


of Insert a missing word, letter,
or punctuation mark.

a
Il sep~rate Change a letter.

~est
in [ Replace a word.

tell me the ~Ian


1 Leave out a word, letter,
or punctuation mark.

1 an unu~ual idea Leave out and close up.

a wate(}all Close up space.

re~e Change the order of letters.

the last Saturda~of September Transpose the circled words.


C!E::them~ (Write tr in nearby margin.)

1"Help!" someone cried. Begin a new paragraph.

o Add a period.

!Wel~hat's the news? Add a comma.

#
l t 1..
I -=\"UI'.,. .... I:J Add a space.

the following idea!0 Add a colon.

Houston,Texas1St. Louis, M issouril' Add a semicolon.


and Albany, New York

typed in single=space Add a hyphen.

l7
Sallys new job Add an apostrophe.

Keep the crossed-out material.


an extremely%rgent message
... ....... .
" (Write stet in nearby margin.)

x ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 1 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 1

Identifying Sentence Fragments

DIRECI'IONS In each group of words, identify what, if anything, is missing.


• If the subject is missing, write S.
• If the verb is missing, write V.
• If both a subject and a verb are present but no complete thought is expressed,
write I for incomplete.
• Write C if the words form a complete sentence.

1. New words are constantly entering the world's languages.


2. Do not last very long.
3. Most people at least a few slang expressions.
4. Slang terms by small groups of people.
5. Are part of languages only in a limited sense.

6. Do become generally popu1ar.


7. Like a new hit tune, a new slang word acceptance almost overnight.
8. Because slang terms fade into oblivion.
9. Many people can name slang expressions that have gone out of date.
_ _ 10. The slang of children greatly from their grandparents' generation.
___ 11. Most people do not slang terms in formal conversations.
_ _ 12. The popular slang for the 1800s completely unfamiliar to many people today.
___ 13. For instance, most people would not understand an invitation to a rout, a type
of gathering.
___ 14. Was once a fashionable slang term for a large party.

- - - 15. When a word endures.


___ 16. Slang terms in personal conversation.
_ _ 17. That slang terms have a long history of use in informal speech.
___ 18. Until another slang term becomes popular.
___ 19. No one would use it today.
___ 20. Most languages fairly permanent slang expressions.

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 1


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 1 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 2

Identifying Sentence Fragments

DIRECTIONS In each group of words, identify what, if anything, is missing.


• If the subject is missing, write S.
• If the verb is missing, write V.
• If both a subject and a verb are present but no complete thought is expressed,
write I for incomplete.
• Write C if the words form a complete sentence.

1. Many high school students are beginning to think about their future careers.
2. Are researching opportunities and setting career goals.
3. Word-processing programs students to work in the automated office.

4. Word processing is one of the most essential office skills.

5. A word-processing course helpful to college-bound students.

6. Because most college professors do not accept handwritten papers.

7. In large cities, specialized schools specific kinds of vocational training.


8. Provide performing arts high schools for future entertainers.
9. Science high schools emphasize training in the sciences while covering traditional
academic course work.
___ 10. If a student attends one of these schools.
___ 11. When the school instituted a yearly poll of students' career choices.
___ 12. Was designed to meet students' needs.
___ 13. Some courses internship programs to give students hands-on experience.
___ 14. Experience that is very helpful in making a career decision.
___ 15. If students are asked to fill out a questionnaire.
___ 16. Meet with professionals who know about job possibilities.
___ 17. Offer a series of career nights to investigate a specific field.
___ 18. Students and teachers with professionals about writing, traveling, and
meeting deadlines.
___ 19. May have a hard time deciding which seminar to attend.
___ 20. Perhaps a job with diversified responsibilities good for many students.

2 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 3

A...,A.A ... ,... Phrase Fragments


DIRECTIONS Create a sentence from each of the following phrase fragments. You
may add the fragment to a complete sentence, or develop the fragment into a
complete sentence by adding a subject, a verb, or both .
•••••••••••••• n •••• u · · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u ......................... n ........................H ................. UH ..... H •• n . u •••••••••• n . . . . . . . ~ ••••••••••••••••••• H h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H •••••••••••••••• n ••••• H . H .

1. in New York City

2. equipped with cameras and guidebooks

3. taking public transportation

4. the New York subway system

5. to see the Statue of Liberty

6. interested in getting some exercise

7. to avoid getting lost

1 8. looking at the skyline


~
."
cO
~c: 9. of the tall buildings
~
~
1::

~'" 10. of theater productions


ii:
~
I
E
@

~
~
8

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 3


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 2 PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 4

Revising Phrase Fragments

DIRECTIONS Create a sentence from each of the following phrase fragments. You
may add the fragment to a complete sentence, or develop the fragment into a
complete sentence by adding a subject, a verb, or both.
•••• n~ •••••• u u . . . . . . U ••••••• H •• U ••••••••••••UH ••••• UH •••••• UU ..... U.U ......................... U ..U ••••••••••••• U ••• U ........................H ••••••••••••• U .......... U ........ H ...................................••

1. in the Caribbean

2. to dive into the ocean

3. by studying corals

4. trained in undersea exploration

S. by experienced divers

6. a living organism

7. surrounded by multicolored fish

8. an expert at identifying various species

9. on some rocks

10. of life under the sea

4 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 3 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 5

Revising Subordinate Clause Fragments

DIRECTIONS The following paragraphs contain some subordinate clause fragments .


• Underline the clause fragments .
• Revise the paragraphs by joining the subordinate clauses with the independent
clauses. (There may be more than one way to combine them.)
• Change the punctuation and capitalization as necessary.

1. Alice Walker was born in 1944. She was the youngest of eight children. She

had an unfortunate accident. When she was eight years old. Walker's eye was

blinded by a shot from a BB gun. Even though the resulting scar made her

self-conscious. She did not let it control her life. Walker believed she could

accomplish almost anything. If she set her mind to it.

2. Jaime Escalante became famous for his success in teaching underprivileged

students in the inner city high school. Where he was a math instructor. Before he

arrived at Garfield High School in Los Angeles. Many students were discour­

aged about learning math. Escalante knew he could reach these students. Whose

potential he recognized. It was not easy, but Escalante demanded excellence

from his students. Because so many students passed the advanced placement

exam in calculus. Testing officials became suspiciOUS. They had Escalante's

students take another, more difficult test. Which they also passed. Wherever he

taught. Escalante's message was the same: "Believe in your dreams./1

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 5


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 3 PRACTICE 8 r WORKSHEET 6

Revising Subordinate Clause Fragments

DIRECTIONS Use what you have learned about subordinate clause fragments
to correct the following paragraph.
• Underline the clause fragments .
• Revise the paragraphs by joining the subordinate clauses with the independent
clauses. (There may be more than one way to combine them.)
• Change the punctuation and capitalization as necessary.

1. The smallest specimen in the bird world is the hummingbird. These tiny

creatures have a high metabolism. That keeps their hearts beating at the incred­

ible rate of 1,260 times per minute. A hummingbird's heart is 2.4 percent of its

body weight. Which typically is three grams. Even when it is at rest. A hum­

mingbird takes 250 breaths every minute. Though they are tiny. These birds

have incredible stamina. A male ruby-throated hummingbird's wingbeats have

been registered at 78 times per second. When he is in ordinary flight. And these

beats may increase to more than 200 during a dive.

2. Koalas are marsupials. That are related to kangaroos and opossums.

Marsupials are mammals. That have a bag or pouch for their young. At birth,

a koala is only one inch long and must find a way to reach its mother's pouch.

Where it will stay for seven to nine months. When the young koala is strong

enough to leave the pouch. It may still stay with its mother for as long as two

years. Koalas are sometimes called "koala bears." Although they are not bears.

The name koala is an aboriginal word. That means "one who does not drink."

Koalas drink very little. They eat eucalyptus leaves. Which contain a lot of

water. Koalas are not as common as they once were. Because of deforestation

and disease.

6 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 7

" .........tiIo Subordinate Clauses in Sentences


DIRECTIONS Use each of the following subordinate clauses as part of a
complete sentence.
• Add an independent clause at the beginning or end of the subordinate clause.
• Add capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary.
....u ....................... u .................u ••••••••••••••• u ••••• h •••• n ••••• u ••••• n ••••••••••• u ............... u ................... u . . . . . . . . . . . . . u . u ••••••••••••••• u ••••••••••••• u ........... u ....................... u ••

1. that vitamin C can help prevent colds

2. who wants to avoid the common cold

3. if people drink plenty of citrus juice

4. because citrus drinks are refreshing

5. while grapefruit juice is yellow or pink

6. although tangerine juice tastes good

7. as long as they are very cold

8. because lemonade can be high in sugar and calories

9. since many citrus drinks are high in vitamin C

10. that they should drink eight glasses of water each day

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 7


NAME DATE

for EXERCISE 4 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 8

Using Subordinate Clauses in Sentences

DIRECTIONS Use each of the following subordinate clauses as part of a


complete sentence.
• Add an independent clause at the beginning or end of the subordinate clause.
• Add capitalization and punctuation wherever necessary.
••• , .. . . . . . . . . . . n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H •••••••• H ................................... H •••••••••••••••• h ••••• H .......................... H . . . . . . . . . . . . . .~ . . . . . . . . . . . . .H .............. H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u . . . . . u u ••••••• u ••••••••

1. because no one is born with good manners

2. once good manners are thoroughly learned

3. although it may be considered old-fashioned

4. unless there is a valid reason

5. if people use good manners

6. who has learned not to interrupt another's conversation

7. which include telephone etiquette

8. that would be helpful to co-workers

9. whose department is well run

10. when people are treated with respect

8 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 9

and Revising Fragments

DIRECTIONS The following paragraphs contain sentence fragments that make

the meaning of the paragraphs unclear. To correct each fragment, you can

• link the fragment to an independent clause, or


• develop the fragment into a complete sentence .
. . u •••••••••••••••• u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ."u. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u •••• u •••••• h ••••••••• ~ ••••••••••• H ............................ n •• U •• H ••• U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U ............ U ••

1. Before Francisco Pizarro began the Spanish conquest in 1532. The Inca

empire dominated the Andes Mountains region. An emperor who demanded

strict obedience. Ruled the land. All business was run by the state. Which could

draft citizens for its projects. Although people were subjects of the state. The

sick and elderly were clothed and fed. The Inca farmed the mountainsides.

Terracing the landscape and irrigating the crops. The Inca were also brilliant

engineers. Whose roadways included ferries and bridges. The city of Machu

~ Picchu is an example. Of their skill with tools like the plumb bob and the

wooden roller. Which they used for heavy construction. Hundreds of years

after their civilization was subdued by the Spanish. The descendants of the

once-dominant Incas make up about fifty percent of Peru's population.

2. Ankara is an ancient city. That archaeologists believe dates from the Stone

Age. The city's architecture reflects various influences. Roman, Byzantine, and

Ottoman. Ankara's commercial center is in the old section of the city. That

grew along the slope of the citadel. The new section boasts hotels, theaters,

and restaurants. Dominated by imposing government buildings and foreign

embassies. Ankara is also home to cultural and educational institutions.

Ankara became the capital of Turkey in 1923. Replacing Istanbul.

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 9


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 5 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 10

Identifying and Revising Fragments

DIRECTIONS The following paragraphs contain sentence fragments, which


make the meaning of the paragraphs unclear. To correct each fragment,
you can
• link the fragment to an independent clause, or
• develop the fragment into a complete sentence.
• u ...........n .................................................H •••••••••••••••• H ....................................H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HU ••• H ••• H ••••••••••• u ••• u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ........... u ..... .

1. As a child. Gara Barton had been shy. When she grew older, however, her

desire to help those in trouble. Changed her behavior. During the Civil War.

She saw that the soldiers lacked food and medical supplies. Taking matters

into her own hands. By placing a newspaper ad. She received donations to

offset critical shortages. While working behind German lines during the Franco-

Prussian War. She became involved with the International Red Cross. She

founded the American Red Cross. Returning to the United States. She began a

five-year struggle to persuade people that the United States should have its

own branch of the society. The American Red Cross collects donated blood, but

has also been actively engaged in aid to refugees, the exchange of prisoners of

war, and disaster relief.

2. In memory of a Greek runner of ancient times. The marathon became part

of the modem Olympic Garnes in 1896. Set as a distance of 26 miles, 385 yards.

Marathon races are regularly scheduled. In the United States as well as in other

countries. The Boston Marathon has been challenging athletes. Since its incep­

tion in 1897. Enjoying great popularity. The New York Marathon and the

Chicago Marathon attract runners. From all parts of the world. Some marathon

winners receive prizes from sponsors of the race. Many runners, however,

compete. Because they enjoy the competition and love the sport itself.

10 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME ClASS DATE

for EXERCISE 6 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 11

~ Revising by Correcting Run-ons


DIRECTIONS The following items are confusing because they are run-on
sentences. Using the method of revision indicated in parentheses, correct
each run-on sentence .
...................n.H .................... u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H . . . . . . . . . . . U.H ••• n ..................... u •••••• u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H •• H ................ u • • • • • • H . . . . U~.H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n U • • U ... u ••••••••

1. During the 1950s and 1960s, chemicals were heavily used in agriculture, many of these chemicals

proved to be harmful to the environment. (Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.)

2. An environmentalist named Rachel Carson studied the effects of these chemicals, she pub­

lished her findings in the book Silent Spring. (Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction.)

3. Silent Spring received intense criticism from chemical manufacturers the book sparked

concern for the environment. (Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.)

4. Eventually Carson's book was translated into many languages laws were passed around the

world to protect the environment. (Make into two sentences.)

5. Like Carson, Joy Adamson was interested in the environment, she concentrated her efforts on

the African lion habitat. (Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.)

6. A lion cub named Elsa became famous when Adamson pUblished her experiences in the book

Born Free, the book was made into a popular film. (Make into two sentences.)

7. Profits from Adamson's book and film helped her promote better understanding of animals'

needs she established a fund to support methods that would keep animals healthy and free

in the wild. (Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction.)

8. Both Carson and Adamson emphasized the importance of our relationship with nature these

women overcame obstacles to obtain the world's respect for their causes. (Use a semicolon.)

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 11


NAME ClASS DATE

for EXERCISE 6 PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 12

Revising Correcting Run-ons


DIRECTIONS The following items are confusing because they are run-on
sentences. Using the method of revision indicated in parentheses, correct
each run-on sentence.

1. Long and narrow, the Chesapeake Bay washes the coasts of Maryland and Virginia its

location and history are significant. (Use a semicolon.)

2. The upper section of the Chesapeake Bay runs through Maryland, the lower bay separates

a section of Virginia from the rest of the state. (Use a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.)

3. The Chesapeake is deep enough to accommodate oceangoing ships, the entire bay covers

3,237 square miles. (Use a semicolon.)

4. Among the oldest historical sites along the bay are Yorktown and Jamestown these cities were

early colonial settlements. (Make into two sentences.)

5. Captain John Smith of Jamestown gave the bay the American Indian name che-sep-ack the

word means "country on a great river." (Make into two sentences.)

6. During the War of 1812, the Chesapeake Bay was an invasion route for the British, they

were able to land a ground force, march on the White House, and set it on fire. (Use a

semicolon and a conjunctive adverb.)

7. In 1814, the British attacked Fort McHenry as he watched the action from a ship in the bay,

Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner." (Make into two sentences.)

8. The Civil War's famous battle between two ironclad ships took place in Hampton Roads, the

battle was fought between the Monitor and the Merrimack. (Use a semicolon.)

12 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW A PRACTICE A. WORKSHEET 13

Correcting and Run-on Sentences

DIRECTIONS Most of the items below contain fragments or run-on sentences.


• Correct the fragments and run-on sentences in any of the ways you
have learned.
• If an item is correct, write C.
• Change the punctuation and capitalization wherever necessary.

1. A large ocean bird. The albatross may follow a ship for days at a time.

2. With a favorable wind. The albatross flies at a rate of 100 miles an hour.

3. The wingspread of the albatross more than eleven feet from tip to tip, wider than that of any

other bird.

4. The body of an albatross is relatively small it may be no more than nine inches wide.

5. Sit on the water to eat, feasting on squid, fish, and garbage from ships.

6. The Antarctic islands are remote and barren they are the preferred nesting area for

the albatross.

7. The seventeen identified species of albatross spend most of their time in tropic seas.

8. A male albatross is white with black wingtips, the female's neck and back are dappled

with brown.

9. The range of the albatross is extensive, the black-footed species may travel anywhere along

the Pacific coast and has been sighted as far north as Alaska.

10. A famous poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, is based on an

old superstition. That killing an albatross brings bad luck.

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 13


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW A PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 14

Correcting Fragments and Run-on Sentences


DIRECTIONS Most of the items below contain fragments or run-on sentences.
• Correct the fragments and run-on sentences in any of the ways you
have learned.
• If an item is correct, write C.
• Change the punctuation and capitalization wherever necessary.

1. Part myth, part history. The story of King Arthur is based on a Celtic legend.

2. In all the tales about Arthur. The historical elements are difficult to authenticate.

3. Because Arthur was born in dangerous circumstances. Merlin took him to be raised by Sir Ector.

4. Arthur's true identity would be revealed if Arthur a task that only the rightful king could do.

S. Plunged into a stone. A great sword could be removed only by the person who was meant to

be king.

6. Many strong knights attempted to remove the sword to prove their worthiness to be king

all failed.

7. Arthur pulled the sword from the stone, he had been sent back to retrieve a sword for Sir Kay.

8. Sir Kay recognized the sword and took credit for removing it from the stone. Admitting later

that Arthur had removed the sword.

9. Arthur pulled the sword from the stone a second time to prove that there was no mistake.

10. Arthur took the sword, he was acknowledged as Britain's rightful king.

14 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW B PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 15

i Revising Fragments and Run-on Sentences


o
DIRECfloNS Revise the following paragraphs to correct sentence fragments
and run-on sentences.
• Add, delete, or move words as necessary.
• Change the punctuation and capitalization wherever necessary.

The seven wonders of the ancient world continue to fascinate us. Even

though most of them no longer exist in their original splendor. For example,

located in present-day Iraq. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were a series of

terraces filled with tropical plants and flowers, now their extraordinary beauty

is lost to the past. After the 40-foot ivory and gold statue of Zeus at Olympia

had endured for ten centuries. It too disappeared. Similarl)" most of the

remaining wonders exist only by reputation or through artifacts and ruins.

Tradition tells us. That the temple of Diana at Ephesus was destroyed by fire.

Exactly what happened to the Mausoleum at Halicamassus is unclear, still,

relics of it are displayed in the British Museum. The Colossus of Rhodes, a

bronze statue. Whose height ancient historians put at 105 feet, was toppled by

an earthquake in 224 B.C. Standing for about 1,500 years. The great lighthouse

at Alexandria was also felled by an earthquake it was thought to be the model

for modem lighthouses.

The single exception to these losses is the remarkable endurance of the

Egyptian pyramids. The only one of the wonders to remain into the modem

era. Although they are the oldest of these ancient sites. The pyramids continue

to withstand the rigors of time. Built between 2650 and 2500 B.C.

CHAPTER 9 I Writing Complete Sentences 1S


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW 8 PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 16

Revising Fragments and Run-on Sentences

~--------~----~------------~------------------------------~.
DIRECTIONS Revise the following paragraphs to correct sentence fragments
and run-on sentences.
• Underline each fragment once and each run-on twice.
• Add, delete, or move words as necessary.
• Change the punctuation and capitalization wherever necessary.
•• ~ •••••••••• "H •••••••••• ~.n ••••••••••••••••• " " " " ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• u ................................ u ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• u •••••••••• n ••••••

Standing upright and arranged in a circle. England's Stonehenge monument

is an intriguing ancient structure. Whose appearance, history, and purpose

attract the attention of about one million visitors each year. According to arch­

aeologists, Stonehenge was built between 3100 and 1550 B.C., the monument

probably underwent three phases of construction. The first phase included a

circular ditch and a ring of pits. That are known as the Aubrey Holes. In the

second phase, thought to have occurred in about 2100 B.C., massive rock pillars

from Wales were brought to the site, these immense stones were placed in two

concentric circles. The last stage of construction was probably completed before

1500 B.C. Incredibly, thirty stones, each standing upright and weighing as much

as fifty tons, were placed in a circle the circle ringed a series of stones shaped

like a horseshoe.

Although some theorists suggest that Stonehenge was associated with sky

worship or with the Celtic priests called Druids. The evidence does not sup­

port these notions. Scholars now think it more likely that Stonehenge was a

primitive observatory, its unusual design may have been used to determine

when certain astronomical events, such as solstices, would occur.

16 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 1 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 17

Combining by Inserting Words


DIRECTIONS Combine each set of sentences below by inserting the italicized

word from the second sentence into the first sentence.

• Follow the directions in parentheses to change the form of the word if it

is necessary to do so.

• Use a caret (A) to insert the word in the first sentence.

greatly
EXAMPLE Many sections of the Great Wall of China hav deteriorated throughout the
7l
centuries. The deterioration has heen g:reaf.1{Add -ly.)

1. The Great Wall of China is the longest structure ever built by hand. The Great Wall was built

completely by hand.

2. Stretching along what was then China's border, the Great Wall is nearly four thousand miles

long. The Great Wall runs along the northern border of China.

3. The Great Wall reaches a height of almost thirty-five feet at some points. This is remarkable.

(Add -ly.)

4. The eastern section of the wall, on top of which runs a road made of brick and mortar, crosses

~ the Mongolian Border Uplands. The Mongolian Border Uplands are a mountainous region.
~
.E0\ 5. As the Great Wall winds west of Beijing, it cuts across hills and desert where builders used soil
-c

to make the structure. The builders had to dampen the soil before they could use it. (Add -ed.)

6. The Great Wall was built during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). The Ming dynasty was the

main period of construction. (Add -ly.)

7. After centuries of use, the Great Wall was in need of repairs. The Great Wall needed

extensive repairs.

8. A lot of work has been done since 1949. The work was restoration work.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 17


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 1 PRACTICE B. WORKSHEET 18

I Combining by Inserting Words

DIRECTIONS Combine each set of sentences below by inserting the italicized


word from the second sentence into the first sentence.
• Follow the directions in parentheses to change the form of the word if it
is necessary to do so .
• Use a caret (,1\) to insert the word in the first sentence.

strategically placed
EXAMPLE Nearly 70 percent of the cargo that travels through th canal is headed to or from
7l
the United States. Tl Ie canal is Bh'tltegically placet:f.V

1. The Panama Canal, a seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, was a feat

of engineering. The canal was an outstanding accomplishment.

2. For nearly ten years, thousands of laborers cleared jungles and swamps, using shovels and

dredges. The shovels and dredges were steam-powered.

3. After the canal's completion in 1914, a voyage by ship from New York to California was

reduced from 13,000 miles to 5,200 miles. The reduction was significant. (Add -ly.)

4. Locks-chambers that raise and lower ships to different levels-were added to the canal

so that two ships could travel in opposite directions at the same time. The chambers had

three tiers. (Delete -s, and add -ed.)

5. With a width of 110 feet and a depth of 70 feet, however, the locks cannot accommodate

supertankers or supercarriers. The supertankers and supercarriers are enormous.

6. Averaging about thirty-four ships a day and 170 million short tons of cargo a year, the canal is

a heavily used waterway. Commercial and military ships use the canal.

7. The United States maintained control of the canal until 1999, when Panama gained control of

the Canal Zone. Panama gained regional control.

8. When Panama took con'trol of the canal, it gave U.s. military installations there the right to ....J
defend the area. The area is important both to Panama and to the United States.

18 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE ! Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions

NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 2 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 19

Combining by Words
DIRECTIONS Combine the sets of sentences below by deciding which words
to insert. There may be more than one way to combine each set of sentences;
choose the combination you think is best.
• Change the forms of the words wherever necessary.
• Use a caret (1\) to insert the words.

1. John Steinbeck was a novelist and short-story writer, as well as a screenwriter and playwright.

He was an award-winning author.

2. Steinbeck, who is best known for his powerful descriptions of ordinary people, had once

wanted to write romances. In fact, Steinbeck's original goal was to write romances.

3. In 1962, Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for literature, indicating the world's respect for his

work. The Nobel Prize is a prestigious award.

4. Steinbeck disliked fame and tried to escape it by returning to Mexico. He went to

Mexico often.

5. The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck's first major novel, depicts the life of migrant workers and their

families. Steinbeck's portrayal of migrant life is realistic.

6. In Travels with Charley, Steinbeck wrote of his adventures on a trip across America with his

poodle. At the time, the poodle was getting old.

7. Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath and East of Eden were adapted for the theater and for motion

pictures. The adaptations were successful.

8. The main character in Steinbeck's novella The Pearl is temporarily assured of a better life when

he finds a pearl. The pearl is extraordinary.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 19


NAME CLASS DATE
--------
for EXERCISE 2 PRACTICE B. WORKSHEET 20

Combining by Inserting Words

DIRECTIONS Combine the sets of sentences below by deciding which words


to insert. There may be more than one way to combine each set of sentences;
choose the combination you think is best.
• Change the forms of the words wherever necessary.
• Use a caret (1\) to insert the words.

1. The reign of Tutankhamun, an Egyptian pharaoh, lasted about nine years. Tutankhamun's

reign was brief.

2. Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon received permission to search the Valley of the Kings for

several tombs. The Valley of the Kings was a desolate place.

3. Carter and Carnarvon found Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922. The treasure-filled tomb was filled

with valuable objects.

4. When Carter entered the tomb, he found a passage that led to a series of underground rooms.

The passage led to four rooms.

5. Unlike the tombs of other pharaohs, Tutankhamun's burial place did not contain false doors,

deep pits, and stone obstructions to discourage grave robbers. The burial place was small.

6. Once the excavation team was inside the tomb, they found a collection of caskets, vases, parts

of chariots, and statues. The caskets were covered with ornaments.

7. The most valuable part of the treasure was a solid-gold mask that weighed twenty-two

pounds. The find was remarkable.

8. Removing the mummy's wrappings, Carter's team found many gold and jeweled amulets.

The wrappings provided protection for the mummy. -


..c:
.~
U

20 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 3 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 21

Combining by . . ..& ... , . . Phrases


DIRECTIONS Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence by
inserting a phrase from the second sentence into the first sentence. (There may
be more than one way to combine each pair.) For some sentence pairs, the
hints in parentheses will tell you when to change the forms of words and
when to add commas. To help you get started, the words you need to insert
are italicized in the first four sentence pairs.

an /tMerican astronoMer,
EXAMPLE Maria Mitchelbwas born in Nantucket, Massachusetts. MiteheY ,,"as an AmBrierMY
,

1. Mitchell and her father studied the stars from an observatory. The observatory was on the roof

of their house.

2. Mitchell noticed a star where none had been before. She saw the strange star in 1847.

3. She thought it might be a comet. She plotted the object's coordinates as it moved across the sky.

(Change plotted to plotting, and add a comma.)

4. Her father wrote a letter to a Harvard University professor. He wrote a letter about his

daughter's discovery.

S. Father Francesco de Vico of Rome noticed the same comet two days after Mitchell did. Father

Francesco was a Catholic priest. (Add two commas.)

6. The king of Denmark awarded a prize to Father Francesco. The prize was for discovering a

comet through a telescope.

7. The king was unaware of Mitchell's discovery. He was unaware of her discovery at the time of

the award's presentation.

8. Mitchell received the prize a year later. She had to reach an agreement with the king. (Change

reach to reaching, and add a comma.)

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 21


NAME CLASS DATE
-~--------

for EXERCISE 3 PRACTICE 8 WORKSHEET 22


f

Combining by Inserting Phrases

DIRECTIONS Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence by


inserting a phrase from the second sentence into the first sentence. (There may
be more than one way to combine each pair.) For some sentence pairs, the
runts in parentheses will tell you when to change the forms of words and
when to add commas. To help you get started, the words you need to insert
are italicized in the first four sentence pairs.

EXAMPLE Ultimate Frisbee;' disc golf, and even dog Frisbee® events have made Frisbee®

a popular sportJThe sport is playecYa:round the world.

1. Legend has it that the Frisbee®was "invented" in the 1820s by Elihu Frisbie at Yale. The

Frisbee®is afamous toy. (Add two commas.)

2. Frisbie reportedly tossed a collection plate from the Yale chapel. He tossed the plate out onto

the campus grounds.

3. Years later, Princeton, Dartmouth, and other colleges claim credit for a pie pan-tossing

craze. They each insist that they invented the game of Frisbee'!' (Change insist to insisting,

and add a comma.)

4. In 1948, Walter Morrison turned the pie pan into a plastic disc. Morrison was a California

building inspector. (Add two commas.)

5. Morrison marketed his disc at a time when people were fascinated with UFOs. The disc was

called the "Pluto Platter." (Add two commas.)

6. The disc became very popular after Morrison exhibited it. He exhibited it at California fairs

and beaches.

7. Rich Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin bought the rights to the plastic disc in 1957. They bought

the rights from Morrison.

8. The two toy enthusiasts changed the name of the disc to Frisbee:" They had heard some of the

old pie pan-tossing stories. (Change had heard to having heard, and add a comma.)

22 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 4 PRACTICE A, WORKSH EET 23

~ Combining Using Compound Subjects and Verbs

~--------------~-------=------~~------------~---------------------o

DIRECTIONS Combine each of the following pairs of short, choppy sentences

into one sentence.

• Use a compound subject, a compound verb, or both.


• Use a caret (,1\) to insert the word in the first sentence.

1. Wolves are carnivorous mammals. Coyotes are carnivorous mammals.

2. Wolves and coyotes sometimes live alone. Wolves and coyotes hunt for large prey in packs.

3. Wolves attack weaker animals, preventing overpopulation of some species. Coyotes attack

weaker animals, preventing overpopulation of some species.

4. Coyotes are thought to mate for life. They may accept another mate if their first mate leaves.

5. A wolf pack consists of an adult pair and their offspring. A wolf pack usually numbers from

five to nine animals.

6. Litter sizes vary. They range from five to nine pups for both wolves and coyotes.

7. Both male wolves and male coyotes help females feed the young. Both male wolves and

coyotes also help females protect secluded dens.

~ 8. By howling, wolves and coyotes announce territorial changes. By howling, wolves and coyotes
~
t"'" also call pack members together for a hunt.

9. Coyotes can adapt to a variety of environments. Coyotes are found in almost every state.

10. Diseases afflict wolves and coyotes. Parasites afflict wolves and coyotes. Both can reduce the

numbers of these predators.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 23


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 4 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 24

Combining Using Compound Subjects and Verbs ~

DIRECTIONS Combine each of the following pairs of short, choppy sentences


into one sentence.
• Use a compound subject, a compound verb, or both .
• Use a caret (1\) to insert words.

1. Mars travels around the sun in 687 days. Mars completes one revolution every 24 hours and

37 minutes.

2. Jupiter moves slowly around the sun. Jupiter spins rapidly on its axis, completing a revolution

every ten hours.

3. Phobos is a moon that orbits Mars. Deimos is a moon that orbits Mars.

4. Four large moons orbit Jupiter. About twelve smaller moons orbit Jupiter.

5. Jupiter's four major moons were first seen by Galileo. Jupiter's four major moons are called

the Galilean satellites.

6. Mars has a different atmosphere from Earth's. Jupiter has a different atmosphere from Earth's.

Both are much farther from the sun than Earth is.

7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot is an enormous storm. It has been observed by astronomers

for centuries.

8. The atmosphere of Mars contains some oxygen. It will not sustain human life.

9. The most distinct feature on Mars is Olympus Mons, an immense volcano. The highest point

on Mars is Olympus Mons.

10. Because it is composed of gases, Jupiter is more like a star than a planet. Because it is

composed of gases, Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives.

24 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 5 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 25

Combining to Create Compound Sentences


DIRECTIONS Combine each pair of sentences below into a compound sentence
by using a comma and a coordinating conjunction, a semicolon, or a semicolon
and a conjunctive adverb. Try to use each method at least once. Be sure to use
the correct punctuation.

and
EXAMPLE The city of Sydney has a large, deep harbor on Australia's southern coas%lThis

harbor is the busiest port in the country.

1. The city of Sydney, Australia, began as a prison colony in 1788. It grew slowly until the

mid-1800s.

2. Around 1800, a farmer brought the first sheep to Sydney. By 1842, many people had settled in

the city because of its thriving wool industry.

3. By 1848, Sydney was no longer used as a prison colony. Its rich farmland continued to attract

settlers from around the world.

4. With the discovery of gold in New South Wales in 1851, people seeking their fortune rapidly

expanded the city's population. By 1891, Sydney had more than 383,000 residents.

s. Sydney remained Australia's largest city throughout the 199Os. Its area, including suburbs, is

about forty-seven hundred square miles.

6. The city still has reminders of its origins as a British prison colony. Prison buildings, such as

Hyde Park Barracks, which housed male prisoners, have been preserved throughout the city.

7. Many of Sydney's residents are primarily of European descent. The city's Asian population

has increased greatly since the mid-1900s.

8. Because of the city's location and moderate temperatures, its residents, known as

Sydneysiders, enjoy many watersports such as surfing and sailing. They also have a taste for

cultural activities, including the theater, opera, and fine works of art.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 25


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 5 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 26

~ombining to Create Compound Sentence_s__

o
DIRECTIONS Combine each pair of sentences below into a compound sentence
by using a comma and a coordinating conjunction, a semicolon, or a semicolon
and a conjunctive adverb. Try to use each method at least once. Be sure to use
the correct punctuation

EXAMPLE In 1990, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the

Hubble Space Telescope1;the telescope was used to study our solar system.

1. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, controls the telescope by radio

commands. The Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, is the telescope's

science operations center.

2. The Hubble telescope orbits Earth roughly 380 miles from the surface. Data collected is

transmitted to Earth.

3. Astronomers hoped that the Hubble telescope would be an important tool in their search for

new planets beyond our solar system. Three years after its launch, engineers found problems

with the telescope's instruments.

4. In 1993, space shuttle astronauts installed new instruments on the telescope. Additional repairs

were made in 1999.

5. The telescope has a large mirror that measures ninety-four inches in diameter. The mirror

gathers light that helps scientists study stars and galaxies.

6. The telescope contains two cameras that photograph images of objects. These cameras are

valuable because they allow astronomers to see space without atmospheric distortions.

7. These instruments allow astronomers to see images the size of the planet Pluto. They have also

discovered Charon, a satellite of Pluto.

8. The Hubble telescope has discovered evidence of black holes as far away as 50 million light

years. Astronomers using the telescope have also sighted rings of dust around stars.

26 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 6 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 27

Combining to Create Complex Sentences

DIRECTIONS Combine the following pairs of sentences.


• Tum the second sentence into a subordinate clause and insert it into the
first sentence.
• Add or delete words and add commas as necessary.
• For the first four pairs, use the hints in the parentheses. For the last four,
use your own judgment.

Ma.r
EXAMPLE Cape Breton Island is an island off the coast of Canad'YIIt1s connected to Nova

Scotia by a mile-long causeway. (Use that.)

1. Its granite hills are considered a part of the Appalachian Highlands. Cape Breton is not part of

the mainland. (Use although.)

2. The north end of the island contains forests, lakes, and high plateaus. It has been preserved as

Cape Breton Highlands National Park. (Use because.)

3. Cape Breton is also a center of manufacturing and mining. Its coal deposits are the largest in

Canada. (Use whose.)

4. Farming and deep-sea fishing are important industries to Cape Breton. Farming is primarily

contained to the Margaree Valley. (Use which.)

5. The first permanent settlement was established in 1713. The French built the Fortress

of Louisborg.

6. The fortress was captured by the English in 1758 and destroyed in 1760. The ruins of the

fortress are a national historic park.

7. French settlers and United Empire Loyalists arrived at the end of the eighteenth century. They

accounted for the majority of the population at the time.

8. The Scottish Highlanders began arriving in the early nineteenth century. They introduced the

Gaelic language to the island.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 27


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 6 PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 28

Combining to Create Complex Sentences

DIRECTIONS Combine the following pairs of sentences.


• Tum the second sentence into a subordinate clause, and insert it into the
first sentence.
• Add or delete words, and add commas as necessary.
• For the first four pairs, use the hints in the parentheses. For the last four,
use your own judgment.

",,110 invented Me telepllone,


EXAMPLE Alexander Graham Bel,bwas a naturalized United States citizen and a teacher of the

hearing impaired. He llivented tIre tetel'hone!(Use who.)

1. Bell was bom in Edinburgh, Scotland. He left in 1870 to immigrate to Canada. (Use which.)

2. Bell founded a school for the hearing impaired in 1872. He was living in Boston. (Use when.)

3. Bell first considered the idea for the telephone in 1874. He was working on a multiple

telegraph. (Use while.)

4. The first telephone transmission of human speech was on March 10, 1876. Bell and his

assistant were experimenting in their laboratory. (Use as.)

5. The Bell Telephone Company was organized in 1877. The telephone's effectiveness and

potential were demonstrated at the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition.

6. His inventive genius is always associated with the telephone. Few people realize that Bell

was one of the founders of the National Geographic Society.

7. Turning his attention to marine navigation, Bell was convinced of something. He could

develop a hydrofoil boat capable of traveling above the water at high speeds.

8. A museum was built by the Canadian government on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, the

site of Bell's summer home. The museum contains many of Bell's inventions.

28 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW A PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 29

~ Revising Sentences by Combining


DIRECTIONS Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned,
combine each of the following sets of sentences into one sentence.
• Create new sentences by inserting words or phrases, by creating
compounds, or by creating complex sentences.
• Add or delete words in the sentences if necessary.
• Add punctuation where necessary.

Main
EXAMPLE Food supplies have been one of the world'~concems as the popUlation has

increased. Food supplies are a main concern of people around the worl&.r

1. Drought, floods, and other natural disasters can cause famine. Famine occurs if food supplies

are destroyed or cannot be transported.

2. They are not always able to supply sufficient food to their people during natural disasters.

The governments of many countries around the world know this.

3. About 600 million people, most of them children, suffer from malnutrition. Malnutrition is a

condition caused by inadequate amounts of protein and calories.

4. Childhood malnutrition creates mental and physical disabilities. The effects can also be seen

when a malnourished child grows up.

5. Many countries fail to meet the nutritional needs of their people. Rapid population growth is

one reason.

6. The population of the world expands at a rate of more than 1.5 percent every year. It exceeded

five billion by the mid-1990s.

7. At that rate, the number of people in the world will double in forty-one years. The production

of food will also have to double to keep up with the demand.

8. Previously, a high death rate maintained the level of the world's population. During the

twentieth century, medical advances added years to people's life expectancies. Improved

living standards also added years to human life expectancy.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 29


NAME ClASS DATE

for REVIEW A PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 30

Revising Sentences by Combining


DIRECTIONS Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned,
combine each of the following sets of sentences into one sentence.
• Create new sentences by inserting words or phrases, by creating compounds,
or by creating complex sentences.
• Add or delete words and add punctuation where necessary.

referred to as "aNtS,
EXAMPLE Amateur radio is a hobby that allows radio operators to run their own radio
I,l

stations. :flu? operators are referred to as hams!

1. Radio operators number roughly one million. They transmit messages around the world. They

use International Morse Code or voice to send messages.

2. Guglielmo Marconi was the first person to successfully transmit radio signals across the

Atlantic Ocean. Marconi's transmission of radio signals in 1901 began the era of amateur radio.

3. By 1919, Frank Conrad, a ham radio operator, began to transmit music as entertainment. This

activity helped pave the way for commercial radio broadcasting.

4. In the 1930s Grote Reber constructed a radio telescope with an antenna. Reber was a ham from

the United States. The antenna could pick up noise from space.

1~
5. As technology advanced, amateur radio-communications satellites called Os cars (Orbiting
.E,g'
:;{
Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) were launched into space. The amateur satellites reached
~
~
space by "hitchhiking" with other satellites.
~
t:

6. In 1965, the Oscar 4 allowed direct satellite communications for the first time. Direct communi­ ~
~
~~

cations were established between the United States and the Soviet Union. S
o
E
7. Some ham operators bounce signals off the moon to communicate. Others have devised ways .~
u

to use their radio sets to transfer information between computers.

8. Amateur radio operators have played a valuable role in assisting emergency personnel. Ham .....,J
operators have received recognition from world governments for their efforts.

30 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for REVIEW B PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 31

\....- I Revising aParagraph by Combining Sentences o


DIRECTIONS Using the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and
rewrite the following paragraphs on the lines provided .
• Use your judgment about which sentences to combine and how to
combine them.
• Write smooth, varied sentences that are easy to understand .
• Do not change the original meaning of the paragraph.

1. Roadrunners can fly. They rarely do. These birds prefer to run. They prefer
to run from any trouble. They are noted for their amusing behavior. Oddly,
they seem to enjoy chasing golf balls. RoadrulUlers live primarily on lizards
and snakes. They are known to eat the fruits of cactus. They can also catch
cicadas or grasshoppers. They do this by jumping into the air. Roadrunners
tolerate little contact with humans. They do not like intruders near their nests.
RoadrulUlers are being forced into new habitats in wilder, more remote areas.
This is an unfortunate development.

2. The U.S. Army wanted the Nez Perce to give up their land in Oregon. Chief
Joseph and his people would not submit willingly to this demand. Chief Joseph
was the Nez Perce leader. They refused to be forced onto a reservation. The
reservation was in Idaho. Canada would be a refuge for the Nez Perce. Chief
Joseph was certain of this. He led his people on a historic march. They marched
to avoid involuntary relocation. The march began in the summer of 1877. It
ended in surrender on October 5 because the Nez Perce were exhausted from
traveling. The Nez Perce were just forty miles from freedom. They had traveled
fifteen hundred miles. "Their peaceful surrender earned respect for American
Indians. Their gallant dignity earned respect for American Indians.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 31


NAME ClASS DATE

for REVIEW B PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 32

Revising aParagraph by Combining Sentences ....J

DIRECTIONS Using the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and
rewrite the following paragraphs on the lines provided.
• Use your judgment about which sentences to combine and how to
combine them.
• Write smooth, varied sentences that are easy to understand.
• Do not change the original meaning of the paragraph.
..... u •••••••••• H •••••• n ••••••••••• H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u •••••••••• u ........ u .... H •••••••••• H ••••••

1. Amy Tan was born in 1952. She is a Chinese American. Tan's parents wanted
her to become a surgeon and a pianist. Tan had other goals. She got a master's
degree in linguistics. Tan then worked with disabled children. She also was a
business writer. She decided that she wanted to write fiction. Tan's first novel
was The Joy Luck Club. It was a huge success. This book was made into a movie
in 1993. It focused on the relationship between four Chinese mothers and their
daughters. She has written two more novels. The names of the novels are The
Kitchen God's Wife and The Hundred Secret Senses.

2. Deer are known to be fast runners. They are also known to be excellent
swimmers. They may seem timid to humans. They are not defenseless. Their
sharp hooves can deliver damaging blows. The male's antlers are formidable
weapons. The antlers are branched. The gentle deer can be a fierce opponent.
Deer must fight off predators. All of this exertion requires a hearty diet. A
deer's meals consist of grass, bark, leaves, and possibly moss, lichens, and
fungi. This is the typical diet of a deer. Deer are enterprising when it comes to
food. They add to their food choices by raiding backyard gardens and farmers'
fields. Deer have some exotic relatives. This is an interesting fact. Scientific
evidence suggests a connection between deer and giraffes. Deer and giraffes
have a common genetic past.

32 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 7 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 33

'-' Revising Sentences to Create Parallel Structure


DIRECTIONS Some of the following sentences are out of balance.
• Use parallel structure to bring balance to the sentences.
• Delete or add words if necessary.
• If a sentence is already correct, write C.

EXAMPLE After school, John's chores are cleaning his room, doing the dishes, and Wstud!;S

for tomorrow's test.

1. The process of evaluating a television documentary includes watching, listening, and

with notes.

___ 2. An opera singer is trained to perform onstage and in the recording studio.

___ 3. The travelers decided that hiking into the Grand Canyon would be good exercise and

that driving by it would be boring.

_ _ 4. Flying an airplane and driving a car require more skill than to ride a bike.

S. The heroine of the play persuades her brothers to mortgage the farm, to invest in more

land, and to repair the house.

___ 6. Many talented performers enjoy acting, singing, and dance.

7. Some goals of the group are building membership, encouraging change, and how to

raise funds.

___ 8. Car owners understand the importance of keeping tires inflated, filling the gas tank,

and how to check the oil.

___ 9. To camp out, rent a cabin, and visiting relatives are popular vacation activities.

___ 10. We praised the quarterback'S skill, speed, and how agile he was.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 33


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 7 PRACTICE B. WORKSHEET 34

Revising Sentences to Create Parallel Structure .J

DIRECTIONS Some of the following sentences are out of balance.


• Use parallel structure to bring balance to the sentences.
• Delete or add words if necessary.
• If a sentence is already correct, write C.

EXAMPLE For the interview, the applicant had to prepare a resume, write a cover letter, and

resear~he company.
1. In her free time, the author enjoys reading, gardening, and travels.

2. Keisha does not have the time to volunteer at the literacy center, to play volleyball,

and track.

3. My friend from Belgium told me that many Europeans watch American television

shows and to listen to American music.

4. The map shows that the Mississippi River begins at Lake Itasca and flowing into the

Gulf of Mexico.

5. After several lessons, the music student was able to hold a violin properly, to tune it,

and playa simple piece of music.

6. The senator decided to give up her seat in the Senate and running for vice president of

the United States.

7. During the summer many people like to camp out, to go swimming, and cookouts.

S. Many students find that getting into college is relatively easy but that adjusting to

college life is more difficult than they thought.

34 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

fa'
EXERCISE 8 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 35

\...,. :Revising Stringy Sentences


o
DIRECTIONS Revise each of the following stringy sentences.
• Break the stringy sentence into two or more shorter sentences, or show
the relationship between ideas by turning an independent clause into a
subordinate clause or phrase .
• Change the punctuation wherever necessary.

EXAMPLE Frederic Auguste Barthold~was% French sculptor, ~as born in 1834, and
,
Vdied in 1904.

1. Bartholdi designed the Statue of Liberty, and he used elements of the Egyptian pyramids and

his mother's face as a model.

2. The statue was completed in France in 1884, and it had to be carefully crated in sections to be

shipped to the United States, and then it had to be reassembled.

3. The Statue of Liberty is more than 150 feet high, and its original cost was $400,000, but the cost

of its 1986 restoration was $230 million.

4. The pedestal of the Statue of Liberty is made of concrete, and the concrete is reinforced by steel

beams, but the entire mass of concrete is covered with granite.

5. The statue's torch is about 305 feet above the ground, and its flame is lit at night by the reflected

light of sixteen lamps around its rim, and it is gold-covered.

6. The statue holds a tablet, and the tablet is in her left arm, and the tablet is engraved with the

date of the Declaration of Independence in Roman numerals.

7. Liberty Island was called Bedloe's Island, and its name was changed by an act of Congress in

1956, and the statue stands on Liberty Island.

8. Under the pedestal is Fort Wood and it was deactivated in 1937 and it looks like a

ten-point star.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 35


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 8 PRACTICE B. WORKSHEET 36

Revising Stringy Sentences

DIRECTIONS Revise each of the following stringy sentences.


• Break the stringy sentence into two or more shorter sentences, or show
the relationship between ideas by turning an independent clause into a
subordinate clause or phrase.
• Change the punctuation wherever necessary.

EXAMPLE The Underground Railroad was actually aboveground, and it was not really a

railroa~~t was a system to help enslaved people escape to free states or

to Canada.

1. The railroad had J/conductors," and they made sure that "packages" traveled safely between

"stations" throughout the long journey, and these "packages" were fugitive slaves determined

to escape to freedom.

2. Enslaved people had been forced into hard labor, and they were often subjected to inhumane

conditions, and some were separated from their families.

3. On their way to freedom, some fugitives pretended to be on errands for their masters, and

others wore disguises, and men dressed as women, and women dressed as men.

4. Many ministers and farmers volunteered to work on the Underground Railroad; however,

former slaves helped to run it, too, and everyone involved was courageous and resourceful.

5. Harriet Tubman helped hundreds of people reach freedom, and she was well known on

the Underground Railroad, and she made many dangerous trips to the South to rescue

enslaved people.

6. Abraham Lincoln was president of the United States during the Civil War, and he issued the

Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, and he hoped that the proclamation would help bring

slavery and the war to an end.

36 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 9 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 37

'-' Revising Wordy Sentences


DIRECfIONS Some of the following sentences are wordy.
• Ask the following questions for each sentence: Does it have any unnecessary
words? Does it have fancy words that can be replaced with simple ones?
Does it repeat ideas?
• If you answer yes to any question, revise the sentence to reduce the wordiness.
• If a sentence doesn't need improvement, write C.

on tiMe 0/
EXAMPLE My report will be complete~in a timely and expeditious manner:

1. At this point in time, I would like to announce that I am ready to commence presenting

my report.

2. My report is five hundred words, thereby exceeding the length set forth by

our instructor.

3. In the event that I am unable to read in the allotted period of time, I will finish going

through its contents tomorrow.

4. My report provides many insights into what it is like to be an astronaut.

5. An astronaut is someone who takes a spaceflight out into space.

6. Because there is a lack of gravitational pull in space, astronauts have a sense of weight­

lessness out in space.

7. Since there are so many astronauts, I would like to focus my report on one

in particular.

8. Sally Ride is a famous astronaut who is a favorite of many people.

9. The reason I am embarking on a detailed exposition of Sally Ride is because I am

interested in female astronauts who have been in the space program.

___ 10. You may know that Sally Ride was the first woman astronaut in the U.S. space

program to orbit the Earth.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 37


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 9 PRACTICE 8, WORKSHEET 38

Revising Wordy Sentences

DIRECTIONS Some of the following sentences are wordy.


• Ask the following questions for each sentence: Does it have any unnecessary
words? Does it have fancy words that can be replaced with simple ones?
Does it repeat ideas?
• If you answer yes to any question, revise the sentence to reduce the wordiness.
• If a sentence doesn't need improvement, write C.

EXAMPLE The Wright brothers invented the airplan and they discovered a machine th~
7l(f)
could fly.SL..

1. Kill Devil Hill, a narrow strip of land that is located near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina,

was the site of their first experiments in 1900 at the beginning of the twentieth century.

2. The brothers made four successful flights in Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903.

3. These pioneer flights were witnessed and seen only by one boy and four men, one of

whom photographed a flight just at the moment the plane left the ground.

4. Not many newspapers were interested in the historic flights, and some printed false,

incorrect information in their stories.

S. Their invention remained unnoticed for the next five years without much attention.

6. The two brothers, who continued with their efforts despite the lack of attention,

believed that airplanes would one day be used to carry mail and passengers and

hoped planes could prevent and prohibit war.

7. In 1913, a year after Wilbur contracted and succumbed to typhoid fever, Orville Wright

received the Collier Trophy for his invention of a useful apparatus used to balance

flying machines automatically.

8. For their contributions to aeronautics, the Wright brothers were elected in the year 1965

to the Hall of Fame of Great Americans, which is situated in New York City.

38 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

or EXERCISE 10 PRACTICE A, WORKSHEET 39


[
.Varying Sentence Beginnings
~----~--~------------------~--------~-----------------------------o

DIRECTIONS Using what you have learned about varying sentence beginnings,
revise each of the following sentences. The hint in parentheses will tell you
whether to begin with a phrase, a clause, or a single-word modifier.

1. The first scientific explanations of Earth's composition were proposed by the ancient Greeks,

but their scientific explanations blended fact, superstition, and guesswork. (phrase)

2. Herodotus, a Greek historian, studied marine fossils and then concluded that the Earth had
once been completely covered by water. (subordinate clause)

3. Strabo, a Greek geographer, wrote in his multivolume Geography in 7 B.C. that volcanoes and
earthquakes were partially responsible for the rising and sinking of land masses. (phrase)

4. The Romans wrote detailed works on geology later, using knowledge of their extensive
empire's varied terrain. (single-word modifier)

5. Pliny the Younger unintentionally promoted the science of geology in a letter about his uncle's
<i:
death when he described the catastrophic eruption ofMt. Vesuvius in A.D. 79. (phrase)
c::
~
~
"0
c:
t'"
~
~ 6. Little scientific advancement took place for six hundred years until the Islamic physician
~. Avicenna published his findings in the eleventh century. (subordinate clause)

7. Robert Mallet started his geological study of earthquakes in 1846, and he learned to measure
the speed of underground vibrations. (subordinate clause)

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 39


NAME ClASS DATE

or EXERCISE 10 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 40

t.Varying Sentence Beginnings

~--~~--=---------------~~------~------------------------~O

DIRECTIONS Using what you have learned about varying sentence beginnings,
revise each of the following sentences. The hint in parentheses will tell you
whether to begin with a phrase, a clause, or a single-word modifier.

1. 'The unique art of producing stained glass is frequently associated with the decoration of

houses of worship. (single-word modifier)

2. The earliest known complete stained-glass windows are thought to be those of the Augsburg
Cathedral in Germany, which date from the eleventh or twelfth century. (phrase)

3. Artisans specializing in stained glass began trying to achieve the effects of oil painting in the
1400s. (phrase)

4. In the sixteenth century, enamel pigments made painting on glass as easy as painting on
canvas, but critics thought this development was unfortunate. (subordinate clause)

5. Stained-glass art of the sixteenth century depended on more difficult coloring techniques,
which included firing the glass at low temperatures to "fix" the paint. (single-word modifier)

6. Advocates for the art of stained glass believed that stained glass should be distinct from oil
painting, and encouraged a return to traditional methods of coloring glass during the Gothic
Revival of the nineteenth century. (phrase)
-
.r:::
'"
.~
u

7. William Morris, among others, produced stained-glass windows of exceptional quality during
the nineteenth century's Gothic Revival. (subordinate clause)

40 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 11 PRACIICE A, WORKSHEET 41

\...,. I Revising aParagraph to Create Variety


DIREcnONS Using what you have learned about combining sentences and

varying structure, revise the following paragraph to make it smoother
and more varied .
• u ..................... u •••••• u ... U • • • • H H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H U • • • • H •• n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H ............................... H •••••••••••••••••• u .. u ••••••••• H ............ H ••

Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect. He was a gifted architect.


He designed commercial buildings and homes. Wright liked his buildings to
complement the landscape. He was a pioneer. He created open floor plans.
He eliminated traditional room divisions. He was able to bring nature indoors.
Many of Wright's designs became famous. The Guggenheim Museum in New
York Oty is considered one of his boldest works. It contains a floor-ta-ceiling
spiral ramp. Wright's design for the Marin County Ovic Center in California is
also adventurous. It connects three hills with a series of nine structures. It was
completed in the year 2000. Wright died in 1959. His architectural genius lives
on. Many of his buildings have been preserved as museums. His contributions
to architecture were extraordinary.

CHAPTER 10 I Writing Effective Sentences 41


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for EXERCISE 11 PRACTICE B, WORKSHEET 42

I
Revising aParagraph to Create
______ Variety
_____ --=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _• .~-=-_-=- ~

DIRECTIONS Using what you have learned about combining sentences and
varying structure, revise the following paragraph to make it smoother
and more varied .
.................. ~ •• H ......................... H •••• H ...................... H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H ................................. h •••
U
•••••••••••
n ••

Flying a kite is a popular form of recreation for many people. It is popular


around the world. Kites do not really serve a purpose anymore. They do not
serve a useful purpose. They are older than any other form of aircraft. They
are named after an elegant bird. Kites appear in various colors, shapes, and
sizes. They can be made of materials ranging from paper or cloth to plastic or
nylon. The frames are often made of aluminum or fiberglass. The lines may be
nylon, polyeste~ cotton, or other synthetics. Kites are easy to assemble. Kites
have changed little in design over the years. The Chinese made the first kite
some two thousand years ago. They attached bamboo pipes to paper kites.
They did this to frighten their enemies. The sound of the wind whistling
made the enemies retreat. Scientists have used kites for research. Military
personnel have used kites for research. Kites have been used by scientists and
military personnel for centuries. Kites are flown in Japan during a festival.
These kites are taller than people. The festival is more than four hundred
years old. Today kites are used mostly for recreation.

42 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 1 WORKSHEET 43

Identifying Parts of Paragraphs

DIRECTIONS Identify the parts of each of the following paragraphs.


• First, locate the topic sentence.
• Then, identify each supporting sentence as either a sensory detail, a fact,
a statistic, an example, or an anecdote.
• Finally, determine whether any of the paragraphs have a clincher sentence.

1. Decoration was an important part of the Ojibwa way of life. One original and
beautiful craft made by the Ojibwa was the dental (or tooth) pictograph. First,
thin sheets of birch bark were folded. Then the artist would bite designs into
the sheets. When the sheets were unfolded, et symmetrical and often beautiful
design would appear. A common design in dental pictographs was flowers.
Topicsentence: ____________________________________________________________
Type of supporting sentences: _________________________________________________
Clincher sentence: __________________________________________________________

2. Do authors automatically know how to get their books published? When Pat
Conroy, author of The Prince of Tides, wanted to publish his first book, he looked
in the phone book under Publishers and Printers. He called a local printing
company, which quoted him a price for printing the book. So Conroy submitted
his manuscript and money. The result was that, without publicity and sales
support, his first novel gathered dust, and he lost several hundred dollars. Even
though their books may be good enough for publication, most authors discover
that actually getting pUblished can be extremely difficult.
Topic sentence: ____________________________________________________________
Typeofsupporlingsentences: _________________________________________________
Clincher sentence: __________________________________________________________

3. Visitors to Everglades National Park in Florida can explore this subtropical


wilderness by hiking, paddling a canoe, or riding a tram or boat. In the park,
alligators and crocodiles live side by side in the steamy swamps. Pelicans,
anhingas, and cormorants, as well as other tropical birds, drcle the skies and
build nests in the treetops. So, whether you are serious about studying nature
or you simply enjoy relaxing in beautiful surroundings, Everglades National
Park has something for you.
Topic sentence: ___________________________________________________________
Typeofsupportingsentences: _______________________________________________
Clincher sentence: _________________________________________________________

CHAYfER 11 I Understanding Paragraphs and Compositions 43


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 2 WORKSHEET 44

Improving the Qualities of Paragraphs

DIRECTIONS The ideas in the following paragraph are poorly arranged.


The paragraph may also contain information that detracts from its unity.
• Determine which type of order would work best for the paragraph.
• Revise the paragraph by arranging the sentences into that order,
eliminating any sentences that are unrelated to the main idea and
incorporating direct references and transitions.
• Decide whether there is sufficient elaboration to support the main idea.

Pelicans have light-colored heads and gray-brown bodies, short tails, and
bills that expand to store fish. Both nest in colonies; the pelican lays three to
five eggs while the frigate bird lays just one. The brown pelican and the mag­
nificent frigate bird are related birds with differing traits. When flying, the
pelican alternates powerful strokes with short glides. The pelican often glides
just inches from the water and rarely soars. Frigate birds are mostly black, with
long tails. Frigate birds also have narrow, hooked bills. Frigate birds and peli­
cans catch fish from the ocean, but each has another peculiar way of getting
food. The frigate bird glides for long periods and soars to great heights. Pelicans
roost on fishing piers waiting for handouts, and frigate birds snatch fish away
from other birds in flight. The red-billed tropicbird is also related to these birds.
Most sensible type of order: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Revision: ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
~

Is there sufficient elaboration? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

44 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME ClASS DATE

for EXERCISE 3 WORKSHEET 45

'--' I Analyzing Thesis Statements

DIRECTIONS Identify the specific topic and the main idea of each of the

following thesis statements.

"'~.""""""'."""""""""""""""'''''' • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• H ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• U •••••••• U ••••••••••

1. If a European vacation is in your plans, staying at the youth hostels is highly recommended;
they can be the most enjoyable part of the trip.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~ainidea: ____________________________________________________________

2. Children go through many stages in their relationship with their parents, but for many of
them, the most satisfying part of the relationship develops when they become adults.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~ainidea: ____________________________________________________________

3. The Internet has forever changed how the world communicates, but it is doing more harm
than good.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________

~ainidea: ________________________________~--------------------------
4. Ballooning may appear to be serene from the ground, but it is actually quite a
dangerous sport.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~Mnidea: _____________________________________________________________

5. Although many people consider travel by car to be safer than flying, air travel is actually the
safer form of transportation.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~ainidea: ____________________________________________________________

6. In an ever-changing technological world, people who possess a strong knowledge of


computers will further their careers more effectively than those without this skill.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~ainidea: _____________________________________________________________

7. A change in the health insurance system may be necessary to ensure that people receive
adequate health care.
Topic: ________________________________________________________________
~ ~ainidea: ____________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 11 I Understanding Paragraphs and Compositions 4S


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 4 WORKSHEET 46

~nalyzing Introd_u_c_ti_on_.~s__~_____~_.

DIRECTIONS Answer the following questions for each of the paragraphs below.
1. What technique does the writer use in the beginning of the introduction?
2. How well do you think the technique works? Would you continue reading
the article?
3. How would you describe the tone-the writer's attitude toward the topic?
What words and details in the introduction reveal the tone?
4. Does the introduction follow the structure you learned about on page 388?
If not, how does it differ?

1. With barely more than 1,000 square miles in land area and slightly more
than one million people, Rhode Island is the smallest state in the union.
Because of its size, people may believe that there is not enough room be­
tween its borders to contain much natural beauty or historical significance.
The state does not routinely make national headlines. However, this tiny
Northeast state is actually a treasure trove brimming with natural splendor,
fascinating personalities such as Roger Williams and the Vanderbilts, fabu­
lous mansions in Newport, and a rich history as the first colony to secede
from England.

------------------_._­

2. Imagine driving along a deserted West Texas highway at dusk near the
town of Marfa. The mountains on the horizon look like sleeping dragons.
The rosy hues of sunset seem to be playing tricks on your eyes as you notice
several unusual blue, white, or green lights hanging in the air, seemingly
suspended by nothing. Some dance diagonally along the land, while others
move horizontally up the mountainside. Could the stars be falling to the
ground? Are you having a close encounter with an unidentified flying object?
You are experiencing the phenomenon known as the Ghost Lights of Marfa.
From legends to ghost stories to scientific explanations, the Marfa Lights
have baffled people for over one hundred years and have inspired several
extraordinary theories.

46 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


NAME CLASS DATE

for EXERCISE 5 WORKSHEET 47

\..-r Analyzing Body Paragraphs


DIRECTIONS Read the following pair of body paragraphs, and then follow the
directions below.
1. Identify the main idea that creates unity between the paragraphs.
2. Write a thesis statement that summarizes the main idea.
3. Identify examples of direct references and transitional expressions that the
writer uses to show coherence between the two paragraphs.
4. Identify sentences in the second paragraph that elaborate on the main idea .
. . . . . . . . . . . h · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U . H •• • • • • • • • •• • • • • • • • • • • •• • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u ••••••••• u •••••••• u . n ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• u •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Arches National Park in Utah is an ever-changing gallery of natural art.


The park encompasses the world's largest collection of rock arches. More than
200 of these sandstone sculptures decorate the desert landscape, some rising
100 feet in the air and spanning nearly 300 feet across. Mirroring the colors
of sunset, the arches are layered in red, pink, and orange hues. The artists
responsible for this masterpiece-wind, rain, snow, ice, and blowing sand­
continually dabble at their work. Their changes range from shifts invisible to
the human eye to the destruction of entire fonnations.
In contrast to the dry, sunlit splendor of Utah's natural arches, the passage­
ways and domed chambers of Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park
have their own damp, dark beauty. Colorful stalactites and stalagmites pro­
trude from the cave's ceiling and floor, and gypsum flowers adorn its walls.
Smooth in some spots, corrugated in others, amber-colored flowstone adds
another dimension to the cave's interior. Like the Arches National Park, the
land around Mammoth Cave was once covered by seawater, and both
natural wonders were fonned by erosion. The fonnations of Mammoth
Cave, however, are limestone rather than sandstone.
1. ntainidea: _____________________________________________________________

2. thesis statentent: ______________________________________________________

3. exantples: _____________________________________________________________

4. sentences: ____________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 11 I Understanding Paragraphs and Compositions 47


NAME ClASS DATE

ror EXERCISE 6 WORKSHEET 48

I Improving aConclusion
DIRECTIONS Study the following first drafts of conclusions for two

compositions to see how they can be improved. Rewrite and revise


each one on the lines provided .
• You will need to infer the main idea of the compositions from details in
the paragraphs.
• You may change the paragraphs any way you like, make up details, or
.even start over completely.

1. Who was Jim Wagner? He wanted to call attention to the issue of slavery.
Was he well-received? He made some people angry because of his tactics.
Did he help advance the cause of freedom? Some say yes. Some say he made
things worse. Was his uprising worse than the Ovil War?

2. That's my point. Children achieved greater equality in the classroom and


among adults. But it is not enough. There are the issues of curfew and a fair
allowance. Millions of children have friends to bond with-both emotionally
and intellectually. They can't expect others to do their work. Write your
student editor today.

48 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key

Grading Scale
~ The
exercises generally contain ten numbered items.
To facilitate grading, the chart below shows the
number of points per item in exercises containing
different numbers of items .

Number of Items .. Number of Points per


in Exercise 1 Item to Total 100

6 16.7

7 14.3

8 12.5

Answer Key
9. Tourists are awed by the incredible height

Chapter 9 ...J

of the tall buildings.


Writing Complete Sentences
10. Broadway is a center of theater
p.1 I Exercise 1 productions.
Practice A, Worksheet 1
1. C 6. S 11. V 16. V p.4 I Exercise 2

2. S 7. V 12. V 17. I Practice B, Worksheet 4

3. V 8. I 13. C 18. I (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>


4. V 9. C 14. S 19. C 1. The divers went on an expedition to study
5. S 10. V 15. I 20. V marine life in the Caribbean.
2. They put on scuba gear to dive into the

p.2 I Exercise 1
ocean.

Practice B,Worksheet 2
3. By studying corals, they hoped to learn

1. C 6. I 11. I 16. S orI


more about them.

2. S 7. V 12. S 17. S
3. V 8. S 13. V 18. V 4. Trained in undersea exploration, a marine
4. C 9. C 14. I 19. S orI biologist led the team.
5. V 10. I 15. I 20. V 5. The expedition was guided by experienced
divers.
P. 3 I Exerdse 2 6. Coral, a living organism, is quite fragile.
Practice A, Worksheet 3 7. Surrounded by multicolored fish, the coral
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.> looked spectacular. ....J
1. Every year thousands of tourists vacation 8. The marine biologist was an expert at

in New York City. identifying various species.

2. Equipped with cameras and guidebooks, 9. The group discovered a stranded octopus
visitors explore historical sites and on some rocks.
museums. 10. Undersea explorers help to increase
3. Tourist can travel economically by taking
public transportation.
knowledge of life under the sea.
1
l!!
"l§,
4. One efficient and inexpensive method of p.S I Exercise 3
''''~

~
transportation is the New York subway Practice A, Worksheet 5

system. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.> ~


"0
c:
5. No tour of New York would be complete 1. Alice Walker, the youngest of eight children, '"
t:
without a visit to Liberty Island to see the was born in 1944. When she was eight years '"'"
.<:.

Statue of Liberty. old, she had an unfortunate accident. Walker's '"
"5'
::t:
6. If they are interested in getting some eye was blinded by a shot from a BB gun. 1;
@
exercise, tourists can go to Central Park Even though the resulting scar made her self- 1:'Cl
to walk, jog, cycle, or skate. conscious, she did not let it control her life. '~
0
u
7. To avoid getting lost, tourists need to carry Walker believed she could accomplish almost
city maps of New York. anything if she set her mind to it.
8. Looking at the skyline, visitors see a col­
lection of some of the tallest structures in ~

the world.

50 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
0
2. Jaime Escalante became famous for his aboriginal word that means "one who does not
~ success in teaching underprivileged students need to drink." Koalas drink very little because
in the inner city high school where he was a they eat eucalyptus leaves, which contain a lot
math instructor. Before he arrived at Garfield of water. Because of deforestation and disease,
High School in Los Angeles, many students koalas are not as common as they once were.
were discouraged about learning math.
Escalante knew he could reach these students, p.7 I Exercise 4
whose 120tential he recognized. It was not easy, Practice A, Worksheet 7
but Escalante demanded excellence from his (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>
students. Because so man,)l: students 12assed
1. Some people believe that vitamin C can
the advanced 12lacement exam in calculus,
testing officials became suspicious. They had help prevent colds.
Escalante's students take another, more diffi- 2. These people recommend citrus drinks
cult test, which the,)l: also passed. Wherever with vitamin C to anyone who wants to
he taught, Escalante's message was the same: avoid the common cold.
"Believe in your dreams." 3. If people drink plenty of citrus juice, they
may have more energy.
p.6 I Exercise 3 4. Many people start the day with a glass of
Practice B, Worksheet 6 orange or grapefruit juice because citrus
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.> drinks are refreshing.
1. The smallest specimen in the bird world is S. Lime juice is pale green, while grapefruit
the hummingbird. These tiny creatures have a juice is yellow or pink.
~ high metabolism that keeps their hearts beat­ 6. Although tangerine juice tastes good, it is
ing at the incredible rate of It260 times ~r not as popular as orange juice.
minute. A hummingbird's heart is 2.4 percent
7. Many citrus drinks can be refreshing as
of its body weight, which typicall,)l: is three
long as they are very cold.
grams. Even when it is at rest, a hummingbird
takes 250 breaths every minute. Though the,)l: 8. Because lemonade can be high in sugar
and calories, it may not be as healthful as
1 are tin,)l:, these birds have incredible stamina. A
other juices.
~ male ruby-throated hummingbird's wingbeats
~
.s::
have been registered at 78 times per second 9. Since many citrus drinks are high in
""'"
~ when he is in ordinary flight, and these beats vitamin C, they are better for people than
j
.~
may increase to more than 200 during a dive. soft drinks.
." 2. Koalas are marsupials that are related to 10. Most people have heard that they should
"'"
t:: kangaroos and opossums. Marsupials are drink eight glasses of water each day.
II>
.s::
'"
~
mammals that have a bag or 120uch for their
:a
I
young. At birth, a koala is only one inch long p.8 I Exercise 4
1; and must find a way to reach its mother's Practice B, Worksheet 8
0
.E pouch, where it will sta,)l: for seven to nine (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
'"
"j;.
Q. months. When the ,)I:oung koala is strong
u
0
1. Because no one is born with good man-
enough to leave the pouch, it may still stay
ners, courtesy must be learned.
with its mother for as long as two years.

Although the,)l: are not bears, koalas are some- 2. Once good manners are thoroughly

times called koala bears. The name koala is an learned, they become habitual.

\.."

ANSWER KEY 51
Answer Key
3. Although it may be considered old-
architecture reflects various influences: Roman,

fashioned, it is still courteous to open
Byzantine, and Ottoman. Ankara's commercial 'wIi

doors for others.


center is in the old section of the city that grew
4. Unless there is a valid reason, no one
along the slope of the citadel. The new section,
should be kept waiting.
dominated by imposing government buildings
and foreign embassies, boasts hotels, theaters,
5. If people use good manners, much

and restaurants. Ankara is also horne to cul­


unpleasant behavior can be avoided.

tural and educational institutions. Ankara


6. Someone who has learned not to interrupt became the capital of Turkey in 1923, replacing
another's conversation knows an irnpor­ Istanbul.
tant business skill.
7. Many jobs require good social skills, which p. 10 I Exercise 5

include telephone etiquette. Practice B, Worksheet 10

8. It is polite to share information that would (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
be helpful to co-workers. 1. As a child, Clara Barton had been shy. When
9. Most employees enjoy working for a polite she grew older, however, her desire to help
manager whose department is well run. those in trouble changed her behavior. During
10. When people are treated with respect, they the Civil War, she saw that the soldiers lacked
usually want to perform their jobs well. food and medical supplies. Taking matters into
her own hands by placing a newspaper ad, she
p.9 I exerciseS
received donations to offset critical shortages.
Practice A, Worksheet 9
While working behind German lines during
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
the Franco-Prussian War, she became involved ~
with the International Red Cross. Returning to
1. Before Francisco Pizarro began the Spanish the United States, she began a five-year strug­
conquest in 1532, the Inca empire dominated gle to persuade people that the United States
the Andes Mountains region. An emperor should have its own branch of the society. The
who demanded strict obedience ruled the land. American Red Cross collects donated blood
All business was run by the state, which could but has also been actively engaged in aid to
draft citizens for its projects. Although people
were subjects of the state, the sick and elderly
refugees, the exchange of prisoners of war,
and disaster relief.
1J!l
.J:;
0>

were clothed and fed. Terracing the landscape ''''~


2. In memory of a Greek runner of ancient c
and irrigating the crops, the Inca farmed the ~c
times, the marathon became part of the mod­
mountainsides. The Inca, whose roadways ~
em Olympic Garnes in 1896. Set as a distance "C
included ferries and bridges, were also brilliant c
'"
of 26 miles, 385 yards, marathon races are reg­ t::
engineers. The city of Machu Picchu is an ~'"
ularly scheduled in the United States as well as ,so
example of their skill with tools like the a::
in other countries. The Boston Marathon has is
plumb bob and the wooden roller, which they :r
been challenging athletes since its inception in .l;
used for heavy construction. Hundreds of 0
1897. Enjoying great popularity, the New York 10
years after their civilization was subdued by C\

the Spanish, the descendants of the once-


Marathon and the Chicago Marathon attract
runners from all parts of the world. Some
lu
dominant Incas make up about fifty percent
marathon winners receive prizes from spon­
of Peru's population.
sors of the race. Many runners, however, com­
2. Ankara is an ancient city that archaeologists pete because they enjoy the competition and
believe dates from the Stone Age. The city's love the sport itself. ~

52 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
0
P. 11 I Exercise 6 2. The upper section of Chesapeake Bay runs
\..,.­ Practice A, Worksheet 11 through Maryland; similarly, the lower bay
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) separates a section of Virginia from the rest
of the state.
1. During the 1950s and 19608, chemicals
were heavily used in agriculture; however, 3. The Chesapeake is deep enough to accom­
many of these chemicals proved to be modate oceangoing ships; the entire bay
harmful to the environment. covers 3,237 square miles.

2. An environmentalist named Rachel Carson 4. Among the oldest historical sites along the
studied the effects of these chemicals; she bay are Yorktown and Jamestown. These
published her findings in the book Silent cities were early colonial settlements.
Spring. 5. Captain John Smith of Jamestown gave the
3. Silent Spring received intense criticism bay the Native American name che-sep-ack.
from chemical manufacturers; nevertheless, The word means"country on a great
the book sparked concern for the environ­ river."
ment. 6. During the War of 1812, the Chesapeake
4. Eventually Carson's book was translated Bay was an invasion route for the British;
into many languages. Laws were passed consequently, the British were able to land
around the world to protect the environ­ a ground force, march on the White House,
ment. and set it on fire.

5. Like Carson, Joy Adamson was interested 7. In 1814, the British bombarded Fort
in the environment; however, she concen­ McHenry. As he watched the action from a
\..,.- trated her efforts on the African lion ship in the bay, Francis Scott Key wrote
habitat. "The Star-Spangled Banner."

6. A lion cub named Elsa became famous 8. The Civil War's famous battle between two
when Adamson published her experiences ironclad ships took place in Hampton
in the book called Born Free. The book was Roads; the battle was fought between the
made into a popular film. Monitor and the Merrimack.

I
l!l
.c
7. Profits from Adamson's book and film
helped her promote better understanding
p.13 I Review A
Practice A, Worksheet 13
.g'
;:{
of animals' needs, and she established a
fund to support methods that would help (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
~
~ animals stay healthy and free in the wild. 1. A large ocean bird, the albatross may
.
-g
1::
8. Both Carson and Adamson emphasized follow a ship for days at a time.
~
.!;;
the importance of our relationship with 2. With a favorable wind, the albatross flies
at!
~
nature; these women overcame obstacles to at a rate of 100 miles an hour.
0
J:
};
obtain the world's respect for their causes. 3. The wingspread of the albatross is more
0 than eleven feet from tip to tip, wider than
1:
.~ P. 12 I Exercise 6 that of any other bird.
u Practice B, Worksheet 12 4. The body of an albatross is relatively small;
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) it may be no more than nine inches wide.
1. Long and narrow, the Chesapeake Bay 5. The birds sit on the water to eat, feasting
washes the coasts of Maryland and on squid, fish, and garbage from ships.
\.,­ Virginia; its location and history are

significant.

ANSWER KEY 53
Answer Key
--------------~----------------------------------------------~.
6. The Antarctic islands are remote and bar­ 10. Arthur took the sword, and he was
ren, but they are the preferred nesting area acknowledged as Britain's rightful king.
for the albatross.
7. C p.1S I Review B

Practice A, Worksheet 15

8. A male albatross is white with black

wingtips; the female's neck and back are


Fragments are underlined once; run-on sentences
dappled with brown.
are underlined twice.
9. The range of the albatross is extensive; for The seven wonders of the ancient world
example, the black-footed species may continue to fascinate us. Even though most of
travel anywhere along the Pacific coast and them no longer exist in their original splendor.
has been sighted as far north as Alaska.
For example, located in present-day Iraq. The
10. A famous poem by Samuel Taylor Hanging Gardens of Babylon were a series of
Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,
terraces filled with tropical plants and flowers,
is based on an old superstition that killing
now their extraordinary beauty is lost to the
an albatross brings bad luck.
past. After the 40-foot ivory and gold statue
p.14 I Review A
of Zeus at Olympia had endured for ten cen­
Practice B, Worksheet 14
turies. It too disappeared. Similarly, most of the
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) remaining wonders exist only by reputation or
1. Part myth, part history, the story of King
through artifacts and ruins. Tradition tells us.
Arthur is based on a Celtic legend.
That the temple of Diana at Ephesus was
2. In all the tales about Arthur, the historical destroyed by fire. Exactly what happened to
elements are difficult to authenticate. the Mausoleum at Halicamassus is unclear,
3. Because Arthur was born in dangerous
still. relics of it are displayed in the British
circumstances, Merlin took him to be
Museum. The Colossus of Rhodes, a bronze
raised by Sir Ector.
statue. Whose height ancient historians put at
4. Arthur's true identity would be revealed 105 feet, was toppled by an earthquake in
if Arthur performed a task that only the 224 B.C. Standing for about 1,500 years. The
rightful king could do. great lighthouse at Alexandria was also felled
5. Plunged into a stone, a great sword could by an earthquake it was thought to be the
be removed only by the person who was model for modem lighthouses.
meant to be king.
The single exception to these losses is the
6. Many strong knights attempted to remove remarkable endurance of the Egyptian pyra­
the sword to prove their worthiness to be mids. The only one of the wonders to remain
king, but all failed. into the modem era. Although they are the
7. Arthur pulled the sword from the stone; oldest of these ancient sites. The pyramids
he had been sent back to retrieve a sword continue to withstand the rigors of time. Built
for Sir Kay. between 2650 and 2500 B.C.
8. Sir Kay recognized the sword and took
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
credit for removing it from the stone. He
The seven wonders of the ancient world
admitted later that Arthur had removed
continue to fascinate us even though most of
the sword.
them no longer exist in their original splendor.
9. C For example, located in present-day Iraq, the
Hanging Gardens of Babylon were a series of

54 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
------------~----------------------------------------------------o
terraces filled with tropical plants and flowers, stage of construction was probably completed
but now their extraordinary beauty is lost to before 1500 B.C. Incredibly, thirty stones, each
the past. After the 40-foot ivory and gold statue standing upright and weighing as much as
of Zeus at Olympia had endured for ten cen­
fifty tons, were placed in a circle the circle
turies, it too disappeared. Similarly, most of
the remaining wonders exist only by reputa­ ringed a series of stones shaped like a horse­
tion or through artifacts and ruins. Tradition shoe. Although some theorists suggest that
tells us that the temple of Diana at Ephesus Stonehenge was associated with sky worship
was destroyed by fire. Exactly what happened or with the Celtic priests called Druids. The
to the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is unclear. evidence does not support these notions.
Still, relics of it are displayed in the British Scholars now think it more likely that Stone­
Museum. The Colossus of Rhodes, a bronze
henge was a primitive observatory, its unusual
statue whose height ancient historians put at
105 feet, was toppled by an earthquake in design may have been used to determine when
224 B.C. Standing for about 1,500 years, the certain astronomical events, such as solstices,
great lighthouse at Alexandria was also felled would occur.
by an earthquake; it was thought to be the (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
model for modern lighthouses.
Standing upright and arranged in a circle,
The single exception to these losses is the the stones of England's Stonehenge monument
remarkable endurance of the Egyptian pyra­ are remnants of an intriguing ancient structure
mids, the only one of the wonders to remain whose appearance, history, and purpose attract
into the modem era. Although they are the the attention of about one million visitors each
oldest of these ancient sites, the pyramids, year. According to archaeologists, Stonehenge
built between 2650 and 2500 B.C., continue to was built between 3100 and 1550 B.C., and the
withstand the rigors of time. monument probably underwent three phases
of construction. The first phase included a cir­
p.16 I Review B
cular ditch and a ring of pits that are known
Practice B, Worksheet 16
as the Aubrey Holes. In the second phase,
Fragments are underlined once; run-on sentences thought to have occurred in about 2100 B.C.,
are underlined twice. massive rock pillars from Wales were brought
to the site. These immense stones were placed
Standing upright and arranged in a circle.
in two concentric circles. The last stage of
England's Stonehenge monument is an intrigu­
construction was probably completed before
ing ancient structure. Whose appearance, his­ 1500 B.C. Incredibly, thirty stones, each standing
totyi and purpose attract the attention of about upright and weighing as much as fifty tons,
one million visitors each year. According to were placed in a circle that ringed a series of
archaeologists, Stonehenge was built between stones shaped like a horseshoe.
3100 and 1550 B.C., the monument probably Although some theorists suggest that
Stonehenge was associated with sky worship
underwent three phases of construction. The
or with the Celtic priests called Druids, the
first phase included a circular ditch and a ring
evidence does not support these notions.
of pits. That are known as the Aubrey Holes. In Scholars now think it more likely that
the second phase, thought to have occurred in Stonehenge was a primitive observatory, and
about 2100 B.C., massive rock pillars from Wales its unusual design may have been used to
were brought to the site, these immense stones determine when certain astronomical events,
were placed in two concentric circles. The last such as solstices, would occur.

ANSWER KEY 55
__er_K_e.~y~_________________________•
_A_n_sw
Chapter 10 added to the canal so that two ships could
travel in opposite directions at the same
Writing Effective Sentences time.
p. 17 I Exercise 1
5. With a width of 110 feet and a depth

Practice A, Worksheet 17
of 70 feet, however, the locks cannot

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) accommodate enormous supertankers

or supercarriers.

1. The Great Wall of China is the longest

structure ever built completely by hand.


6. Averaging about thirty-four commercial and
military ships a day and 170 million short
2. Stretching along what was then China's

tons of cargo a year, the canal is a heavily


northern border, the Great Wall is nearly
used waterway.
four thousand miles long.

7. The United States maintained control of


3. Remarkably, the Great Wall reaches a height the canal until 1999, when Panama gained
of almost thirty-five feet at some points. regional control of the Canal Zone.
4. The eastern section of the wall, on top
8. When Panama took control of the canal, it
of which runs a road made of brick and
gave the U.S. military installations there
mortar, crosses the mountainous Mongolian
the right to defend the important area.
Border Uplands.
5. As the Great Wall winds west of Beijing, it p. 19 I Exercise 2

cuts across hills and desert where builders Practice A, Worksheet 19

used dampened soil to make the structure.


(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>
6. The Great Wall was built mainly during

1. John Steinbeck was an award-winning


the Ming dynasty (1368-1644).

novelist and short-story writer, as well as


7. After centuries of use, the Great Wall was a screenwriter and playwright.
in need of extensive repairs.
2. Originally, Steinbeck, who is best known
8. A lot of restoration work has been done
for his powerful descriptions of ordinary
since 1949.
people, had once wanted to write
romances.
P. 18 I Exercise 1

3. In 1962, Steinbeck was awarded the

Practice 8,Worksheet 18

prestigious Nobel Prize for literature,

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) which indicated the world's respect for

1. The Panama Canal, a seaway connecting his writing.

the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, 4. Steinbeck disliked fame and often tried to
was an outstanding feat of engineering. escape it by returning to Mexico.
2. For nearly ten years, thousands of laborers 5. The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck's first major
cleared jungles and swamps, using large novel, realistically depicts the life of
steam-powered shovels and dredges. migrant workers and their families.
3. After the canal's completion in 19l4, a voy­ 6. In Travels with Charley, Steinbeck wrote of
age by ship from New York to California his adventures on a trip across America
was reduced significantly from 13,000 miles with his old poodle.
to 5,200 miles.
7. Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath and East of

4. Locks-three-tiered chambers that raise Eden were successfully adapted for the

and lower ships to different levels-were theater and motion pictures.

S6 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
------------~--------------------------------------------------o
8. The main character in Steinbeck's novella 4. Mitchell's father wrote a letter about his

~
The Pearl is temporarily assured of a better daughter's discovery to a Harvard

life when he finds an extraordinary pearl. University professor.

5. Father Francesco de Vieo of Rome, a

p.20 I Exercise 2
Catholic priest, noticed the same comet

Practice B,Worksheet 20
two days after Mitchell did.

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) 6. The king of Denmark awarded a prize for
1. The brief reign of Tutankhamun, an discovering a comet through a telescope
Egyptian pharaoh, lasted about nine years. to Father Francesco.
2. Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon 7. The king was unaware of Mitchell's

received permission to search the desolate discovery at the time of the award's

Valley of the Kings for several tombs. presentation.

3. Carter and Carnarvon found 8. Reaching an agreement with the king,

Tutankhamun's tomb filled with valuable Mitchell received the prize a year later.

objects in 1922.
4. When Carter entered the tomb, he found P. 22 I Exercise 3

a passage that led to a series of four under­ Practice B, Worksheet 22

ground rooms. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)


5. Unlike the tombs of other pharaohs, 1. Legend has it that the Frisbee®, a famous
Tutankhamun's small burial place did not toy, was "invented" in the 1820s by Elihu
contain false doors, deep pits, and stone Frisbie at Yale.
~ obstructions to discourage grave robbers. 2. Frisbie reportedly tossed a collection

6. Once the excavation team was inside the


plate from the Yale chapel out onto the

tomb, they found a collection of vases,


campus grounds.

parts of chariots, statues, and caskets


3. Years later, each insisting that they

covered with ornaments.


invented the game of Frisbee®, Princeton,

7. The most valuable part of the remarkable Dartmouth, and other colleges claim

1 treasure, a solid-gold mask, weighed credit for the pie pan-tossing craze.

~
l'l
..c twenty-two pounds. 4. In 1948, Walter Morrison, a California

'"
-c::
8. Removing the mummy's protective
building inspector, turned the pie pan

'<
~c wrappings, Carter's team found many
into a plastic disc.

~ gold and jeweled amulets.


5. Morrison marketed his disc, the "Pluto

"c Platter," at a time when people were

'"
1::
'"c:OJ
..c
p.21 I Exercise 3 fascinated with UFOs .

0::
.:g Practice A, Worksheet 21 6. The disc became very popular after

J:
~ (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) Morrison exhibited it at California fairs

Q
:E 1. Mitchell and her father studied the stars
and beaches.

'"
-~
a.
0 from an observatory on the roof of their
7. Rich Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin

u
house.
bought the rights to the plastic disc from

2. In 1847, Mitchell noticed a strange star


Morrison in 1957.

where none had been before.


8. Having heard some of the old pie pan­

~ 3.

Plotting the object's coordinates as it tossing stories, the two toy enthusiasts

changed the name of the disc to Frisbee®.

moved across the sky, she thought it might


be a comet.

ANSWER KEY 57
Answer Key
------------~-------------------------------------------.
p.23 I Exercise 4
4. Four large moons and about twelve

Practice A, Worksheet 23
smaller moons orbit Jupiter.

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) 5. Jupiter's four major moons were first

1. Wolves and coyotes are carnivorous


seen by Galileo and are called the

mammals.
Galilean satellites.

2. Wolves and coyotes sometimes live alone 6. Mars and Jupiter have different atmos­
but hunt for large prey in packs. pheres from Earth's and are farther from
the sun than Earth is.
3. Wolves and coyotes attack weaker

animals, preventing overpopulation


7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot is an enormous
of some species.
storm and has been observed by
astronomers for centuries.
4. Coyotes are thought to mate for life but

may accept another mate if their first


8. The atmosphere of Mars contains some

mate leaves.
oxygen yet will not sustain human life.

5. A wolf pack consists of an adult pair and 9. The most distinct feature and the highest
their offspring and usually numbers from point on Mars is Olympus Mons, an
five to nine animals. immense volcano.
6. Litter sizes vary but range from five to
10. Because it is composed of gases, Jupiter is
nine pups for both wolves and coyotes.
more like a star than a planet and radiates
more energy than it receives.
7. Both male wolves and male coyotes
help females feed the young and protect
p.25 I Exercise 5

secluded dens.
Practice A, Worksheet 25

8. By howling, wolves and coyotes announce


(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
territorial changes or call pack members
together for a hunt. 1. The city of Sydney, Australia, began as a
prison colony in 1788; it grew slowly until
9. Coyotes can adapt to a variety of environ­
the mid-1800s.
ments and are found in almost every state.
2. Around 1800, a farmer brought the first
10. Diseases and parasites afflict wolves and
sheep to Sydney, and by 1842, many peo­
coyotes and can reduce the numbers of
ple had settled in the city because of its
these predators.
thriving wool industry.
p.24 I Exercise 4
3. By 1848, Sydney was no longer used as a
Practice B, Worksheet 24
prison colony, but its rich farmland con­
tinued to attract settlers from around
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>
the world.
1. Mars travels around the sun in 687 days

4. With the discovery of gold in New South


and completes one revolution every

Wales in 1851, people seeking their for­


24 hours, 37 minutes.

tune rapidly expanded the city's pop­


2. Jupiter moves slowly around the sun but ulation; by 1891, Sydney had more than
spins rapidly on its axis, completing a 383,000 residents.
revolution every ten hours.
5. Sydney remained Australia's largest city
3. Phobos and Demios are moons that orbit throughout the 1990s; its area, including
Mars. the suburbs, covered forty-seven hundred
square miles.

58 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cant.)
------------~------------------------------------------------O
6. The city still has reminders of its origins as cameras are valuable because they allow
a British prison colony; prison buildings, astronomers to see space without atmos­
such as Hyde Park Barracks, which housed pheric distortions.
male prisoners, have been preserved 7. These instruments allow astronomers to

throughout the city. see images the size of the planet Pluto;

7. Many of Sydney's residents are primarily moreove~ they have also discovered

of European descent; howeve~ the city's Charon a satellite of Pluto.

Asian population has increased greatly B. The Hubble telescope has discovered

since the mid-19OOs. evidence of black holes as far away as

B. Because of the city's location and moderate 50 million light years; meanwhile,

temperatures, its residents, known as astronomers using the telescope have

Sydneysiders, enjoy many watersports also sighted rings of dust around stars.

such as surfing and sailing; furthermore,


they have a taste for cultural activities, p.27 I Exercise 6

including theate~ opera, and art. Practice ~ Worksheet 27

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>


p.26 I Exercise 5

1. Although Cape Breton is not part of the

Practice 8,Worksheet 26

mainland, its granite hills are considered

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) a part of the Appalachian Highlands.

1. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 2. Because the north end of the island con­

Greenbelt, Maryland, controls the tele­ tains forests, lakes, and high plateaus,

scope by radio commands, and the Space it has been preserved as Cape Breton

Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Highlands National Park.

Maryland, is the telescope's science


3. Cape Breton, whose coal deposits are

operations center.
the largest in Canada, is also a center of

2. The Hubble telescope orbits Earth at


manufacturing and mining.

roughly 380 miles from the surface; data

4. Farming, which is primarily confined to


collected is transmitted to Earth.

the Margaree Valley, and deep-sea fishing


3. Astronomers hoped that the Hubble tele­ are important industries to Cape Breton.
scope would be an important tool in their
5. The first permanent settlement was estab­
search for new planets beyond our solar
lished in 1713 when the French built the
system; however, three years after its
Fortress of Louisborg.
launch, engineers found problems with
the telescope's instruments. 6. The fortress, whose ruins are a national
historic park, was captured by the English
4. In 1993, space shuttle astronauts installed

in 1758 and destroyed in 1760.


new instruments on the telescope; addi­

tional repairs were made in 1999.


7. French settlers and United Empire
Loyalists, who accounted for the majority
5. The telescope has a large mirror that meas­
of the population at the time, arrived at the
ures ninety-four inches in diameter; the
end of the eighteenth century.
mirror gathers light that helps scientists
study stars and galaxies. B. The Scottish Highlanders, who introduced
the Gaelic language to the island, began
6. The telescope contains two cameras that

arriving in the early nineteenth century.


photograph images of objects; these

ANSWER KEY 59
Answer Key
----------~----------------------------------~O
P. 28 I Exercise 6
3. About 600 million people, most of them

Practice 8, Worksheet 28
children, suffer from malnutrition, a con­

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) dition caused by inadequate amounts of

protein and calories.

1. Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland,

which he left in 1870 to immigrate to


4. Childhood malnutrition creates mental and
Canada.
physical disabilities; these effects can also be
seen when a malnourished child grows up.
2. When he founded a school for the hearing
impaired in 1872, Bell was living in Boston. 5. Many countries fail to meet the nutritional
needs of their people because of rapid pop­
3. Bell first considered the idea for the tele­
ulation growth.
phone in 1874 while he was working on

a multiple telegraph.
6. Exceeding 5 billion by the mid-1990s, the
population of the world expands at a rate
4. The first telephone transmission of human of more than 1.5 percent every year.
speech was on March 10, 1876, as Bell and
his assistant were experimenting in their 7. At that rate, the number of people in the
laboratory. world will double in 41 years; the produc­
tion of food will also have to double to
5. The Bell Telephone Company was
keep up with the demand.
organized in 1877 after the telephone's

effectiveness and potential were demon­


8. Previously, a high death rate maintained

strated at the 1876 Philadelphia


the level of the world's popUlation, but

Centennial Exposition.
during the twentieth century, medical

advances and improved living standards

6. Because his inventive genius is always added years to human life expectancy.

associated with the telephone, few people


realize that Bell was one of the founders of
p.30 , Review A

the National Geographic Society.


Practice 8, Worksheet 30

7. Turning his attention to marine navigation,


(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.>
Bell was convinced that he could develop a
hydrofoil boat capable of traveling above 1. Numbering roughly one million, radio

the water at high speeds. operators transmit messages around the

world by International Morse Code or

8. A museum that contains many of Bell's


voice.

inventions was built by the Canadian


government on Cape Breton Island, Nova 2. Guglielmo Marconi, whose transmission

Scotia, the site of Bell's summer home. of radio signals in 1901 began the era of

amateur radio, was the first person to

P. 29 I Review A
successfully transmit radio signals across

Practice A, Worksheet 29
the Atlantic Ocean.

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) 3. By 1919, Frank Conrad, a ham radio oper­
ator, began to transmit music as entertain­
1. Drought, floods, and other natural disas­
ment, which helped pave the way for
ters can cause famine if food supplies are
commercial radio broadcasting.
destroyed or cannot be transported.
4. In the 1930s Grote Reber, a ham from the
2. The governments of many countries

U:nted States, constructed a radio telescope


around the world know that they are not

wlth an antenna that could pick up noise


always able to supply sufficient food to

from space.
their people during natural disasters.

60 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
------------~----------------------------------------------------o
s. As technology advanced, amateur radio
~
on a historic march to avoid involuntary relo­
communications satellites called Oscars cation. The march began in the summer of 1877
(Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur but ended in surrender on October 5 because
Radio) were launched into space by the Nez Perce were exhausted from traveling.
"hitchhiking" with other satellites. Having traveled fifteen hundred miles, the Nez
6. In 1965, the Oscar 4 allowed direct satellite Perce were just forty miles from freedom. Their
communications for the first time between peaceful surrender and gallant dignity earned
the United States and the Soviet Union. respect for American Indians.
7. While some ham operators bounce signals
off the moon to communicate, others have p.32 I Review B

devised ways to use their radio sets to Practice B, Worksheet 32

transfer information between computers. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
8. Amateur radio operators, who have Paragraph 1
received recognition from world govern­ Amy Tan, a Chinese American, was born in
ments for their efforts, have played a valu­ 1952. Tan's parents wanted her to become a
able role in assisting emergency personnel surgeon and pianist, but Tan had other goals.
during disaster situations. After getting a master's degree in linguistics,
Tan worked with disabled children. She was
p. 31 I Review B also a business writer. Then she decided to
Practice A, Worksheet 31 write fiction. Tan's first novel, The Joy Luck
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) Club, was a huge success. This book, which
was made into a movie in 1993, focused on the
~ Paragraph 1
relationship between four Chinese mothers
Although roadrunners can fly, they rarely and their daughters. Since then, she has also
do. These birds prefer to run from any trouble. written The Kitchen God's Wife and The Hundred
They are noted for their amusing behavior; Secret Senses.
oddly, they seem to enjoy chasing golf balls.
Paragraph 2
Roadrunners, which are known to eat the fruits
Deer are known to be fast runners and excel­
1 of cactus, live primarily on lizards and snakes.
~ They can also catch cicadas or grasshoppers by lent swimmers. Although they may seem timid
j!I
.t::
jumping into the air. Roadrunners tolerate little to humans, they are not defenseless. Their
'"
"<::
sharp hooves can deliver damaging blows.
~ contact with humans, nor do they like intruders
c:'
~c: near their nests. Unfortunately, roadrunners The male's branched antlers are formidable
~ are being forced into new habitats in wilder, weapons. When it must fight off predators, the
"0
c
'" more remote areas. gentle deer can be a fierce opponent. All of this
t::
2 exertion requires a hearty diet. Typically, a
2! Paragraph 2
a:: deer's meals consist of grass, bark, leaves, and
::.!
0
:r The U.S. Army wanted the Nez Perce to give possibly moss, lichens, and fungi. Deer are
1;
@ up their land in Oregon; however, Chief Joseph, enterprising when it comes to food and add
10 the Nez Perce leader, and his people would not
"~ to their food choices by raiding backyard
u
0 submit willingly to this demand. They refused gardens and farmers' fields. Interestingly, deer
to be forced onto a reservation in Idaho. Chief have some exotic relatives. Scientific evidence
Joseph was certain that Canada would be a suggests that deer and giraffes have a common
refuge for the Nez Perce so he led the people genetic past.
~

ANSWER KEY 61
Answer Key ~---------------------~-----------------------------0

p.33 I Exercise 7 6. The senator decided to give up her seat in


the Senate and to run for vice president of
..,J

Practice A, Worksheet 33
the United States.
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
7. During the summer many people like

1. The process of evaluating a television doc­


to camp out, go swimming, and attend

umentary includes watching, listening,


cookouts.

and taking notes.


8. C
2. C
3. C
p.35 I Exercise 8
4. Flying an airplane and driving a car
Practice A, Worksheet 35
require more skill than riding a bike.

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)


S. C
1. Using elements of the Egyptian pyramids
6. Many talented performers enjoy acting,
and his mother's face as a model, Bartholdi
singing, and dancing.
designed the Statue of Liberty.
7. Some goals of the group are building
2. The statue was completed in France in

membership, encouraging change, and


1884. It had to be carefully crated in sec­
raising funds.
tions to be shipped to the United States,

8. Car owners understand the importance of where it was reassembled.

keeping tires inflated, filling the gas tank, 3. The Statue of Liberty is more than 150 feet
and checking the oil. high. It originally cost $400,000, but its 1986
9. Camping out, renting a cabin, and visiting restoration cost $230 million.
relatives are popular vacation activities. 4. The pedestal of the Statue of Liberty is
....J

10. We praised the quarterback's skill, speed, made of concrete reinforced by steel
and agility. beams. The entire mass of concrete is cov­
ered with granite.
p.34 I Exercise 7
S. The statue's gold-covered torch is about

Practice S, Worksheet 34
305 feet above the ground, and its flame

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) is lit at night by the reflected light of 16
l
~
lamps around its rim.
j::l
1. In her free time, the author enjoys reading, ..c:
.g'
gardening, and traveling. 6. In her left arm, the statue holds a tablet ~
cO
2. Keisha does not have the time to volunteer engraved with the date of the Declaration a
1;;
c
at the literacy center, play volleyball, and of Independence in Roman numerals. ~
-g
participate in track. 7. Liberty Island, where the statue stands, '"
1:

was caned Bedloe's Island until its name '"


..c:
3. My friend from Belgium told me that c:'"
c

many Europeans watch American tele­ was changed by an act of Congress in 1956. =!
a
:c

vision shows and listen to American music. .D
@
p.36 I Exercise 8
.E
4. The map shows that the Mississippi River CJ>
'r:
Practice S, Worksheet 36
1>:
begins at Lake Itasca and flows into the u
0

Gulf of Mexico. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)


S. After several lessons, the music student 1. The railroad had "conductors" who made
was able to hold an instrument properly, sure that "packages" traveled safely
tune it, and playa simple piece of music. between "stations" throughout the long ~

journey. The "packages" were fugitive


slaves determined to escape to freedom.

62 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs! and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
0
2. Enslaved people had been forced into 9. I am reporting on Sally Ride because I am
\..,. hard labor and were often subjected to interested in female astronauts.

inhumane conditions. Some were sepa­ 10. C

rated from their families.

3. On their way to freedom, some fugitives p.38 I Exercise 9


pretended to be on errands for their mas- Practice B, Worksheet 38
ters. Others wore disguises; men dressed (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
as women, and women dressed as men.
1. Kill Devil Hill, a narrow strip of land near
4. While many ministers and farmers vol- Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, was the site
unteered to work on the Underground of their first experiments in 1900.
Railroad, former slaves helped to run it,
too. Everyone involved was courageous 2. C
and resourceful. 3. "These pioneer flights were witnessed by
5. Harriet Tubman, who was well known only one boy and four men, one of whom
on the Underground Railroad, helped photographed a flight as the plane left the
hundreds of people reach freedom. She ground.
made many dangerous trips to the South 4. Few newspapers were interested in the
to rescue enslaved people. historic flights, and some printed incorrect
6. Abraham Lincoln, President of the United information.
States during the Civil War, issued the 5. Their invention remained unnoticed for the
Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. He next five years.
hoped that the proclamation would help 6. The two brothers, who continued their
~ bring slavery and the war to an end. efforts despite the lack of attention,

believed that airplanes would one day

p.37 I Exercise 9 carry mail and passengers and hoped


Practice A, Worksheet 37 planes could prevent war.
(Possible revisions are provided.) 7. In 1913, a year after Wilbur succumbed to
-0
1. I am now ready to present my report. typhoid fever, Orville Wright received the
'"
2:
~ Collier Trophy for inventing an apparatus
2. My report is five hundred words, which is
lOl
.s::. that balanced airplanes automatically.
.g' beyond the required length.
~ 8. For their contributions to aeronautics, the
c: 3. If I do not have time to read the entire
~ Wright brothers were elected in 1965 to
~
report today, I will finish it tomorrow.
-0
the Hall of Fame of Great Americans in
c:
'" 4. C New York City.
1:::
'"c:
.s::.
5. An astronaut is someone who takes a
'"
ii"

,.J
"0
spaceflight. p.39 1 Exercise 10

::t:
:Ii 6. Because there is no gravity in space, astro­ Practice A, Worksheet 39
~
1: nauts feel weightless. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
.~
0 7. C 1. Blending fact, superstition, and guesswork,
u
8. Sally Ride is a famous and popular the first scientific explanation of Earth' s
astronaut.
composition was proposed by the ancient
Greeks.

~.

ANSWER KEY 63
Answer Key---------------------------------------------------0
2. After he studied marine fossils, Herodotus, S. Later, stained-glass art depended on

a Greek historian, concluded that Earth more difficult coloring techniques, which

had once been completely covered by included firing the glass at low tempera­

water. tures to "fix" the paint.

3. In 7 B.C., Strabo, a Greek geographer, wrote 6. Believing that stained glass should be dis­
in his multivolume Geography that volca­ tinct from oil painting, advocates for the
noes and earthquakes were partially art of stained glass encouraged a return
responsible for the rising and sinking of to traditional methods of coloring glass
land masses. during the Gothic Revival of the nine­
4. Later, the Romans wrote detailed works on teenth century.
geology, using knowledge of their exten­ 7. During the nineteenth century's Gothic

sive empire's varied terrain. Revival, William Morris, among others,

S. In a letter about his unde's death, Pliny produced stained-glass windows of

the Younger unintentionally promoted exceptional quality.

the science of geology when he described


the catastrophic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius p.41 I Exercise 11

in A.D. 79. Practice A, Worksheet 41

6. Until the Islamic physician Avicenna pub­ (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
lished his findings in the eleventh century, Frank Lloyd Wright was a gifted American
little scientific advancement took place for architect who designed commercial buildings
600 years. and homes. Wright, who liked his buildings to
7. When Robert Mallet started his geological complement the landscape, was a pioneer in
study of earthquakes in 1846, he learned creating open floor plans and in eliminating
to measure the speed of underground traditional room divisions. He was able to
vibrations. bring nature indoors. Many of Wright's
designs became famous. The Guggenheim
P. 40 I Exercise 10
Museum in New York City, which contains a
Practice B, Worksheet 40
floor-to-ceiling spiral ramp, is considered one
of his boldest works. Wright's adventurous
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
design for the Marin County Civic Center in
1. Frequently; the unique art of producing California connects three hills with a series of
stained glass is associated with the decora­ nine structures. It was completed in the year
tion of houses of worship. 2000. Wright died in 1959, but his architectural
2. Dating from the eleventh or twelfth cen­ genius lives on. His contributions to architec­
tury, the earliest known complete stained­ ture were so extraordinary that many of his
glass windows are thought to be those of buildings have been preserved as museums.
Augsburg Cathedral in Germany.
3. In the 1400s, artisans specializing in
p.42 I Exercise 11

stained glass began trying to achieve the


Practice B, Worksheet 42

effects of oil painting.


(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
4. Although enamel pigments made painting Although flying a kite is a popular form of
on glass as easy as painting on canvas in recreation around the world, kites do not really
the sixteenth century, critics thought this serve a useful purpose anymore. Named after
development was unfortunate. an elegant bird, they are older than any other

64 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
----------~-------------------------------------.
fonn of aircraft. Kites appear in various colors, p.44 I Exercise 2

shapes, and sizes and can be made of materials Worksheet 44

ranging from paper or cloth to plastic or nylon. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
The frames are often made of aluminum or
fiberglass, and the lines may be nylon, poly­ Most sensible type of order: logical

ester, cotton, or other synthetics. Easily assem­ Revision: The brown pelican and the magnifi­

bled, kites have changed little in design over cent frigate bird are related birds with differing

the years. The Chinese made the first kite some traits. Although both nest in colonies, the peli­

two thousand years ago. To frighten their ene­ can lays three to five eggs while the frigate

mies, they attached bamboo pipes to paper bird lays just one. When flying, the pelican

kites. The sound of the wind whistling made alternates powerful strokes with short glides.

the enemies retreat. For centuries, scientists It often glides just inches from the water and

and military personnel have used kites for rarely soars. The frigate bird, however, glides

research. Kites taller than people are flown for long periods and soars to great heights.

in Japan during a festival that is more than Pelicans have light-colored heads and gray­

four hundred years old. Today, most kites are brown bodies, short tails, and bills that expand

used only for recreation. to store fish. Frigate birds, on the other hand,

are mostly black, with long tails and narrow,

hooked bills. Both catch fish from the ocean,

Chapter 11 but each has another peculiar way of getting

Understanding Paragraphs and Compositions food. While pelicans roost on fishing piers

waiting for handouts, frigate birds snatch fish

p.43 I Exercise 1
away from other birds in flight.

Worksheet 43
Is there sufficient elaboration? Yes.

(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) Sentences eliminated: The red-billed tropic­

1. Topic sentence: Decoration was an impor­ bird is also related to these birds.

tant part of the Ojibwa way of life.


Type of supporting sentences: example p.45 I Exercise 3

Clincher sentence: none Worksheet 45

2. Topic sentence: Do authors automatically (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
know how to get their books published? 1. Topic: touring Europe via the youth hostel
Type of supporting sentences: anecdote route
Clincher sentence: Even though their Main idea: The youth hostel route is one of
books may be good enough for publica­ the most enjoyable ways to tour Europe.
tion, most authors discover that actually
2. Topic: the parent-child relationship
getting published can be extremely Main idea: For some children, the most
difficult. satisfying point in their relationship with
3. Topic sentence: none
their parents develops when they become
l)rpe of supporting sentences: facts,
adults.
examples
3. Topic: the Internet has changed communi­
Clincher sentence: So, whether you are

cations
serious about studying nature or you
Main idea: The Internet is doing more
simply enjoy relaxing in beautiful sur­
hann than good.
roundings, Everglades National Park

has something for you.

ANSWER KEY 65
Answer Key 0
4. Topic: the sport of ballooning 3. The writer uses an informal, mysterious

Main idea: Ballooning can be a dangerous tone. Sensory details are introduced but
~

sport. not explained. Questions like, "Could the

5. Topic: air travel vs. car travel


stars be falling to the ground?" are intro­
Main idea: Traveling by air is safer than
duced but not answered

traveling by car.
4. The introduction follows the "funnel"

6. Topic: computer knowledge in the


structure described on page 388 by

workplace
moving from the general setting to the

Main idea: People who possess strong


specific thesis.

computer skills have a career advantage

over those who don't.


p.47 I Exercise 5

Worksheet 47

7. Topic: health care reform

Main idea: Health care reform may be


(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.)
necessary to ensure that everyone has
1. contrasting and comparing the beauty

health insurance.
of Arches National Park to that of

Mammoth Cave

P. 46 I Exercise 4
2. The Arches and Mammoth Cave National
Worksheet 46
Parks are both unusual because of their
(Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) rock formations.
Paragraph 1 3. The second paragraph uses the following
1. This introduction begins with background direct references: "Utah's natural arches,"
information. "Arches National Park," and "both natural
wonders." The transitional expressions
....J

2. This technique is not effective because it


"in contrast to," "Like," and "however"
lulls the reader. No, I would not continue
set up comparisons and contrasts between
reading the article. It needs a more interest­
the subject of the second paragraph and
ing opener.
the subject of the first paragraph.
3. The writer sets a straightforward tone by

stating facts about Rhode Island. The

4. All the sentences in the second paragraph l


except sentences 2 and 3 elaborate on the ~
details are based in facts and give the
tl
main idea of comparing and contrasting .J::
rn
impression that the writer is knowledge­
~
'"
the parks.
able about the subject.
c
£lc:
4. The introduction follows the "But" struc­ p.48 I Exercise 6
~
v
c
ture described on page 389 by stating Worksheet 48
'"
t
commonly accepted knowledge and then .J::'"
OJ

calling that knowledge into question. (Answers will vary. Sample answers follow.) .!:
a::
",,­
0
Paragraph 2 1. Although Jim Wagner succeeded in calling I
£;'
attention to the issue of slavery, his own @
1. This introduction begins with the writer
tactics put off many who would otherwise :.crn
.'"
describing the scene.
have been sympathetic to his cause. i'0S:
u
2. This technique is effective because the
Whether Wagner helped advance the cause
description is mysterious. Yes, I would
of freedom or actually set it back is debat­
continue reading the article because it is
able. What is clear, however, is that his
intriguing.
uprising was a relatively minor event on
the road leading to the Civil War.
~

66 ELEMENTS OF LANGUAGE I Fourth Course I Sentences, Paragraphs, and Compositions


Answer Key (cont.)
--------------~----------------------------------------------------~.
2. Over the years, children have achieved
greater equality in the classroom and
among adults. Yet a key issue remains
unresolved: the need for a fair allowance.
Constant nagging is the only way millions
of children economically support their
sodallives. Write to your student editor
today to express your views on the need
for comprehensive allowance reform.

ANSWER KEY 67