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Research · October 2016

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17658.70084

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2016 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17658.70084 CITATIONS 0 1 author: Mahdi Eslamian-Koupaie Islamic Azad University,

Mahdi Eslamian-Koupaie Islamic Azad University, harand,isfahan,iran

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Technical Language for Power Electric Technician Students

Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie (Lecturer of Islamic Azad University, Harand Branch)

September 26, 2016

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Unit 1

Active and Passive Verbs in English

ٝت ٣٘ا٤اؿ هٕو ذ٘اٛت ٣ٔ ،٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص سد َٟٛدٔ ٚ ّْٛؼٔ ا٤ Passive ٚ Active ْشف ٚد ات ٣٤اٙؿآ صا ْشف ٚد ٗ٤ا ٝت ش٤ص سد .ذ٤إ٘ ،ةػاٙٔ ٕٝخشت ه٤ ٝئاسا ٗ٥ٙچٕٞ ٚ ةِاغٔ نسد ،ٖدشو تثحك ٖاٚس .[1] دٛؿ ٣ٔ ٜساؿا شتٟت نسد ٢اشت ٣٤اٞ َاثٔ ات ٜاشٕٞ ،تلإخ

.دٛؿ ٣ٔ ٜساؿا تػا ٜداد ْاد٘ا ُػاف ٝو ٣٤اٞساو ٝت Active ْشف صا ٜدافتػا ات :َاثٔ سٛغت

I speak English every day.

ٓٙو ٣ٔ تثحك ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص ٝت صٚس شٞ ٗٔ

I repaired the tire on the car. ْدشو ش٥ٕؼت اس ٗ٥ؿأ ش٤ات ٗٔ

ٖا٥ت ، تػا ٜذؿ ْاد٘ا ٢ض٥چ ا٤ ٣لخؿ ٢ٚس شت ٝو ٣ّٕػ ا٤ ساو ٖاٛت ٣ٔ Passive ُىؿ صا ٜدافتػا ات .دٕٛ٘

English is spoken here.

The car is being repaired.

تػا ٜذؿ ٝتفٌ ٗخػ ادٙ٤ا سد ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص ٝت

تػا ش٥ٕؼت َاح سد ٚسدٛخ ٗ٤ا

:َاثٔ سٛغت

ُػاف ٝت تثؼ٘ ٢شتـ٥ت ت٥ٕٞا صا ٜذؿ ْاد٘ا ُٕػ ، ٝو تػا ٗ٤ا Passive ْشف صا ٜدافتػا دساٛٔ صا ٣ى٤ .تؼ٥٘ ُػاف شور ٝت ٢صا٥٘ ٝو تػا ٢ذح سد ت٥ٕٞا ٗ٤ا ٚ دساد ساو ٜذٙٞد ْاد٘ا

It was approved by Gerry last

week.

.ذؿ ة٤ٛلت ٢شخ ظػٛت ٝتؿزٌ ٝتفٞ

: َاثٔ سٛع ٝت

I was informed by the Human Resources Manager only two days ago.

.ْذؿ غّغٔ ٣٘اؼ٘ا غتاٙٔ ش٤ذٔ ك٤شعصا ؾ٥پ صٚس ٚد اٟٙت صا ٗٔ

قخـٔ ٚ ٓ٥ػاٙؿ ٣ٕ٘ اس ساو ٜذٙٞد ْاد٘ا ُػاف أ ٝو تؼٙ٤ا Passive ْشف صا ٜدافتػا دساٛٔ صا شٍ٤د ٣ى٤ .تػا ٜداد ْاد٘ا اس ُٕػ ٗ٤ا ٣لخؿ ٝچ ٝو تؼ٥٘

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The car was damaged while it was parked on the street.

ذ٘دٛت ٜدشو نساپ ٖاتا٥خ سد اس ٖآ ٝو ٣ِاح سد دٛت ٜذ٤د ة٥ػآ ٚسدٛخ ٗ٤ا

The shirts were made in Turkey. تػا ٜذؿ ٝتخاػ ٝ٥وشت سد ٗٞاش٥پ

[2] لوهجم هب مولعم تلامج لیدبت هوحو

شظ٘ سد ات غپػ .ٓ٤سٚآ ٣ٔ ٖآ ٢اخ ٝت اس َٛؼفٔ ٚ ٓ٥ٙو ٣ٔ فزح ّٕٝخ ٢اذتتا صا اس ُػاف اذتتا ساو ٗ٤ا ٢اشت to ٢اٞ ُؼف صا ٣ى٤ ،ٖآ (tense) ٖأص ٗ٥ٙچٕٞ ٚ دشفٔ ا٤ تػا غٕخ أ ّٕٝخ َٛؼفٔ ا٤آ ٝىٙ٤ا ٗتفشٌ تؿاد ٝٔادا أ ّٕٝخ ٝو ٣تسٛك سد ٚ ٓ٥ٙو ٣ٔ ٜدافتػا ُؼف َٛؼفٔ ٓػا صا ،ٖآ صا ذؼت ٚ ٓ٤شت ٣ٔ ساىت اس be

.ٓ٥ؼ٤ٛ٘ ٣ٔ اس ٖآ ٝٔادا

،ٓ٤شثت ساىت اس ٖآ ْٛػ ُىؿ ذ٤ات ذؿات هدعاق یب لاعفا صا ٣ى٤ أ ُؼف شٌا َٛؼفٔ ٓػا تخاػ ٢اشت: هتکو

.ٓ٥ٙو ٣ٔ ٝفاضا ٖآ ٢اٟت٘ا ٝت اس ed ا٤ d ظمف دٛث٘ هدعاق یب لاعفا صا أ ُؼف شٌا ٣ِٚ

Ali ate the apple

دسٛخ اس ة٥ػ ٣ّػ :ّْٛؼٔ

The apple was eaten

ذؿ ٜدسٛخ ة٥ػ :َٟٛدٔ

اس (the apple) َٛؼفٔ ٚ ٓ٤دشو فزح اس (Ali) ُػاف اذتتا أ ،َٟٛدٔ ٝت ّْٛؼٔ ّٕٝخ ُ٤ذثت ٢اشت اس eat َٛؼفٔ ٓػا اٟت٘ا سد ٚ .ٓ٤دشو باخت٘ا اس (was) ةػاٙٔ to be ُؼف ه٤ غپػ ،ٓ٤دشو ٖآ ٗ٤ضٍ٤اخ )ٓ٤دشو ٜدافتػا ٖآ ْٛػ ُىؿ صا أ تػا ٜذػال ٣ت eat ُؼف ٖٛچ ادٙ٤ا( ٓ٤دشت ساىت ّٕٝخ سد

Frank bought this car in 1987 ذ٤شخ 7891 َاػ سد اس ٗ٥ؿأ ٗ٤ا ه٘اشف

This car was bought in 1987 ذؿ ٜذ٤شخ 7891 َاػ سد ٗ٥ؿأ ٗ٤ا

فزح اس (Frank) ُػاف ؛ٓ٤داد ْاد٘ا اس ٣ٟتاـٔ ساو اث٤شمت أ َٟٛدٔ ّٕٝخ ه٤ ٝت ْٚد ّٕٝخ ُ٤ذثت ٢اشت* سد ٚ ،ٓ٤دشو باخت٘ا ةػاٙٔ to be ُؼف ه٤ ٖآ صا ذؼت .ٓ٤دشو ٖآ ٗ٤ضٍ٤اخ اس (this car) َٛؼفٔ ٚ ٓ٤دشو .ٓ٤دشت ساىت اس ّٕٝخ ُؼف ْٛػ ُىؿ ٓٞ شخآ

فشح صا ذ٤ات ٓ٤شثت ساىت َٟٛدٔ تلإخ سد ض٥٘ اس (agent) ساو ٜذٙٞد ْاد٘ا ٓ٥ٞاٛخت أ شٌا :ٓ٥ٙو ٜدافتػا by ٝفاضا

Mike gave the book to Henry داد ٢شٙٞ ٝت اس باتو ه٤أ

The book was given to Henry by Mike ذؿ ٜداد ٢شٙٞ ٝت ه٤أ ّٝ٥ػٛت باتو

.تػا قداك ٝ٥ضل ٗ٤ا غىػشت ّْٛؼٔ ٝت َٟٛدٔ ّٕٝخ ُ٤ذثت ٢اشت

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:[3] ذ٥ٙو ٝظحلأ keep ُؼف ٢اشت اس اٟ٘آ َٟٛدٔ َداؼٔ ٚ ّْٛؼٔ َاؼفا تػشٟف ذ٥٘اٛت٣ٔ ش٤ص َٚذخ سد

لوهجم

مولعم

نامز

is kept

keeps

ٜداػ َاح

دٛؿ٣ٔ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

دساد٣ٔ ٍٝ٘

is being kept تػا ٖذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘ َاح سد

is keeping دساد٣ٔ ٍٝ٘ دساد

٢ساشٕتػا َاح

was kept

kept

ٜداػ ٝتؿزٌ

ذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

تؿاد ٍٝ٘

was being kept دٛت ٖذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘ َاح سد

was keeping تؿاد٣ٔ ٍٝ٘ تؿاد

٢ساشٕتػا ٝتؿزٌ

has been kept تػا ٜذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

has kept تػا ٝتؿاد ٍٝ٘

ُٔاو َاح

had been kept دٛت ٜذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

had kept دٛت ٝتؿاد ٍٝ٘

ُٔاو ٝتؿزٌ

will be kept ذؿ ذٞاٛخ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

will keep تؿاد ذٞاٛخ ٍٝ٘

ٜذٙ٤آ

would be kept ذؿ٣ٔ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

would keep

٣عشؿ

تؿاد٣ٔ ٍٝ٘

would have been kept دٛت ٜذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

would have kept ذ٘دٛت ٝتؿاد ٍٝ٘

ُٔاو ٣عشؿ

to be kept ٖذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

to keep

سذلٔ

ٗتؿاد ٍٝ٘

to have been kept ٖذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

to have kept ٗتؿاد ٍٝ٘

ُٔاو َاح سذلٔ

being kept

keeping

سذلٔ ٓػا ٢سذلٔ ٝخٚ

ٖذؿ ٢ساذٍٟ٘

٢ساذٍٟ٘

They ate the pizza Mike wrote a book The mechanic repaired my car Paul took Stephan to France

Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

ٗ٤شٕت

:ذ٥ٙو ُ٤ذثت َٟٛدٔ ٝت اس ش٤ص ّْٛؼٔ تلإخ .7

3

.[4] ذ٥ـىت ظخ ح٥حك ٝٙ٤ضٌ ش٤ص .2

1.The film ………………… at school two days ago .

a.showed

b.is showed

c.was showed

d.shows

2………………. the car be washed ?

a.Is

b.Will

c.Does

d.Did

3.A new school will be ……………… near our house next year .

a.build

b.builds

c.building

d.built

4.This car ……………. repeired every day .

a.will

b.will be

c.is

d.was

5.They ……………… seen in the park last week .

a.aren‘t

b.weren‘t

c.will

d.will be

.[4] ذ٥ؼ٤ٛٙت ٗ٥چ ٝغم٘ سد اس ضت٘اشپ ُخاد َاؼفا ح٥حك ُىؿ .3

1.This house ……………………

( build ) two years ago .

2.Two men ……………………… ( kill ) in the accident . 3.The sick man …………………… ( take ) to the hospital . 4.Many people will be …………………… ( invite ) to the party . 5.A letter was …………………. ( write ) yesterday . .[4] ذ٥ٙو ٜدافتػا to be ُؼف ح٥حك ُىؿ صا ٗ٥چ ٝغم٘ ٢ادت .4

1.The tickets ……………. bought last night . 2……………. the rooms be cleaned tomorrow .

3.The dishes ……………

not washed every day .

عباىم

[1] http://daneshkar.ir/?p=219 [2] http://www.languagecentre.ir/english/grammer/active-passive-voice [3] http://www.zabanamoozan.com/learning/passive.htm [4] http://davari55.blogfa.com

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

Unit 2

Theory of Magnetism

To understand the magnetic behavior of materials, it is necessary to take a microscopic view of matter. A suitable starting point is the composition of the atom, which Bohr described as consisting of a heavy nucleus and a number of electrons moving around the nucleus in specific orbits. Closer investigation reveals that the atom of any substance experiences a torque when placed in a magnetic field; this is called a magnetic moment. The resultant magnetic moment of an atom depends upon three factors-the positive charge of the nucleus spinning on its axis, the negative charge of the electron spinning on its axis, and the effect of the electrons moving in their orbits. The magnetic moment of the spin and orbital motions of the electron far exceeds that of the spinning proton. However, this magnetic moment can be affected by the presence of an adjacent atom. Accordingly, if two hydrogen atoms are combined to form a hydrogen molecule, it is found that the electron spins, the proton spins, and the orbital motions of the electrons of each atom oppose each other so that a resultant magnetic moment of zero should be expected. Although this is almost the case, experiment reveals that the relative permeability of hydrogen is not equal to 1 but rather is very slightly less than unity. In other words, the molecular reaction is such that when hydrogen is the medium there is a slight decrease in the magnetic field compared with free space. This behavior occurs because there is a precessional motion of all rotating charges about the field direction, and the effect of this precession is to set up a field opposed to the applied field regardless of the direction of spin or orbital motion. Materials in which this behavior manifests itself are called diamagnetic for obvious reasons. Besides hydrogen, other materials possessing this characteristic are silver and copper.

Continuing further with the hydrogen molecule, let us assume next that it is made to lose an electron, thus yielding the hydrogen ion. Clearly, complete neutralization of the spin and orbital electron motions no longer takes place. In fact, when a magnetic field is applied, the ion is so oriented that its net magnetic moment aligns itself with the field, thereby causing a slight increase in flux density. This behavior is described as paramagnetism. Paramagnetic materials have a relative permeability slightly in excess of unity. So far we have considered those elements whose magnetic properties differ only very slightly from those of free space. As a matter of fact the vast majority of materials fall within this category. However, there is one class of materials- principally iron and its alloys with nickel, cobalt, and alumi- num-for which the relative permeability is very many times greater than that of free space. These

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materials are called ferromagnetic and are of great importance in electrical engineering. We may ask at this point why iron (and its alloys) is so very much more magnetic than other elements. Essentially, the answer is provided by the domain theory of magnetism. Like all metals, iron is crystalline in structure with the atoms arranged in a space lattice. However, domains are subcrystalline particles of varying sizes and shapes containing about 10 atoms in a volume of approximately cubic centimeters. The distinguishing feature of the domain is that the magnetic moments of its constituent atoms are all aligned in the same direction Thus in a ferromagnetic material, not only must there exist a magnetic moment due to a nonneutralized spin of an electron in an inner orbit, but also the resultant spin of all neighboring atoms in the domain must be parallel.

of all neighboring atoms in the domain must be parallel. Figure (1): Magnetized and Unmagnetized Material

Figure (1): Magnetized and Unmagnetized Material

It would seem by the explanation so far that, if iron is composed of completely magnetized domains, then the iron should be in a state of complete magnetization throughout the body of material even without the application of a magnetizing force.

Actually, this is not the case, because the domains act independently of each other, and for a specimen of unmagnetized iron these domains are aligned haphazardly in all directions so that the net magnetic moment is zero over the specimen. Figure 1 illustrates the situation diagrammatically in a simplified fashion. Because of the crystal lattice structure of iron the ‗easy‘ direction of domain alignment can take place in any one of six directions-left, right, up, down, out, or in-depending upon the direction of the applied magnetizing force. Figure l-l (a) shows the unmagnetized configuration. Figure l-l (b) depicts the result of applying a force from left to right of such magnitude as to effect alignment of all the domains. When this state is reached the iron is said to be saturated-there is no further increase in flux density over that of free space for further increases in magnetizing force.

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

Large increases in the temperature of a magnetized piece of iron bring about a decrease in its magnetizing capability. The temperature increase enforces the agitation existing between atoms until at a temperature of 750°C the agitation is so severe that it destroys the parallelism existing between the magnetic moments of the neighboring atoms of the domain and thereby causes it to lose its magnetic property. The temperature at which this occurs is called the curie point [1].

Part I. Comprehension Exercises

A. Put “T” for true and “F” for false statements. Justify your answers.

…….1. With his atomic theory, Bohr contributed to the understanding of the magnetic behavior of materials.

…….2. The atoms of a substance, if placed in a magnetic field, are subject to a

torque.

…….3. Platinum is a diamagnetic material. …….4. In ferromagnetic materials, the magnetic moments of large groups …….5. In an unagnetized ferromagnetic material, the domains are aligned in different direction. …….6. The magnetic properties of iron increase with an increase in temperature.

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1.

Permeability of silver is less than unity

a.

because of its atoms setting up a field against the applied field

b.

because of its molecules rotating about the applied field

c.

due to the precessional spin of its positive charges

d.

due to the orbital motions of its negative charges

2.

It is true that

a.

paramagnetic materials provide a small penetration of the magnetic field

b.

paramagnetic materials provide a great penetration of the magnetic field

c.

the resultant magnetic moment of an atom depends on its spinning axis

d.

the resultant magnetic moment of an atom depends on the nucleus spinning on

its axis

3.

According to the text,

a.

two atoms of hydrogen, if combined, pronounce a permeability greater than 1

b.

two atoms of hydrogen, if combined, give rise to a high magnetic moment

c.

diamagnetic materials have magnetic properties more than those of free space

d.

diamagnetic materials have magnetic properties less than those of free space

4.

Paramagnetism is based on the fact that the magnetic moment of a paramagnetic

material, when placed in a magnetic field,

a. results in a decrease in flux density

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b.

lines up with the field

c.

is equal to 1

d.

is low compared with free space

5.

The magnetic properties of diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials

those

of free space.

a.

are greater than

b.

are smaller than

c.

differ slightly from

d.

differ greatly from

6.

The abnormal magnetic properties of iron may be caused by ,

.

a. the magnetic moment resulting from an inner orbital spin of a nonneutralized electron

b. the parallelism of the resultant spin of all neighboring atoms in the domain

c. the domains oriented at random with their axes pointing in various directions

d. both a and b

C. Answer the following questions

1. What is called a magnetic moment?

2. What does the resultant magnetic moment of an atom depend on?

3. How do adjacent atoms affect the magnetic moment of each other?

4. How does the magnetic behavior of materials differ?

5. Why does platinum have the characteristic of paramagnetism?

6. What forms the domains in a ferromagnetic material?

7. What causes the alignment of the magnetic domains in iron?

8. What is called the curie point?

Part II. Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1. Copper is

less than unity.

material, therefore, it exhibits a relative permeability slightly

a.

a paramagnetic

b. a diamagnetic

c.

a permeable

d. a neutral

2. Iron provides a great penetration of the magnetic field, that is, its

times greater than that of free space.

is many

a.

magnetic flux

b. atomic composition

c.

relative permeability

d. magnetic moment

3. Elements and metals which have slight magnetic properties are called

materials.

a.

magnetic

b. metallic

c.

diamagnetic

d. paramagnetic

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4.

Iron and some of its alloys have an appreciable magnetic permeability. These

materials are called

a.

ferromagnetic

b. diamagnetic

c.

paramagnetic

d. magnetic

5. The state of

direction.

is reached when all the magnetic domains are aligned in one

a.

magnetization

b. saturation

c.

flux density

d. neutralization

B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the words given.

1. Magnet

a. Maxwell showed that some of the properties of

flow.

b. Lines of flux are conventionally said to leave a

and re-enter at the south pole,

c. If the

representation of lines of flux, but with the solenoid taking the place of a

may be compared to a

material at the north pole

field is produced by a solenoid, we will have the same

2. Permeate

a.

and dimension of absolute

b. A

magnetizing force and flux density in a test specimen.

Relative

is

a pure number that is the same in all unit systems; the value

depend

upon the system of units employed.

is an apparatus used for determining corresponding values of

3. Move

a. When a conductor is

magnetic lines, an emf is generated in the conductor.

b. A moving - conductor microphone is a microphone the electric output of which

results from the

c. In a moving - conductor loudspeaker, the

coil connected to the source of electric energy.

conductor is in the form of a

through a magnetic field in such a way as to cut the

of a conductor in a magnetic field.

4. Rotate

a. The most important parts of a dc motor are the brushgear .

b. A

armature winding connected to both a commutator and slip rings, and is exited by one magnetic field.

by a

, the stator, and the

…converter

combines both motor and generator action in one

c. A rotary generator is an alternating-current generator adapted to be motor or prime mover.

5. Saturate

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

a. A magnetic-core reactor operating in the region of saturation without

independent control means is known as

b. A

sleeve is a flexible tubular product made from cotton and coated with

an electrical insulating material.

Part III. Translate Practice

reactor.

A. Translate the following passage into Persian.

Weber's Theory

A popular theory of magnetism considers the molecular alignment of the material. This is known as Weber's theory. This theory assumes that all magnetic substances are composed of tiny molecular magnets. Any unmagnetized material has the magnetic forces of its molecular magnets neutralized by adjacent molecular magnets, thereby eliminating any magnetic effect. A magnetized material will have most of its molecular magnets lined up so that the north pole of each molecule points in one direction, and the south pole faces the opposite direction. A material with its molecules thus aligned will then have one effective north pole, and one effective south pole. An illustration of Weber's Theory is shown in figure 2, where a steel bar is magnetized by stroking. When a steel bar is stroked several times in the same direction by a magnet, the magnetic force from the north pole of the magnet causes the molecules to align themselves [2].

of the magnet causes the molecules to align themselves [2]. Figure 2. Weber's Theory 10 Compiled

Figure 2. Weber's Theory

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MAGNETIC FIELDS

The space surrounding a magnet where magnetic forces act is known as the magnetic field. A pattern of this directional force can be obtained by performing an experiment with iron filings. A piece of glass is placed over a bar magnet and the iron filings are then sprinkled on the surface of the glass. The magnetizing force of the magnet will be felt through the glass and each iron filing becomes a temporary magnet. If the glass is now tapped gently, the iron particles will align themselves with the magnetic field surrounding the magnet just as the compass needle did previously. The filings form a definite pattern, which is a visible representation of the forces comprising the magnetic field. Examination of the arrangements of iron filings in figure 3 will indicate that the magnetic field is very strong at the poles and weakens as the distance from the poles increases. It is also apparent that the magnetic field extends from one pole to the other, constituting a loop about the magnet [2].

pole to the other, constituting a loop about the magnet [2]. Figure 3. Magnetic fields References

Figure 3. Magnetic fields

References

[2] http://www.tpub.com/neets/book1/chapter1/1h.htm

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٣٘امح شٟچٛٙٔ ف٥ِأت قشت ٣للخت ٖاتص [1]

Unit 3

Relationship Between Voltage, Current and Resistance

All materials are made up from atoms, and all atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons, have a positive electrical charge. Neutrons have no electrical charge while Electrons, have a negative electrical charge. Atoms are bound together by powerful forces of attraction existing between the atoms nucleus and the electrons in its outer shell.

When these protons, neutrons and electrons are together within the atom they are happy and stable. But if we separate them from each other they want to reform and start to exert a potential of attraction called a potential difference.

Now if we create a closed circuit these loose electrons will start to move and drift back to the protons due to their attraction creating a flow of electrons. This flow of electrons is called an electrical current. The electrons do not flow freely through the circuit as the material they move through creates a restriction to the electron flow. This restriction is called resistance.

Then all basic electrical or electronic circuits consist of three separate but very much related electrical quantities called: Voltage, ( V ), Current, ( I ) and Resistance, ( Ω ) [1].

A. Voltage

We define voltage as the amount of potential energy between two points on a circuit. One point has more charge than another. This difference in charge between the two points is called voltage. It is measured in volts, which, technically, is the potential energy difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it (don‘t panic if this makes no sense, all will be explained). The unit ―volt‖ is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta who invented what is considered the first chemical battery. Voltage is represented in equations and schematics by the letter ―V‖ [2].

When describing voltage, current, and resistance, a common analogy is a water tank. In this analogy, charge is represented by the water amount, voltage is represented by the water pressure, and current is represented by the water flow. So for this analogy, remember:

Water = Charge

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Pressure = Voltage

Flow = Current

Consider a water tank at a certain height above the ground. At the bottom of this tank there is a hose.

the ground. At the bottom of this tank there is a hose. The pressure at the

The pressure at the end of the hose can represent voltage. The water in the tank represents charge. The more water in the tank, the higher the charge, the more pressure is measured at the end of the hose.

We can think of this tank as a battery, a place where we store a certain amount of energy and then release it. If we drain our tank a certain amount, the pressure created at the end of the hose goes down. We can think of this as decreasing voltage, like when a flashlight gets dimmer as the batteries run down. There is also a decrease in the amount of water that will flow through the hose. Less pressure means less water is flowing, which brings us to current [2].

B. Current

We can think of the amount of water flowing through the hose from the tank as current. The higher the pressure, the higher the flow, and vice-versa. With water, we would measure the volume of the water flowing through the hose over a certain period of time. With electricity, we measure the amount of charge flowing through the circuit over a period of time. Current is measured in Amperes (usually just referred to as ―Amps‖). An ampere is defined as 6.241*10 18 electrons (1 Coulomb) per second passing through a point in a circuit. Amps are represented in equations by the letter ―I‖.

Let‘s say now that we have two tanks, each with a hose coming from the bottom. Each tank has the exact same amount of water, but the hose on one tank is narrower than the hose on the other.

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We measure the same amount of pressure at the end of either hose, but when

We measure the same amount of pressure at the end of either hose, but when the water begins to flow, the flow rate of the water in the tank with the narrower hose will be less than the flow rate of the water in the tank with the wider hose. In electrical terms, the current through the narrower hose is less than the current through the wider hose. If we want the flow to be the same through both hoses, we have to increase the amount of water (charge) in the tank with the narrower hose.

amount of water (charge) in the tank with the narrower hose. This increases the pressure (voltage)

This increases the pressure (voltage) at the end of the narrower hose, pushing more water through the tank. This is analogous to an increase in voltage that causes an increase in current.

Now we‘re starting to see the relationship between voltage and current. But there is a third factor to be considered here: the width of the hose. In this analogy, the width of the hose is the resistance. This means we need to add another term to our model [2]:

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Water = Charge (measured in Coulombs)

Pressure = Voltage (measured in Volts)

Flow = Current (measured in Amperes, or ―Amps‖ for short)

Hose Width = Resistance

C. Resistance

Consider again our two water tanks, one with a narrow pipe and one with a wide pipe.

tanks, one with a narrow pipe and one with a wide pipe. It s tands to

It stands to reason that we can‘t fit as much volume through a narrow pipe than a wider one at the same pressure. This is resistance. The narrow pipe ―resists‖ the flow of water through it even though the water is at the same pressure as the tank with the wider pipe.

is at the same pressure as the tank with the wider pipe. In electrical terms, this

In electrical terms, this is represented by two circuits with equal voltages and different resistances. The circuit with the higher resistance will allow less

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charge to flow, meaning the circuit with higher resistance has less current flowing through it.

This brings us back to Georg Ohm. Ohm defines the unit of resistance of ―1 Ohm‖ as the resistance between two points in a conductor where the application of 1 volt will push 1 ampere, or 6.241×10 18 electrons. This value is usually represented in schematics with the greek letter ―Ω‖, which is called omega, and pronounced ―ohm‖ [2].

D. Ohm's Law

Georg Ohm found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, and also inversely proportional to the resistance. This relationship between the Voltage, Current and Resistance forms the basis of Ohms Law and is shown below [1].

(

)

(

) )

(

(

)

By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use Ohms Law to find the third missing value. Ohms Law is used extensively in electronics formulas and calculations so it is ―very important to understand and accurately remember these formulas‖.

To find the Voltage, ( V )

[ V = I x R ]

To find the Current, ( I )

[ I = V ÷ R ]

To find the Resistance, ( R )

[ R = V ÷ I ]

V (volts) = I (amps) x R (Ω)

I (amps) = V (volts) ÷ R (Ω)

R (Ω) = V (volts) ÷ I (amps)

It is sometimes easier to remember this Ohms law relationship by using pictures. Here the three quantities of V, I and R have been superimposed into a

triangle (affectionately called the Ohms Law Triangle) giving voltage at the top with current and resistance below. This arrangement represents the actual position of each quantity within the Ohms law formulas.

D.1 Ohms Law Triangle

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Transposing the standard Ohms Law equation above will give us the following combinations of the same equation:

give us the following combinations of the same equation: Part I. Comprehension Exercises A. Put “T”

Part I. Comprehension Exercises

A. Put “T” for true and “F” for false statements. Justify your answers.

…….1. The relationship between voltage and current is a crucial point in electronics [3]. …….2. By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use Ohms Law to find the third missing value [1]. …….3. The ―V‖ symbol used for resistance value. …….4. Ohm defines the unit of resistance of ―1 Ohm‖ as the resistance between two points in a conductor. …….5. We can think of the amount of water flowing through the hose from the tank as Voltage. …….6. The formula for finding voltage when resistance and current are known is V = I/R. …….7. Ohm's law describes how current is related to voltage and resistance [4]. …….8. The ampere is the unit of resistance.

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1. Ohm‘s law states that the current in a circuit is

[3] .

a. inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit and is directly proportional to the Voltage in the circuit

b. directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and is inversely proportional to

the Voltage in the circuit

c. directly proportional to the resistance and the Voltage in the circuit

d. inversely proportional to the resistance and the Voltage in the circuit

2. It is true that Resistors

a.

separate signals

b. generate waves

c.

dissipate power

d. store energy

3. According to the text,

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a. The circuit with the higher resistance will allow less charge to flow

b. An ampere is defined as 6.241*10 24 electrons

c. The higher the pressure is the lower the flow, and vice-versa.

d. Protons, have a positive electrical charge and Neutrons have negative charge.

4. If voltage is 6 volt and resistance is 2 ohm, then .

a. Current is 0.5 ampere

b. Current is 3 ampere

c. Current is 12 ampere

d. Current is 0 ampere

C. Answer the following questions

1. How can you find the resistance when Voltage and Current is known?

2. Define the Ohm‘s Low.

3. What is unit of resistance?

4. What is the formula for finding resistance when current and voltage are known?

Part II. Translate Practice

A. Translate the following passage into Persian.

Resistor color-coding

The electronic color code is used to indicate the values or ratings of electronic components, usually for resistors, but also for capacitors, inductors, diodes and others.

but also for capacitors, inductors, diodes and others. To distinguish left from right there is a
but also for capacitors, inductors, diodes and others. To distinguish left from right there is a

To distinguish left from right there is a gap between the C, G and D bands.

band A is the first significant figure of component value (left side)

band B is the second significant figure (some precision resistors have a third significant figure, and thus five bands).

band C is the decimal multiplier

band D if present, indicates tolerance of value in percent (no band means

20%)

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For example, a resistor with bands of yellow, violet, red, and gold has first digit 4 (yellow in table below), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros:

4,700 ohms. Gold signifies that the tolerance is ±5%, so the real resistance could lie anywhere between 4,465 and 4,935 ohms.

Resistors manufactured for military use may also include a fifth band which indicates component failure rate (reliability); refer to MIL-HDBK-199 for further details.

Tight tolerance resistors may have three bands for significant figures rather than two, or an additional band indicating temperature coefficient, in units of ppm/K.

All coded components have at least two value bands and a multiplier; other bands are optional [5].

The colors brown, red, green, blue, and violet are used as tolerance codes on 5- band resistors only. All 5-band resistors use a colored tolerance band. The blank (20%) ―band‖ is only used with the ―4-band‖ code (3 colored bands + a blank ―band‖) [6].

- band‖ code (3 colored bands + a blank ―band‖) [6]. B. Test yourself 1. A

B. Test yourself

1. A resistor colored Yellow-Violet-Orange-Gold would be ………. with a

tolerance of +/- ……%.

2. Color codes for 4700Ω, 5% is:

3. A resistor colored Brown-Green-Grey-Silver-Red would be ……

tolerance of +/- ……%.

4. What s resistance in following picture?

with a

…… %. 4. What s resistance in following picture? with a References [1] http://www.electronics-tutorials [2]

References

[1] http://www.electronics-tutorials [2] https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/voltage-current-resistance-and-ohms-law ٣٘امح شٟچٛٙٔ ف٥ِأت قشت ٣للخت ٖاتص [3]

[4] http://www.indiabix.com [5] https://en.wikipedia.org [6] http://www.allaboutcircuits.com

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Unit 4

Electric Motors Basics

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this would be the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator.

In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor. In certain applications, such as in the transportation industry with traction motors, electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also produce electrical energy from mechanical energy.

Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on.

Electric motors are used to produce linear or rotary force (torque), and should be distinguished from devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical powers, which are respectively referred to as actuators and transducers [1]. There are different types of motor have been developed for different specific purposes. The very basic principal of functioning of an electrical motor lies on the fact that force is experienced in the direction perpendicular to magnetic field and the current, when field and current are made to interact with each other [2].

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Motor construction

Figure 1 shows the construction of an AC electric motor.

Figure 1 shows the construction of an AC electric motor. Fig 1. AC motor construction [3]

Fig 1. AC motor construction [3]

A. Rotor

In an electric motor the moving part is the rotor which turns the shaft to deliver the mechanical power. The rotor usually has conductors laid into it which carry currents that interact with the magnetic field of the stator to generate the forces that turn the shaft. However, some rotors carry permanent magnets, and the stator holds the conductors.

B. Stator

The stator is the stationary part of the motor‘s electromagnetic circuit and usually consists of either windings or permanent magnets. The stator core is made up of many thin metal sheets, called laminations. Laminations are used to reduce energy losses that would result if a solid core were used.

C. Air gap

The distance between the rotor and stator is called the air gap. The air gap has important effects, and is generally as small as possible, as a large gap has a strong negative effect on the performance of an electric motor. It is the main source of the low power factor at which motors operate. The air gap increases the magnetizing current needed. For this reason air gap should be minimum . Very small gaps may pose mechanical problems in addition to noise and losses.

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D. Windings

Windings are wires that are laid in coils, usually wrapped around a laminated soft iron magnetic core so as to form magnetic poles when energized with current.

Electric machines come in two basic magnet field pole configurations: salient- pole machine and nonsalient-pole machine. In the salient-pole machine the pole's magnetic field is produced by a winding wound around the pole below the pole face. In the nonsalient-pole, or distributed field, or round-rotor, machine, the winding is distributed in pole face slots. A shaded-pole motor has a winding around part of the pole that delays the phase of the magnetic field for that pole.

Some motors have conductors which consist of thicker metal, such as bars or sheets of metal, usually copper, although sometimes aluminum is used. These are usually powered by electromagnetic induction [1].

Classification or Types of Motor

The primary classification of motor or types of motor can be tabulated as shown below [4]:

motor or types of motor can be tabulated as shown below [4]: Fig 2. Types of

Fig 2. Types of Motor [4].

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A. DC Motors

1. Shunt DC motor: The rotor and stator windings are connected in

parallel. 2. Sparately Excited motor: The rotor and stator are each connected from a different power supply, this gives another degree of freedom for controlling the motor over the shunt.

3. Series motor: the stator and rotor windings are connected in series.

Thus the torque is proportional to I 2 so it gives the highest torque per current ratio over all other dc motors. It is therefore used in starter motors of cars and elevator motors.

4. Permanent Magnet (PMDC) motors: The stator is a permanent

magnet, so the motor is smaller in size but it has lower torque.

Disadvantages of DC motors

1. Brush wear: Since they need brushes to connect the rotor winding. Brush

wear occurs, and it increases dramatically in lowpressure environment. So they cannot be used in artificial hearts. If used on aircraft, the brushes would need replacement after one hour of operation.

2. Sparks from the brushes may cause explosion if the environment contains

explosive materials.

3. RF noise from the brushes may interfere with nearby t.v. sets, or electronic

devices, etc.

B. AC Motors

1. Induction Motor: So called because voltage is induced in the rotor (thus no

need for brushes), but for this to happen, the rotor must rotate at a lower speed than the magnetic field to allow for the existance of an induced voltage.

Therefore a new term is needed to describe the induction motor: the slip.

2. Synchronous Motor: So called because rotor tries to line up with the

rotating magnetic field in the stator. It has the stator of an induction motor, and

the rotor of a dc motor. Synchronous Motors are specifically designed to maintain constant speed, with the rotor synchronous to the rotating field. Synchronous motors require modification (such as squirrel-cage windings) to be self-starting.

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C. Other Motors

1. Reluctance motor: A synchronousinduction motor. The rotor has salient

poles and a cage so that it starts like an induction motor, and runs like a

synchronous motor.

2. Hysteresis motor: hysteresis produces the torque, can be very tiny, used as

the driver for electric clocks.

3. Stepper motor: a special type of synchronous motors. Rotates a number of

degrees with each electric pulse.

4. Brushless DC motor: a close cousin of a permanent magnet stepper motor

with electronic controllers.

5. Universal motor: If a seried dc motor has a laminated stator frame, it can run

effectively from an AC supply as well as DC, this is the universal motor.

Part I. Comprehension Exercises

A. Put “T” for true and “F” for false statements. Justify your answers.

…….1. Sparks from the brushes may cause explosion if the environment contains explosive materials. …….2. The stator is the rotational part of the motor‘s electromagnetic circuit. …….3. In shunt DC motor the stator and rotor windings are connected in series. …….4. In certain applications, electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes. …….5. Electric motors are used to produce linear or rotary force. …….6. The distance between the rotor and stator is called the bearing.

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1.

According to the text,

a.

Synchronous Motors hasn‘t high torque in starting time.

b.

Synchronous Motors are specifically designed to maintain constant speed.

c.

Universal motor is a special type of synchronous motors.

d.

Reluctance motor used as the driver for electric clocks.

2.

It is true that

a.

PMDC is a synchronous motor.

b.

RF noise from the brushes not harmful.

c.

DC motors are very good if the environment contains explosive materials.

d.

. Reluctance motor is a synchronousinduction motor.

3.

……………… rotates a number of degrees with each electric pulse.

a.

Stepper motor

b.

Hysteresis motor

c.

Reluctance motor

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d.

Brushless DC motor

4.

The distance between the rotor and stator is called the

a.

winding

b.

rotor

c.

air gap

d.

bearing

5.

In the

the pole's magnetic field is produced by a winding wound around

the pole below the pole

a. synchronous machine

b. salient-pole machine

c. nonsalient-pole machine

d. both b and c

C. Answer the following questions

1. What is a reluctance motor?

2. Why air gap is important in electric motors?

3. Why stator core is made up of many thin metal sheets?

Part II. Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1. A generator forces electrons to ……… through an external electrical circuit [1].

a.

flowed

b. flows

c.

flowing

d. flow

2. An AC generator converts mechanical energy into …………current electricity.

a.

alternating

b. atomic composition

c.

alternate

d. magnetic moment

3 The ……

to the motor by using internal commutation, stationary permanent magnets, and

rotating electrical magnets [1].

DC electric motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied

a.

brushed

b. brushless

c.

brush

d. brushing

4. A ……….is a static device that converts alternating current from one voltage

level to another level (higher or lower), or to the same level, without changing the

frequency

.

a.

transformer

b. motor

c.

generator

d. capacitor

5. For optimized or practical operation of electric machines, today's electric

machine systems ……….with electronic control [1].

a.

is complemented

b. was complemented

c.

are complemented

d. have complemented

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Part III. Translate Practice

A. Translate the following passage into Persian.

Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction [1]. Electromagnetic induction produces an electromotive force within a conductor which is exposed to time varying magnetic fields. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the alternating voltages in electric power applications. A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a varying field impinging on the transformer's secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or voltage in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction. Making use of Faraday's Law (discovered in 1831) in conjunction with high magnetic permeability core properties, transformers can be designed to efficiently change AC voltages from one voltage level to another within power networks. Since the invention of the first constant potential transformer in 1885, transformers have become essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of alternating current electrical energy. [3] A wide range of transformer designs is encountered in electronic and electric power applications. Transformers range in size from RF transformers less than a cubic centimeter in volume to units interconnecting the power grid weighing hundreds of tons.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org [2] http://www.electrical4u.com [3] http://electrical-engineering-portal.com [4] www.ece.uah.edu/courses

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Unit 5

Understanding motor’s nameplate

Motor nameplate is normally located on all produced electric motors. Understanding nameplate information can be hard sometimes, but is essential. In most countries it is a requirement for manufacturers to display all information on the motor‘s nameplate, but often this is not the case [1].

1. Voltage

This data tells you at which voltage the motor is made to operate. Nameplate- defined parameters for the motor such as power factor, efficiency, torque and current are at rated voltage and frequency. When the motor is used at other voltages than the voltage indicated on the nameplate, its performance will be

affected.

on the nameplate, its performance will be affected. Fig 1.Voltage on motor nameplate 2. Frequency Usually

Fig 1.Voltage on motor nameplate

2. Frequency

Usually for motors, the input frequency is 50 or 60 Hz. If more than one frequency is marked on the nameplate, then other parameters that will differ at different input frequencies have to be indicated on the nameplate as well.

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Fig 2.Frequency on motor nameplate 3. Phase This parameter represents the number of AC power

Fig 2.Frequency on motor nameplate

3. Phase

This parameter represents the number of AC power lines that supply the

motor. Single-phase and three-phase are considered as the standard.

Single-phase and three-phase are considered as the standard. Fig 3.Phase on nameplate 4. Current Current indicated

Fig 3.Phase on nameplate

4. Current

Current indicated on the nameplate corresponds to the rated power output together with voltage and frequency. Current may deviate from the nameplate amperes if the phases are unbalanced or if the voltage turns out to be lower than indicated.

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Fig 4.Current on nameplate 5. Type Some manufacturers use type to define the motor as

Fig 4.Current on nameplate

5. Type

Some manufacturers use type to define the motor as single-phase or poly-phase, single-phase or multi-speed or by type of construction. Nevertheless, there are no industry standards for type. Grundfos uses the following type designation:

MG90SA2-24FF165-C2.

uses the following type designation: MG90SA2-24FF165-C2. Fig 5.Motor type designation 6. Power factor Power factor is

Fig 5.Motor type designation

6. Power factor

Power factor is indicated on the nameplate as either “PF” or “P .F” or cos φ . Power factor is an expression of the ratio of active power (W) to apparent power (VA) expressed as a percentage. Numerically expressed, power factor is equal to cosine of the angle of lag of the

input current with respect to its voltage. The motor‘s nameplate provides you with the power factor for the motor at full- load.

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Fig 6. Power factor 7. kW or horsepower kW or horsepower (HP) is an expression

Fig 6. Power factor

7. kW or horsepower

kW or horsepower (HP) is an expression of the motor‘s mechanical output rating – that is it‘s ability to deliver the torque needed for the load at rated speed.

8. Full-load speed

Full-load speed is the speed at which rated full-load torque is delivered at rated

power output. Normally, the full-load speed is given in RPM. This speed is sometimes called slip-speed or actual rotor speed.

9. Efficiency

Efficiency is the motor‘s output power divided by its input power multiplied by

100. Efficiency is expressed as a percentage. Efficiency is guaranteed by the manufacturer to be within a certain tolerance band, which varies depending on the design standard, e.g IEC or NEMA. Therefore, pay attention to guaranteed minimum efficiencies, when you evaluate the motor‘s performance.

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Fig 7. Mechanical Input and performance 10. Duty This parameter defines the length of time

Fig 7. Mechanical Input and performance

10. Duty

This parameter defines the length of time during which the motor can carry its nameplate rating safely. In many cases, the motor can do it continuously, which is indicated by an S1 or “Cont” on the nameplate. If nothing is indicated on the

nameplate, the motor is designed for duty cycle S1.

on the nameplate, the motor is designed for duty cycle S1. Fig 8. Motor duty 11.

Fig 8. Motor duty

11. Insulation class

Insulation class (INSUL CLASS) is an expression of the standard classification of the thermal tolerance of the motor winding. Insulation class is a

letter designation such as “B” or “F”, depending on the winding‘s ability to survive a given operating temperature for a given life. The farther in the alphabet, the better the performance. For instance, a class ―F‖ insulation has a longer nominal life at a given operating temperature than a class ―B‖.

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Fig 9.Insulation class. CI.F(B) = class F with temperature rise B 12. Maximum ambient temperature

Fig 9.Insulation class. CI.F(B) = class F with temperature rise B

12. Maximum ambient temperature

The maximum ambient temperature at which a motor can operate is sometimes indicated on the nameplate. If not the maximum is 40°C for EFF2 motors and normally 60°C for EFF1 motors. The motor can run and still be within the tolerance of the insulation class at the maximum rated temperature.

of the insulation class at the maximum rated temperature. Fig 10.The power output reduction curve shows

Fig 10.The power output reduction curve shows the performance reduction with increased ambient temperature or increased installation height above sea

13. Altitude

This indication shows the maximum height above sea level at which the motor will remain within its design temperature rise, meeting all other nameplate data.

If the altitude is not indicated on the nameplate, the maximum height above sea is 1000 meters.

14. Enclosure

Enclosure classifies a motor as to its degree of protection from its environment

and

nameplate.

its

method of cooling. Enclosure is shown as IP or ENCL on the

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15.

Frame

The frame size data on the nameplate is an important piece of information. It determines mounting dimensions such as the foot hole mounting pattern and the shaft height. The frame size is often a part of the type designation which can be difficult to interpret because special shaft or mounting configurations are used.

16. Bearings

Bearings are the component in an AC motor that requires the most maintenance. The information is usually given for both the drive-end (DE)

bearing and the bearing opposite the drive-end, non drive- end (NDE).

the bearing opposite the drive-end, non drive- end (NDE) . Fig 11. Frame, enclosure and bearing

Fig 11. Frame, enclosure and bearing characteristic

(NDE) . Fig 11. Frame, enclosure and bearing characteristic Fig 12. The frame size data on

Fig 12. The frame size data on the nameplate

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17.

Letter code

A letter code defines the locked rotor current kVA on a per horsepower basis. The letter code consists of letters from A to V. The farther away from the letter code A, the higher the inrush current per horsepower.

18. Design letter

Design letter covers the characteristics of torque and current of the motor. Design letter (A, B, C or D) defines the different categories. Most motors are design A or B motors. A design A motor torque characteristic is similar to the characteristic of a design B motor; but there is no limit in starting inrush current. With a design B

motor, the motor manufacturer has to limit the inrush current on his products to make sure that users can apply their motor starting devices.

So, when replacing a motor in an application, it is important to check the design letter, because some manufacturers assign their products with letters that are not considered industry standard which may lead to starting problems.

19. Service factor

A motor designed to operate at its nameplate power rating has a service factor

of 1.0. This means that the motor can operate at 100% of its rated power.

Some applications require a motor that can exceed the rated power. In these cases, a motor with a service factor of 1.15 can be applied to the rated power. A 1.15 service factor motor can be operated at 15% higher than the motor’s nameplate power.

Part I. Comprehension Exercises

A. Put “T” for true and “F” for false statements. Justify your answers.

…….1. The Phase parameter represents the number of AC power lines that supply the motor. Single-phase and three-phase are considered as the standard …….2. The service factor shows the maximum height above sea level at which the motor will remain within its design temperature rise, meeting all other nameplate data. …….3. Nameplate-defined parameters for the motor are at rated voltage and frequency. …….4. Power factor is an expression of the ratio of reactive power (Var) to apparent power (VA) expressed as a percentage. …….5. Enclosure classifies a motor as to its degree of protection from its environment and its method of cooling.

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B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1.

The frame data determines mounting dimensions such as……….

a.

the foot hole mounting pattern and the shaft height.

b.

the diameter of stator.

c.

both a,b

d.

the length of rotor.

2.

It is true that

a.

The frame size data on the nameplate is an unimportant piece of information.

b.

A letter code defines as characteristic of torque and current of the motor.

c.

Bearings are the component in an AC motor that requires the most maintenance.

d.

Enclosure shows the maximum height above sea level at which the motor will

remain within its design temperature rise.

3. According to the text,

a. The service factor 1.15 means that the motor can operate at 100% of its rated

power.

b. The service factor 1.0 means that the motor can operate at 100% of its rated

power.

c. The service factor 1.0 means that the motor can operate at 90% of its rated

power.

d. The service factor 1.0 means that the motor can operate at 110% of its rated

power.

4.

Enclosure classifies a motor as to its degree of

a.

its environment

b.

its method of cooling

c.

its insulation

d.

both a,b

5.

a class ―F‖ insulation has ……….nominal life at a given operating temperature

than a class ―B‖

a. a longer

b. a shorter

c. very shorter

d. very longer

C. Answer the following questions

1. What is insulation class in electrical motors?

2. Why voltage, frequency and current are important on nameplate of electric

motors?

3. Which part of motor requires the most maintenance?

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4.

What does show IP parameter?

Part II. Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1. This parameter defines the length of time during which the motor can carry its

nameplate rating safely.

a.

service factor

b. duty

c.

design letter

d. letter code

2. The locked rotor current kVA on a per horsepower basis is related to…

motor nameplate.

on

a.

magnetic flux

b. torque

c.

letter code

d. current

3. It determines mounting dimensions such as the foot hole mounting pattern and

the shaft height.

a.

frame parameter

b. voltage parameter

c.

altitude parameter

d. enclosure parameter

4. If the altitude is not indicated on the nameplate, the maximum height above sea

is

a.

1000 feet

b. 1000 meters

c.

100 meters

d. 100 feet

5.It is an expression of the standard classification of the thermal tolerance of the

motor winding.

a.

letter code

b. service factor

c.

insulation class

d. design letter

Part III. Translate Practice

A. Translate the following passage into Persian.

Power Inverter

A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. The inverter does not produce any power; the power is provided by the DC source. A power inverter can be entirely electronic or may be a combination of mechanical effects (such as a rotary apparatus) and electronic circuitry. Static inverters do not use moving parts in the conversion process [2].

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An inverter can produce a square wave, modified sine wave, pulsed sine wave, pulse width modulated wave (PWM) or sine wave depending on circuit design.

Some applications

1. DC power source usage: An inverter converts the DC electricity from

sources such as batteries or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.

2. Uninterruptible power supplies: An uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when mains power is not available. When mains power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries.

3. Electric motor speed control: Inverter circuits designed to produce a

variable output voltage range are often used within motor speed controllers. The DC power for the inverter section can be derived from a normal AC wall outlet or some other source. Control and feedback circuitry is used to adjust the final output of the inverter section which will ultimately determine the speed of the motor operating under its mechanical load. Motor speed control needs are numerous and include things like: industrial motor driven equipment, electric

vehicles, rail transport systems, and power tools. (See related: variable- frequency drive ) Switching states are developed for positive, negative and zero voltages as per the patterns given in the switching Table 1.The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern and thus the output is obtained.

4. HVDC power transmission: With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC. The inverter must be synchronized with grid frequency and phase and minimize harmonic generation.

References

[1] http://electrical-engineering-portal.com [2] https://en.wikipedia.org

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Unit 6

Renewable Energies

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.[1,2] Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[1,3]

Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, and geothermal heat, as the International Energy Agency explains [4]:

Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.

Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by burning of fossil fuels and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that amount to several hundred billion dollars annually only in the United States [1].

Mainstream technologies

Wind power

Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.53 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power available from the wind is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases up to the maximum output for the particular turbine. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant,

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such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typically full load hours of wind turbines vary between 16 and 57 percent annually, but might be higher in particularly favorable offshore sites. Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand, assuming all practical barriers needed were overcome. This would require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources, such as offshore. As offshore wind speeds average ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources can contribute substantially more energy than land stationed turbines [1].

substantially more energy than land stationed turbines [1]. Fig 1. wind turbine construction [5]. Hydropower Since

Fig 1. wind turbine construction [5].

Hydropower

Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy [1]:

Historically hydroelectric power came from constructing large hydroelectric dams and reservoirs, which are still popular in third world countries. Small hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 50 MW of power. They are often used on small rivers or as a low impact development on larger rivers. China is the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and has more than 45,000 small hydro installations.

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Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity plants derive kinetic energy from rivers without the creation of a large reservoir. This style of generation may still produce a large amount of electricity, such as the Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia river in the United States.

Joseph Dam on the Columbia river in the United States. Fig 2. Hydropower: Flowing water creates

Fig 2. Hydropower: Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity [6].

Solar energy

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, concentrated solar power (CSP), concentrator photovoltaics (CPV), solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Active solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).

A photovoltaic system converts light into electrical direct current (DC) by taking advantage of the photoelectric effect. Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam [1].

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Fig 3. A simple photovoltaic system [7]. Geothermal energy High Temperature Geothermal energy is from

Fig 3. A simple photovoltaic system [7].

Geothermal energy

High Temperature Geothermal energy is from thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of minerals (in currently uncertain but possibly roughly equal proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat.

The heat that is used for geothermal energy can be from deep within the Earth, all the way down to Earth's core 4,000 miles (6,400 km) down. At the core, temperatures may reach over 9,000 °F (5,000 °C). Heat conducts from the core to surrounding rock.

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Fig 4. A simple photovoltaic system [8]. Bio energy Biomass is biological material derived from

Fig 4. A simple photovoltaic system [8].

Bio energy

Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms [1].We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy"the energy from plants and plant-derived materialssince people began burning wood to cook food and keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can also be used. These include food crops, grassy and woody plants, residues from agriculture or forestry, oil-rich algae, and the organic component of municipal and industrial wastes. Even the fumes from landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source [6].

Biomass can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would otherwise be made from fossil fuels. In such scenarios, biomass can provide an array of benefits. For example:

The use of biomass energy has the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Burning biomass releases about the same amount of carbon dioxide as burning fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years agoan essentially "new" greenhouse gas. Recent studies have found that clearing forests to grow biomass results in a carbon penalty that takes decades to recoup, so it is best if biomass is grown on previously cleared land, such as under-utilized farm land.

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Fig 5. From biomass to electricity [9]. Part I. Comprehension Exercises A. Put “T” for

Fig 5. From biomass to electricity [9].

Part I. Comprehension Exercises

A. Put “T” for true and “F” for false statements. Justify your answers.

…….1. High Temperature Geothermal energy is from thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. …….2. A photovoltaic system converts light into mechanical energy. …….3. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant aren‘t preferred locations for wind farms.

…….4. Renewable energy is derived from artifical processes that are replenished

constantly.

…….5. Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living

organisms.

B. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1.

The use of biomass energy has the potential to. ……….

a.

greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

b.

greatly increase greenhouse gas emissions.

c.

greatly reduce O 3 emissions.

d.

greatly increase Co 2 gas emissions.

2.

It is true that

a.

the power available from the wind is a function of the square of the wind speed.

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b. Renewable energy would increase environmental pollution.

c. Historically hydroelectric power came from constructing large hydroelectric

dams and reservoirs.

d. Biomass can‘t be used for fuels, power production, and products that would

otherwise be made from fossil fuels.

3. According to the text,

a. Passive solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar

collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity.

b. Passive solar technologies encompass solar thermal energy, using solar

collectors for heating, and solar power, converting sunlight into electricity.

c. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources

which are naturally replenished on a human timescale.

d. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity plants derive kinetic energy from rivers with

the creation of a large reservoir.

4. Wood is still the

a largest biomass energy resource

.

b.

best item for heating

c.

worst biomass energy resource

d.

both a,b

5.

A photovoltaic system converts light into electrical direct current (DC) by

a.

using of a steam turbine

b.

taking advantage of the photoelectric effect

c.

setting of tower

d.

using of wind turbine

C. Answer the following questions

1. What is renewable energy?

2. How do solar panels work?

3. How do wind turbines work?

4. What is a fossil fuel?

5. How can we use geothermal energy?

Part II. Language Practice

A. Choose a, b, c, or d which best completes each item.

1. ………are still popular in third world countries.

a.

Historically hydroelectric power

b. Solar panel

c.

Small hydro systems

d. Wind turbine

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2.

………

can be used for fuels, power production, and products that would

otherwise be made from fossil fuels.

a.

Sun light

b. Biomass

c.

Wind power

d. pressure

3………. energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter.

a.

Thermal

b. Solar

c.

Wind

d. both a,c

4. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning …….,

and thermos, meaning …….

a.

light, cold

b. heat, earth

c.

earth, heat

d. clod, cold

5. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range are from around…………….

a.

5 MW to 500 MW

b. 100 W to 50 kW

c.

6 kW to 20 kW

d. 600 kW to 5 MW

B. Fill in the blanks with the following words.

coal

fossil fuels

generate

power plants

green power

monthly

Mother Nature

wind

resources

sun

can be renewed by………: wind,

water, sunshine and biomass. Renewable energy is also called "clean energy" or

"………

and……., we can't store up wind and sunshine to use whenever we need to

make more electricity. If the ……

there wouldn‘t be enough power for everyone. Another reason we use

……… money to make electricity from wind, and most people don't want to pay more on their ……….utility bills. Fossil fuels are used to ………electricity because they're widely available, inexpensive, easy to transport, easy to use, and the

coal and natural gas is because they're cheaper. It costs more

blow or the ……hides behind clouds,

because it doesn't produce harmful pollution. Unlike natural gas

Renewable energy is made from ……

that

"

doesn't

like

………

can

be located almost anywhere [10].

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org (Original reference)

[2] Ellabban, Omar; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Blaabjerg, Frede (2014). "Renewable energy resources:

Current status, future prospects and their enabling technology". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. [3] REN21 (2010). Renewables 2010 Global Status Report ,p. 15.

[4] IEA Renewable Energy Working Party (2002). Renewable Energy [5] http://jeffreysbaywindfarm.co.za [6] http://www.nrel.gov [7] http://www.synergyenviron.com [8] http://www.rackcen.com [9] http://convertnews.com [10] http://www.alliantenergykids.com

into the mainstream, p. 9.

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Unit 7

Translation Principles

سد ؾٞاو ا٤ ؾ٤اضفا ٗ٤شتىچٛو ٖٚذت ذلمٔ ٖاتص ٝت اذثٔ ٖاتص صا ٣ٙتٔ ٖادشٌشت صا تػا تساثػ ٕٝخشت ٖٚذت ٖاٛت ٣ٕ٘ اس ٣ٔا٥پ چ٥ٞ اش٤ص ،دساد ٢شظ٘ ٝثٙخ افشك أا تػا ك٥لد ٝچشٌا ف٤شؼت ٗ٤ا .٣ٙؼٔ ٚ تسٛك .دشو ُمتٙٔ شٍ٤د ٖاتص ٝت ٣٘اتص صا ٣ٙؼٔ ٚ تسٛك سد ش٥٥غت

َداؼٔ :ذٙ٤ٌٛ ٣ٔ ٖآ ٝت ٝو ذتا٤ ٣ٔ تػد ذلمٔ ٖاتص صا ٢ساتخاػ ٝت ٕٝخشت ذٙ٤اشف ٢اٟت٘اسد ٓخشتٔ ذ٘اٛت ٣ٔ ٝو تػا ذلمٔ ٖاتص سد ٢ا ّٕٝخ ا٤ تساثػ ،ّٕٝو ٖإٞ غلاٚ سد َداؼٔ صا سٛظٙٔ .)equivalent( .ذ٘اػشت اس أذثٔ ٖاتص ٠ذٙ٤ٌٛ ْا٥پ ا٤ سٛظٙٔ ٣ٙؼ٤ ،أذثٔ ١ّٕخ ا٤ تساثػ ،ّٕٝو ْٟٛفٔ ٚ اٙؼٔ

ٓ٤ش٥ٌ ٣ٔ دا٤ ٕٝخشت ٢اشت ٣ِٛكا ٣ؿٚس ٚ ٜدشو ٓ٥ؼمت اضدٔ ٢اٞ ْاٌ ٝت اس ٕٝخشت ذٙ٤اشف ِٝامٔ ٗ٤ا سد

:َٚا ْاٌ

ٚ داٟ٘ ٢اساد ،تساثػ ٚ ٜطاٚ فلاخشت ،اش٤ص تػا ٕٝخشت ٣تأذمٔ ثحت سد ٢ساتخاػ ذحاٚ ٗ٤شت ةػاٙٔ ّٕٝخ

ْٟٛفٔ ٝو تؼ٥٘ ٣فاو ٣ؼلاٛٔ سد ّٕٝخ ٢اٙثٔ شت ٕٝخشت ٣ػسشت .تػا ٣لخـٔ )message( ْا٥پ ٚ ٜساضٌ

ٚ ٜذٙ٤ٌٛ ٗ٥ت ١غتاس ،٣٘أص ٚ ٣٘اىٔ ت٥ؼلٛٔ ذٙ٘أ ٣٘اتص ش٥غ شكاٙػ ٝت ٚ ٢ذؼت ٚ ٣ّثل تلإخ ٝت ٖآ ْا٥پ ٣٘اؼٔ ٖدٛت ٣ٕٙض ا٤ ٢ساؼتػا ٚ ٜذٙ٤ٌٛ ٣ّكا سٛظٙٔ ٖدٛت ٝفافِ سد ا٤ ٣ّكا ت٥٘ ٖدٛت ٜذ٥ؿٛپ ،ةعاخٔ

.ذؿات ٝتؿاد ٣ٍتؼت

:ْٚد ْاٌ

اس ّٕٝخ ذ٤ات تؼخ٘ ،ساو ٗ٤ا ٢اشت .ٓ٥ٙو ٣ٔ ُ٥ّحت اس ٖآ ساتخاػ اذتتا ّٕٝخ ٢شٞاظ ْا٥پ ٝت ٖدشت ٣پ ٢اشت

ٚ يسضت ٢ا ّٕٝخ ات ٝو تػا ٟٓٔ سا٥ؼت ٣٘أص ٢ذٙت ٓ٥ؼمت ٗ٤ا .دشو ٓ٥ؼمت ٜساضٌ ٚ )subject( داٟ٘ ٝت ٓ٥ؿات ٜذؿ ٝخاٛٔ ،شتـ٥ت ا٤ شغػ ٝػ ٚد ٠صاذ٘ا ٝت ٣تح ،٣٘لاٛع

: ْٛػ ْاٌ

١ٕخشت ،ذؿات ٗؿٚس ٓ٥٘اد ٣ٔ ٝو ٣ئاٞ ٣ٙؼٔ عاػا شت ّٕٝخ ْا٥پ شٌا ،ٜساضٌ ٚ داٟ٘ ٖدشو قخـٔ صا ذؼت .ٓ٥ؼ٤ٛ٘ ٣ٔ ذلمٔ ٖاتص ٝت اس ّٕٝخ

:ْساٟچ ْاٌ

صا ٣تح اٞ ٣ضؼت .ذ٤آ ٣ٕ٘ سد سٛخ ،ٓ٥٘اد ٣ٔ ُثل صا أ ٝو ٣٤اٞ ٣ٙؼٔ ات ّٕٝخ ١ٕخشت ،ذ٤د ٓ٥ٞاٛخ ةّغا شتٟت ،دساٛٔ ٍٝ٘ٛٙ٤ا سد .ذٙٙو ٣ٔ ةدؼت دسٛخ ٣ٕ٘ ٖاؿ ١ٕخشت دسد ٝت ٖاؿ ١ظفاح سد دٛخٛٔ ٢اٙؼٔ ٝىٙ٤ا ٖآ صا أ ٝو ذؿات ٝتؿاد ض٥٘ ٢شٍ٤د ٣٘اؼٔ ا٤ اٙؼٔ تػا ٗىٕٔ تساثػ ا٤ تغِ ٖآ ٝو ٓ٥ؿات ٝتؿاد ٝخٛت تػا .ٓ٤شثخ ٣ت

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

:ٓدٙپ ْاٌ

ٜطاٚ ٣خشت ذ٤ذخ ٢اٙؼٔ ٚ ؾم٘ ٝت ٝخٛت ٚ اٟ٘آ ٣٘اؼٔ دسٛٔ سد ك٥محت ٚ ذ٤ذخ ٢اٞ ٜطاٚ ٢ٛدتؼخ ١ّحشٔ سد لأاو تإّو صا ًاشٞاظ ٝو ٓ٤سٛخ ٣ٔشت ٣ئاٟتساثػ ٝت ض٥٘ ٣ٞاٌ ،اٟ٘آ ذ٤ذخ ٢اٙؼٔ ٖدشو تؿاددا٤ ٚ اٙؿآ ٢اٞ اٟ٘آ ٝت ٣كاخ ٢اٙؼٔ ،فاخ تساثػ ا٤ ٜٚشٌ ه٤ ٖاٛٙػ ٝت اٟ٘آ ٣ٙ٥ـٕٙٞ ٣ِٚ ذ٘ا ٜذؿ ُ٥ىـت ٣ئاٙؿآ ٣ظفِا تحت ٣٘اؼٔ ٝت ذ٤ات ٓخشتٔ ادٙ٤ا سد .تػا تٚافتٔ سا٥ؼت اٞ ٜطاٚ ٖآ دٛخ ٣٘اؼٔ ات ٝو تػا ٜذ٥ـخت تاحلاغكا ،٣ػساف ٖاتص سد اٞساتخاػ ٍٝ٘ٛٙ٤ا ٝت.ذ٘ضت ٣٘ص ٝ٘إٌ ٝت تػد ٚ ٜدشو هؿ ٗ٥ـٕٙٞ ٢اٞ ٜطاٚ ٖآ .ذٙ٤ٌٛ ٣ٔ )idioms( ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص سد ٚ

:ٓـؿ ْاٌ

٢اٙؼٔ ٚ اٟ٘آ ذ٤ذخ ٣٘اؼٔ دسٛٔ سد ك٥محت ٚ تاغِ ١٤ٛ٘اث ٚ ٝ٥ِٚا ٣٘اؼٔ ٝت ٖدشت ٣پ ٚ ٖدشو اذ٥پ صا ذؼت تتٛ٘ ،اٟتساثػ ٚ اٞ ٜطاٚ سد ٝتفٟ٘ تاػلاعا شٍ٤د ٚ ٣ِإتحا ٢اّٟثِٕا بشض ٚ تاحلاغكا ٢ساؼتػا ٚ ٢صادٔ ٢سٛتػد تأّٛؼٔ ٝت اٟ٘آ تػسد ١ٕخشت ٚ ق٥خـت ٝو ،تلإخ ٚ تإّو شٔاشٌ سد ٝتفٟ٘ ٣٘اؼٔ ٝت ذػس ٣ٔ .[1] دساد ٣ٍتؼت أذثٔ ٖاتص شٔاشٌ ٝت ٚا ظّؼت ٝت ٚ ٓخشتٔ

ٗ٤ا .ذؿات ظّؼٔ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص سد ٢ذٙت ّٕٝخ ٣ٍٍ٘ٛچ ٚ شٔاشٌ ٗ٥ٙچٕٞ ٚ ٣٘اؼٔ ٝت ذ٤ات ٓخشتٔ

ٚ دٛؿ نسد ٣تٛخ ٝت ٛ٥ت٥٘ ه٤ ظػٛت ِٝامٔ ٖذؿ ٜذ٘اٛخ تسٛك سد ٝو ذؿات ٢ا ٌٝ٘ٛ ٝت ذ٤ات ظّؼت

.ذٙى٘

ْاٟتا

ساچد

اس

دشف

ا٤ ٚ ٣ؼ٥ٍ٘ا ٝت ٣ػساف( ٕٝخشت سد شظ٘ دسٛٔ ٝتؿس ٝت طٛتشٔ ٣للخت ٢شٙـى٤د صا تػا شتٟت .ددشٌ ٜدافتػا )٣ػساف ٝت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٣ٙؼٔ تػا ٗىٕٔ اش٤ص .ذ٘اذت اس ٖآ ٣ٙؼٔ شٌا ٣تح ،ذٙو ٛدتؼخ ٢شٙـى٤د سد اس ّٕٝو ذ٤ات ٓخشتٔ

ٚ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٝت ٣ػساف ٕٝخشت ْاٍٙٞ ٝتى٘ ٗ٤شت ٟٓٔ .ذؿات تٚافتٔ ٗتٔ شٞ سد شظ٘ دسٛٔ ّٕٝو ٣ٔ َٟٛدٔ ا٤ ّْٛؼٔ،٢ذؼتٔ ا٤ ْصلا ،ٝغ٥ك ،ٖأص ذٙ٘أ ُؼف ٢اٟ٥ٌظ٤ٚ ٝت ٝخٛت ٣ػساف ٝت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا .ذؿات ٗ٤ا سد داشفا ٚ تلاامٔ ساد ت٘أا ٓخشتٔ .تػا تأٚضّٔ ٗ٤شتٕٟٔ صا ٣ى٤ ٕٝخشت شٔا سد ٢ساو ٖاذخٚ

شت ٜٚلاػ تػاو ٚ ٓو ٖٚذت ٕٝخشت ٚ َٛكا ت٤اػس ات ٖاذخٚ ات ٚ ذٟؼتٔ ٓخشتٔ ه٤ .تػا ٝٙ٥ٔص .[2] تػا ٜداد ْاد٘ا ٣تٛخ ٝت اس دٛخ تِاػس ،٢شتـٔ ت٤اضس ٖدسٚآ ٓٞاشف سٚد ٢ ٕٝخشت ه٤ ٣تح ذ٤اؿ تؼ٥٘ نلأ ّٕٝو ٝت ّٕٝو ٢ ٕٝخشت ٝـ٥ٕٞ ٝو دشو تلد ذ٤ات إتح .[3] ذؿات ٢شتٟت باخت٘ا ذ٘اػشت شتٟت اس ٣ٙؼٔ ذ٘اٛتت ٝو ٗٞر صا

بوخ یسیلگوا هتم کی هتشوو یارب رمارگ لرتىک یاه راسفا مرو یفرعم

ٝئاسا ٚ شظ٘ َداثت ٝت ذ٤ات ًإئاد ٝو اٟ٘آ ذٙ٘أ ٢داشفا ٚ ٗ٥ممحٔ ،ذ٥تاػا ،ٖا٤ٛدـ٘اد ٣ػاػا تلاىـٔ صا ٣ى٤ سا٥ؼت تلإخ ٢اساد ا٤ تػا ٣٤اـ٘ا تاٞاثتؿا صا شپ اٟ٘آ ٖٛتٔ ٝو تػا ٗ٤ا ذ٘صادشپت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص ٝت ِٝامٔ

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

ًلإٛؼٔ اٞٝٔا٘ ٖاٌذٙٙوتفا٤سد ا٤ تلاامٔ ٖاسٚاد ٝو ٢ٛح٘ ٝت ،دٛؿ٣ٔ ٝتؿٛ٘ ٣ػساف قا٥ػ ٝت ٚ ٜدٛت ٣٘لاٛع سد توشؿ ذلل ٝو ٣٘اؼو .ذٙٙو٣ٔ تػا ٝتؿاد دٛخٚ ٜذٙؼ٤ٛ٘ ٗٞر سد ٝچ٘آ صا ٣ٞاثتؿا تؿادشت دٛخ ٗتؿٛ٘ هثػ صا اس تلااىؿا ٗ٤ا ذ٤ات ًإتح ض٥٘ ذ٘ساد اس ٖآ ذٙ٘أ ٚ TOEFL ذٙ٘أ ٖاتص ٢اٖٞٛٔصآ ا٤ ٖٛتٔ ٗتؿٛ٘ ْاٍٙٞ سد .ذٙ٤إ٘ تفا٤سد ٖاتص ٖٛٔصآ سد ؾخت ٗ٤ا سد ٣ثػاٙٔ صا٥تٔا ذٙ٘اٛتت ات ذٙٙو فزح

ٖاتص سد ّٕٝخ ا٤ تساثػ ا٤ ٜطاٚ ه٤ ٢ش٥ٌساىت ٣ٍٍ٘ٛچ ٝو ذ٤آ٣ٔ ؾ٥پ ٜاٌ ،٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص ٝت تلاامٔ ُىـٔ ٗ٤ا ات شتـ٥ت ًلإٛؼٔ ذٙؼ٤ٛ٘٣ٔ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص ٝت اس دٛخ تلاامٔ ٝو ٣٘ا٤ٛدـ٘اد .ٓ٥٘اد٣ٕ٘ اس ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا

. ذ٘ٛؿ٣ٔ ٝخاٛٔ

سٛتٛٔ سد ٝعٛتشٔ تساثػ ٖدشو ٛدتؼخ ،٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا تاساثػ ح٥حك ٢ش٥ٌساىت ٜٛح٘ صا علاعا ٢اٞؽٚس صا ٣ى٤ ٝؼخاشٔ ات .ذؿات ٣ٕٔٛػ تلاامٔ ٚ ٖٛتٔ ح٥حك ؽساٍ٘ ٢اشت ٣تٛخ ؽٚس ذ٘اٛت٣ٔ ٝو تػا ٌٌُٛ ٢ٛدتؼخ ٝو ٢إّٝو ا٤ ّٕٝخ ا٤ تساثػ صا ٣ـخت {http://springerexemplar.com/index.aspx} ت٤اػ ٝت عٛضٛٔ ذ٥٘اٛت٣ٔ غپػ .ذ٥ٙو٣ٔ پ٤ات ٝعٛتشٔ ٣ٙتٔ ٝثؼخ سد ذ٥٘اد٣ٕ٘ اس ٖآ ٢ش٥ٌساىت ٚ ٜدافتػا ٜٛح٘ ٗ٤ا ٝتثِا( ذ٥٤إ٘ قخـٔ ٜاٛخِد ٝت ض٥٘ اس ذ٥ٙو ٛدتؼخ ٖآ ٗتٔ سد ذ٥ٞاٛخ٣ٔ ٝو ٢اّٝدٔ ا٤ ٗتٔ ٣ّو تساثػ ،ّٕٝو ٝو ٣٤اٞفاشٌاساپ ا٤ تلإخ صا ٣تػشٟف ،ٛدتؼخ ٕٝود ٢ٚس شت ه٥ّو ات .)تػا ٢سا٥تخا تٕؼل ،تلاامٔ ٗ٤ا ٝو اد٘آ صا .دٛؿ٣ٔ ٜداد ؾ٤إ٘ إؿ ٢اشت ذٙؿات ٝتفشٌ ساىت اس إؿ ٢ٛدتؼخ دسٛٔ ّٕٝخ ا٤ ٛدتؼخ ح٤ات٘ ،ذ٘ساد ساشل ٣٤لاات حغػ سد ض٥٘ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص شظ٘ صا ٚ ٝتفشٌ ساشل ٢سٚاد دسٛٔ ٣تٛخ ٝت ًلإٛؼٔ .دساد دٛخ سد اس إؿ شظ٘ دسٛٔ تساثػ ٢ش٥ٌساىت ٢ٜٛح٘ ٗ٤شتٟت دا٤ص َإتحا ٝت دٛخ ِٝامٔ ٗتٔ ٣ػسشت ٢اشت ٝو ٓ٥ٙو ٣ٔ ٣فشؼٔ اس StyleWriterٚ WhiteSmoke ساضفاْش٘ ٚد ٝٔادا سد .ذ٥ٙو ٝؼخاشٔ اٟ٘آ ٝت ذ٥٘اٛت٣ٔ ؽساٍ٘ ٜٛح٘ ٚ ٢شٔاشٌ شظ٘ صا

ساضفاْش٘ ذؿات ذ٥فٔ سا٥ؼت ٝٙ٥ٔص ٗ٤ا سد ذ٘اٛت٣ٔ ٝو ٣٤اٞساضفاْش٘ صا ٣ى٤ :StyleWriter راسفا مرو -فلا ٚ ٜدٛت ٜداػ سا٥ؼت ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا ات ٖدشو ساو .ذٙو٣ٔ حلاكا اس إؿ ٗتؿٛ٘ هثػ ٝو تػا StyleWriter َاؼف ض٥٘ إؿ Microsoft Word ٢ٚس ساودٛخ سٛغت ٝٔا٘شت ،ةل٘ صا غپ .ذ٥ٙو ةل٘ اس ٖآ تػا ٣فاو ْإت ا٤ ٗتٔ صا ٣ٞاٛخِد ؾخت ،Word ساضفاْش٘ سد دٛخ ٗتٔ ٗتؿٛ٘ صا غپ تػا ٣فاو ٗ٤اشتاٙت .دٛؿ٣ٔ ،ْاٍٙٞ ٗ٤ا سد .ذ٥ٙو ه٥ّو Plain English Style Check ٝت طٛتشٔ ٖٛى٤آ ٢ٚس ٚ ٜدشو باخت٘ا اس ٗتٔ ا٤ دٛؿ ٣ػسشت ساضفاْش٘ ظػٛت ةختٙٔ ٗتٔ ظمف ذ٥ّ٤أ ا٤آ ٝو ذ٥ػشپ ذٞاٛخ إؿ صا StyleWriter ساضفاْش٘ ٢ٜشدٙپ ٗ٥٤اپ تٕؼل ٝت شٌا .داد ذٞاٛخ ٖاـ٘ اس إؿ ٗتٔ ٚ ٜذؿ صات ٝٔا٘شت ٣ّكا ٢ٜشدٙپ ،غپػ .ٗتٔ ْإت شتـ٥ت ٝچ شٞ( ٗتؿٛ٘ هثػ ٣ى٤ :داد ذٞاٛخ ٖاـ٘ فّتخٔ ٢ٜصٛح ٝػ سد إؿ ٢ٜشٕ٘ ،ذ٥ٙو تلد ٝٔا٘شت صا ٜدافتػا ٖاض٥ٔ ٣ٔٛػ ٚ )تػا شتٟت ذؿات شتٕو ٝچ شٞ( تلإخ َٛع ظػٛتٔ ٢شٍ٤د ،)تػا شتٟت ذؿات ٝت ٗتٔ ٖٚسد سد تػا ٗىٕٔ ض٥٘ ٢دساٛٔ ٗ٥ٙچٕٞ .)تػا شتٟت ذؿات شتٕو ٝچ شٞ ٝو passive (تِاح ٢اشت .ذ٤صادشپت ٖاـحلاكا ٝت ذ٥٘اٛت٣ٔ اٟ٘آ ٢ٚس ٖدشو ه٥ّو ات ٝو ذٙؿات ٜذؿ قخـٔ فّتخٔ ٢اًٞ٘س ، passiveَاؼفا ،ذئاص تإّو ،ذ٘ٛؿ٣ٔ ٝتفشٌ ساىت شٍ٤د تإّو ٢اخ ٝت ٜاثتؿا ٝت ًلإٛؼٔ ٝو ٣تإّو :َاثٔ ذ٘اٜذؿ ٣دٞ ذت ٝو ٣تإّو ،اٞٝـ٥ّو ،ذ٘اٜذؿ ٜدافتػا ذح صا ؾ٥ت ٝو ٣تإّو ،ٜذ٥چ٥پ تإّو ،ٖاٟٙپ َاؼفا ،دٛخ صا٥٘ ات ةػاٙتٔ ذ٥٘اٛت٣ٔ ٝو تػا ٖآ دساد دٛخٚ ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا سد ٝو ٣ثِاخ ٝتى٘ .شٍ٤د سا٥ؼت دساٛٔ ٚ ٢ٛٙٔ صا ذ٥تؼٞ ٣تاغ٥ّثت ٗتٔ ه٤ ٗتؿٛ٘ َاح سد شٌا َاثٔ ٢اشت .ذ٥ٙو باخت٘ا اس ٣فّتخٔ ؽساٍ٘ ٢اٞهثػ

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Compiled by Mahdi Eslamian Koupaie eslamian.koupayi@yahoo.com

Academic ٢ٝٙ٤ضٌ ذ٥ؼ٤ٛ٘٣ٔ ٣ّٕػ ٢ِٝامٔ شٌا ٚ ذ٥ٙو باخت٘ا اس Advertisement ٢ٝٙ٤ضٌ Task ٗ٤ا ،ساضفاْش٘ ةل٘ ٢اشت .ذٙو٣ٔ ٣٘اث٥تـپ فّتخٔ ؽساٍ٘ هثػ 73 صا ٝٔا٘شت ٗ٤ا .ذ٥ٙو باخت٘ا اس Paper ٣ٟ٤ذت .ذ٥ٙو ةل٘ دٛخ ٜاٛخِد ُحٔ سد ٚ ٜدشو جساخ ٜدشـف تِاح صا اس ٖآ ٚ ٜدشو دّٛ٘اد اشٞدشـف ُ٤اف ٗ٤ا ت٤اػ ٝت ذٙ٘اٛت٣ٔ ذٙؿات ٝتؿاذ٘ ُىؿ ٗ٤ذت ساضفاْش٘ صا ٜدافتػا ٝت ُ٤إت ٝو ٣٘اتػٚد تػا ْاذلا ٖآ ذ٤شخ ٝت ُ٤إت تسٛك سد ٚ ذٙ٤إ٘ ٜدافتػا ٚ ٜذٞاـٔ اس Demo ٢ٝخؼ٘ ٚ ٜدشو ٝؼخاشٔساضفاْش٘ . ذٙٙو

تؼٙك سد ٚشـ٥پ ٢اٞساضفاْش٘ صا ٣ى٤ WhiteSmoke ساضفاْش٘ :WhiteSmoke راسفا مرو -ب ُ٥ثل صا اٞ٢ذٕٙ٘اٛت صا ُٔاو ٢اٝػٕٛدٔ ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا .تػا ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص سد ؽساٍ٘ دٛثٟت ٢اٞساضفاْش٘ تغِ ًٙٞشف ،ؽساٍ٘ هثػ ٢ٜذٙٙو٣ػسشت ،شٔاشٌ ٢ٜذٙٙوَشتٙو ،٣ـ٤اش٤ٚ ٢اٞساضتا ،٣٤لأا با٤ظّغ ٖاشتساو ٝت ات تػا ٜدشو غٕخ اخ ه٤ سد اس شٍ٤د ٢اٞساضتا ٢سا٥ؼت ٚ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا تافداشتٔ ًٙٞشف ،٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٗتٔ ؽصادشپ ٢اٞساضفاْش٘ ٣ٔإت ات ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا .ذٙؿات ٝتؿاد ٢شتٟت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ؽساٍ٘ ات ذٙو هٕو دٛخ .[4] دٚس٣ٔ سإؿ ٝت ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا بٛخ ٢اٞ٢ذٕٙ٘اٛت صا ض٥٘ ٝتى٘ ٗ٤ا ٝو ذؿات٣ٔ ساٌصاػ )ٜش٥غ ٚ Word( :ٓ٥ٙو٣ٔ ٝئاسا شلتخٔ سٛغت اس ذ٤ذخ ٚ ٢ٛل ساضفاْش٘ ٗ٤ا ٢اٞ٣ٌظ٤ٚ صا ٣خشت ادٙ٤ا سد تاى٘ ُ٥ثل صا ٢دساٛٔ عاػا شت( ذٞد٣ٔ ٜشٕ٘ إؿ ٗتٔ ٣ؿساٍ٘ ت٥ف٥و ٝت ٝو :ؽساٍ٘ هثػ ٣ػسشت* ظػٛتٔ ،َٟٛدٔ َاؼفا ٣٘اٚاشف ٖٛچ ٣ٔلالا ُ٥ّحت ٚ ٝ٤ضدت ٚ ،اٞ٢سازٌتٔلاػ ٚ ٣ؿساٍ٘ ،٣٤لأا ،٢شٔاشٌ .)ٜش٥غ ٚ ،ٜذؿٝتفشٌساىت تإّو ٣ٌذ٥چ٥پ ٖاض٥ٔ ،تلإخ َٛع .)تػا ذ٥فٔ سا٥ؼت ٢ش٥ٌدا٤ ٢اشت ٝو( تاٞاثتؿا دسٛٔ سد ح٥ضٛت* ٢ساٍ٘ٝٔا٘ ٢اشت ٜدأآ ؾ٥پ صا ٢اٞةِال* .)ساودٛخ ح٥حلت( ؽساٍ٘ ضحٔ ٝت ح٥حلت ت٥ّتال* ٢دشتساو ٚ اث٤ص سا٥ؼت ٢شتساو ظػاٚ* دشىّٕػ تػشػ* ٗتٔ ٢ٜذٙٙو٣ػسشت ٢اٞٓت٤سٍِٛا ٢لاات تلد * سد ذ٥٘اٛت ٣ٔ اس تلإخ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا شٔاشٌ ٖدشو هچ ٢اشت ٖاٍ٤اس ٢اٞساضتا ٚ اٞت٤اػ ٗ٤شتٟت صا ٣تػشٟف :[5] ذ٥ٙ٥ثت ش٤ص َٚذخ

Paper Rater إؿ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ؽساٍ٘ هثػ ؾدٙػ ٜٚلاؼت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا شٔاشٌ ٖدشو هچ غ٤ٚشػ

+ ٢شٔاشٌ تاى٘ ح٥ضٛت ٚ ٗ٤ضٍ٤اخ تلإخ داٟٙـ٥پ غ٤ٚشػ ٜاشٕٞ ٝت )ْٚشو ٚ غوافش٤اف( ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص شٔاشٌ ٖدشو هچ ٗ٥ٌلاپ Grammarly تإّو ٝتى٤د َشتٙو

٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٢اٞ ٝ٘اػس سد ح٤اس شٔاشٌ ات اس إؿ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا تلإخ ؟تػا ح٤اس إؿ ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا تلإخ ٝتاـٔ ٢شٔاشٌ ساتخاػ ات ٣تلإخ ا٤آ Ludwig Guru ذٙو٣ٔ ٝؼ٤امٔ ٢شثخ ٢اٞ ت٤اػ ٚ ٖاتص

Ginger تإّو ٝتى٤د َشتٙو + ٗ٤ضٍ٤اخ تلإخ ٚ اٞٛ٥تا٘شتِآ ٝئاسا ٜاشٕٞ ٝت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٖاتص شٔاشٌ ٖدشو هچ

After the deadline ٗ٥ٌلاپ + ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا شٔاشٌ َشتٙو ُمتؼٔ ساضفا ْش٘ غ٤ٚشػ

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یسراف هتم شراگو لرتىک راسفا مرو یفرعم

ٜذؿ ٣حاشع ٖاتص ٣ػساف ٖاشتساو ٜدافتػا ٢اشت ٝو تػا دسُٚ تفاػٚشى٤أ ٢اشت ٢اٝ٘ٚضفا »سا٥تػاش٤ٚ« ساضفاْش٘ ض٥٘ ٚ ،٢سازٌٝ٘اـ٘ ٚ ٣ـ٤اش٤ٚ تاٞاثتؿا ،٣٤لأا ٢اٞاغخ حلاكا ٝت ٖاٛت٣ٔ سا٥تػاش٤ٚ ٢اٞت٥ّتال صا .تػا دّٛ٘اد http://virastyar.ir عسدآ صا ذ٥٘اٛت ٣ٔ اس ساضفا ْش٘ ٗ٤ا .دشو ٜساؿا ٣ػساف ٖٛتٔ ٢صاػدساذ٘اتػا .[6] ذ٥ٙو

هیرمت

٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ؽساٍ٘ ٢اٞساضفا ْش٘ صا ٣ى٤ صا ٜدافتػا ات ٚ ٜدشو ُ٤ذثت ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٝت اس ش٤ص ٣ػساف ٗتٔ -7 .ذ٥٤إ٘ حلاكا

٢اضامت ،تخٛػ تٕ٥ل ؾ٤اضفا ٗ٥ٙچٕٞ ٚ ٢ا ٝ٘اخٌّ ٢اٞ صاٌ ٝت طٛتشٔ ٢اٞ ٣٘اشٍ٘ ش٥خا ٢اٞ َاػ سد ،دات ذٙ٘أ ٌٖٛاٌ٘ٛ ش٤زپ ذ٤ذدت ٢طش٘ا غتاٙٔ .تػا ٜداد ؾ٤اضفا اس ش٤زپ ذ٤ذدت ٢اٞ ٢طش٘ا صا ٜدافتػا ٢اٞ صا٥٘ تٟخ ٝتؼ٤شتىِا ذ٥ِٛت ٢اشت ةػاٙٔ ٢ساىٞاس ذ٘اٛت ٣ٔ عأٛ٥ت ٚ ٣٤أشٌ ٗ٥ٔص ٢طش٘ا ،ذ٥ؿسٛخ غتاٙٔ سد ٢دا٤ص ت٥ٕٞا صا ه٥ئاتِٚٛتف ٢اٞ َّٛػ ظػٛت ٜذؿ ذ٥ِٛت ٣ى٤شتىِا ٢طش٘ا .ددشٌ ٝـ٤ذ٘ا ٜذٙ٤آ ٝٙ٤ضٞ ،تخٛػ ٝت صا٥٘ ْذػ ٝت ٖاٛت ٣ٔ PV َّٛػ ظػٛت ٢طش٘ا ذ٥ِٛت ٢ا٤اضٔ صا . تػا سادسٛخشت ش٤زپ ذ٤ذدت ٜدافتػا ةخٛٔ تسذل ه٥٘ٚشتىِا سد تفشـ٥پ .دشو ٜساؿا ٖدٛت ٜض٥واپ ٚ ض٤ٛ٘ ساـت٘ا ْذػ ،شتٕو ٢ساذٍٟ٘ ٢اٞ ٖا٤شخ ٚ طاتِٚ َشتٙو ٚ )AC ٢اٞ ٓتؼ٥ػ( ٝىثؿ ٝت غثٙٔ ٗ٤ا ٗ٥ت َالتا سد ه٥ئاتِٚٛتف ٢طش٘ا صا ٝٙ٥ٟت .[7] تػا ٜذؿ )DC ٓتؼ٥ػ( سات ٝ٤زغت تٟخ ٝو اس PV ٢اٞ َّٛػ صا ٣خٚشخ DC طاتِٚ ٚ ٜدٛت PV َٚطأ ٚ سات ٗ٥ت ظػاٚ ٖاٛٙػ ٝت DC ٝت DC َذثٔ

DC ٢اٞ َذثٔ .ذٞد ٣ٔ ُ٤ٛحت ٜذؿ ٌِٝٛس تسٛك ٝت ذؿات شظ٘ دسٛٔ طاتِٚ صا شت ؾ٥ت ا٤ شتٕو تػا ٗىٕٔ

:٣ّو ٝتػد ذٙچ ٝت دٛخ ِٝٚض٤ا ش٥غ ٢اٞ َذثٔ .ذ٘ا ٓ٥ؼمت ُتال ِٝٚض٤ا ٚ ِٝٚض٤ا ش٥غ ٣ّو ٝتػد ٚد ٝت DC ٝت ٝت ٝتؼت ٝو ذ٘ٛؿ ٣ٔ ٓ٥ؼمت )Cuk( ناو ٚ )Buck-Boost(تػٛت -نات ،)Boost(تػٛت ،)Buck(نات ،َذثٔ ساتخاػ ػاحِ صا ،ِٝٚض٤ا عٛ٘ ٢اٞ َذثٔ .ددشٌ ٣ٔ ٝ٥كٛت دٛخ ٢اخ سد ْاذو شٞ صا ٜدافتػا ،دشتساو عٛ٘ صا ،ٝىثؿ صا ٢ذ٥ؿسٛخ ٝ٤اسآ ٢صاػ ِٝٚض٤ا سٛظٙٔ ٝت ٗى٥ِٚ ذٙتؼٞ ِٝٚض٤اش٥غ ٢اٞ َذثٔ ٝت ٝ٥ثؿ َذثٔ صا شت تٕ٥ل ٖاشٌ اٞ َذثٔ عٛ٘ ٗ٤ا .دٛؿ ٣ٔ ٜدافتػا ٣خٚشخ ٚ ٢دٚسٚ َاٙ٥ٔشت ٗ٥ت اٞسٛتأسٛفؼ٘اشت .[8] تػا ٓتؼ٥ػ ٖدٛت ِٝٚض٤ا ٚ تظافح اٞ ٖآ ت٤ضٔ ٗى٥ِٚ ذٙتؼٞ ِٝٚض٤ا ش٥غ ٢اٞ

ٜذؿ ٕٝخشت ٗتٔ ،»سا٥تػاش٤ٚ« ساضفا ْش٘ ظػٛت غپػ ٚ ٜدٕٛ٘ ٕٝخشت ٣ػساف ٝت اس ش٤ص ٣ؼ٥ٍّ٘ا ٗتٔ -2 .ذ٥٤إ٘ حلاكا اس In electronics and electrical engineering, a fuse is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip

that melts when too much current flows through it, interrupting the circuit that it

connects. Short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or device failure are

the prime reasons for excessive current. Fuses can be used as alternatives to

circuit breakers [9].

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Fuses can be divided into two main categories according to the type of input supply voltage:

1. AC fuses

2. DC fuses

AC and DC Fuses There is a little difference between AC and DC Fuses used in the AC and DC Systems. In a DC system, when the metallic wire Melts because of the heat generated by the over current, then Arc is produced and it is very difficult to extinct this arc because of DC constant value. So in order to minimize the fuse arcing, DC fuse are little bigger than an AC fuse which increase the distance between the electrodes to reduce the arc in the Fuse. On the other hand, i.e. in the AC system, voltage with 60Hz or 50Hz frequency changes it amplitude from zero to 60 times every second, so arc can be extinct easily as compared to DC. Therefore, AC fuses are little bit small in sizes as compared to DC fuses. Fuses can also be categorized based on one time or multiple Operations [10].

1) One time use only Fuse

2) Resettable Fuses

عباىم

[1] http://text-translator.com [2] http://motarjeman.org [3] http://javabyab.com [4] http://www.bargozideha.com [5] http://bestanswer.info [6] http://virastyar.ir ٖاٛت ٝغم٘ ٣تا٤دس تٟخ ذٕٙؿٛٞ ٢صاف َشتٙو " ،٣ٕ٥ّػ ٗؼحٔ ،٣٘اودسا ٣تدا دٚاد ،ّْٛظٔ ءا٥ض ذ٥ػ ،٣ئاپٛو ٖا٥ٔلاػا ٢ذٟٔ [7]

7383 شٟٔ 3 ،شتٛ٥پٔاو ٚ قشت ٣ػذٟٙٔ سد ٗ٤ٛ٘ ٢اٞ ٢سٚاٙف ٣ّٔ ؾ٤إٞ ٗ٥ٔٚد ،"ه٥ئاتِٚٛتف ٢اٞ َٚطأ ٕٓ٤ضوأ

ؾٞاو تٟخ ٣فدالت PWM ًٙ٥چ٥ئٛػ ذ٤ذخ ه٥ٙىت" ،شظتٙٔ ذٕحٔ ، ٣تفت ٣ٕ٤شو ٢داٞ ذٕحٔ ، ٣ئاپٛو ٖا٥ٔلاػا ٢ذٟٔ [8]

7383 تـٟث٤دسا 33 ٚ 28 ،٢ذ٥ؿسٛخ ٢طش٘ا ٣ِّّٕا ٗ٥ت ٜاٍـ٤إ٘ ٚ غ٘اشفٙو ٗ٥ِٚا ، "ه٥ئاتِٚٛتف ٢اٞ ٓتؼ٥ػ سد ه٥٘ٛٔساٞ

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org [9] http://www.electricaltechnology.org

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